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Sample records for epithelial membrane antigen

  1. Library of monoclonal antibodies against brush border membrane epithelial antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, M.; Katz, A.; Silverman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A purified fraction of proximal tubule brush border membranes (BBM) was prepared from dog kidney and used to immunize mice. The standard technique of hybridoma production was followed as described by Kohler and Milstein. Production of antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence on dog kidney slices and by immunodot against the purified fraction on nitrocellulose. Five hybrids exhibited anti BBM activity. These were cloned twice and yielded stable cell lines producing IgG type monoclonal antibodies against BBM. They were designated A 1 , C 7 , D 3 , D 7 and H 4 . As a family these five monoclonals have broad tissue specificity, i.e. positive staining of the surface mucosa of intestinal kidney proximal tubules. D 3 exhibits even broader specificity for epithelium reacting with bile canaliculi and choroid plexus. The authors have verified that at least 4/5 antibodies are directed against BBM protein as revealed by immunoprecipitation of solubilized BBM and detected by Coomassie blue staining or autoradiography of lactoperoxidase labelled BBM. Most interestingly all antibodies bind to the surface of LL CPK 1 cells, a continuous pig kidney cell line of undefined origin but exhibiting many characteristics of proximal tubule cells. The library of monoclonal antibodies obtained provide important probes with which to study membrane biogenesis and polarization in epithelial cells

  2. Expression of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Josko; Forempoher, Gea; Ostojic, Ljerka; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Andjelinovic, Simun; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2011-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of nestin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region. The simple squamous epithelium on the surface of leptomeninges developed during mesenchymal to epithelial transformation. Nestin appeared for the first time in week 7, EMA in week 8, while mesothelin appeared in week 22 of development. In the late fetal period and after birth, nestin expression decreased, whereas expression of EMA and mesothelin increased. EMA appeared in all surface epithelial cells and nodules, while mesothelin was found only in some of them. In adult meninges, all three proteins were predominantly localized in the surface epithelium and meningeal nodules. In meningothelial meningiomas (WHO grade I), EMA was detected in all tumor cells except in the endothelial cells, mesothelin characterized nests of tumor cells, while nestin was found predominantly in the walls of blood vessels. The distribution pattern of those proteins in normal meningeal and tumor cells indicates that nestin might characterize immature cells, while EMA and mesothelin appeared in maturing epithelial cells. Neoplastic transformation of these specific cell lineages contributes to the cell population in meningiomas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S., E-mail: renu-wadhwa@aist.go.jp; Wadhwa, Renu, E-mail: renu-wadhwa@aist.go.jp [Cell Proliferation Research Group and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST Central 4), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  4. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein

  5. (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and plasma membrane polarity of intestinal epithelial cells: Presence of a brush border antigen in the distal large intestine that is immunologically related to beta subunit

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    Marxer, A.; Stieger, B.; Quaroni, A.; Kashgarian, M.; Hauri, H.P. (Univ. of Basel (Switzerland))

    1989-09-01

    The previously produced monoclonal antibody IEC 1/48 against cultured rat intestinal crypt cells was extensively characterized and found to be directed against the beta subunit of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase as assessed by immunological and enzymatic criteria. Under nondenaturing conditions the antibody precipitated the alpha-beta enzyme complex (98,000 and 48,000 Mr). This probe, together with the monoclonal antibody C 62.4 against the alpha subunit was used to localize (Na+ + K+)-ATPase in epithelial cells along the rat intestinal tract by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Both antibodies exclusively labeled the basolateral membrane of small intestine and proximal colon epithelial cells. However, in the distal colon, IEC 1/48, but not C 62.4, also labeled the brush border membrane. The cross-reacting beta-subunit-like antigen on the apical cell pole was tightly associated with isolated brush borders but was apparently devoid of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. Subcellular fractionation of colonocytes in conjunction with limited proteolysis and surface radioiodination of intestinal segments suggested that the cross-reacting antigen in the brush border may be very similar to the beta subunit. The results support the notion that in the small intestine and proximal colon the enzyme subunits are exclusively targeted to the basolateral membrane while in the distal colon nonassembled beta subunit or a beta-subunit-like protein is also transported to the apical cell pole.

  6. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to generate an apical membrane domain that serves as a protective barrier for the epithelial sheet....

  7. Use of mammary epithelial antigens as markers in mammary neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceriani, R.L.; Peterson, J.A.; Blank, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    Cell-type specific antigens of the mammary epithelial cells can be used as markers of breast neoplasia. Methods are proposed for the detection of metastatic mammary tissue in vivo by injection of [ 125 I]-labeled antibodies against the mammary epithelial antigens. In addition, the reduced expression of mammary epithelial cell antigens in neoplastic breast cells, quantitated here on a cell per cell basis by flow cytofluorimetry, is a marker of neoplasia and an indication of a deletion accompanying the neoplastic transformation of these cells. (Auth.)

  8. Immunoelectron microscopic localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigens in normal and neoplastic urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Nathrath, W B; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscope cytochemistry was carried out on 2% paraformaldehyde fixed, 50 mu sections of normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma cells in culture using antisera raised in rabbits to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal "broad spectrum" keratin and calf urothelial "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) Both the unconjugated and indirect immunoperoxidase-DAB techniques were used before routine embedding. The localisation of both keratin and luminal epithelial antigen (LEA) was similar in normal and neoplastic cells and reaction product was associated not only with tonofilaments but also lining membrane vesicles and on fine filaments in the cytoplasmic ground substance.

  9. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  10. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

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    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  11. Epithelial cell-cell junctions and plasma membrane domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    Epithelial cells form a barrier against the environment, but are also required for the regulated exchange of molecules between an organism and its surroundings. Epithelial cells are characterised by a remarkable polarization of their plasma membrane, evidenced by the appearance of structurally,

  12. Keratin, luminal epithelial antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in human urinary bladder carcinomas. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathrath, W B; Arnholdt, H; Wilson, P D

    1982-01-01

    14 urinary bladder carcinomas of all main types were investigated with antisera to "broad spectrum keratin" (aK), "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (aCEA), using an indirect immunoperoxidase method on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Keratin and LEA were both present in normal transitional epithelium, papilloma and carcinoma in situ whereas CEA was absent. Transitional cell carcinomas reacted with both aK and aLEA whereas CEA was seen only in a few foci. In squamous metaplasia and squamous carcinoma reaction with aK was particularly strong, while LEA was almost lacking and CEA was present in necrotic centres. In adenocarcinomas aK and aLEA reacted equally while aCEA reacted only on the surface.

  13. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apical membrane Antigen-1(AMA-1), an asexual blood stage antigen of Plasmodium cynomolgi, is an important candidate for testing as a component of malarial vaccine. The degree of conservation of. AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of Plasmodium. Since the AMA-1 ...

  14. Membrane dynamics and the regulation of epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, JM; Maier, O; van IJzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    2003-01-01

    Plasma membranes of epithelial cells consist of two domains, an apical and a basolateral domain, the surfaces of which differ in composition. The separation of these domains by a tight junction and the fact that specific transport pathways exist for intracellular communication between these domains

  15. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of plant plasma membrane antigens: [Annual] progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, D.W.; Afonso, C.L.; Meyer, D.; Harkins, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Protoplast plasma membranes were used to raise antibodies in mice to cell surface antigens. Monoclonal antibodies were selected from those produced and used for indirect immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of N. tabacum cells. In parallel studies cDNA expression libraries were prepared. (DT)

  17. Prostate-specific membrane antigen and its truncated form PSM'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlčochová, Petra; Bařinka, Cyril; Tykvart, Jan; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 5 (2009), s. 471-479 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prostate specific membrane antigen * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * prostate cancer Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.081, year: 2009

  18. Herpesvirus glycoproteins undergo multiple antigenic changes before membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Glauser

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus entry is a complicated process involving multiple virion glycoproteins and culminating in membrane fusion. Glycoprotein conformation changes are likely to play key roles. Studies of recombinant glycoproteins have revealed some structural features of the virion fusion machinery. However, how the virion glycoproteins change during infection remains unclear. Here using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies we show in situ that each component of the Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 entry machinery--gB, gH/gL and gp150--changes in antigenicity before tegument protein release begins. Further changes then occurred upon actual membrane fusion. Thus virions revealed their final fusogenic form only in late endosomes. The substantial antigenic differences between this form and that of extracellular virions suggested that antibodies have only a limited opportunity to block virion membrane fusion.

  19. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  20. Potential Target Antigens for a Universal Vaccine in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, R.; Daemen, T.; de Bock, G.H.; de Graeff, P.; Leffers, N.; Lambeck, A.; Ten Hoor, K.A.; Hollema, H.; van der Zee, A.G.J.; Nijman, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the primary cause of death from gynaecological malignancies, has only modestly improved over the last decades. Immunotherapeutic treatment using a cocktail of antigens has been proposed as a "universal" vaccine strategy. We determined the expression

  1. Immunochemical identification of human trophoblast membrane antigens using monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P J; Molloy, C M; Johnson, P M [Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Immunology

    1983-11-01

    Human trophoblast membrane antigens recognised by monoclonal antibodies (H310, H315, H316 and H317) have been identified using combinations of radioimmunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, electroblotting, chromatographic and ELISA-type techniques. H317 is known to identify heat-stable placental-type alkaline phosphatase and accordingly was shown to react with a protein of subunit Msub(r) of 68000. H310 and H316 both recognise an antigen with a subunit Msub(r) of 34000 under reducing conditions. In non-reducing conditions, the H310/316 antigen gave oligomers of a component of Msub(r) 62000. It is unknown whether this 62000 dalton component is a dimer of the 34000 dalton protein with either itself or a second protein chain of presumed Msub(r) around 28000. H315 recognises an antigen with subunit Msub(r) of 36000; in non-reducing conditions this component readily associates to oligomeric structures. The epitope recognised by H315 may be sensitive to SDS. The two proteins recognised by H310/316 and H315 have been termed the p34 and p36 trophoblast membrane proteins, respectively.

  2. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  3. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Modulate Antigen-Presenting Cell Responses to Bacterial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, J. L.; Salim, S. Y.; Albert, E. J.; Hotte, N.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells orchestrate mucosal innate immunity. This study investigated the role of bacterial DNA in modulating epithelial and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (BM-APCs) and subsequent T-lymphocyte responses. Murine MODE-K epithelial cells and BM-APCs were treated with DNA from either Bifidobacterium breve or Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin directly and under coculture conditions with CD4+ T cells. Apical stimulation of MODE-K cells with S. Dublin DNA enhanced secretion of cytokines from underlying BM-APCs and induced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion from CD4+ T cells. Bacterial DNA isolated from either strain induced maturation and increased cytokine secretion from BM-APCs. Conditioned medium from S. Dublin-treated MODE-K cells elicited an increase in cytokine secretion similar to that seen for S. Dublin DNA. Treatment of conditioned medium from MODE-K cells with RNase and protease prevented the S. Dublin-induced increased cytokine secretion. Oral feeding of mice with B. breve DNA resulted in enhanced levels of colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) compared with what was seen for mice treated with S. Dublin DNA. In contrast, feeding mice with S. Dublin DNA increased levels of colonic IL-17 and IL-12p70. T cells from S. Dublin DNA-treated mice secreted high levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to controls and B. breve DNA-treated mice. These results demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells are able to modulate subsequent antigen-presenting and T-cell responses to bacterial DNA with pathogenic but not commensal bacterial DNA inducing effector CD4+ T lymphocytes. PMID:22615241

  4. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

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    Deirdre R Ducken

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to

  5. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  6. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Jessica A; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here, we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Epithelial membrane protein-1 is a biomarker of gefitinib resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Tindell, Charles A; Laux, Isett; Hunter, Jacob B; Curran, John; Galkin, Anna; Afar, Daniel E; Aronson, Nina; Shak, Steven; Natale, Ronald B; Agus, David B

    2005-08-16

    We describe a molecular resistance biomarker to gefitinib, epithelial membrane protein-1 (EMP-1). Gefitinib is a small-molecule inhibitor that competes for the ATP-binding site on EGF receptor (EGFR) and has been approved for patients with advanced lung cancers. Treatment with gefitinib has resulted in clinical benefit in patients, and, recently, heterozygous somatic mutations within the EGFR catalytic domain have been identified as a clinical correlate to objective response to gefitinib. However, clinical resistance to gefitinib limits the utility of this therapeutic to a fraction of patients, and objective clinical responses are rare. We aimed to assess the molecular phenotype and mechanism of in vivo gefitinib resistance in xenograft models and in patient samples. We generated in vivo gefitinib-resistance models in an adenocarcinoma xenograft model by serially passaging tumors in nude mice in presence of gefitinib until resistance was acquired. EMP-1 was identified as a surface biomarker whose expression correlated with acquisition of gefitinib resistance. EMP-1 expression was further correlated with lack of complete or partial response to gefitinib in lung cancer patient samples as well as clinical progression to secondary gefitinib resistance. EMP-1 expression and acquisition of gefitinib clinical resistance was independent of gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR somatic mutations. This report suggests the role of the adhesion molecule, EMP-1, as a biomarker of gefitinib clinical resistance, and further suggests a probable cross-talk between this molecule and the EGFR signaling pathway.

  8. Immunoprotection of mice against Schistosomiasis mansoni using solubilized membrane antigens.

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    Guidenn Sulbarán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis continues to be one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world. Despite the existence of a highly effective antischistosome drug, the disease is spreading into new areas, and national control programs do not arrive to complete their tasks particularly in low endemic areas. The availability of a vaccine could represent an additional component to chemotherapy. Experimental vaccination studies are however necessary to identify parasite molecules that would serve as vaccine candidates. In the present work, C57BL/6 female mice were subcutaneously immunized with an n-butanol extract of the adult worm particulate membranous fraction (AWBE and its protective effect against a S. mansoni challenge infection was evaluated. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Water-saturated n-butanol release into the aqueous phase a set of membrane-associated (glycoproteins that are variably recognized by antibodies in schistosome-infected patients; among the previously identified AWBE antigens there is Alkaline Phosphatase (SmAP which has been associated with resistance to the infection in mice. As compared to control, a significantly lower number of perfuse parasites was obtained in the immunized/challenged mouse group (P<0.05, t test; and consequently, a lower number of eggs and granulomas (with reduced sizes, overall decreasing pathology. Immunized mice produced high levels of sera anti-AWBE IgG recognizing antigens of ∼190-, 130-, 98-, 47-, 28-23, 14-, and 9-kDa. The ∼130-kDa band (the AP dimer exhibited in situ SmAP activity after addition of AP substrate and the activity was not apparently inhibited by host antibodies. A preliminary proteomic analysis of the 25-, 27-, and 28-kDa bands in the immunodominant 28-23 kDa region suggested that they are composed of actin. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with AWBE induced the production of specific antibodies to various adult worm membrane molecules (including AP and a partial (43% protection

  9. Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen prevents phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss skin epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Lindell

    Full Text Available Colonization of host tissues is a first step taken by many pathogens during the initial stages of infection. Despite the impact of bacterial disease on wild and farmed fish, only a few direct studies have characterized bacterial factors required for colonization of fish tissues. In this study, using live-cell and confocal microscopy, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells, the main structural component of the skin epidermis, were demonstrated to phagocytize bacteria. Mutant analyses showed that the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum required the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to evade phagocytosis and that O-antigen transport required the putative wzm-wzt-wbhA operon, which encodes two ABC polysaccharide transporter proteins and a methyltransferase. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with mannose prevented phagocytosis of V. anguillarum suggesting that a mannose receptor is involved in the uptake process. In addition, the O-antigen transport mutants could not colonize the skin but they did colonize the intestines of rainbow trout. The O-antigen polysaccharides were also shown to aid resistance to the antimicrobial factors, lysozyme and polymyxin B. In summary, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells play a role in the fish innate immunity by clearing bacteria from the skin epidermis. In defense, V. anguillarum utilizes O-antigen polysaccharides to evade phagocytosis by the epithelial cells allowing it to colonize rapidly fish skin tissues.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Prevents Phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Kristoffer; Fahlgren, Anna; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Fällman, Maria; Milton, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of host tissues is a first step taken by many pathogens during the initial stages of infection. Despite the impact of bacterial disease on wild and farmed fish, only a few direct studies have characterized bacterial factors required for colonization of fish tissues. In this study, using live-cell and confocal microscopy, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells, the main structural component of the skin epidermis, were demonstrated to phagocytize bacteria. Mutant analyses showed that the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum required the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to evade phagocytosis and that O-antigen transport required the putative wzm-wzt-wbhA operon, which encodes two ABC polysaccharide transporter proteins and a methyltransferase. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with mannose prevented phagocytosis of V. anguillarum suggesting that a mannose receptor is involved in the uptake process. In addition, the O-antigen transport mutants could not colonize the skin but they did colonize the intestines of rainbow trout. The O-antigen polysaccharides were also shown to aid resistance to the antimicrobial factors, lysozyme and polymyxin B. In summary, rainbow trout skin epithelial cells play a role in the fish innate immunity by clearing bacteria from the skin epidermis. In defense, V. anguillarum utilizes O-antigen polysaccharides to evade phagocytosis by the epithelial cells allowing it to colonize rapidly fish skin tissues. PMID:22662189

  11. Relationship between secretion of the Anton blood group antigen in saliva and adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to oropharynx epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, L.; van Ham, M.; Geelen-van den Broek, L.; Pieters, T.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells contributes to a reduction of infections by these bacteria. We have shown that the Anton blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for Haemophilus influenzae (van Alphen et al. 1986, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37, 69-71), occurs in saliva, that

  12. Targeting tumor antigens to secreted membrane vesicles in vivo induces efficient antitumor immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Ostrowski, Matias; Krumeich, Sophie; Bobrie, Angélique; Jancic, Carolina; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Delcayre, Alain; Le Pecq, Jean-Bernard; Combadière, Béhazine; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde

    2008-02-15

    Expression of non-self antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo, although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. CD8+ T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor antigens by dendritic cells). The modes of tumor antigen capture by dendritic cells in vivo remain unclear. Here we examine the immunogenicity of the same model antigen secreted by live tumors either in association with membrane vesicles (exosomes) or as a soluble protein. We have artificially addressed the antigen to secreted vesicles by coupling it to the factor VIII-like C1C2 domain of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8)/lactadherin. We show that murine fibrosarcoma tumor cells that secrete vesicle-bound antigen grow slower than tumors that secrete soluble antigen in immunocompetent, but not in immunodeficient, host mice. This growth difference is due to the induction of a more potent antigen-specific antitumor immune response in vivo by the vesicle-bound than by the soluble antigen. Finally, in vivo secretion of the vesicle-bound antigen either by tumors or by vaccination with naked DNA protects against soluble antigen-secreting tumors. We conclude that the mode of secretion can determine the immunogenicity of tumor antigens and that manipulation of the mode of antigen secretion may be used to optimize antitumor vaccination protocols.

  13. Sensitization to epithelial antigens in chronic mucosal inflammatory disease. Characterization of human intestinal mucosa-derived mononuclear cells reactive with purified epithelial cell-associated components in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, J K; Fiocchi, C; Youngman, K

    1985-01-01

    To explore the auto-reactive potential of cells infiltrating the gut mucosa in idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated, characterized morphologically and phenotypically, and evaluated for antigen-specific reactivity. The last was assessed by quantitating LPMC cytotoxic capabilities against purified, aqueous-soluble, organ-specific epithelial cell-associated components (ECAC) characterized previously. Enzyme-isolated infla...

  14. Quantitative radioimmunoassay for membranous and soluble H-Y antigen typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova-Bettane, M.; Latron, F.; Jakob, H.; Fellous, M.

    1981-01-01

    Two sensitive and quantitative methods for membranous or soluble H-Y antigen typing using rat anti-H-Y immune sera and /sup 125/I labelled protein A were carried out. These techniques were used to study H-Y antigen expression in human cell lines, and to refine the hypothesis that ..beta../sub 2/m serves as an anchorage point for H-Y antigen.

  15. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748

  16. Antigen presentation by small intestinal epithelial cells uniquely enhances IFN-γ secretion from CD4{sup +} intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Ryo; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Iwamoto, Taku; Maeda, Nana; Emoto, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru, E-mail: atotuka@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs). •sIECs are able to induce antigen specific proliferation of CD4{sup +} IELs. •sIECs induce markedly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4{sup +} IELs. •Induction of enhanced IFN-γ secretion by sIECs is uniquely observed in CD4{sup +} IELs. -- Abstract: Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules even in a normal condition, and are known to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) at least in vitro. These findings raised the possibility that sIECs play an important role in inducing immune responses against luminal antigens, especially those of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). We herein showed that antigenic stimulation with sIECs induced markedly greater secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4{sup +} IELs, but not interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17 although the proliferative response was prominently lower than that with T cell-depleted splenic APCs. In contrast, no enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4{sup +} LPLs and primed splenic CD4{sup +} T cells was observed when stimulated with sIECs. Taken together, these results suggest that sIECs uniquely activate CD4{sup +} IELs and induce remarkable IFN-γ secretion upon antigenic stimulation in vivo.

  17. Antigen presentation by small intestinal epithelial cells uniquely enhances IFN-γ secretion from CD4+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Ryo; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Iwamoto, Taku; Maeda, Nana; Emoto, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs). •sIECs are able to induce antigen specific proliferation of CD4 + IELs. •sIECs induce markedly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4 + IELs. •Induction of enhanced IFN-γ secretion by sIECs is uniquely observed in CD4 + IELs. -- Abstract: Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules even in a normal condition, and are known to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) at least in vitro. These findings raised the possibility that sIECs play an important role in inducing immune responses against luminal antigens, especially those of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). We herein showed that antigenic stimulation with sIECs induced markedly greater secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4 + IELs, but not interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17 although the proliferative response was prominently lower than that with T cell-depleted splenic APCs. In contrast, no enhanced IFN-γ secretion by CD4 + LPLs and primed splenic CD4 + T cells was observed when stimulated with sIECs. Taken together, these results suggest that sIECs uniquely activate CD4 + IELs and induce remarkable IFN-γ secretion upon antigenic stimulation in vivo

  18. Expression of cathepsins B, L, S, and D by gastric epithelial cells implicates them as antigen presenting cells in local immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C; Ye, G; Espejo, R; Gunasena, S; Almanza, R; Leary, J; Crowe, S; Ernst, P; Reyes, V E

    2001-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. During H. pylori infection, class II MHC expression by the gastric epithelium increases, as does the number of local CD4(+) T cells, which appear to be important in the associated pathogenesis. These observations suggested that the epithelium might present antigens to T cells. Thus, we sought to determine whether gastric epithelial cells process antigens to establish their function as local antigen presenting cells (APC). We examined a panel of gastric epithelial cell lines for expression of the antigen processing cathepsins B (CB), L (CL), S (CS), and D (CD). The mRNA for these enzymes were detected by RT-PCR and the enzymes in the gastric epithelial cells were identified by various independent methods. We corroborated the expression of CB and CD on gastric epithelial cells from human biopsy samples. The functions of these proteases were confirmed by assessing their ability to digest ovalbumin, a conventional dietary antigen, and proteins from H. pylori. In summary, multiple lines of evidence suggest gastric epithelial cells process antigens for presentation to CD4(+) T cells. To our knowledge, these are the first studies to document the antigen processing capacity of human gastric epithelial cells.

  19. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  20. Loss of Proliferation and Antigen Presentation Activity following Internalization of Polydispersed Carbon Nanotubes by Primary Lung Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mandavi; Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between poly-dispersed acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells were studied. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs, known phagocytic cells) were used as positive controls in this study. Recovery of live cells from cultures of PLE cells and PMs was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-SWCNTs, in a time and dose dependent manner. Both PLE cells as well as PMs could take up fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs in a time dependent manner and this uptake was significantly blocked by cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks the activity of acto-myosin fibers and therefore the phagocytic activity of cells. Confocal microscopic studies confirmed that AF-SWCNTs were internalized by both PLE cells and PMs. Intra-trachially instilled AF-SWCNTs could also be taken up by lung epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages. Freshly isolated PLE cells had significant cell division activity and cell cycling studies indicated that treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in a marked reduction in S-phase of the cell cycle. In a previously standardized system to study BCG antigen presentation by PLE cells and PMs to sensitized T helper cells, AF-SWCNTs could significantly lower the antigen presentation ability of both cell types. These results show that mouse primary lung epithelial cells can efficiently internalize AF-SWCNTs and the uptake of nanotubes interfered with biological functions of PLE cells including their ability to present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells. PMID:22384094

  1. Prognostic Significance of Mucin Antigen MUC1 in Various Human Epithelial Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Fuquan; Zhao, Hongwei; An, Guangyu; Feng, Guosheng

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that mucin antigen MUC1 plays a fundamental role in the initiation and progression of several types of epithelial carcinomas. However, whether the expression of MUC1 on tumor cells is associated with patients' survival remains controversial. Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, and Grey literature were searched up to 15 August 2015 for eligible studies of the association between the MUC1 expression and overall survival (OS) in various epithelial cancers. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated from the included studies. Moreover, the odds ratio (OR) was also extracted to evaluate the association between the clinicopathological parameters of participants and MUC1 expression. A total of 3425 patients covering 23 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that positive MUC1 staining was a negative predictor of OS (HRFEM = 1.98,95% CIFEM: 1.76-2.22, PFEM = 0.479; HRREM = 2.16,95% CIREM: 1.58-2.94, PREM = 0.355) in various epithelial carcinomas. Subgroup analysis revealed that the increased MUC1 expression was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with gastric cancer (HRFEM = 2.12, 95%CIFEM: 1.75-2.57, PFEM = 0.359; HRREM = 1.89, 95% CIREM: 1.05-3.41, PREM = 0.238), colorectal cancer (HRFEM = 1.73, 95%CIFEM: 1.41-2.13, PFEM = 0.048; HRREM = 2.00,95% CIREM: 1.46-2.73, PREM = 0.019), cholangiocarcinoma (HRFEM = 2.52, 95% CIFEM: 1.42-4.49, PFEM = 0.252; HRREM = 2.34, 95% CIREM: 1.30-4.22, PREM = 0.244), and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HRFEM = 2.14, 95% CIFEM: 1.46-3.14, PFEM = 0.591; HRREM = 2.81, 95% CIREM: 1.40-5.64, PREM = 0.280). In addition, MUC1 overexpression was more likely to be found in colorectal cancer patients with an advanced tumor node metastasis stage (ORREM = 1.55, 95% CIREM: 1.06-2.27; PREM = 0

  2. Prognostic Significance of Mucin Antigen MUC1 in Various Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Fuquan; Zhao, Hongwei; An, Guangyu; Feng, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that mucin antigen MUC1 plays a fundamental role in the initiation and progression of several types of epithelial carcinomas. However, whether the expression of MUC1 on tumor cells is associated with patients’ survival remains controversial. Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, and Grey literature were searched up to 15 August 2015 for eligible studies of the association between the MUC1 expression and overall survival (OS) in various epithelial cancers. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated from the included studies. Moreover, the odds ratio (OR) was also extracted to evaluate the association between the clinicopathological parameters of participants and MUC1 expression. A total of 3425 patients covering 23 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that positive MUC1 staining was a negative predictor of OS (HRFEM = 1.98,95% CIFEM: 1.76–2.22, PFEM = 0.479; HRREM = 2.16,95% CIREM: 1.58–2.94, PREM = 0.355) in various epithelial carcinomas. Subgroup analysis revealed that the increased MUC1 expression was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with gastric cancer (HRFEM = 2.12, 95%CIFEM: 1.75–2.57, PFEM = 0.359; HRREM = 1.89, 95% CIREM: 1.05–3.41, PREM = 0.238), colorectal cancer (HRFEM = 1.73, 95%CIFEM: 1.41–2.13, PFEM = 0.048; HRREM = 2.00,95% CIREM: 1.46–2.73, PREM = 0.019), cholangiocarcinoma (HRFEM = 2.52, 95% CIFEM: 1.42–4.49, PFEM = 0.252; HRREM = 2.34, 95% CIREM: 1.30–4.22, PREM = 0.244), and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HRFEM = 2.14, 95% CIFEM: 1.46–3.14, PFEM = 0.591; HRREM = 2.81, 95% CIREM: 1.40–5.64, PREM = 0.280). In addition, MUC1 overexpression was more likely to be found in colorectal cancer patients with an advanced tumor node metastasis stage (ORREM = 1.55, 95

  3. Effects of radiation on the expression of antigens on the membranes of human adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kozo; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Koshiba, Hirohumi; Yachi, Akira; Morita, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of irradiation on the membranes of tumor cells. X-ray irradiation caused remarkable increases in the expression of tumor-associated antigens (YH206, CEA) and c-erbB-2 protein by flow cytometry, whereas IFN had no obvious effect on the expression of tumor-associated antigens and c-erbB-2 protein. On the other hand, the expression of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 antigen on the membrane by flow cytometry was enhanced by both irradiation and IFN. In addition, the irradiated cells, when analyzed using a CEA specific probe, showed remarkable increases in the CEA mRNA compared to IFN-treated cells. It is possible that enhancement of the expression of tumor-associated antigens and c-erbB-2 protein, together with the enhancement of that of MHC-Class I and ICAM-1, would help cytotoxic killer cells recognize the tumor cells. (author)

  4. Quantification of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated membrane antigen component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, J.R.; Morgan, A.J.; Thompson, J.L.; Epstein, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of a 125 I-labelled membrane antigen (MA) component (gp340) from B95-8 cell membranes using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Good yields of antigenic material were obtained when renaturation of the [ 125 I]gp340 was carried out by removal of SDS in the presence of urea and subsequent removal of the urea. The availability of purified, radiolabelled gp340 has provided the essential basis for the development of a radioimmunoassay which, for the first time, permits quantification of this antigen. The assay has been used to demonstrate that cell membrane MA is a better source of gp340 for large-scale work than is the Epstein-Barr virus envelope and to measure the increase in expression of gp340 following treatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). (Auth.)

  5. Role of rab proteins in epithelial membrane traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Mostov, KE; Hoekstra, D

    2003-01-01

    Small GTPase rab proteins play an important role in various aspects of membrane traffic, including cargo selection, vesicle budding, vesicle motility, tethering, docking, and fusion. Recent data suggest also that rabs, and their divalent effector proteins, organize organelle subdomains and as such

  6. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    . For in vivo experiments, pieces of newborn rat epidermis obtained by dispase treatment were grafted onto athymic nude mice. Three and six weeks after grafting, immunofluorescence analysis of the grafted skin was carried out, using monoclonal antibodies specific for rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate...

  7. Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles Enter Human Epithelial Cells via an Endocytic Pathway and Are Sorted to Lysosomal Compartments ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Nobumichi; Tsuda, Kayoko; Omori, Hiroko; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Amano, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including major fimbriae and proteases termed gingipains, although it is not confirmed whether MVs enter host cells. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms involved in the interactions of P. gingivalis MVs with human epithelial cells. Our results showed that MVs swiftly adhered to HeLa and immortalized human gingival epithelial cells in a fimbria-dependent manner and then entered via a lipid raft-dependent endocytic pathway. The intracellular MVs were subsequently routed to early endosome antigen 1-associated compartments and then were sorted to lysosomal compartments within 90 min, suggesting that intracellular MVs were ultimately degraded by the cellular digestive machinery. However, P. gingivalis MVs remained there for over 24 h and significantly induced acidified compartment formation after being taken up by the cellular digestive machinery. In addition, MV entry was shown to be mediated by a novel pathway for transmission of bacterial products into host cells, a Rac1-regulated pinocytic pathway that is independent of caveolin, dynamin, and clathrin. Our findings indicate that P. gingivalis MVs efficiently enter host cells via an endocytic pathway and survive within the endocyte organelles for an extended period, which provides better understanding of the role of MVs in the etiology of periodontitis. PMID:19651865

  8. Common tree shrews and primates share leukocyte membrane antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Letvin, N L

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human peripheral blood lymphocyte and myeloid cell surface antigens were utilized to study the phylogeny of the common tree shrew. Blood cells from the common tree shrew, but not the bat or short-tailed shrew, react with certain of these antibodies. These data strengthen the argument that the Tupaiidae are primitive primates rather than insectivores. They also indicate that this approach should be useful for further work in taxonomic systemization.

  9. Localization of ras antigenicity in rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.M.; Lanoix, J.; Paiement, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the antigenicity of plasma membrane (PM) and rough microsomal (RM) fractions from rat liver using anti-ras monoclonal antibodies 142-24EO5 and Y13-259 and immunochemistry as well as electron microscope immunocytochemistry. Proteins immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 were separated using single-dimensional gradient-gel electrophoresis. The separated proteins were then blotted onto nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP. Radioautograms of blots indicated the presence of specific 21.5- and 22-kDa labeled proteins in the PM fraction. A 23.5-kDa [alpha- 32 P] GTP-binding protein was detected in immunoprecipitates of both PM and RM fractions. Monoclonal antibody Y13-259 reacted only with the 21.5-kDa [alpha- 32 P] GTP-binding protein in the plasma membrane fraction. When anti-ras monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 and the immunogold technique were applied to membrane fractions using a preembedding immunocytochemical method, specific labeling was observed in association with both vesicular structures and membrane sheets in the PM fraction but only with electron-dense vesicular structures in the RM fraction. Thus ras antigenicity is associated with hepatocyte plasma membranes and ras-like antigenicity is probably associated with vesicular (secretory/endocytic) elements in both plasma membrane and rough microsomal preparations

  10. Radioimmunoassay for antibodies against surface membrane antigens using adhering cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tax, A; Manson, L A [Wistar Inst. of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, Pa. (USA)

    1976-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay using cells adhering to plastic is described. In this assay, A-10 mammary carcinoma attached to the surface of plastic in microtiter plates were permitted to bind antibody and the bound antibody was detected with purified rabbit /sup 125/I-antimouse-Fab. The bound radioactive material was eluted with glycine-HCl buffer (pH 2.5), and the acid eluates were counted in a gamma counter. This assay can be used to detect cytolic or noncytolic antibody to cell surface antigens in studies with any tumor or normal cell that will adhere to a solid surface.

  11. Evidence that a glycolipid tail anchors antigen 117 to the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Da Silva, A.M.; Klein, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the biochemical features of the putative cell cohesion molecule antigen 117, indicating that it is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid tail. Antigen 117 can be radiolabeled with [ 3 H]myristate, [ 3 H]palmitate, and [ 14 C]ethanolamine. The fatty acid label is removed by periodate oxidation and nitrous acid deamination, indicating that the fatty acid is attached to the protein by a structure containing carbohydrate and an unsubstituted glucosamine. As cells develop aggregation competence, the antigen is released from the cell surface in a soluble form that can still be radiolabeled with [ 14 C]ethanolamine but not with [ 3 H]myristate of [ 3 H]-palmitate. The molecular weight of the released antigen is similar to that found in the plasma membrane, but it preferentially partitions in Triton X-114 as a hydrophilic, as opposed to a hydrophobic, protein. Plasma membranes contain the enzyme activity responsible for the release of the antigen in a soluble form

  12. The Use of Fibrous, Supramolecular Membranes and Human Tubular Cells for Renal Epithelial Tissue Engineering : Towards a Suitable Membrane for a Bioartificial Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Boomker, Jasper M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, Ali; Smedts, Frank M. M.; Harmsen, Martin C.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We

  13. The use of fibrous, supramolecular membranes and human tubular cells for renal epithelial tissue engineering: towards a suitable membrane for a bioartificial kidney,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, P.Y.W.; Boomker, J.M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, A.; Smedts, F.M.M.; Harmsen, M.C.; Luyn, van M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We

  14. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips (≤12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 μm thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 μCi/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36±4% (mean ± SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0±1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 μM calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE 2 , PGF 2 α, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE 2 and PGF 2 α standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium

  15. Intestinal epithelial apoptosis initiates gut mucosal injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MohanKumar, Krishnan; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Kelly, David R; Garzon, Steven A; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Neonates and young infants exposed to extracorporeal circulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass are at risk of developing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with multi-organ dysfunction. We used a piglet model of ECMO to investigate the hypothesis that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that precedes villous damage during ECMO-related bowel injury. Healthy 3-week-old piglets were subjected to ECMO for up to 8 h. Epithelial apoptosis was measured in histopathological analysis, nuclear imaging, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Intestinal mast cells were isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, phospho-p38 MAPK, and fas ligand expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Piglet ECMO was associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis. Extensive apoptotic changes were noted on villus tips and in scattered crypt cells after 2 h of ECMO. After 8 h, the villi were denuded and apoptotic changes were evident in a majority of crypt cells. Increased circulating I-FABP levels, a marker of gut epithelial injury, showed that epithelial injury occurred during ECMO. We detected increased cleaved caspase-8, but not cleaved caspase-9, in epithelial cells indicating that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was active. ECMO was associated with increased fas ligand expression in intestinal mast cells, which was induced through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that initiates gut mucosal injury in a piglet model of ECMO.

  16. Detection and quantification of Duffy antigen on bovine red blood cell membranes using a polyclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa B.F. Antonangelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is one of the most important diseases affecting livestock agriculture worldwide. Animals from the subspecies Bos taurus indicus are more resistant to babesiosis than those from Bos taurus taurus. The genera Babesia and Plasmodium are Apicomplexa hemoparasites and share features such as invasion of red blood cells (RBC. The glycoprotein Duffy is the only human erythrocyte receptor for Pasmodium vivax and a mutation which abolishes expression of this glycoprotein on erythrocyte surfaces is responsible for making the majority of people originating from the indigenous populations of West Africa resistant to P. vivax. The current work detected and quantified the Duffy antigen on Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus erythrocyte surfaces using a polyclonal antibody in order to investigate if differences in susceptibility to Babesia are due to different levels of Duffy antigen expression on the RBCs of these animals, as is known to be the case in human beings for interactions of Plasmodium vivax-Duffy antigen. ELISA tests showed that the antibody that was raised against Duffy antigens detected the presence of Duffy antigen in both subspecies and that the amount of this antigen on those erythrocyte membranes was similar. These results indicate that the greater resistance of B. taurus indicus to babesiosis cannot be explained by the absence or lower expression of Duffy antigen on RBC surfaces.

  17. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  18. Immunohistochemical localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigen in myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells of human mammary and salivary gland tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathrath, W B; Wilson, P D; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal keratin, one batch with restricted distribution of reactivity from an initial (aK1) and one with "broad spectrum" distribution of reactivity from a late bleeding (aK), and to "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) were applied to formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of human normal and neoplastic mammary and salivary glands using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. aK1 reacted with myoepithelial cells, aLEA with luminal epithelial cells and aK with both cell types in normal mammary and salivary gland. In breast carcinomas the majority of intraluminal and infiltrating carcinoma cells reacted with aLEA but not with aK1 which reacted only with surrounding myoepithelial cells. aK reacted with both myoepithelial cells and with intraluminal and infiltrating tumour cells. In the salivary gland adenomas the majority of cells reacted with aK, and those cells arranged in a tubular fashion reacted with aLEA.

  19. Cancer Patient T Cells Genetically Targeted to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Specifically Lyse Prostate Cancer Cells and Release Cytokines in Response to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Gong

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of immunoglobulin-based artificial receptors in normal T lymphocytes provides a means to target lymphocytes to cell surface antigens independently of major histocompatibility complex restriction. Such artificial receptors have been previously shown to confer antigen-specific tumoricidal properties in murine T cells. We constructed a novel ζ chain fusion receptor specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA termed Pz-1. PSMA is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on prostate cancer cells and the neovascular endothelium of multiple carcinomas. We show that primary T cells harvested from five of five patients with different stages of prostate cancer and transduced with the Pz-1 receptor readily lyse prostate cancer cells. Having established a culture system using fibroblasts that express PSMA, we next show that T cells expressing the Pz-1 receptor release cytokines in response to cell-bound PSMA. Furthermore, we show that the cytokine release is greatly augmented by B7.1-mediated costimulation. Thus, our findings support the feasibility of adoptive cell therapy by using genetically engineered T cells in prostate cancer patients and suggest that both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte functions can be synergistically targeted against tumor cells.

  20. Cholesterol modulates CFTR confinement in the plasma membrane of primary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Pandzic, Elvis; Goepp, Julie; Matthes, Elizabeth; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2015-07-07

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a plasma-membrane anion channel that, when mutated, causes the disease cystic fibrosis. Although CFTR has been detected in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction prepared from airway epithelial cells, suggesting that it may partition into cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts), its compartmentalization has not been demonstrated in intact cells and the influence of microdomains on CFTR lateral mobility is unknown. We used live-cell imaging, spatial image correlation spectroscopy, and k-space image correlation spectroscopy to examine the aggregation state of CFTR and its dynamics both within and outside microdomains in the plasma membrane of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. These studies were also performed during treatments that augment or deplete membrane cholesterol. We found two populations of CFTR molecules that were distinguishable based on their dynamics at the cell surface. One population showed confinement and had slow dynamics that were highly cholesterol dependent. The other, more abundant population was less confined and diffused more rapidly. Treatments that deplete the membrane of cholesterol caused the confined fraction and average number of CFTR molecules per cluster to decrease. Elevating cholesterol had the opposite effect, increasing channel aggregation and the fraction of channels displaying confinement, consistent with CFTR recruitment into cholesterol-rich microdomains with dimensions below the optical resolution limit. Viral infection caused the nanoscale microdomains to fuse into large platforms and reduced CFTR mobility. To our knowledge, these results provide the first biophysical evidence for multiple CFTR populations and have implications for regulation of their surface expression and channel function. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of membrane microdomains in transmembrane signaling through the epithelial glycoprotein Gp140/CDCP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Stacy M.; Dunn, Clarence A.; Brown, Tod A.; Wayner, Elizabeth E.; Carter, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via integrin adhesion receptors initiates signaling cascades leading to changes in cell behavior. While integrin clustering is necessary to initiate cell attachment to the matrix, additional membrane components are necessary to mediate the transmembrane signals and the cell adhesion response that alter downstream cell behavior. Many of these signaling components reside in glycosphingolipid-rich and cholesterol-rich membrane domains such as Tetraspanin Enriched Microdomains (TEMs)/Glycosynapse 3 and Detergent-Resistant Microdomains (DRMs), also known as lipid rafts. In the following article, we will review examples of how components in these membrane microdomains modulate integrin adhesion after initial attachment to the ECM. Additionally, we will present data on a novel adhesion-responsive transmembrane glycoprotein Gp140/CUB Domain Containing Protein 1, which clusters in epithelial cell-cell contacts. Gp140 can then be phosphorylated by Src Family Kinases at tyrosine 734 in response to outside-in signals- possibly through interactions involving the extracellular CUB domains. Data presented here suggests that outside-in signals through Gp140 in cell-cell contacts assemble membrane clusters that associate with membrane microdomains to recruit and activate SFKs. Active SFKs then mediate phosphorylation of Gp140, SFK and PKCδ with Gp140 acting as a transmembrane scaffold for these kinases. We propose that the clustering of Gp140 and signaling components in membrane microdomains in cell-cell contacts contributes to changes in cell behavior. PMID:18269919

  2. Biosynthetic incorporation of [75Se]selenomethionine: a new method for labelling lymphocyte membrane antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosseto, M.; Rohner, C.; Pierres, M.; Goridis, C.

    1981-01-01

    A novel approach for radiolabelling lymphocyte membrane antigens is described. This technique is based on the use of the γ-emitting amino acid analogue [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Human HLA-A, B, C and DR heavy and light chains and mouse Ia antigens were efficiently labelled by this technique and were precipitated with monoclonal antibodies. Approximately the same radioactivity was incorporated into the HLA-A, B, C chains whether [ 75 Se]selenomethionine, [ 35 S]methionine or [ 3 H]leucine were used as precursors. Easily detectable as a γ-emitter, [ 75 Se]selenomethionine thus constitutes a useful biosynthetic label of lymphocyte surface antigens. The same method was used to label immunoglobulins produced by hybridomas and to determine the nature of the secreted light chains. (Auth.)

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization and antigenicity of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (Babesia cf. motasi) apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Guan, Guiquan; Pan, Yuping; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as a potential vaccine candidate in apicomplexan parasites. Here we characterize the ama-1 gene. The full-length ama-1 gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BLTAMA-1) is 1785 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 65-kDa protein of 594 amino acid residues; by definition, the 5' UTR precedes the first methionine of the ORF. Phylogenetic analysis based on AMA-1 amino acid sequences clearly separated Piroplasmida from other Apicomplexa parasites. The Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 sequence is most closely associated with that of B. ovata and B. bigemina, with high bootstrap value. A recombinant protein encoding a conserved region and containing ectodomains I and II of BLTAMA-1 was constructed. BLTrAMA-1-DI/DII proteins were tested for reactivity with sera from sheep infected by Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). In Western-blot analysis, native Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 proteins were recognized by antibodies raised in rabbits against BLTrAMA-1 in vitro. The results of this study are discussed in terms of gene characterization, taxonomy and antigenicity.

  4. Outer membrane proteins analysis of Shigella sonnei and evaluation of their antigenicity in Shigella infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavathy Harikrishnan

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery caused by infection with Shigella spp. remains as serious and common health problem throughout the world. It is a highly multi drug resistant organism and rarely identified from the patient at the early stage of infection. S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated species causing shigellosis in industrialized countries. The antigenicity of outer membrane protein of this pathogen expressed during human infection has not been identified to date. We have studied the antigenic outer membrane proteins expressed by S. sonnei, with the aim of identifying presence of specific IgA and IgG in human serum against the candidate protein biomarkers. Three antigenic OMPs sized 33.3, 43.8 and 100.3 kDa were uniquely recognized by IgA and IgG from patients with S. sonnei infection, and did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The antigenic proteome data generated in this study are a first for OMPs of S. sonnei, and they provide important insights of human immune responses. Furthermore, numerous prime candidate proteins were identified which will aid the development of new diagnostic tools for the detection of S. sonnei.

  5. Relative Efficacy of Uptake and Presentation of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Antigens by Type I Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells and Peritoneal Macrophages ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mandavi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometric studies indicated that both peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells isolated from mouse lungs could take up fluorescence-tagged Mycobacterium bovis BCG. BCG uptake in both cases was significantly inhibited by cytochalasin D, indicating active internalization of BCG by these cells. Confocal microscopy data further confirmed that BCG was internalized by PLE cells. BCG sonicate antigen (sBCG) had marked toxicity toward PMs but was relatively nontoxic to PLE cells. Accordingly, BCG sonicate antigen induced a significantly higher apoptotic and necrotic response in PMs compared to that in PLE cells. Both PMs and PLE cells exposed to BCG antigens and fixed thereafter could efficiently present antigens to purified BCG-sensitized T helper cells, as assessed by the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). If, however, PLE cells were fixed before exposure to BCG, antigen presentation was abrogated, indicating that the PLE cells may in some way process the BCG antigen. A comparison of efficacies of BCG-pulsed PLE cells and PMs to present antigen at various antigen-presenting cell (APC)/T cell ratios indicated that PMs had only marginally greater APC function than that of PLE cells. Staining with specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that the cultured PLE cells used for antigen presentation essentially comprised type I epithelial cells. Our results suggest that type I lung epithelial cells may present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells and that their performance as APCs is comparable with that of PMs. PMID:21646448

  6. Expression of the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor, the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen and the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Helfrich, Wijnand; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Cell membrane antigens like the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), expressed in prostate cancer, are attractive targets for new therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Therefore, we

  7. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  8. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Keefe, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) appears to be an ideal prostate cancer marker and potential therapeutic target, however there have been reports of PSMA expression in non-prostatic tissues, including brain, kidney and liver...

  9. A solid phase radio immunoassay on hydrophobic membrane filters: detection of antibodies to gonocal surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambden, P.R.; Watt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) has been developed for detection of IgG antibodies to gonococcal outer membrane components. Gonococcal antigens was immobilised on a solid support by covalent coupling to CNBr-activated Sepharose in the presence of the detergent Triton X-100. Binding of specific antibody to the Sepharose-antigen complex was detected using radiolabelled Protein A as the antiglobulin. Protein A was labelled by radioacetylation with tritiated acetic anhydride, yielding a product of high specific activity and high stability. No detectable loss of activity was observed over a ten month period. The entire assay was performed on Mitex teflon hydrophobic membrane filters which held the Sepharose beads and aqueous supernatant as a discrete drop of liquid. The supernatants and incubation were easily and rapidly removed from the beads by suction on a specially-designed manifold system. This procedure removed the need for repeated and time-consuming centrifugations. Titres were obtained graphically from double log plots of cpm bound versus antiserum dilution by extrapolation of the straight line to a point corresponding to twice the control level of radioactivity binding. The assay proved to be a very reliable and simple procedure for the detection of IgG antibodies to gonococcal surface antigens. (Auth.)

  10. Basophil Membrane Expression of Epithelial Cytokine Receptors in Patients with Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boita, Monica; Heffler, Enrico; Omedè, Paola; Bellocchia, Michela; Bussolino, Claudia; Solidoro, Paolo; Giorgis, Veronica; Guerrera, Francesco; Riva, Giuseppe; Brussino, Luisa; Bucca, Caterina; Rolla, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease, which is characterized by airway damage and remodeling. All triggers of asthma, such as allergens, bacteria, viruses, and pollutants, interact with the airway epithelial cells, which drive the airway inflammatory response through the release of cytokines, particularly IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). To investigate whether the expression of the IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP receptors on the basophil membrane are associated with asthma severity. Twenty-six patients with asthma (11 severe and 15 moderate/mild) and 10 healthy subjects (controls) were enrolled in the study. The results of the basophil activation test and flow cytometry analysis were assessed to investigate basophil membrane expression of IL-25, TSLP, and IL-33 receptors before and after IgE stimulation. IL-25 and IL-33 receptor expression on the basophil membrane at baseline were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma than in those with mild/moderate asthma or healthy subjects, independent of atopy, eosinophilia, asthma control, and exacerbation frequency. Following IgE stimulation, a significantly higher increase in the IL-25 and IL-33 receptors was observed in mild/moderate versus severe asthma. The high expression of the IL-25 and IL-33 receptors on the basophil membrane of patients with severe asthma indicates an overstimulation of basophils by these cytokines in severe asthma. This finding can possibly be used as a biomarker of asthma severity. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-10-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.

  12. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Type...... II) constitutively express the class II MHC led us to hypothesize that Type II cells play a role in the adaptive immune response. Because Type II cells do not express detectable levels of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, we propose that Type II cells suppress activation of naive T cells...

  13. Comparative analysis of monoclonal antibodies against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykvart, Jan; Navrátil, Václav; Sedlák, František; Corey, E.; Colombatti, M.; Fracasso, G.; Koukolík, F.; Bařinka, Cyril; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 16 (2014), s. 1674-1690 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/0847; GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : glutamate carboxypeptidase II * prostate -specific membrane antigen * folate hydrolase * NAALADase * Western blot * immunohistochemistry * ELISA * flow cytometry * surface plasmon resonance Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.565, year: 2014

  14. Engineering a prostate-specific membrane antigen-activated tumor endothelial cell prodrug for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denmeade, Samuel R; Mhaka, Annastasiah M; Rosen, D Marc

    2012-01-01

    adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA) pump, whose proper function is required by all cell types for viability. To achieve targeted inhibition, we took advantage of the unique expression of the carboxypeptidase prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) by tumor endothelial cells within the microenvironment...... of solid tumors. We generated a prodrug, G202, consisting of a PSMA-specific peptide coupled to an analog of the potent SERCA pump inhibitor thapsigargin. G202 produced substantial tumor regression against a panel of human cancer xenografts in vivo at doses that were minimally toxic to the host...

  15. Entry of Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles into Epithelial Cells Causes Cellular Functional Impairment▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Nobumichi; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Amano, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including proteases termed gingipains (Arg-gingipain [Rgp] and Lys-gingipain [Kgp]). We recently showed that P. gingivalis MVs swiftly enter host epithelial cells via an endocytosis pathway and are finally sorted to lytic compartments. However, it remains unknown whether MV entry impairs cellular function. Herein, we analyzed cellular functional impairment following entry of P. gingivalis into epithelial cells, including HeLa and immortalized human gingival epithelial (IHGE) cells. After being taken up by endocytic vacuoles, MVs degraded the cellular transferrin receptor (TfR) and integrin-related signaling molecules, such as paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which resulted in depletion of intracellular transferrin and inhibition of cellular migration. Few Rgp-null MVs entered the cells, and these negligibly degraded TfR, whereas paxillin and FAK degradation was significant. In contrast, Kgp-null MVs clearly entered the cells and degraded TfR, while they scarcely degraded paxillin and FAK. In addition, both wild-type and Kgp-null MVs significantly impaired cellular migration, whereas the effect of Rgp-null MVs was limited. Our findings suggest that, following entry of P. gingivalis MVs into host cells, MV-associated gingipains degrade cellular functional molecules such as TfR and paxillin/FAK, resulting in cellular impairment, indicating that P. gingivalis MVs are potent vehicles for transmission of virulence factors into host cells and are involved in the etiology of periodontitis. PMID:19737899

  16. The human periodontal membrane: focusing on the spatial interrelation between the epithelial layer of Malassez, fibers, and innervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger; Nolting, Dorrit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to map the spatial interrelation of fibers, peripheral nerves, and epithelial layer of Malassez in human periodontal membrane in areas close to the root surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four healthy permanent teeth extracted from four patients during...

  17. Characterization of an apically derived epithelial membrane glycoprotein from bovine milk, which is expressed in capillary endothelia in diverse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, D E; Mather, I H

    1985-02-01

    A glycoprotein (PAS IV) of apparent Mr 76,000 was purified from bovine milk-fat-globule membrane and partially characterized. PAS IV contained mannose, galactose, and sialic acid as principal sugars (approximately 5.3% total carbohydrate [wt/wt]) and existed in milk in at least four isoelectric variants. The glycoprotein appeared to be an integral membrane protein by several criteria. PAS IV was recovered in the detergent phase of Triton X-114 extracts of milk-fat-globule membrane at room temperature. When bound to membrane, PAS IV was resistant to digestion by a number of proteinases, although after solubilization with non-ionic detergents, the protein was readily degraded. Amino acid analysis of the purified protein revealed a high percentage of amino acids with nonpolar residues. The location of PAS IV was determined in bovine tissues by using immunofluorescence techniques. In mammary tissue, PAS IV was located on both the apical surfaces of secretory epithelial cells and endothelial cells of capillaries. This glycoprotein was also detected in endothelial cells of heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, salivary gland, and small intestine. In addition to mammary epithelial cells, PAS IV was also located in certain other epithelial cells, most notably the bronchiolar epithelial cells of lung. The potential usefulness of this protein as a specific marker of capillary endothelial cells in certain tissues is discussed.

  18. [Expression changes of major outer membrane protein antigens in Leptospira interrogans during infection and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Linli; Ge, Yumei; Hu, Weilin; Yan, Jie

    2013-03-01

    To determine expression changes of major outer membrane protein(OMP) antigens of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Lai during infection of human macrophages and its mechanism. OmpR encoding genes and OmpR-related histidine kinase (HK) encoding gene of L.interrogans strain Lai and their functional domains were predicted using bioinformatics technique. mRNA level changes of the leptospiral major OMP-encoding genes before and after infection of human THP-1 macrophages were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Effects of the OmpR-encoding genes and HK-encoding gene on the expression of leptospiral OMPs during infection were determined by HK-peptide antiserum block assay and closantel inhibitive assays. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that LB015 and LB333 were referred to OmpR-encoding genes of the spirochete, while LB014 might act as a OmpR-related HK-encoding gene. After the spirochete infecting THP-1 cells, mRNA levels of leptospiral lipL21, lipL32 and lipL41 genes were rapidly and persistently down-regulated (P Expression levels of L.interrogans strain Lai major OMP antigens present notable changes during infection of human macrophages. There is a group of OmpR-and HK-encoding genes which may play a major role in down-regulation of expression levels of partial OMP antigens during infection.

  19. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluni M. Wijesundara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS. There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA and peptidoglycan (PGN (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE or aqueous extracts (AE for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6% of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8, human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2, epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2. Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis.

  20. Focal epithelial hyperplasia associated with human papillomavirus 13 and common human leukocyte antigen alleles in a Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoğlu, Gülşen; Metin, Ahmet; Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Emre, Selma; Akpolat, Demet; Süngü, Nuran

    2015-02-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare and benign papillomatous disease of the oral cavity, which is closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and 32. Genetic susceptibility to HPV infections are supported by recent studies involving the human leukocyte antigen system (HLA). In this report, we aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of a Turkish family with FEH and to detect the shared HLA DR and DQ types. HPV DNA typing of tissue samples and HLA determination from blood samples of four family members were performed by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination of all patients revealed acanthotic papillomatous epidermis, koilocytes, apoptotic keratinocytes, and mitosoid bodies. HPV13 was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HLA DQA1*0501, HLA DQB1*0302, and HLA DRB1*11 alleles were common in all family members. HLA DRB1*04 was detected in three of them. This report is the first step for the investigation of involvement of HLA types in the pathogenesis of Turkish patients with FEH. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Regeneration of defective epithelial basement membrane and restoration of corneal transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Gustavo K.; Santhiago, Marcony R.; Santhanam, Abirami; Torricelli, Andre A. M.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE To study regeneration of the normal ultrastructure of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) in rabbit corneas that had -9D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and developed late haze (fibrosis) with restoration of transparency over one to four months after surgery and in corneas that had incisional wounds. METHODS Twenty-four rabbits had one of their eyes included into one of the two procedure groups (-9D PRK or nearly full-thickness incisional wounds), while the opposite eye serving as unwounded controls. All corneas were evaluated with slit lamp photos, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen type III. RESULTS In the ‘-9D PRK group’, corneas at one month after surgery had dense corneal haze and no evidence of regenerated EBM ultrastructure. By two months after surgery, however, small areas of stromal clearing began to appear within the confluent opacity (lacunae), and these corresponded to small islands of normally-regenerated EBM detected within larger area of the excimer laser-ablated zone with no evidence of normal EBM. By four months after surgery, the EBM was fully-regenerated and the corneal transparency was completely restored to the ablated zone. In the ‘Incisional wound group’, the two dense, linear corneal opacities were observed at one month after surgery and progressively faded by two and three months after surgery. The EBM ultrastructure was fully regenerated at the site of the incisions, including around epithelial plugs that extended into the stroma, by one month after surgery in all eyes. CONCLUSIONS In the rabbit model, spontaneous resolution of corneal fibrosis (haze) after high correction PRK is triggered by regeneration of EBM with normal ultrastructure in the excimer laser- ablated zone. Conversely, incisional wounds heal in rabbit corneas without the development of myofibroblasts because the EBM regenerates normally by one month after surgery

  2. Comparison of Colorimetric Assays with Quantitative Amino Acid Analysis for Protein Quantification of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Int...

  3. Development of a PET Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Imaging Agent: Preclinical Translation for Future Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by...phase 0) application to the FDA by the end of the funding period. The small molecule imaging agents under study home to prostate specific membrane...funding period. The small molecule imaging agents under study home to prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) that is prevalent on a majority of

  4. Prostate specific membrane antigen- a target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L; Capala, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to represent a major health problem, and yet there is no effective treatment available for advanced metastatic disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment modalities that could improve the outcome. Because prostate specific...... membrane antigen (PSMA), a transmembrane protein, is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and its expression is further increased in poorly differentiated, metastatic, and hormone-refractory carcinomas, it is a very attractive target. Molecules targeting PSMA can be labelled with radionuclides...... to become both diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. The use of PSMA binding agents, labelled with diagnostic and therapeutic radio-isotopes, opens up the potential for a new era of personalized management of metastatic prostate cancer....

  5. Engineering a prostate-specific membrane antigen-activated tumor endothelial cell prodrug for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmeade, Samuel R; Mhaka, Annastasiah M; Rosen, D Marc; Brennen, W Nathaniel; Dalrymple, Susan; Dach, Ingrid; Olesen, Claus; Gurel, Bora; Demarzo, Angelo M; Wilding, George; Carducci, Michael A; Dionne, Craig A; Møller, Jesper V; Nissen, Poul; Christensen, S Brøgger; Isaacs, John T

    2012-06-27

    Heterogeneous expression of drug target proteins within tumor sites is a major mechanism of resistance to anticancer therapies. We describe a strategy to selectively inhibit, within tumor sites, the function of a critical intracellular protein, the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA) pump, whose proper function is required by all cell types for viability. To achieve targeted inhibition, we took advantage of the unique expression of the carboxypeptidase prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) by tumor endothelial cells within the microenvironment of solid tumors. We generated a prodrug, G202, consisting of a PSMA-specific peptide coupled to an analog of the potent SERCA pump inhibitor thapsigargin. G202 produced substantial tumor regression against a panel of human cancer xenografts in vivo at doses that were minimally toxic to the host. On the basis of these data, a phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial has been initiated with G202 in patients with advanced cancer.

  6. Advances in prostate-specific membrane antigen PET of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, a large number of reports have been published on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)/PET in prostate cancer (PCa). This review highlights advances in PSMA PET in PCa during the past year. PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) is useful in detection of biochemical recurrence, especially at low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. The detection rate of PSMA PET is influenced by PSA level. For primary PCa, PSMA PET/CT shows promise for tumour localization in the prostate, especially in combination with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). For primary staging, PSMA PET/CT can be used in intermediate and high-risk PCa. Intraoperative PSMA radioligand guidance seems promising for detection of malignant lymph nodes. While the use of PSMA PET/MRI in primary localized disease is limited to high and intermediate-risk patients and localized staging, in the recurrence setting, PET/MRI can be particularly helpful when the lesions are subtle. PSMA PET/CT is superior to choline PET/CT and other conventional imaging modalities. Molecular imaging with PSMA PET continues to pave the way for personalized medicine in PCa.However, large prospective clinical studies are still needed to fully evaluate the role of PSMA PET/CT and PET/MRI in the clinical workflow of PCa.

  7. Epithelial V-like antigen mediates efficacy of anti-alpha₄ integrin treatment in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Wright

    Full Text Available Natalizumab inhibits the transmigration of activated T lymphocytes into the brain and is highly efficacious in multiple sclerosis (MS. However, from a pharmacogenomic perspective, its efficacy and safety in specific patients remain unclear. Here our goal was to analyze the effects of epithelial V-like antigen (EVA on anti-alpha₄ integrin (VLA4 efficacy in a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EVA has been previously characterized in human CD4 T lymphocytes, mouse thymic development, and choroid plexus epithelial cells. Further analysis here demonstrated expression in B lymphocytes and an increase in EVA⁺ lymphocytes following immunization. Following active induction of EAE using the MOG³⁵⁻⁵⁵ active immunization model, EVA deficient mice developed more severe EAE and white matter tissue injury as compared to wild type controls. This severe EAE phenotype did not respond to anti-VLA4 treatment. In both the control antibody and anti-VLA4 conditions, these mice demonstrated persistent CNS invasion of mature B lymphocyte (CD19⁺, CD21⁺, sIgG⁺, increased serum autoantibody levels, and extensive complement and IgG deposition within lesions containing CD5⁺IgG⁺ cells. Wild type mice treated with control antibody also demonstrated the presence of CD19⁺, CD21⁺, sIgG⁺ cells within the CNS during peak EAE disease severity and detectable serum autoantibody. In contrast, wild type mice treated with anti-VLA4 demonstrated reduced serum autoantibody levels as compared to wild type controls and EVA-knockout mice. As expected, anti-VLA4 treatment in wild type mice reduced the total numbers of all CNS mononuclear cells and markedly decreased CD4 T lymphocyte invasion. Treatment also reduced the frequency of CD19⁺, CD21⁺, sIgG⁺ cells in the CNS. These results suggest that anti-VLA4 treatment may reduce B lymphocyte associated autoimmunity in some individuals and that EVA expression is necessary for an

  8. A remote arene-binding site on prostate specific membrane antigen revealed by antibody-recruiting small molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, A.X.; Murelli, R.P.; Bařinka, Cyril; Michel, J.; Cocleaza, A.; Jorgensen, W.L.; Lubkowski, J.; Spiegel, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 36 (2010), s. 12711-12716 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Prostate -specific membrane antigen * antibody recruiting molecules * Structure-activity relationship Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.019, year: 2010

  9. ION-EXCHANGE IMMUNOAFFINITY PURIFICATION OF A RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM APICAL MEMBRANE ANTIGEN, PF83/AMA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NARUM, DL; WELLING, GW; THOMAS, AW

    1993-01-01

    A two-step purification regime has been developed for a quantitatively minor, putatively transmembrane, M(r) 83 000, apical membrane blood stage vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (PF83/AMA-1), that has been expressed as a full-length baculovirus recombinant protein, PF83-FG8-1. The

  10. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-directed nanoparticle targeting for extreme nearfield ablation of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung S; Roche, Philip Jr; Giannopoulos, Paresa N; Mitmaker, Elliot J; Tamilia, Michael; Paliouras, Miltiadis; Trifiro, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Almost all biological therapeutic interventions cannot overcome neoplastic heterogeneity. Physical ablation therapy is immune to tumor heterogeneity, but nearby tissue damage is the limiting factor in delivering lethal doses. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes offer a number of unique properties: chemical stability, photonic properties including efficient light absorption, thermal conductivity, and extensive surface area availability for covalent chemical ligation. When combined together with a targeting moiety such as an antibody or small molecule, one can deliver highly localized temperature increases and cause extensive cellular damage. We have functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes by conjugating an antibody against prostate-specific membrane antigen. In our in vitro studies using prostate-specific membrane antigen-positive LNCaP prostate cancer cells, we have effectively demonstrated cell ablation of >80% with a single 30-s exposure to a 2.7-W, 532-nm laser for the first time without bulk heating. We also confirmed the specificity and selectivity of prostate-specific membrane antigen targeting by assessing prostate-specific membrane antigen-null PC3 cell lines under the same conditions (<10% cell ablation). This suggests that we can achieve an extreme nearfield cell ablation effect, thus restricting potential tissue damage when transferred to in vivo clinical applications. Developing this new platform will introduce novel approaches toward current therapeutic modalities and will usher in a new age of effective cancer treatment squarely addressing tumoral heterogeneity.

  11. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  12. Population genetic structure and natural selection of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 in Myanmar isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Moe, Mya; Jun, Hojong; Lê, Hương Giang; Kim, Tae Im; Thái, Thị Lam; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Lin, Khin; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2018-02-07

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) is one of leading blood stage malaria vaccine candidates. However, genetic variation and antigenic diversity identified in global PfAMA-1 are major hurdles in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PfAMA-1 among Myanmar P. falciparum isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 58 Myanmar patients with falciparum malaria. Full-length PfAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. PfAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced. Polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed with using DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Polymorphic nature and natural selection in 459 global PfAMA-1 were also analysed. Thirty-seven different haplotypes of PfAMA-1 were identified in 58 Myanmar P. falciparum isolates. Most amino acid changes identified in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were found in domains I and III. Overall patterns of amino acid changes in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were similar to those in global PfAMA-1. However, frequencies of amino acid changes differed by country. Novel amino acid changes in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were also identified. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed in global PfAMA-1. Among 51 commonly identified amino acid changes in global PfAMA-1 sequences, 43 were found in predicted RBC-binding sites, B-cell epitopes, or IUR regions. Myanmar PfAMA-1 showed similar patterns of nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphisms compared to those of global PfAMA-1. Balancing natural selection and intragenic recombination across PfAMA-1 are likely to play major roles in generating genetic diversity in global PfAMA-1. Most common amino acid changes in global PfAMA-1 were located in predicted B-cell epitopes where high levels of nucleotide diversity and balancing natural selection were found. These results highlight the

  13. Discriminatory Role of Detergent-Resistant Membranes in the Dimerization and Endocytosis of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sonja; Gericke, Birthe; Fracasso, Giulio; Ramarli, Dunia; Colombatti, Marco; Naim, Hassan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type-II membrane glycoprotein that was initially identified in LNCaP cells. It is expressed at elevated levels in prostate cancer. In view of the correlation between the expression levels of PSMA and disease grade and stage, PSMA is considered to be one of the most promising biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. In LNCaP cells PSMA undergoes internalization via clathrin-coated pits followed by accumulation in the endosomes. PSMA associates with different types of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) along the secretory pathway. Its mature form is mainly insoluble in Lubrol WX, but does not associate with Triton X-100-DRMs. To understand the mechanism of PSMA internalization we investigated its association during internalization with DRMs. For this purpose, internalization was induced by antibody cross-linking. We demonstrate at the biochemical and cell biological levels that: [i] exclusively homodimers of PSMA are associated with Lubrol WX-DRMs, [ii] antibody-induced cross-linking of PSMA molecules results in a time-dependent partitioning into another DRMs type, namely Triton X-100-DRMs, and [iii] concomitant with its association with Triton-X-100-DRMs internalization of PSMA occurs along tubulin filaments. In a previous work (Colombatti et al. (2009) PLoS One 4: e4608) we demonstrated that the small GTPases RAS and RAC1 and the MAPKs p38 and ERK1/2 are activated during antibody cross-linking. As downstream effects of this activation we observed a strong induction of NF-kB associated with an increased expression of IL-6 and CCL5 genes and that IL-6 and CCL5 enhanced the proliferative potential of LNCaP cells synergistically. These observations together with findings reported here hypothesize a fundamental role of DRMs during activation of PSMA as platforms for trafficking, endocytosis and signalling. Understanding these mechanisms constitutes an essential prerequisite for utilization of PSMA as

  14. Discriminatory Role of Detergent-Resistant Membranes in the Dimerization and Endocytosis of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Schmidt

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA is a type-II membrane glycoprotein that was initially identified in LNCaP cells. It is expressed at elevated levels in prostate cancer. In view of the correlation between the expression levels of PSMA and disease grade and stage, PSMA is considered to be one of the most promising biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. In LNCaP cells PSMA undergoes internalization via clathrin-coated pits followed by accumulation in the endosomes. PSMA associates with different types of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs along the secretory pathway. Its mature form is mainly insoluble in Lubrol WX, but does not associate with Triton X-100-DRMs. To understand the mechanism of PSMA internalization we investigated its association during internalization with DRMs. For this purpose, internalization was induced by antibody cross-linking. We demonstrate at the biochemical and cell biological levels that: [i] exclusively homodimers of PSMA are associated with Lubrol WX-DRMs, [ii] antibody-induced cross-linking of PSMA molecules results in a time-dependent partitioning into another DRMs type, namely Triton X-100-DRMs, and [iii] concomitant with its association with Triton-X-100-DRMs internalization of PSMA occurs along tubulin filaments. In a previous work (Colombatti et al. (2009 PLoS One 4: e4608 we demonstrated that the small GTPases RAS and RAC1 and the MAPKs p38 and ERK1/2 are activated during antibody cross-linking. As downstream effects of this activation we observed a strong induction of NF-kB associated with an increased expression of IL-6 and CCL5 genes and that IL-6 and CCL5 enhanced the proliferative potential of LNCaP cells synergistically. These observations together with findings reported here hypothesize a fundamental role of DRMs during activation of PSMA as platforms for trafficking, endocytosis and signalling. Understanding these mechanisms constitutes an essential prerequisite for

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation causes loss of intestinal epithelial barrier in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Ashish R; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Hartman, Yolanda E; He, Dongning; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Neel, Mary L; Clancy, John P; Anantharamaiah, G M; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an important life-support system used in neonates and young children with intractable cardiorespiratory failure. In this study, we used our porcine neonatal model of venoarterial ECMO to investigate whether ECMO causes gut barrier dysfunction. We subjected 3-wk-old previously healthy piglets to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h and evaluated gut mucosal permeability, bacterial translocation, plasma levels of bacterial products, and ultrastructural changes in gut epithelium. We also measured plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in a small cohort of human neonates receiving ECMO. In our porcine model, ECMO caused a rapid increase in gut mucosal permeability within the first 2 h of treatment, leading to a 6- to 10-fold rise in circulating bacterial products. These changes in barrier function were associated with cytoskeletal condensation in epithelial cells, which was explained by phosphorylation of a myosin II regulatory light chain. In support of these findings, we also detected elevated plasma LPS levels in human neonates receiving ECMO, indicating a similar loss of gut barrier function in these infants. On the basis of these data, we conclude that ECMO is an independent cause of gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation may be an important contributor to ECMO-related inflammation.

  16. Epithelial membrane protein-2 promotes endometrial tumor formation through activation of FAK and Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fu

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy diagnosed among women in developed countries. One recent biomarker strongly associated with disease progression and survival is epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, a tetraspan protein known to associate with and modify surface expression of certain integrin isoforms. In this study, we show using a xenograft model system that EMP2 expression is necessary for efficient endometrial tumor formation, and we have started to characterize the mechanism by which EMP2 contributes to this malignant phenotype. In endometrial cancer cells, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK/Src pathway appears to regulate migration as measured through wound healing assays. Manipulation of EMP2 levels in endometrial cancer cells regulates the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, and promotes their distribution into lipid raft domains. Notably, cells with low levels of EMP2 fail to migrate and poorly form tumors in vivo. These findings reveal the pivotal role of EMP2 in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis, and suggest that the association of elevated EMP2 levels with endometrial cancer prognosis may be causally linked to its effect on integrin-mediated signaling.

  17. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Synergistic co-targeting of prostate-specific membrane antigen and androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Jose D; Moorji, Sameer M; Han, Amy Q; Magargal, Wells W; DiPippo, Vincent A; Olson, William C

    2015-02-15

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of cancer therapies that have demonstrated favorable activity both as single agents and as components of combination regimens. Phase 2 testing of an ADC targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in advanced prostate cancer has shown antitumor activity. The present study examined PSMA ADC used in combination with potent antiandrogens (enzalutamide and abiraterone) and other compounds. Antiproliferative activity and expression of PSMA, prostate-specific antigen and androgen receptor were evaluated in the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and C4-2. Cells were tested for susceptibility to antiandrogens or other inhibitors, used alone and in combination with PSMA ADC. Potential drug synergy or antagonism was evaluated using the Bliss independence method. Enzalutamide and abiraterone demonstrated robust, statistically significant synergy when combined with PSMA ADC. Largely additive activity was observed between the antiandrogens and the individual components of the ADC (free drug and unmodified antibody). Rapamycin also synergized with PSMA ADC in certain settings. Synergy was linked in part to upregulation of PSMA expression. In androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, enzalutamide and abiraterone each inhibited proliferation, upregulated PSMA expression, and synergized with PSMA ADC. In androgen-independent C4-2 cells, enzalutamide and abiraterone showed no measurable antiproliferative activity on their own but increased PSMA expression and synergized with PSMA ADC nonetheless. PSMA expression increased progressively over 3 weeks with enzalutamide and returned to baseline levels 1 week after enzalutamide removal. The findings support exploration of clinical treatment regimens that combine potent antiandrogens and PSMA-targeted therapies for prostate cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Advanced generation anti-prostate specific membrane antigen designer T cells for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiangzhong; Gomes, Erica M; Lo, Agnes Shuk-Yee; Junghans, Richard P

    2014-02-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy by infusion of designer T cells (dTc) engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for tumoricidal activity represents a potentially highly specific modality for the treatment of cancer. In this study, 2nd generation (gen) anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) dTc were developed for improving the efficacy of previously developed 1st gen dTc for prostate cancer immunotherapy. The 1st gen dTc are modified with chimeric immunoglobulin-T cell receptor (IgTCR) while the 2nd gen dTc are engineered with an immunoglobulin-CD28-T cell receptor (IgCD28TCR), which incorporates a CD28 costimulatory signal for optimal T cell activation. A 2nd gen anti-PSMA IgCD28TCR CAR was constructed by inserting the CD28 signal domain into the 1st gen CAR. 1st and 2nd gen anti-PSMA dTc were created by transducing human T cells with anti-PSMA CARs and their antitumor efficacy was compared for specific activation on PSMA-expressing tumor contact, cytotoxicity against PSMA-expressing tumor cells in vitro, and suppression of tumor growth in an animal model. The 2nd gen dTc can be optimally activated to secrete larger amounts of cytokines such as IL2 and IFNγ than 1st gen and to proliferate more vigorously on PSMA-expressing tumor contact. More importantly, the 2nd gen dTc preserve the PSMA-specific cytotoxicity in vitro and suppress tumor growth in animal models with significant higher potency. Our results demonstrate that 2nd gen anti-PSMA designer T cells exhibit superior antitumor functions versus 1st gen, providing a rationale for advancing this improved agent toward clinical application in prostate cancer immunotherapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) induced cytotoxicity in epithelial cells is associated with EBNA1 degradation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Richard J.; Smith, Laura J.; Dawson, Christopher W.; Haigh, Tracy; Blake, Neil W.; Young, Lawrence S.

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) has a central role in the maintenance and segregation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome and by virtue of a glycine-alanine repeat domain is prevented from being endogenously processed for recognition by HLA class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We found that EBNA1 expression resulted in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest in human squamous epithelial cell lines (SCC12F, SVK) but not epithelial cell lines of glandular origin (Hela, Ad/AH). The cytotoxicity of EBNA1 was associated with EBNA1 degradation and both these effects were blocked in SCC12F cells expressing either the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein or the EBV homolog of bcl-2, BHRF1. The endogenous degradation of EBNA1 in SVK epithelial cells was associated with specific CTL recognition, an effect not evident in EBNA1-expressing Hela cells. Consistent with the inability of SVK cells to tolerate EBNA1 expression, studies with a recombinant EBV demonstrated that SVK cells are unable to maintain stable virus infection, whereas Hela cells are able to efficiently establish latent EBV infection. These data have important implications for both the cellular requirements necessary to sustain a stable EBV infection and for the possible role of CTL responses in controlling EBV infection of epithelial cells

  1. Embryoid body attachment to reconstituted basement membrane induces a genetic program of epithelial differentiation via jun N-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang-Yen; Moffat, Ryan C; Patel, Rupal V; Awah, Franklin N; Baloue, Kaitrin; Crowe, David L

    2010-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from early stage mammalian embryos and have broad developmental potential. These cells can be manipulated experimentally to generate cells of multiple tissue types which could be important in treating human diseases. The ability to produce relevant amounts of these differentiated cell populations creates the basis for clinical interventions in tissue regeneration and repair. Understanding how embryonic stem cells differentiate also can reveal important insights into cell biology. A previously reported mouse embryonic stem cell model demonstrated that differentiated epithelial cells migrated out of embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. We used genomic technology to profile ES cell populations in order to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial differentiation. Cells with characteristics of cultured epithelium migrated from embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. However, cells that comprised embryoid bodies also rapidly lost ES cell-specific gene expression and expressed proteins characteristic of stratified epithelia within hours of attachment to basement membrane. Gene expression profiling of sorted cell populations revealed upregulation of the BMP/TGFbeta signaling pathway, which was not sufficient for epithelial differentiation in the absence of basement membrane attachment. Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and increased expression of Jun family transcription factors was observed during epithelial differentiation of ES cells. Inhibition of JNK signaling completely blocked epithelial differentiation in this model, revealing a key mechanism by which ES cells adopt epithelial characteristics via basement membrane attachment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and characterization of Eimeria tenella apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianlian Jiang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a micronemal protein of apicomplexan parasites that appears to be essential during the invasion of host cells. In this study, a full-length cDNA of AMA1 was identified from Eimeria tenella (Et using expressed sequence tag and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. EtAMA1 had an open reading frame of 1608 bp encoding a protein of 535 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EtAMA1 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second-generation merozoites. The ectodomain sequence was expressed as recombinant EtAMA1 (rEtAMA1 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against the rEtAMA1 recognized a 58-kDa native parasite protein by Western Blotting and had a potent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion, decreasing it by approximately 70%. Immunofluorescence analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis showed EtAMA1 might play an important role in sporozoite invasion and development.

  3. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Targeted Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using a DUPA-Paclitaxel Conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qingzhi; Yang, Jincheng; Zhang, Ruoshi; Yang, Zimeng; Yang, Zhengtao; Wang, Yongjun; Xu, Youjun; He, Zhonggui

    2018-05-07

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer among men in the United States and remains the second-leading cause of cancer mortality in men. Paclitaxel (PTX) is the first line chemotherapy for PCa treatment, but its therapeutic efficacy is greatly restricted by the nonspecific distribution in vivo. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed on the surface of most PCa cells, and its expression level increases with cancer aggressiveness, while being present at low levels in normal cells. The high expression level of PSMA in PCa cells offers an opportunity for target delivery of nonspecific cytotoxic drugs to PCa cells, thus improving therapeutic efficacy and reducing toxicity. PSMA has high affinity for DUPA, a glutamate urea ligand. Herein, a novel DUPA-PTX conjugate is developed using DUPA as the targeting ligand to deliver PTX specifically for treatment of PSMA expressing PCa. The targeting ligand DUPA enhances the transport capability and selectivity of PTX to tumor cells via PSMA mediated endocytosis. Besides, DUPA is conjugated with PTX via a disulfide bond, which facilitates the rapid and differential drug release in tumor cells. The DUPA-PTX conjugate exhibits potent cytotoxicity in PSMA expressing cell lines and induces a complete cessation of tumor growth with no obvious toxicity. Our findings give new insight into the PSMA-targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics and provide an opportunity for the development of novel active targeting drug delivery systems for PCa therapy.

  4. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus latent membrane protein 2A activates β-catenin signaling and inhibits differentiation in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, Catherine A.; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is a γ-herpesvirus closely related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The rhesus latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) is highly homologous to EBV LMP2A. EBV LMP2A activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and β-catenin signaling pathways in epithelial cells and affects differentiation. In the present study, the biochemical and biological properties of rhesus LMP2A in epithelial cells were investigated. The expression of rhesus LMP2A in epithelial cells induced Akt activation, GSK3β inactivation and accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The nuclear translocation, but not accumulation of β-catenin was dependent on Akt activation. Rhesus LMP2A also impaired epithelial cell differentiation; however, this process was not dependent upon Akt activation. A mutant rhesus LMP2A lacking six transmembrane domains functioned similarly to wild-type rhesus LMP2A indicating that the full number of transmembrane domains is not required for effects on β-catenin or cell differentiation. These results underscore the similarity of LCV to EBV and the suitability of the macaque as an animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis

  5. Oligomannose-Rich Membranes of Dying Intestinal Epithelial Cells Promote Host Colonization by Adherent-Invasive E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Dumych

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is revealed by which clinical isolates of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC penetrate into the epithelial cell layer, replicate, and establish biofilms in Crohn's disease. AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. Oligomannose glycans exposed on early apoptotic cells are the preferred binding targets of AIEC, so apoptotic cells serve as potential entry points for bacteria into the epithelial cell layer. Thereafter, the bacteria propagate laterally in the epithelial intercellular spaces. We demonstrate oligomannosylation at two distinct sites of a glycoprotein receptor for AIEC, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 or CD66c, on human intestinal epithelia. After bacterial binding, FimH interacts with CEACAM6, which then clusters. The presence of the highest-affinity epitope for FimH, oligomannose-5, on CEACAM6 is demonstrated using LC-MS/MS. As mannose-dependent infections are abundant, this mechanism might also be used by other adherent-invasive pathogens.

  6. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  7. Tissue expression and enzymologic characterization of human prostate specific membrane antigen and its rat and pig orthologs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovenská, Miroslava; Hlouchová, Klára; Šácha, Pavel; Mlčochová, Petra; Horák, Vratislav; Zámečník, J.; Bařinka, C.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2008), s. 171-182 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GA524/04/0102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : prostate specific membrane antigen * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * animal orthologs * prostate cancer * animal model Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.069, year: 2008

  8. A genetically encoded ratiometric sensor to measure extracellular pH in microdomains bounded by basolateral membranes of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Sandoval, Moisés; Cornejo, Isabel; Barros, L Felipe; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Cid, L Pablo

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular pH, especially in relatively inaccessible microdomains between cells, affects transport membrane protein activity and might have an intercellular signaling role. We have developed a genetically encoded extracellular pH sensor capable of detecting pH changes in basolateral spaces of epithelial cells. It consists of a chimerical membrane protein displaying concatenated enhanced variants of cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) and yellow fluorescence protein (EYFP) at the external aspect of the cell surface. The construct, termed pHCECSensor01, was targeted to basolateral membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by means of a sequence derived from the aquaporin AQP4. The fusion of pH-sensitive EYFP with pH-insensitive ECFP allows ratiometric pH measurements. The titration curve of pHCECSensor01 in vivo had a pK (a) value of 6.5 +/- 0.04. Only minor effects of extracellular chloride on pHCECSensor01 were observed around the physiological concentrations of this anion. In MDCK cells, the sensor was able to detect changes in pH secondary to H(+) efflux into the basolateral spaces elicited by an ammonium prepulse or lactate load. This genetically encoded sensor has the potential to serve as a noninvasive tool for monitoring changes in extracellular pH microdomains in epithelial and other tissues in vivo.

  9. Amniotic membrane transplantation for reconstruction of corneal epithelial surface in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan Virender

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the efficacy of amniotic membrane for treatment of partial limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Methods: Medical records of four patients with partial LSCD who underwent pannus resection and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT were reviewed for ocular surface stability and improvement in visual acuity. Clinico-histopathological correlation was done with the resected pannus tissue. Results: All the eyes exhibited stable corneal epithelial surface by an average of 7 weeks postoperatively with improvement in subjective symptoms. Best corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative (range: 6/9p-6/120 to postoperative (range: 6/6p-6/15 by an average of 4.5 lines on Snellen visual acuity charts. Histopathological examination of excised tissue showed features of conjunctivalisation. Conclusion: Amniotic membrane transplantation appears to be an effective means of reconstructing the corneal epithelial surface and for visual rehabilitation of patients with partial limbal stem cell deficiency. It may be considered as an alternative primary procedure to limbal transplantation in these cases.

  10. Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Perdikaris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe or antigens (HBsAg in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg. The observed response was rapid (45 sec and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed.

  11. Localization of mammary tumors in vivo with 131I-labeled Fab fragments of antibodies against mouse mammary epithelial (MME) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbanks, T.; Peterson, J.A.; Miller, S.; Kaufman, L.; Ortendahl, D.; Ceriani, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Fab fragments of antibodies against cell-type-specific surface antigens of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MME-antigens) were used to localize mammary tumors successfully. The radioiodine-labeled anti-MME (Fab) was injected into mice carrying simulated mammary metastases, and after 24 hours the amount of label per gram of excised tissue was several times greater in the tumor than in liver, brain, lung, or muscle. Kidney showed considerable accumulation of label but this appeared to be nonspecific. Kinetic studies revealed a rapid elimination of labeled Fab in the urine with only 1% of the injected dose remaining in the entire blood pool after 24 hours. Wit a high-purity germanium camera, mammary tumors were clearly located ty the 131 I-labeled anti-MME (Fab), and normalization to /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate distribution in the animal increased the specificity. The density of 131 I-label was fourfold greater over the mammary tumor than over comparable areas of the mouse. No accumulation of 131 I-anti-MME (Fab) was observed in nonmammary tumors nor in mammary tumors when labeled nonspecific Fab was used. An analogous system using an antihuman mammary epithelial antiserum is being developed for localization of breast metastases in humans

  12. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Targeted Gold Nanoparticles for Theranostics of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangadlao, Joey Dacula; Wang, Xinning; McCleese, Christopher; Escamilla, Maria; Ramamurthy, Gopalakrishnan; Wang, Ziying; Govande, Mukul; Basilion, James P; Burda, Clemens

    2018-04-24

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes of cancer deaths in the United States. Men diagnosed with the disease typically undergo radical prostatectomy, which often results in incontinence and impotence. Recurrence of the disease is often experienced by most patients with incomplete prostatectomy during surgery. Hence, the development of a technique that will enable surgeons to achieve a more precise prostatectomy remains an open challenge. In this contribution, we report a theranostic agent (AuNP-5kPEG-PSMA-1-Pc4) based on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-1)-targeted gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with a fluorescent photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug, Pc4. The fabricated nanoparticles are well-characterized by spectroscopic and imaging techniques and are found to be stable over a wide range of solvents, buffers, and media. In vitro cellular uptake experiments demonstrated significantly higher nanoparticle uptake in PSMA-positive PC3pip cells than in PSMA-negative PC3flu cells. Further, more complete cell killing was observed in Pc3pip than in PC3flu cells upon exposure to light at different doses, demonstrating active targeting followed by Pc4 delivery. Likewise, in vivo studies showed remission on PSMA-expressing tumors 14 days post-PDT. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that targeted AuNPs accumulate 4-fold higher in PC3pip than in PC3flu tumors. The nanoparticle system described herein is envisioned to provide surgical guidance for prostate tumor resection and therapeutic intervention when surgery is insufficient.

  13. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (19-DEJ-1) was recently produced that recognizes a unique antigenic epitope of human skin basement membrane localized to the midlamina lucida exclusively in those areas bordered by overlying hemidesmosomes. To determine whether the antigen defined by 19-DEJ-1 is norma...

  15. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 David Hui-Kang Ma4,5 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Limbal Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM on limbal epithelial cell (LEC cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous

  16. Bioinformatic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Polymorphic Membrane Proteins PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH as Potential Vaccine Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Nunes

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most important infectious cause of infertility in women with important implications in public health and for which a vaccine is urgently needed. Recent immunoproteomic vaccine studies found that four polymorphic membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH are immunodominant, recognized by various MHC class II haplotypes and protective in mouse models. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate genetic and protein features of Pmps (focusing on the N-terminal 600 amino acids where MHC class II epitopes were mapped in order to understand antigen variation that may emerge following vaccine induced immune selection. We used several bioinformatics platforms to study: i Pmps' phylogeny and genetic polymorphism; ii the location and distribution of protein features (GGA(I, L/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues that may impact pathogen-host interactions and protein conformation; and iii the existence of phase variation mechanisms that may impact Pmps' expression. We used a well-characterized collection of 53 fully-sequenced strains that represent the C. trachomatis serovars associated with the three disease groups: ocular (N=8, epithelial-genital (N=25 and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV (N=20. We observed that PmpF and PmpE are highly polymorphic between LGV and epithelial-genital strains, and also within populations of the latter. We also found heterogeneous representation among strains for GGA(I, L/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues, suggesting possible alterations in adhesion properties, tissue specificity and immunogenicity. PmpG and, to a lesser extent, PmpH revealed low polymorphism and high conservation of protein features among the genital strains (including the LGV group. Uniquely among the four Pmps, pmpG has regulatory sequences suggestive of phase variation. In aggregate, the results suggest that PmpG may be the lead vaccine candidate because of sequence conservation but may need to be paired with another protective

  17. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  18. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

  19. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for analysis of protein antigens in a meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lawrence W; Mehl, John T; Loughney, John W; Mach, Anna; Rustandi, Richard R; Ha, Sha; Zhang, Lan; Przysiecki, Craig T; Dieter, Lance; Hoang, Van M

    2015-01-01

    The development of a multivalent outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine where each strain contributes multiple key protein antigens presents numerous analytical challenges. One major difficulty is the ability to accurately and specifically quantitate each antigen, especially during early development and process optimization when immunoreagents are limited or unavailable. To overcome this problem, quantitative mass spectrometry methods can be used. In place of traditional mass assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), quantitative LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used during early-phase process development to measure key protein components in complex vaccines in the absence of specific immunoreagents. Multiplexed, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry methods using protein extraction by either detergent or 2-phase solvent were developed to quantitate levels of several meningococcal serogroup B protein antigens in an OMV vaccine candidate. Precision was demonstrated to be less than 15% RSD for the 2-phase extraction and less than 10% RSD for the detergent extraction method. Accuracy was 70 to 130% for the method using a 2-phase extraction and 90-110% for detergent extraction. The viability of MS-based protein quantification as a vaccine characterization method was demonstrated and advantages over traditional quantitative methods were evaluated. Implementation of these MS-based quantification methods can help to decrease the development time for complex vaccines and can provide orthogonal confirmation of results from existing antigen quantification techniques.

  20. Biochemical characterization of prostate-specific membrane antigen from canine prostate carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lisa Y; Johnson, Jacqueline M; Simmons, Jessica K; Mendes, Desiree E; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Liu, Tiancheng; Dirksen, Wessel P; Rosol, Thomas J; Davis, William C; Berkman, Clifford E

    2014-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) remains an important target for diagnostic and therapeutic application for human prostate cancer. Model cell lines have been recently developed to study canine prostate cancer but their PSMA expression and enzymatic activity have not been elucidated. The present study was focused on determining PSMA expression in these model canine cell lines and the use of fluorescent small-molecule enzyme inhibitors to detect canine PSMA expression by flow cytometry. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the transcriptional and translational expression of PSMA on the canine cell lines Leo and Ace-1. An endpoint HPLC-based assay was used to monitor the enzymatic activity of canine PSMA and the potency of enzyme inhibitors. Flow cytometry was used to detect the PSMA expressed on Leo and Ace-1 cells using a fluorescently tagged PSMA enzyme inhibitor. Canine PSMA expression on the Leo cell line was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR, the enzyme activity, and flow cytometry. Kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of PSMA enzymatic activity for the synthetic substrate (PABGγG) were determined to be 393 nM and 220 pmol min(-1)  mg protein(-1) , respectively. The inhibitor core 1 and fluorescent inhibitor 2 were found to be potent reversible inhibitors (IC50  = 13.2 and 1.6 nM, respectively) of PSMA expressed on the Leo cell line. Fluorescent labeling of Leo cells demonstrated that the fluorescent PSMA inhibitor 2 can be used for the detection of PSMA-positive canine prostate tumor cells. Expression of PSMA on Ace-1 was low and not detectable by flow cytometry. The results described herein have demonstrated that PSMA is expressed on canine prostate tumor cells and exhibits similar enzymatic characteristics as human PSMA. The findings show that the small molecule enzyme inhibitors currently being studied for use in diagnosis and therapy of human prostate cancer can also be extended to include canine prostate cancer. Importantly

  1. Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Weicheng; Shao, Miaomiao; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β as well as DC maturation by the evaluation of CD80 and CD86 expression. On the other hand, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 on cells could facilitate the uptake of dying cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), as a common receptor for Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, is response for their recognition and mediates the uptake of dying cells. Furthermore, membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the cross-presentation of OVA antigen from E.G7 cells and inhibition of the uptake of dying cells by LOX-1 decreases the cross-presentation of cellular antigen. Therefore, the rapid exposure of HSPs on dying cells at the early stage allows for the recognition by and confers an activation signal to the immune system.

  2. [New Radiopharmaceuticals Based on Prostate-Specific Inhibitors of Membrane Antigen for Diagnostics and Therapy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, O P; German, K E; Krilov, V V; Petriev, V M; Epstein, N B

    2015-01-01

    About 10.7% cases of prostate cancer were registered in Russia in 2011 (40,000 patients). More than half of cancer cases were revealed in advanced (III-IV) stages when metastases inevitably developed quickly. Clinical problem of early diagnostics and treatment of metastatic prostate cancer is still not solved. Anatomical imaging techniques have low sensitivity and specificity for the detection of this disease. Metabolic visualization methods which use prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a marker are also ineffective. This article describes prostate-specific membrane antigens (PSMA) that are proposed as a marker for diagnostics and therapy of prostate cancer. The most promising PSMA-based radiopharmaceutical agent for diagnostics has been developed and clinically tested in the European countries. These pharmaceuticals are based on small peptide molecules modified with urea, and have the highest affinity to PSMA. Favorable phannacokinetics, rapid accumulation in the tumor and rapid excretion from the body are beneficial features of these pharmaceuticals.

  3. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Younes, Jessica A.; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J.; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether

  4. A simple and rapid micromethod for genomic DNA extraction from jugal epithelial cells. Application to human lymphocyte antigen typing in one large family of atopic/asthmatic probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Y; Swierczewski, E; Lockhart, A

    1994-10-01

    We describe a rapid and reliable micromethod for DNA isolation from buccal epithelial cells from the interior mouth mucosa. This convenient, noninvasive method could be applied to genetic typing in a small number of cells (about 2000 cells per cheek). We have shown that DNA released by this method is suitable for further amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this protocol, coupled with the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method, we analyzed the allelic sequence diversity of the human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes in an extended family of 33 persons containing 14 asthmatic or atopic members. Six of eight DQA1 alleles, and 11 DQB1, 20 DPB1, and 10 DR haplotypes could be identified in a single DNA sample. Our results suggest that the DR53 group haplotype is frequently associated with allergic asthma and atopy. The micromethod described here may be useful in genetic epidemiology, especially in family studies involving small children.

  5. Membrane potential and ion transport in lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The alveolar type II pneumocyte is critically important to the function and maintenance of pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the nature of the response of type II cells to membrane injury, and describe a possible mechanism by which these cells regulate surfactant secretion, the membrane potential of isolated rabbit type II cells was characterized. This evaluation was accomplished by measurements of the accumulation of the membrane potential probes: [ 3 H]triphenylmethylphosphonium ([ 3 H]TPMP + ), rubidium 86, and the fluorescent dye DiOC 5 . A compartmental analysis of probe uptake into mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and non-membrane potential dependent stores was made through the use of selective membrane depolarizations with carbonycyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). These techniques and population analysis with flow cytometry, permitted the accurate evaluation of type II cell membrane potential under control conditions and under conditions which stimulated cell activity. Further analysis of ion transport by cells exposed to radiation or adrenergic stimulation revealed a common increase in Na + /K + ATPase activity, and an increase in sodium influx across the plasma membrane. This sodium influx was found to be a critical step in the initiation of surfactant secretion. It is concluded that radiation exposure as well as other pulmonary toxicants can directly affect the membrane potential and ionic regulation of type II cells. Ion transport, particularly of sodium, plays an important role in the regulation of type II cell function

  6. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Vitiazeva

    Full Text Available Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer.In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn. The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes.The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC.Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas appear to be different from

  7. Three-dimensional organization of a transcellular tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of Reissner's membrane in the guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the epithelial cells of Reissner's membrane (membrana vestibularis) in the guinea-pig is described following vascular perfusion with glutaraldehyde of live, anaesthetised and artificially respirated animals. Postfixation in a solution containing OsO4 and potassium ferricyanide...... revealed a well-developed tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, not previously described, the continuity of which has been mapped by serial sectioning and reconstruction. Large disc-shaped subsurface cisternae lining the cell membrane, but separated from it by a space approximately 10 nm wide...... is compared to other techniques used for preservation of Reissner's membrane. Each epithelial cell of Reissner's membrane is endowed with one kinocilium, one to four multivesicular bodies, and a number of intercalated bodies. The functional significance of the canalicular pathway is discussed....

  8. Comparison of epithelial and fibroblastic cell behavior on nano/micro-topographic PCL membranes produced by crystallinity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Kaya, F Betül; Beşkardeş, Işıl Gerçek

    2011-06-15

    In this study, the relationship between the cellular morphology and the material surface topography was investigated. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes were prepared in a wide range of surface wettabilities by means of crystallinity-controlled solvent casting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and static/dynamic water contact angle measurements. It was found that solvent evaporation and non-solvent (methanol) addition to the solvent (THF) are the most decisive parameters to change the surface topography. The non-solvent addition and the decrease in solvent evaporation temperature from room temperature to -20 °C caused increased polymeric chain mobility and crystallization time. Such changes in crystallization parameters led to the formation of micro/nano-sized features on the membrane. Cell culture studies indicated that in contrast to Madin Darby kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, L929 mouse fibroblast preferred rough and porous surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular,

  10. Microdomains in the membrane landscape shape antigen-presenting cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidscherwoude, M.; Winde, C.M. de; Cambi, A.; Spriel, A.B. van

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane of immune cells is a highly organized cell structure that is key to the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. It is well-established that immunoreceptors embedded in the plasma membrane have a nonrandom spatial distribution that is important for

  11. Exposure to the Epstein–Barr Viral Antigen Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Myelin-Reactive Antibodies In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Lomakin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo. We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. However, even in inbred animals, which are almost identical in terms of their genomes, such an effect is only observed in 20–50% of animals, indicating that this change occurs by chance, rather than systematically. Cross-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that only part of anti-MBP antibodies from LMP1-immunized mice might simultaneously bind LMP1. In contrast, the majority of anti-LMP1 antibodies from MBP-immunized mice bind MBP. De novo sequencing of anti-LMP1 and anti-MBP antibodies by mass spectrometry demonstrated enhanced clonal diversity in LMP1-immunized mice in comparison with MBP-immunized mice. We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading.

  12. Exposure to the Epstein–Barr Viral Antigen Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Myelin-Reactive Antibodies In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Yakov; Arapidi, Georgii Pavlovich; Chernov, Alexander; Ziganshin, Rustam; Tcyganov, Evgenii; Lyadova, Irina; Butenko, Ivan Olegovich; Osetrova, Maria; Ponomarenko, Natalia; Telegin, Georgy; Govorun, Vadim Markovich; Gabibov, Alexander; Belogurov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo. We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. However, even in inbred animals, which are almost identical in terms of their genomes, such an effect is only observed in 20–50% of animals, indicating that this change occurs by chance, rather than systematically. Cross-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that only part of anti-MBP antibodies from LMP1-immunized mice might simultaneously bind LMP1. In contrast, the majority of anti-LMP1 antibodies from MBP-immunized mice bind MBP. De novo sequencing of anti-LMP1 and anti-MBP antibodies by mass spectrometry demonstrated enhanced clonal diversity in LMP1-immunized mice in comparison with MBP-immunized mice. We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading. PMID:28729867

  13. Exposure to the Epstein-Barr Viral Antigen Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Myelin-Reactive Antibodies In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Yakov; Arapidi, Georgii Pavlovich; Chernov, Alexander; Ziganshin, Rustam; Tcyganov, Evgenii; Lyadova, Irina; Butenko, Ivan Olegovich; Osetrova, Maria; Ponomarenko, Natalia; Telegin, Georgy; Govorun, Vadim Markovich; Gabibov, Alexander; Belogurov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo . We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. However, even in inbred animals, which are almost identical in terms of their genomes, such an effect is only observed in 20-50% of animals, indicating that this change occurs by chance, rather than systematically. Cross-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that only part of anti-MBP antibodies from LMP1-immunized mice might simultaneously bind LMP1. In contrast, the majority of anti-LMP1 antibodies from MBP-immunized mice bind MBP. De novo sequencing of anti-LMP1 and anti-MBP antibodies by mass spectrometry demonstrated enhanced clonal diversity in LMP1-immunized mice in comparison with MBP-immunized mice. We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading.

  14. Microdomains in the membrane landscape shape antigen-presenting cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidscherwoude, Malou; de Winde, Charlotte M; Cambi, Alessandra; van Spriel, Annemiek B

    2014-02-01

    The plasma membrane of immune cells is a highly organized cell structure that is key to the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. It is well-established that immunoreceptors embedded in the plasma membrane have a nonrandom spatial distribution that is important for coupling to components of intracellular signaling cascades. In the last two decades, specialized membrane microdomains, including lipid rafts and TEMs, have been identified. These domains are preformed structures ("physical entities") that compartmentalize proteins, lipids, and signaling molecules into multimolecular assemblies. In APCs, different microdomains containing immunoreceptors (MHC proteins, PRRs, integrins, among others) have been reported that are imperative for efficient pathogen recognition, the formation of the immunological synapse, and subsequent T cell activation. In addition, recent work has demonstrated that tetraspanin microdomains and lipid rafts are involved in BCR signaling and B cell activation. Research into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane domain formation is fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of membrane-proximal signaling and APC function. This review will also discuss the advances in the microscopy field for the visualization of the plasma membrane, as well as the recent progress in targeting microdomains as novel, therapeutic approach for infectious and malignant diseases.

  15. Balance between Apical Membrane Growth and Luminal Matrix Resistance Determines Epithelial Tubule Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape.

  16. Balance between apical membrane growth and luminal matrix resistance determines epithelial tubule shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Hannezo, Edouard; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2014-05-22

    The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-01-01

    of the apical surface sterically accessible for membrane fusion/budding events. Many of these invaginations appear as pleiomorphic, deep apical tubules that extend up to 0.5-1 microm into the underlying terminal web region. Their sensitivity to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggests them to contain cholesterol...

  18. Concentration of membrane antigens by forward transport and trapping in neuronal growth cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheetz, M P; Baumrind, N L; Wayne, D B; Pearlman, A L

    1990-04-20

    Formation of the nervous system requires that neuronal growth cones follow specific paths and then stop at recognition signals, sensed at the growth cone's leading edge. We used antibody-coated gold particles viewed by video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy to observe the distribution and movement of two cell surface molecules, N-CAM and the 2A1 antigen, on growth cones of cultured cortical neurons. Gold particles are occasionally transported forward at 1-2 microns/s to the leading edge where they are trapped but continue to move. Concentration at the edge persists after cytochalasin D treatment or ATP depletion, but active movements to and along edges cease. We also observed a novel outward movement of small cytoplasmic aggregates at 1.8 microns/s in filopodia. We suggest that active forward transport and trapping involve reversible attachment of antigens to and transport along cytoskeletal elements localized to edges of growth cones.

  19. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro [ 51 Cr]-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs

  20. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/MRI validation of MR textural analysis for detection of transition zone prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Anthony; Miles, Kenneth

    2017-12-01

    To validate MR textural analysis (MRTA) for detection of transition zone (TZ) prostate cancer through comparison with co-registered prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-MR. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 men who underwent simultaneous PSMA PET-MR imaging for staging of prostate cancer. Thirty texture features were derived from each manually contoured T2-weighted, transaxial, prostatic TZ using texture analysis software that applies a spatial band-pass filter and quantifies texture through histogram analysis. Texture features of the TZ were compared to PSMA expression on the corresponding PET images. The Benjamini-Hochberg correction controlled the false discovery rate at prostate cancer. • Prostate transition zone (TZ) MR texture analysis may assist in prostate cancer detection. • Abnormal transition zone PSMA expression correlates with altered texture on T2-weighted MR. • TZ with abnormal PSMA expression demonstrates significantly reduced MI, SD and MPP.

  1. The major antigenic membrane protein of "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris" selectively interacts with ATP synthase and actin of leafhopper vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Galetto

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas, uncultivable phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria, represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. Phytoplasma membrane proteins are in direct contact with hosts and are presumably involved in determining vector specificity. Such a role has been proposed for phytoplasma transmembrane proteins encoded by circular extrachromosomal elements, at least one of which is a plasmid. Little is known about the interactions between major phytoplasma antigenic membrane protein (Amp and insect vector proteins. The aims of our work were to identify vector proteins interacting with Amp and to investigate their role in transmission specificity. In controlled transmission experiments, four Hemipteran species were identified as vectors of "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris", the chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasmas (CYP strain, and three others as non-vectors. Interactions between a labelled (recombinant CYP Amp and insect proteins were analysed by far Western blots and affinity chromatography. Amp interacted specifically with a few proteins from vector species only. Among Amp-binding vector proteins, actin and both the α and β subunits of ATP synthase were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blots. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blots of plasma membrane and mitochondrial fractions confirmed the localisation of ATP synthase, generally known as a mitochondrial protein, in plasma membranes of midgut and salivary gland cells in the vector Euscelidius variegatus. The vector-specific interaction between phytoplasma Amp and insect ATP synthase is demonstrated for the first time, and this work also supports the hypothesis that host actin is involved in the internalization and intracellular motility of phytoplasmas within their vectors. Phytoplasma Amp is hypothesized to play a crucial role in insect transmission specificity.

  2. Sequence diversity and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen 1 among Indian Plasmodium falciparum populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashwani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. The complete AMA1 protein is comprised of three domains where domain I exhibits high sequence polymorphism and is thus named as the hyper-variable region (HVR. The present study describes the extent of genetic polymorphism and natural selection at domain I of the ama1 gene among Indian P. falciparum isolates. Methods The part of the ama1 gene covering domain I was PCR amplified and sequenced from 157 P. falciparum isolates collected from five different geographical regions of India. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses of the sequences were done using DnaSP ver. 4. 10. 9 and MEGA version 3.0 packages. Results A total of 57 AMA1 haplotypes were observed among 157 isolates sequenced. Forty-six of these 57 haplotypes are being reported here for the first time. The parasites collected from the high malaria transmission areas (Assam, Orissa, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands showed more haplotypes (H and nucleotide diversity π as compared to low malaria transmission areas (Uttar Pradesh and Goa. The comparison of all five Indian P. falciparum subpopulations indicated moderate level of genetic differentiation and limited gene flow (Fixation index ranging from 0.048 to 0.13 between populations. The difference between rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations, Tajima's D and McDonald-Kreitman test statistics suggested that the diversity at domain I of the AMA1 antigen is due to positive natural selection. The minimum recombination events were also high indicating the possible role of recombination in generating AMA1 allelic diversity. Conclusion The level of genetic diversity and diversifying selection were higher in Assam, Orissa, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands populations as compared to Uttar Pradesh and Goa. The amounts of gene flow among these populations were moderate. The data reported here will be valuable for the

  3. A radioimmunoassay for antibodies against surface membrane antigens using adhering cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tax, A.; Manson, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay using cells adhering to plastic is described. In this assay, A-10 mammary carcinoma attached to the surface of plastic in microtiter plates were permitted to bind antibody and the bound antibody was detected with purified rabbit 125 I-antimouse-Fab. The bound radioactive material was eluted with glycine-HCl buffer (pH 2.5), and the acid eluates were counted in a gamma counter. This assay can be used to detect cytolic or noncytolic antibody to cell surface antigens in studies with any tumor or normal cell that will adhere to a solid surface

  4. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  5. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402

  7. Analysis of proviral integration in human mammary epithelial cell lines immortalized by retroviral infection with a temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, A C; Davies, S C; Burman, J; O'Hare, M J

    1994-06-15

    A panel of eight conditionally immortal lines derived by infection of human breast epithelial cells with an amphotropic retrovirus transducing a ts mutant of SV40 large T-antigen was analyzed with respect to individual retroviral integration patterns. Each line contained multiple integration sites which were clonal and stable over extended passage. Similar integration patterns were observed between individual lines arising separately from the same stock of pre-immortal cells, suggesting a common progenitor. Retroviral integration analysis of pre-immortal cells at different stages of pre-crisis growth showed changes indicative of a progressive transition from polyclonality to clonality as the cells approached crisis. Each of the immortal lines contained a sub-set of the integration sites of their pre-immortal progenitors, with individual combinations and copy numbers of sites. Since all the cell lines appeared to originate from single foci in separate flasks, it is likely that each set arose from a common clone of pre-immortal cells as the result of separate genetic events. There was no evidence from this analysis to suggest that specific integration sites played any part either in the selection of pre-crisis clones or in the subsequent establishment of immortal lines.

  8. Comparison of colorimetric assays with quantitative amino acid analysis for protein quantification of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Interfering assays using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard with quantitative amino acid (AA) analysis, the most accurate currently available method for protein quantification. The Lowry assay has the lowest inter- and intra-assay variation and gives the best linearity between protein amount and absorbance. In all three assays, the color yield (optical density per mass of protein) of GMMA was markedly different from that of BSA with a ratio of approximately 4 for the Bradford assay, and highly variable between different GMMA; and approximately 0.7 for the Lowry and Non-Interfering assays, highlighting the need for calibrating the standard used in the colorimetric assay against GMMA quantified by AA analysis. In terms of a combination of ease, reproducibility, and proportionality of protein measurement, and comparability between samples, the Lowry assay was superior to Bradford and Non-Interfering assays for GMMA quantification.

  9. Employing Escherichia coli-derived outer membrane vesicles as an antigen delivery platform elicits protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Li, Kui; Sun, Pengyan; Liu, Cunbao; Sun, Wenjia; Bai, Hongmei; Chu, Xiaojie; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-11-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs). Immunization with Omp22-OMVs induced high titers of Omp22-specific antibodies. In a murine sepsis model, Omp22-OMV immunization significantly protected mice from lethal challenge with a clinically isolated A. baumannii strain, which was evidenced by the increased survival rate of the mice, the reduced bacterial burdens in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood, and the suppressed serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro opsonophagocytosis assays showed that antiserum collected from Omp22-OMV-immunized mice had bactericidal activity against clinical isolates, which was partly specific antibody-dependent. These results strongly indicated that engineered OMVs could display a whole heterologous protein (~22 kDa) on the surface and effectively induce specific antibody responses, and thus OMVs have the potential to be a feasible vaccine platform.

  10. Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Dias, Joana; Correia, Alexandra; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santos, Carlos; Teixeira, Luzia; Ribeiro, Adília; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. In the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with N. caninum membrane antigens plus CpG adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. Immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 107 tachyzoites, showing that significant protection was achieved by this immunization strategy. Intestinal IgA antibodies raised by immunization markedly agglutinated live N. caninum tachyzoites whereas previous opsonization with IgG antibodies purified from immunized mice sera reduced parasite survival within macrophage cells. Although an IgG1 : IgG2a ratio < 1 was detected in the immunized mice before and after infection, indicative of a predominant T helper type 1 immune response, no increased production of interferon-γ was detected in the spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes of the immunized mice. Altogether, these results show that mucosal immunization with N. caninum membrane proteins plus CpG adjuvant protect against intragastrically established neosporosis and indicate that parasite-specific mucosal and circulating antibodies have a protective role against this parasitic infection. PMID:24128071

  11. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-mediated laminin proteolysis generates a pro-angiogenic peptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conway, R. E.; Rojas, C.; Alt, J.; Nováková, Zora; Richardson, S. M.; Rodrick, T. C.; Fuentes, J. L.; Richardson, N. H.; Attalla, J.; Stewart, S.; Fahmy, B.; Bařinka, Cyril; Ghosh, M.; Shapiro, L. H.; Slusher, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2016), s. 487-500 ISSN 0969-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : TUMOR-ASSOCIATED NEOVASCULATURE * BASEMENT-MEMBRANE * DISTINCT ANTITUMOR PROPERTIES Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.253, year: 2016

  12. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce an adaptive inflammatory response and invasion and proliferation of lung epithelial cells in chorioallantoic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Reyes, Estefany I.; Déciga-Alcaraz, Alejandro; Freyre-Fonseca, Verónica; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma L.; Flores-Flores, José O.; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; García-Cuéllar, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) studies have been performed using relatively high NPs concentration under acute exposure and limited studies have compared shape effects. We hypothesized that midterm exposure to low TiO 2 NPs concentration in lung epithelial cells induces carcinogenic characteristics modulated partially by NPs shape. To test our hypothesis we synthesized NPs shaped as belts (TiO 2 -B) using TiO 2 spheres (TiO 2 -SP) purchased from Sigma Aldrich Co. Then, lung epithelial A549 cells were low-exposed (10 µg/cm 2 ) to both shapes during 7 days and internalization, cytokine release and invasive potential were determined. Results showed greater TiO 2 -B effect on agglomerates size, cell size and granularity than TiO 2 -SP. Agglomerates size in cell culture medium was 310 nm and 454 nm for TiO 2 -SP and TiO 2 -B, respectively; TiO 2 -SP and TiO 2 -B induced 23% and 70% cell size decrease, respectively, whilst TiO 2 -SP and TiO 2 -B induced 7 and 14-fold of granularity increase. NO x production was down-regulated (31%) by TiO 2 -SP and up-regulated (70%) by TiO 2 -B. Both NPs induced a transient cytokine release (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) after 4 days, but cytokines returned to basal levels in TiO 2 -SP exposed cells while TiO 2 -B induced a down-regulation after 7 days. Midterm exposure to both shapes of NPs induced capability to degrade cellular extracellular matrix components from chorioallantoic membrane and Ki-67 marker showed that TiO 2 -B had higher proliferative potential than TiO 2 -SP. We conclude that midterm exposure to low NPs concentration of NPs has an impact in the acquisition of new characteristics of exposed cells and NPs shape influences cellular outcome. - Graphical abstract: (A) Lung epithelial cells were low exposed (below 10 µg/cm 2 ) to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) shaped as spheres (TiO 2 -SP) and belts (TiO 2 -B) for midterm (7 continuous days) separately. (B) Then, cells from each cell

  13. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce an adaptive inflammatory response and invasion and proliferation of lung epithelial cells in chorioallantoic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Reyes, Estefany I.; Déciga-Alcaraz, Alejandro [Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CP 54059 Estado de México (Mexico); Freyre-Fonseca, Verónica [Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CP 54059 Estado de México (Mexico); Doctorado en Ciencias en Alimentos, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 11340 México, DF (Mexico); Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma L. [Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CP 54059 Estado de México (Mexico); Flores-Flores, José O. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria AP 70-186, CP 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 11340 México, DF (Mexico); Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; García-Cuéllar, Claudia M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Subdirección de Investigación Básica, San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, CP 14080 México, DF (Mexico); and others

    2015-01-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) studies have been performed using relatively high NPs concentration under acute exposure and limited studies have compared shape effects. We hypothesized that midterm exposure to low TiO{sub 2} NPs concentration in lung epithelial cells induces carcinogenic characteristics modulated partially by NPs shape. To test our hypothesis we synthesized NPs shaped as belts (TiO{sub 2}-B) using TiO{sub 2} spheres (TiO{sub 2}-SP) purchased from Sigma Aldrich Co. Then, lung epithelial A549 cells were low-exposed (10 µg/cm{sup 2}) to both shapes during 7 days and internalization, cytokine release and invasive potential were determined. Results showed greater TiO{sub 2}-B effect on agglomerates size, cell size and granularity than TiO{sub 2}-SP. Agglomerates size in cell culture medium was 310 nm and 454 nm for TiO{sub 2}-SP and TiO{sub 2}-B, respectively; TiO{sub 2}-SP and TiO{sub 2}-B induced 23% and 70% cell size decrease, respectively, whilst TiO{sub 2}-SP and TiO{sub 2}-B induced 7 and 14-fold of granularity increase. NO{sub x} production was down-regulated (31%) by TiO{sub 2}-SP and up-regulated (70%) by TiO{sub 2}-B. Both NPs induced a transient cytokine release (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) after 4 days, but cytokines returned to basal levels in TiO{sub 2}-SP exposed cells while TiO{sub 2}-B induced a down-regulation after 7 days. Midterm exposure to both shapes of NPs induced capability to degrade cellular extracellular matrix components from chorioallantoic membrane and Ki-67 marker showed that TiO{sub 2}-B had higher proliferative potential than TiO{sub 2}-SP. We conclude that midterm exposure to low NPs concentration of NPs has an impact in the acquisition of new characteristics of exposed cells and NPs shape influences cellular outcome. - Graphical abstract: (A) Lung epithelial cells were low exposed (below 10 µg/cm{sup 2}) to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) shaped as spheres (TiO{sub 2

  14. Outer Membrane Vesicles From Probiotic and Commensal Escherichia coli Activate NOD1-Mediated Immune Responses in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Alexandra Cañas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human intestinal homeostasis and host health. Bacterial extracellular vesicles are key players in bacteria–host communication, as they allow delivery of effector molecules into the host cells. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by Gram-negative bacteria carry many ligands of pattern recognition receptors that are key components of innate immunity. NOD1 and NOD2 cytosolic receptors specifically recognize peptidoglycans present within the bacterial cell wall. These intracellular immune receptors are essential in host defense against bacterial infections and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Recent contributions show that NODs are also fundamental to maintain intestinal homeostasis and microbiota balance. Peptidoglycan from non-invasive pathogens is delivered to cytosolic NODs through OMVs, which are internalized via endocytosis. Whether this pathway could be used by microbiota to activate NOD receptors remains unexplored. Here, we report that OMVs isolated from the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and the commensal ECOR12 activate NOD1 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. NOD1 silencing and RIP2 inhibition significantly abolished OMV-mediated activation of NF-κB and subsequent IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis confirmed that endocytosed OMVs colocalize with NOD1, trigger the formation of NOD1 aggregates, and promote NOD1 association with early endosomes. This study shows for the first time the activation of NOD1-signaling pathways by extracellular vesicles released by gut microbiota.

  15. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.L.; Aggeler, J.; Farson, D.A.; Hatier, C.; Hassell, J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on release type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of β-casein and of some other milk proteins. The authors show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows > 90% of cells to produce high levels of β-casein. By comparison, 30-40% of cells on released type 1 gels and only 2-10% of cells on plastic express β-casein after 6 days in culture. Because only 40% of cells from late pregnant gland produced β-casein before culture, the EHS matrix can both induce and maintain an increased level of casein gene expression. Individual basal lamina components were also evaluated. Type IV collagen and fibronectin had little effect on morphology and β-casein mRNA levels. In contrast, both laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan increased β-casein mRNA levels. Profound morphological differences were evident between cells cultured on plastic and on EHS matrix, the latter cells forming ducts, ductules, and lumina and resembling secretory alveoli. These results emphasize the vital role of the extracellular matrix in receiving and integrating structural and functional signals that can direct specific gene expression in differentiated tissues

  16. Histoplasma capsulatum-Induced Cytokine Secretion in Lung Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Host Integrins, Src-Family Kinase Activation, and Membrane Raft Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paloma K; Suzuki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a human systemic mycosis with worldwide distribution. In the present work, we demonstrate that H. capsulatum yeasts are able to induce cytokine secretion by the human lung epithelial cell line A549 in integrin- and Src-family kinase (SFK)-dependent manners. This conclusion is supported by small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed to α3 and α5 integrins, and PP2, an inhibitor of SFK activation. siRNA and PP2 reduced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in H. capsulatum-infected A549 cell cultures. In addition, α3 and α5 integrins from A549 cells were capable of associating with H. capsulatum yeasts, and this fungus promotes recruitment of these integrins and SFKs to A549 cell membrane rafts. Corroborating this finding, membrane raft disruption with the cholesterol-chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced the levels of integrins and SFKs in these cell membrane domains. Finally, pretreatment of A549 cells with the cholesterol-binding compound, and also a membrane raft disruptor, filipin, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549-H.capsulatum cultures. Taken together, these results indicate that H. capsulatum yeasts induce secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung epithelial cells by interacting with α3 and α5 integrins, recruiting these integrins to membrane rafts, and promoting SFK activation.

  17. Hierarchy of stroma-derived factors in supporting growth of stroma-dependent hemopoietic cells: membrane-bound SCF is sufficient to confer stroma competence to epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Jutta; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Bergholz, Ulla; Jücker, Manfred; Stocking, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Ostertag, Wolfram

    2002-03-01

    Hemopoiesis takes place in a microenvironment where hemopoietic cells are closely associated with stroma by various interactions. Stroma coregulates the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic cells. Stroma-hemopoietic-cell contact can be supported by locally produced membrane associated growth factors. The stroma derived growth factor, stem cell factor (SCF) is important in hemopoiesis. We examined the different biological interactions of membrane bound and soluble SCF with human hemopoietic cells expressing the SCF receptor, c-kit. To analyze the function of the SCF isoforms in inducing the proliferation of hemopoietic TF1 or Cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells we used stroma cell lines that differ in their presentation of no SCF, membrane SCF, or soluble SCF. We established a new coculture system using an epithelial cell line that excludes potential interfering effects with other known stroma encoded hemopoietic growth factors. We show that soluble SCF, in absence of membrane-bound SCF, inhibits long term clonal growth of primary or established CD34+ hemopoietic cells, whereas membrane-inserted SCF "dominantly" induces long term proliferation of these cells. We demonstrate a hierarchy of these SCF isoforms in the interaction of stroma with hemopoietic TF1 cells. Membrane-bound SCF is "dominant" over soluble SCF, whereas soluble SCF acts epistatically in interacting with hemopoietic cells compared with other stroma derived factors present in SCF deficient stroma. A hierarchy of stroma cell lines can be arranged according to their presentation of membrane SCF or soluble SCF. In our model system, membrane-bound SCF expression is sufficient to confer stroma properties to an epithelial cell line but soluble SCF does not.

  18. IRF8-dependent DCs play a key role in the regulation of CD8 T cell responses to epithelial-derived antigen in the steady state but not in inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten

    Along the process of epithelial self-renewal, antigens derived from apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs), transported to gut-draining lymph nodes and crosspresented to CD8 T cells. In steady state, rapid tolerization of CD8 T cells reactive...... towards epithelialderived antigens is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis. Since IRF8-dependent dendritic dells (IRF8-DCs) have superior cross-presenting capabilities, we aimed to investigate their role in this process. IFABP-tOva mice, expressing the model-antigen Ovalbumin (Ova) in IECs, were used...... as recipients to set up chimeras using either CD11c-cre.Irf8fl/fl bone marrow, which cannot generate IRF8-DCs, or cre-negative Irf8fl/fl control bone marrow. Whereas transfer of Ova-specific CD8 T cells (OT-I cells) to control chimeras resulted in their rapid tolerization, OT-I cells transferred to CD11c...

  19. Helicobacter pylori antigen HP0986 (TieA) interacts with cultured gastric epithelial cells and induces IL8 secretion via NF-κB mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Mégraud, Francis; Tenguria, Shivendra; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-02-01

    The envisaged roles and partly understood functional properties of Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 are significant in the context of proinflammatory and or proapoptotic activities, the two important facilitators of pathogen survival and persistence. In addition, sequence analysis of this gene predicts a restriction endonuclease function which remained unknown thus far. To evaluate the role of HP0986 in gastric inflammation, we studied its expression profile using a large number of clinical isolates but a limited number of biopsies and patient sera. Also, we studied antigenic role of HP0986 in altering cytokine responses of human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells including its interaction with and localization within the AGS cells. For in vitro expression study of HP0986, 110 H. pylori clinical isolates were cultured from patients with functional dyspepsia. For expression analysis by qRT PCR of HP0986, 10 gastric biopsy specimens were studied. HP0986 was also used to detect antibodies in patient sera. AGS cells were incubated with recombinant HP0986 to determine cytokine response and NF-κB activation. Transient transfection with HP0986 cloned in pEGFPN1 was used to study its subcellular localization or homing in AGS cells. Out of 110 cultured H. pylori strains, 34 (31%) were positive for HP0986 and this observation was correlated with in vitro expression profiles. HP0986 mRNA was detected in 7 of the 10 biopsy specimens. Further, HP0986 induced IL-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner via NF-κB pathway. Serum antibodies against HP0986 were positively associated with H. pylori positive patients. Transient transfection of AGS cells revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of HP0986. HP0986 was moderately prevalent in clinical isolates and its expression profile in cultures and gastric biopsies points to its being naturally expressed. Collective observations including the induction of IL-8 via TNFR1 and NF

  20. Tetrahymena gene encodes a protein that is homologous with the liver-specific F-antigen and associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, R; Nørgaard, P; Andreasen, P H

    1992-01-01

    The F-antigen is a prominent liver protein which has been extensively used in studies on natural and induced immunological tolerance. However, its intracellular localization and biological function have remained elusive. It has generally been assumed that the F-antigen is confined phylogenetically...... of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles pointing to a role of TF-ag in membrane trafficking. Transcription of the TF-ag gene, as determined by run-on analyses, was only detectable in growing cells, and following transfer to starvation condition pre-existing TF-ag mRNA was rapidly degraded. The abundance...

  1. Amelioration of renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury by liposomal delivery of curcumin to renal tubular epithelial and antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N M; Stephenson, M D; Kitching, A R; Horowitz, J D; Coates, P T H

    2012-05-01

    Renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is an inevitable consequence of renal transplantation, causing significant graft injury, increasing the risk of rejection and contributing to poor long-term graft outcome. Renal injury is mediated by cytokine and chemokine synthesis, inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from activation of the NF-κB pathway. We utilized liposomal incorporation of a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway, curcumin, to target delivery to renal tubular epithelial and antigen-presenting cells. Liposomes containing curcumin were administered before bilateral renal ischaemia in C57/B6 mice, with subsequent reperfusion. Renal function was assessed from plasma levels of urea and creatinine, 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Renal tissue was examined for NF-κB activity and oxidative stress (histology, immunostaining) and for apoptosis (TUNEL). Cytokines and chemokines were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Liposomal curcumin significantly improved serum creatinine, reduced histological injury and cellular apoptosis and lowered Toll-like receptor-4, heat shock protein-70 and TNF-α mRNA expression. Liposomal curcumin also reduced neutrophil infiltration and diminished inflammatory chemokine expression. Curcumin liposomes reduced intracellular superoxide generation and increased superoxide dismutase levels, decreased inducible NOS mRNA expression and 3-nitrotyrosine staining consistent with limitations in nitrosative stress and inhibited renal tubular mRNA and protein expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein. These actions of curcumin were mediated by inhibition of NF-κB, MAPK and phospho-S6 ribosomal protein. Liposomal delivery of curcumin promoted effective, targeted delivery of this non-toxic compound that provided cytoprotection via anti-inflammatory and multiple antioxidant mechanisms following renal IR injury. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Membrane and envelope virus proteins co-expressed as lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP fused antigens: a potential tool to develop DNA vaccines against flaviviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dhalia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most practical and cost-effective strategy to prevent the majority of the flavivirus infection to which there is an available vaccine. However, vaccines based on attenuated virus can potentially promote collateral side effects and even rare fatal reactions. Given this scenario, the developent of alternative vaccination strategies such as DNA-based vaccines encoding specific flavivirus sequences are being considered. Endogenous cytoplasmic antigens, characteristically plasmid DNA-vaccine encoded, are mainly presented to the immune system through Major Histocompatibility Complex class I - MHC I molecules. The MHC I presentation via is mostly associated with a cellular cytotoxic response and often do not elicit a satisfactory humoral response. One of the main strategies to target DNA-encoded antigens to the MHC II compartment is expressing the antigen within the Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP. The flavivirus envelope protein is recognized as the major virus surface protein and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. Different groups have demonstrated that co-expression of flavivirus membrane and envelope proteins in mammalian cells, fused with the carboxyl-terminal of LAMP, is able to induce satisfactory levels of neutralizing antibodies. Here we reviewed the use of the envelope flavivirus protein co-expression strategy as LAMP chimeras with the aim of developing DNA vaccines for dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses.A vacinação é a estratégia mais prática e o melhor custo-benefício para prevenir a maioria das infecções dos flavivirus, para os quais existe vacina disponível. Entretanto, as vacinas baseadas em vírus atenuados podem potencialmente promover efeitos colaterais e, mais raramente, reações fatais. Diante deste cenário, o desenvolvimento de estratégias alternativas de vacinação, como vacinas baseadas em DNA codificando seqüências específicas dos flavivirus, está sendo considerado

  3. Cholesterol trafficking and raft-like membrane domain composition mediate scavenger receptor class B type 1-dependent lipid sensing in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Etienne; Ghezzal, Sara; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Demignot, Sylvie; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W; Leturque, Armelle; Rousset, Monique; Carrière, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    Scavenger receptor Class B type 1 (SR-B1) is a lipid transporter and sensor. In intestinal epithelial cells, SR-B1-dependent lipid sensing is associated with SR-B1 recruitment in raft-like/ detergent-resistant membrane domains and interaction of its C-terminal transmembrane domain with plasma membrane cholesterol. To clarify the initiating events occurring during lipid sensing by SR-B1, we analyzed cholesterol trafficking and raft-like domain composition in intestinal epithelial cells expressing wild-type SR-B1 or the mutated form SR-B1-Q445A, defective in membrane cholesterol binding and signal initiation. These features of SR-B1 were found to influence both apical cholesterol efflux and intracellular cholesterol trafficking from plasma membrane to lipid droplets, and the lipid composition of raft-like domains. Lipidomic analysis revealed likely participation of d18:0/16:0 sphingomyelin and 16:0/0:0 lysophosphatidylethanolamine in lipid sensing by SR-B1. Proteomic analysis identified proteins, whose abundance changed in raft-like domains during lipid sensing, and these included molecules linked to lipid raft dynamics and signal transduction. These findings provide new insights into the role of SR-B1 in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and suggest molecular links between SR-B1-dependent lipid sensing and cell cholesterol and lipid droplet dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Formulation of an inhibitor radiopharmaceutical of prostatic antigen of 177Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega S, D.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that is expressed on the cell membrane and highly expressed in prostate cancer. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the peptide sequence Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys inhibit PSMA activity through an electrostatic interaction with the Zn. Several theragnostic radiopharmaceuticals with base in 177 Lu have been developed for radiotherapy of specific molecular targets because gamma and beta emissions of the radionuclide (β = 0.498 MeV and γ= 0.133 MeV). However, there is currently no label a formulation for preparing a radiopharmaceutical of 177 Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys useful treatment of prostate cancer. The aim of this research was to optimize and document the process of production of the radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys for sanitary registration application before the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). The optimization of the production process was assessed a factorial design of three variables with mixed levels (3 x 3 x 2) where the dependent variable is the radiochemical purity, the analytical method was validated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Next, process validation was carried out by labeling 3 lots of the optimized formulation of the radiopharmaceutical (5.55 GBq (2.16 μg) of 177 LuCl 3 , 90 mg peptide PSMA, 50 mg ascorbic acid and 150 μL of acetate buffer 1 M ph 5), long-term stability was performed by high resolution liquid chromatography) to determine its useful shelf life. 3 validation batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in the Production Plant of Radiopharmaceuticals of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), meet specifications preset by obtaining a sterile and free development of bacterial endotoxin yields of labeled 100% and which retains its quality characteristics radiochemical purity greater than 90% for at least 15 days. (Author)

  5. Pearls and pitfalls in clinical interpretation of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Solnes, Lilja B.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Pomper, Martin G.; Rowe, Steven P. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Haberkorn, Uwe [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Eiber, Matthias [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Ross, Ashley E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Gorin, Michael A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute and Department of Urology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The rapidly expanding clinical adaptation of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET imaging in the evaluation of patients with prostate cancer has placed an increasing onus on understanding both the potential pearls of interpretation as well as limitations of this new technique. As with any new molecular imaging modality, accurate characterization of abnormalities on PSMA-targeted PET imaging can be accomplished only if one is aware of the normal distribution pattern, physiological variants of radiotracer uptake, and potential sources of false-positive and false-negative imaging findings. In recent years, a growing number of reports have come to light describing incidental non-prostatic benign or malignant pathologies with high uptake on PSMA-targeted PET imaging. In this review, we have summarized the published literature regarding the potential pearls and technical and interpretive pitfalls of this imaging modality. Knowledge of these limitations can increase the confidence of interpreting physicians and thus improve patient care. As PSMA-targeted PET is expected to be evaluated in larger prospective trials, the dissemination of potential diagnostic pitfalls and the biologic underpinning of those findings will be of increased importance. (orig.)

  6. Love Wave Sensor for Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Detection Based on Hydrophilic Molecularly-Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA is a biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa, and a specific and reliable detection technique of PSMA is urgently required for PCa early diagnosis. A Love wave sensor has been widely studied for real-time sensing and highly sensitive applications, but the sensing unit needs special handling for selective detection purpose. In this study, we prepared a versatile Love wave sensor functionalized with molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIP, PSMA as the template molecule. To enhance the specific template bindings of MIP in pure aqueous solutions, facile reversible addition/fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT precipitation polymerization (RAFTPP was used to produce surface hydrophilic polymer brushes on MIP. The presence of hydrophilic polymer brushes on MIP improved its surface hydrophilicity and significantly reduced their hydrophobic interactions with template molecules in pure aqueous media. In detection process, the acoustic delay-line is confederative to a microfluidic chip and inserted in an oscillation loop. The real-time resonance frequency of the MIP-based Love wave sensor to different concentrations of PSMA was investigated. The limit of detection (LOD for this Love SAW sensor was 0.013 ng mL−1, which demonstrates that this sensor has outstanding performance in terms of the level of detection.

  7. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, M.A.; Richardson, N.E.; Sayre, P.H.; Brown, N.R.; Masteller, E.L.; Clayton, L.K.; Ritz, J.; Reinherz, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate the primary structure of CALLA, the authors purified the protein to homogeneity, obtained the NH 2 -terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line λgt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NM 2 -terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA + cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types

  8. Spacer length impacts the efficacy of targeted docetaxel conjugates in prostate-specific membrane antigen expressing prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zheng-Hong; Sima, Monika; Salama, Mohamed E; Kopečková, Pavla; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-12-01

    Combination of targeted delivery and controlled release is a powerful technique for cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe the design, synthesis, structure validation and biological properties of targeted and non-targeted N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-docetaxel conjugates. Docetaxel (DTX) was conjugated to HPMA copolymer via a tetrapeptide spacer (-GFLG-). 3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA) was used as the targeting moiety to actively deliver DTX for treatment of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) expressing prostate cancer. Short and long spacer DUPA monomers were prepared, and four HPMA copolymer--DTX conjugates (non-targeted, two targeted with short spacer of different molecular weight and targeted with long spacer) were prepared via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) copolymerization. Following confirmation of PSMA expression on C4-2 cell line, the DTX conjugates' in vitro cytotoxicity was tested against C4-2 tumor cells and their anticancer efficacies were assessed in nude mice bearing s.c. human prostate adenocarcinoma C4-2 xenografts. The in vivo results show that the spacer length between targeting moieties and HPMA copolymer backbone can significantly affect the treatment efficacy of DTX conjugates against C4-2 tumor bearing nu/nu mice. Moreover, histological analysis indicated that the DUPA-targeted DTX conjugate with longer spacer had no toxicity in major organs of treated mice.

  9. Molecular insights into the interaction between Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and an invasion-inhibitory peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geqing Wang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been implicated in invasion of the host erythrocyte. It interacts with malarial rhoptry neck (RON proteins in the moving junction that forms between the host cell and the invading parasite. Agents that block this interaction inhibit invasion and may serve as promising leads for anti-malarial drug development. The invasion-inhibitory peptide R1 binds to a hydrophobic cleft on AMA1, which is an attractive target site for small molecules that block parasite invasion. In this work, truncation and mutational analyses show that Phe5-Phe9, Phe12 and Arg15 in R1 are the most important residues for high affinity binding to AMA1. These residues interact with two well-defined binding hot spots on AMA1. Computational solvent mapping reveals that one of these hot spots is suitable for small molecule targeting. We also confirm that R1 in solution binds to AMA1 with 1:1 stoichiometry and adopts a secondary structure consistent with the major form of R1 observed in the crystal structure of the complex. Our results provide a basis for designing high affinity inhibitors of the AMA1-RON2 interaction.

  10. Pearls and pitfalls in clinical interpretation of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Solnes, Lilja B.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Pomper, Martin G.; Rowe, Steven P.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Haberkorn, Uwe; Eiber, Matthias; Ross, Ashley E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Gorin, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly expanding clinical adaptation of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET imaging in the evaluation of patients with prostate cancer has placed an increasing onus on understanding both the potential pearls of interpretation as well as limitations of this new technique. As with any new molecular imaging modality, accurate characterization of abnormalities on PSMA-targeted PET imaging can be accomplished only if one is aware of the normal distribution pattern, physiological variants of radiotracer uptake, and potential sources of false-positive and false-negative imaging findings. In recent years, a growing number of reports have come to light describing incidental non-prostatic benign or malignant pathologies with high uptake on PSMA-targeted PET imaging. In this review, we have summarized the published literature regarding the potential pearls and technical and interpretive pitfalls of this imaging modality. Knowledge of these limitations can increase the confidence of interpreting physicians and thus improve patient care. As PSMA-targeted PET is expected to be evaluated in larger prospective trials, the dissemination of potential diagnostic pitfalls and the biologic underpinning of those findings will be of increased importance. (orig.)

  11. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/MRI validation of MR textural analysis for detection of transition zone prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Anthony; Miles, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    To validate MR textural analysis (MRTA) for detection of transition zone (TZ) prostate cancer through comparison with co-registered prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-MR. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 men who underwent simultaneous PSMA PET-MR imaging for staging of prostate cancer. Thirty texture features were derived from each manually contoured T2-weighted, transaxial, prostatic TZ using texture analysis software that applies a spatial band-pass filter and quantifies texture through histogram analysis. Texture features of the TZ were compared to PSMA expression on the corresponding PET images. The Benjamini-Hochberg correction controlled the false discovery rate at <5%. Eighty-eight T2-weighted images in 18 patients demonstrated abnormal PSMA expression within the TZ on PET-MR. 123 images were PSMA negative. Based on the corrected p-value of 0.005, significant differences between PSMA positive and negative slices were found for 16 texture parameters: Standard deviation and mean of positive pixels for all spatial filters (p = <0.0001 for both at all spatial scaling factor (SSF) values) and mean intensity following filtration for SSF 3-6 mm (p = 0.0002-0.0018). Abnormal expression of PSMA within the TZ is associated with altered texture on T2-weighted MR, providing validation of MRTA for the detection of TZ prostate cancer. (orig.)

  12. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/MRI validation of MR textural analysis for detection of transition zone prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Anthony [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Miles, Kenneth [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    To validate MR textural analysis (MRTA) for detection of transition zone (TZ) prostate cancer through comparison with co-registered prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-MR. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 men who underwent simultaneous PSMA PET-MR imaging for staging of prostate cancer. Thirty texture features were derived from each manually contoured T2-weighted, transaxial, prostatic TZ using texture analysis software that applies a spatial band-pass filter and quantifies texture through histogram analysis. Texture features of the TZ were compared to PSMA expression on the corresponding PET images. The Benjamini-Hochberg correction controlled the false discovery rate at <5%. Eighty-eight T2-weighted images in 18 patients demonstrated abnormal PSMA expression within the TZ on PET-MR. 123 images were PSMA negative. Based on the corrected p-value of 0.005, significant differences between PSMA positive and negative slices were found for 16 texture parameters: Standard deviation and mean of positive pixels for all spatial filters (p = <0.0001 for both at all spatial scaling factor (SSF) values) and mean intensity following filtration for SSF 3-6 mm (p = 0.0002-0.0018). Abnormal expression of PSMA within the TZ is associated with altered texture on T2-weighted MR, providing validation of MRTA for the detection of TZ prostate cancer. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic bio-adhesion of polymer nanoparticles on MDCK epithelial cells and its impact on bio-membranes, endocytosis and paracytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yuan, Lan; Dai, Wenbing; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-21

    Nowadays, concern about the use of nanotechnology for biomedical application is unprecedentedly increasing. In fact, nanosystems applied for various potential clinical uses always have to cross the primary biological barrier consisting of epithelial cells. However, little is really known currently in terms of the influence of the dynamic bio-adhesion of nanosystems on bio-membranes as well as on endocytosis and transcytosis. This was investigated here using polymer nanoparticles (PNs) and MDCK epithelial cells as the models. Firstly, the adhesion of PNs on cell membranes was found to be time-dependent with a shift of both location and dispersion pattern, from the lateral adhesion of mainly mono-dispersed PNs initially to the apical coverage of the PN aggregate later. Then, it was interesting to observe in this study that the dynamic bio-adhesion of PNs only affected their endocytosis but not their transcytosis. It was important to find that the endocytosis of PNs was not a constant process. A GM1 dependent CDE (caveolae dependent endocytosis) pathway was dominant in the preliminary stage, followed by the co-existence of a CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis) pathway for the PN aggregate at a later stage, in accordance with the adhesion features of PNs, suggesting the modification of PN adhesion patterns on the endocytosis pathways. Next, the PN adhesion was noticed to affect the structure of cell junctions, via altering the extra- and intra-cellular calcium levels, leading to the enhanced paracellular transport of small molecules, but not favorably enough for the obviously increased passing of PNs themselves. Finally, FRAP and other techniques all demonstrated the obvious impact of PN adhesion on the membrane confirmation, independent of the adhesion location and time, which might lower the threshold for the internalization of PNs, even their aggregates. Generally, these findings confirm that the transport pathway mechanism of PNs through epithelial cells is rather

  14. Dynamic bio-adhesion of polymer nanoparticles on MDCK epithelial cells and its impact on bio-membranes, endocytosis and paracytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yuan, Lan; Dai, Wenbing; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, concern about the use of nanotechnology for biomedical application is unprecedentedly increasing. In fact, nanosystems applied for various potential clinical uses always have to cross the primary biological barrier consisting of epithelial cells. However, little is really known currently in terms of the influence of the dynamic bio-adhesion of nanosystems on bio-membranes as well as on endocytosis and transcytosis. This was investigated here using polymer nanoparticles (PNs) and MDCK epithelial cells as the models. Firstly, the adhesion of PNs on cell membranes was found to be time-dependent with a shift of both location and dispersion pattern, from the lateral adhesion of mainly mono-dispersed PNs initially to the apical coverage of the PN aggregate later. Then, it was interesting to observe in this study that the dynamic bio-adhesion of PNs only affected their endocytosis but not their transcytosis. It was important to find that the endocytosis of PNs was not a constant process. A GM1 dependent CDE (caveolae dependent endocytosis) pathway was dominant in the preliminary stage, followed by the co-existence of a CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis) pathway for the PN aggregate at a later stage, in accordance with the adhesion features of PNs, suggesting the modification of PN adhesion patterns on the endocytosis pathways. Next, the PN adhesion was noticed to affect the structure of cell junctions, via altering the extra- and intra-cellular calcium levels, leading to the enhanced paracellular transport of small molecules, but not favorably enough for the obviously increased passing of PNs themselves. Finally, FRAP and other techniques all demonstrated the obvious impact of PN adhesion on the membrane confirmation, independent of the adhesion location and time, which might lower the threshold for the internalization of PNs, even their aggregates. Generally, these findings confirm that the transport pathway mechanism of PNs through epithelial cells is rather

  15. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Dermot B; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection.

  16. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot B O′Kane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa, pelvic lymph node (LN metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection.

  17. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  18. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leon, Alberto J.; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S.H.; Farooqui, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development

  19. The content of mucin MUC-2, -3 and -4 antigens in the bronchial mucosa membrane of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during acute exacerbation - initial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Svetlana; Dorofieiev, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Changes in mucin production and dyscrinia are common features of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Immunohistochemical assessment of MUC-2, MUC-3, MUC-4 expression in the integumentary epithelium, goblet cells, the epithelium of mucous glands and stroma fusiform cells of the bronchial mucosa of COPD patients during an infectious and noninfectious exacerbation was performed. 30 patients with stage III COPD were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A - 14 patients with non-infectious acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and group B - 16 patients with infectious AECOPD. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBS) and in vivo bronchial biopsy of bronchial mucosa were implemented to determine the extent and nature of bronchial inflammation. The optical density of specific color in bronchial structures was assessed using immunohistochemical staining to MUC-2, -3 and -4 antigens by means of primary monoclonal antibodies to these proteins, and visualization system Dako EnVision + System, Peroxidase (AEC). We detected that in different types of bronchial mucosa epithelial cells, during acute infectious exacerbation, a decrease of antigens MUC-2 and MUC-3 expression of a various degree may occur. This phenomenon in the stroma fusiform cells in AECOPD may be a sign of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, that may play a role in the development of an inflammatory process and progression of fibrosis in COPD.

  20. Variations of six transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 4 (STEAP4) gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in a female Uygur general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanfang, Li; Yanying, Guo; Hongmei, Wang; Zhitao, Yan; Juhong, Zhang; Ling, Zhou; Wenli, Luo

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked with visceral obesity and is associated with a clustering of abnormalities (including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension). Six transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 4 (STEAP4) was associated with human obesity. STEAP4 gene represents a strong biological and positional candidate for a susceptibility factor for MetS. Uygur Chinese is a relatively isolated population with a relatively homogeneous environment and a high prevalence of MetS. We undertook this study to investigate the relationship between STEAP4 gene variations and MetS in a Uygur general population. The functional regions of STEAP4 gene were sequenced in Uygur patients with MetS. Four representative variations, rs1981529, rs34741656, rs8122 and 6031T/G (unsuccessfully genotyped), selected with a r² cutoff of 0.8 and minor allele frequency of >5%, were genotyped in 858 MetS and 687 non-MetS controls. Fourteen novel and six known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 2 nonsynonymous SNPs in the STEAP4 gene were identified. SNPs rs8122 and rs1981529 were significantly associated with MetS phenotype in females [additive p = 0.032 and p = 0.011; ORs (95% CI) adjusted for age 0.772 (0.625-0.954) and 0.740 (0.582-0.941), respectively]. Two common haplotypes 1 (rs8122/rs1981529/rs34741656, G-A-G) and 2 (A-G-G) had significantly higher (permutation p = 0.044) and lower (permutation p = 0.009) frequency in MetS than that in controls in females. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association of the SNPs rs8122 and rs1981529 with HDL-c level in MetS cases (p = 0.001 and 0.024) and in a combined sample (p = 0.004 and 0.009). STEAP4 genetic variations are likely to be associated with metabolic syndrome in a female Uygur general population. Copyright © 2010 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein profile of basal prostate epithelial progenitor cells--stage-specific embryonal antigen 4 expressing cells have enhanced regenerative potential in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Thomas; Klein, Corinna; Eisen, Christian; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Haferkamp, Axel; Sprick, Martin R

    2016-04-01

    The long-term propagation of basal prostate progenitor cells ex vivo has been very difficult in the past. The development of novel methods to expand prostate progenitor cells in vitro allows determining their cell surface phenotype in greater detail. Mouse (Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CD49f(+) Trop2(high)-phenotype) and human (Lin(-) CD49f(+) TROP2(high)) basal prostate progenitor cells were expanded in vitro. Human and mouse cells were screened using 242 anti-human or 176 antimouse monoclonal antibodies recognizing the cell surface protein profile. Quantitative expression was evaluated at the single-cell level using flow cytometry. Differentially expressed cell surface proteins were evaluated in conjunction with the known CD49f(+)/TROP2(high) phenotype of basal prostate progenitor cells and characterized by in vivo sandwich-transplantation experiments using nude mice. The phenotype of basal prostate progenitor cells was determined as CD9(+)/CD24(+)/CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD47(+)/CD49f(+)/CD104(+)/CD147(+)/CD326(+)/Trop2(high) of mouse as well as human origin. Our analysis revealed several proteins, such as CD13, Syndecan-1 and stage-specific embryonal antigens (SSEAs), as being differentially expressed on murine and human CD49f(+) TROP2(+) basal prostate progenitor cells. Transplantation experiments suggest that CD49f(+) TROP2(high) SSEA-4(high) human prostate basal progenitor cells to be more potent to regenerate prostate tubules in vivo as compared with CD49f(+) TROP2(high) or CD49f(+) TROP2(high) SSEA-4(low) cells. Determination of the cell surface protein profile of functionally defined murine and human basal prostate progenitor cells reveals differentially expressed proteins that may change the potency and regenerative function of epithelial progenitor cells within the prostate. SSEA-4 is a candidate cell surface marker that putatively enables a more accurate identification of the basal PESC lineage. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by

  2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS Tracking of Chelerythrine, a Na+/K+ Pump Inhibitor, into Cytosol and Plasma Membrane Fractions of Human Lens Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Dorney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The quaternary benzo-phenanthridine alkaloid (QBA chelerythrine (CET is a pro-apoptotic drug and Na+/K+ pump (NKP inhibitor in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs. In order to obtain further insight into the mechanism of NKP inhibition by CET, its sub-cellular distribution was quantified in cytosolic and membrane fractions of HLEC cultures by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs prepared by the Creighton method were concentrated, and size-selected using a one-step tangential flow filtration approach. HLECs cultures were exposed to 50 μM CET in 300 mOsM phosphate-buffered NaCl for 30 min. A variety of cytosolic extracts, crude and purified membranes, prepared in lysing solutions in the presence and absence of a non-ionic detergent, were incubated with AgNPs and subjected to SERS analysis. Determinations of CET were based on a linear calibration plot of the integrated CET SERS intensity at its 659 cm-1 marker band as a function of CET concentration. Results: SERS detected chemically unaltered CET in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions. Normalized for protein, the CET content was some 100 fold higher in the crude and purified plasma membrane fraction than in the soluble cytosolic extract. The total free CET concentration in the cytosol, free of membranes or containing detergent-solubilized membrane material, approached that of the incubation medium of HLECs. Conclusion: Given a negative membrane potential of HLECs the data suggest, but do not prove, that CET may traverse the plasma membrane as a positively charged monomer (CET+ accumulating near or above passive equilibrium distribution. These findings may contribute to a recently proposed hypothesis that CET binds to and inhibits the NKP through its cytosolic aspect.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) tracking of chelerythrine, a Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibitor, into cytosol and plasma membrane fractions of human lens epithelial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M; Sizemore, Ioana E P; Alqahtani, Tariq; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    The quaternary benzo-phenanthridine alkaloid (QBA) chelerythrine (CET) is a pro-apoptotic drug and Na(+)/K(+) pump (NKP) inhibitor in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). In order to obtain further insight into the mechanism of NKP inhibition by CET, its sub-cellular distribution was quantified in cytosolic and membrane fractions of HLEC cultures by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared by the Creighton method were concentrated, and size-selected using a one-step tangential flow filtration approach. HLECs cultures were exposed to 50 μM CET in 300 mOsM phosphate-buffered NaCl for 30 min. A variety of cytosolic extracts, crude and purified membranes, prepared in lysing solutions in the presence and absence of a non-ionic detergent, were incubated with AgNPs and subjected to SERS analysis. Determinations of CET were based on a linear calibration plot of the integrated CET SERS intensity at its 659 cm(-1) marker band as a function of CET concentration. SERS detected chemically unaltered CET in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions. Normalized for protein, the CET content was some 100 fold higher in the crude and purified plasma membrane fraction than in the soluble cytosolic extract. The total free CET concentration in the cytosol, free of membranes or containing detergent-solubilized membrane material, approached that of the incubation medium of HLECs. Given a negative membrane potential of HLECs the data suggest, but do not prove, that CET may traverse the plasma membrane as a positively charged monomer (CET(+)) accumulating near or above passive equilibrium distribution. These findings may contribute to a recently proposed hypothesis that CET binds to and inhibits the NKP through its cytosolic aspect. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. An Extended Surface Loop on Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 Governs Ligand Binding Selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Parker

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of globally prevalent diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens have evolved a sophisticated host cell invasion strategy that relies on a parasite-host cell junction anchored by interactions between apical membrane antigens (AMAs on the parasite surface and rhoptry neck 2 (RON2 proteins discharged from the parasite and embedded in the host cell membrane. Key to formation of the AMA1-RON2 complex is displacement of an extended surface loop on AMA1 called the DII loop. While conformational flexibility of the DII loop is required to expose the mature RON2 binding groove, a definitive role of this substructure has not been elucidated. To establish a role of the DII loop in Toxoplasma gondii AMA1, we engineered a form of the protein where the mobile portion of the loop was replaced with a short Gly-Ser linker (TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements with a panel of RON2 peptides revealed an influential role for the DII loop in governing selectivity. Most notably, an Eimeria tenella RON2 (EtRON2 peptide that showed only weak binding to TgAMA1 bound with high affinity to TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. To define the molecular basis for the differential binding, we determined the crystal structure of TgAMA1ΔDIIloop in complex with the EtRON2 peptide. When analyzed in the context of existing AMA1-RON2 structures, spatially distinct anchor points in the AMA1 groove were identified that, when engaged, appear to provide the necessary traction to outcompete the DII loop. Collectively, these data support a model where the AMA1 DII loop serves as a structural gatekeeper to selectively filter out ligands otherwise capable of binding with high affinity in the AMA1 apical groove. These data also highlight the importance of considering the functional implications of the DII loop in the ongoing development of therapeutic intervention strategies targeting the AMA1-RON

  5. Microfluidic-integrated patterned ITO immunosensor for rapid detection of prostate-specific membrane antigen biomarker in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Singh, Chandra K; Warrick, Jay W; Ahmad, Nihal; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2017-09-15

    An optically transparent patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) three-electrode sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel was designed for label-free immunosensing of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a prostate cancer (PCa) biomarker, expressed on prostate tissue and circulating tumor cells but also found in serum. The sensor relies on cysteamine capped gold nanoparticles (N-AuNPs) covalently linked with anti-PSMA antibody (Ab) for target specificity. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel is used to efficiently and reproducibly introduce sample containing soluble proteins/cells to the sensor. The PSMA is detected and quantified by measuring the change in differential pulse voltammetry signal of a redox probe ([Fe(CN) 6 ] 3- /[Fe(CN) 6 ] 4- ) that is altered upon binding of PSMA with PSMA-Ab immobilized on N-AuNPs/ITO. Detection of PSMA expressing cells and soluble PSMA was tested. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor for PSMA-based PCa cells is 6/40µL (i.e., 150 cells/mL) (n=3) with a linear range of 15-400 cells/40µL (i.e., 375-10,000 cells/mL), and for the soluble PSMA is 0.499ng/40µL (i.e., 12.5ng/mL) (n=3) with the linear range of 0.75-250ng/40µL (i.e., 19-6250ng/mL), both with an incubation time of 10min. The results indicate that the sensor has a suitable sensitivity and dynamic range for routine detection of PCa circulating tumor cells and can be adapted to detect other biomarkers/cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography on the decision-making of radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is routinely used in many cancer types, although is not yet a standard modality for prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET is a promising new modality for staging prostate cancer, with recent studies showing potential advantages over traditional computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine bone scan imaging. However, the impact of PSMA PET on the decision-making of radiation oncologists and outcomes after radiotherapy is yet to be determined. Our aim was to determine the impact of PSMA PET on a radiation oncologist’s clinical practice. Patients in a radiation oncology clinic who underwent PSMA PET were prospectively recorded in an electronic oncology record. Patient demographics, outcomes of imaging, and impact on decision-making were evaluated. Fifty-four patients underwent PSMA PET between January and May 2015. The major reasons for undergoing PET included staging before definitive (14.8 %) or post-prostatectomy (33.3 %) radiotherapy, and investigation of PSA failures following definitive (16.7 %) or post-prostatectomy (33.3 %) radiotherapy. In 46.3 % of patients PSMA was positive after negative traditional imaging, in 9.3 % PSMA was positive after equivocal imaging, and in 13.0 % PSMA was negative after equivocal imaging. PSMA PET changed radiotherapy management in 46.3 % of cases, and hormone therapy in 33.3 % of patients, with an overall change in decision-making in 53.7 % of patients. PSMA PET has the potential to significantly alter the decision-making of radiation oncologists, and may become a valuable imaging tool in the future

  7. Effect of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography on the decision-making of radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-11-18

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is routinely used in many cancer types, although is not yet a standard modality for prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET is a promising new modality for staging prostate cancer, with recent studies showing potential advantages over traditional computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine bone scan imaging. However, the impact of PSMA PET on the decision-making of radiation oncologists and outcomes after radiotherapy is yet to be determined. Our aim was to determine the impact of PSMA PET on a radiation oncologist's clinical practice. Patients in a radiation oncology clinic who underwent PSMA PET were prospectively recorded in an electronic oncology record. Patient demographics, outcomes of imaging, and impact on decision-making were evaluated. Fifty-four patients underwent PSMA PET between January and May 2015. The major reasons for undergoing PET included staging before definitive (14.8%) or post-prostatectomy (33.3%) radiotherapy, and investigation of PSA failures following definitive (16.7%) or post-prostatectomy (33.3%) radiotherapy. In 46.3% of patients PSMA was positive after negative traditional imaging, in 9.3% PSMA was positive after equivocal imaging, and in 13.0% PSMA was negative after equivocal imaging. PSMA PET changed radiotherapy management in 46.3% of cases, and hormone therapy in 33.3% of patients, with an overall change in decision-making in 53.7% of patients. PSMA PET has the potential to significantly alter the decision-making of radiation oncologists, and may become a valuable imaging tool in the future.

  8. Vascular targeted therapy with anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 in advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milowsky, Matthew I; Nanus, David M; Kostakoglu, Lale; Sheehan, Christine E; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Ross, Jeffrey S; Bander, Neil H

    2007-02-10

    Based on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression on the vasculature of solid tumors, we performed a phase I trial of antibody J591, targeting the extracellular domain of PSMA, in patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies. This was a proof-of-principle evaluation of PSMA as a potential neovascular target. The primary end points were targeting,toxicity, maximum-tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK), and human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response. Patients had advanced solid tumors previously shown to express PSMA on the neovasculature. They received 111Indium (111ln)-J591 for scintigraphy and PK, followed 2 weeks later by J591 with a reduced amount of 111In for additional PK measurements. J591 dose levels were 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg. The protocol was amended for six weekly administrations of unchelated J591. Patients with a response or stable disease were eligible for re-treatment. Immunohistochemistry assessed PSMA expression in tumor tissues. Twenty-seven patients received monoclonal antibody (mAb) J591. Treatment was well tolerated. Twenty (74%) of 27 patients had at least one area of known metastatic disease targeted by 111In-J591, with positive imaging seen in patients with kidney, bladder, lung, breast, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers, and melanoma. Seven of 10 patient specimens available for immunohistochemical assessment of PSMA expression in tumor-associated vasculature demonstrated PSMA staining. No HAHA response was seen. Three patients of 27 with stable disease received re-treatment. Acceptable toxicity and excellent targeting of known sites of metastases were demonstrated in patients with multiple solid tumor types, highlighting a potential role for the anti-PSMA antibody J591 as a vascular-targeting agent.

  9. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-based imaging in prostate cancer: impact on clinical decision making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol, Mehmet Onur; Acar, Ömer; Uçar, Burcu; Ramazanoğlu, Sultan Rana; Sağlıcan, Yeşim; Esen, Tarık

    2015-05-01

    There is an ongoing need for an accurate imaging modality which can be used for staging purposes, metastatic evaluation, predicting biologic aggresiveness and investigating recurrent disease in prostate cancer. Prostate specific membrane antigen, given its favorable molecular characteristics, holds a promise as an ideal target for prostate cancer-specific nuclear imaging. In this study, we evaluated our initial results of PSMA based PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. A total of 22 patients with a median age and serum PSA level of 68 years and 4.15 ng/ml, respectively underwent Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in our hospital between Februrary and August 2014. Their charts were retrospectively reviewed in order to document the clinical characteristics, the indications for and the results of PSMA based imaging and the impact of Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT findings on disease management. The most common indications were rising PSA after local ± adjuvant treatment followed by staging and metastatic evaluation before definitive or salvage treatment. All except 2 patients had prostatic ± extraprostatic PSMA positive lesions. For those who had a positive result; treatment strategies were tailored accordingly. Above the PSA level of 2 ng/ml, none of the PSMA based nuclear imaging studies revealed negative results. PSMA based nuclear imaging has significantly impacted our way of handling patients with prostate cancer. Its preliminary performance in different clinical scenarios and ability to detect lesions even in low PSA values seems fairly promising and deserves to be supplemented with further clinical studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stabilization of collagen nanofibers with l-lysine improves the ability of carbodiimide cross-linked amniotic membranes to preserve limbal epithelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 Pei-Ran Wang,1 Li-Jyuan Luo,1 Si-Tan Chen1 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: To overcome the drawbacks associated with limited cross-linking efficiency of carbodiimide modified amniotic membrane, this study investigated the use of L-lysine as an additional amino acid bridge to enhance the stability of a nanofibrous tissue matrix for a limbal epithelial cell culture platform. Results of ninhydrin assays and zeta potential measurements showed that the amount of positively charged amino acid residues incorporated into the tissue collagen chains is highly correlated with the L-lysine -pretreated concentration. The cross-linked structure and hydrophilicity of amniotic membrane scaffolding materials affected by the lysine molecular bridging effects were determined. With an increase in the L-lysine-pretreated concentration from 1 to 30 mM, the cross-linking density was significantly increased and water content was markedly decreased. The variations in resistance to thermal denaturation and enzymatic degradation were in accordance with the number of cross-links per unit mass of amniotic membrane, indicating L-lysine-modulated stabilization of collagen molecules. It was also noteworthy that the carbodiimide cross-linked tissue samples prepared using a relatively high L-lysine-pretreated concentration (ie, 30 mM appeared to have decreased light transmittance and biocompatibility, probably due to the influence of a large nanofiber size and a high charge density. The rise in stemness gene and protein expression levels was dependent on improved cross-link formation, suggesting the crucial role of amino acid bridges in constructing suitable scaffolds to preserve limbal progenitor cells. It is concluded that mild to moderate pretreatment conditions (ie, 3–10 mM L-lysine can

  11. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H.; Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C.

    1987-01-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable [ 3 H]hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the [ 3 H]collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more [ 3 H]collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface

  12. High antibody titer against apical membrane antigen-1 is required to protect against malaria in the Aotus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetij Dutta

    Full Text Available A Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 vaccine, formulated with AS02(A adjuvant, slowed parasite growth in a recent Phase 1/2a trial, however sterile protection was not observed. We tested this AS02(A, and a Montanide ISA720 (ISA formulation of 3D7 AMA1 in Aotus monkeys. The 3D7 parasite does not invade Aotus erythrocytes, hence two heterologous strains, FCH/4 and FVO, were used for challenge, FCH/4 AMA1 being more homologous to 3D7 than FVO AMA1. Following three vaccinations, the monkeys were challenged with 50,000 FCH/4 or 10,000 FVO parasites. Three of the six animals in the AMA+ISA group were protected against FCH/4 challenge. One monkey did not become parasitemic, another showed only a short period of low level parasitemia that self-cured, and a third animal showed a delay before exhibiting its parasitemic phase. This is the first protection shown in primates with a recombinant P. falciparum AMA1 without formulation in Freund's complete adjuvant. No animals in the AMA+AS02(A group were protected, but this group exhibited a trend towards reduced growth rate. A second group of monkeys vaccinated with AMA+ISA vaccine was not protected against FVO challenge, suggesting strain-specificity of AMA1-based protection. Protection against FCH/4 strain correlated with the quantity of induced antibodies, as the protected animals were the only ones to have in vitro parasite growth inhibitory activity of >70% at 1:10 serum dilution; immuno-fluorescence titers >8,000; ELISA titers against full-length AMA1 >300,000 and ELISA titer against AMA1 domains1+2 >100,000. A negative correlation between log ELISA titer and day 11 cumulative parasitemia (Spearman rank r = -0.780, p value = 0.0001, further confirmed the relationship between antibody titer and protection. High titers of cross-strain inhibitory antibodies against AMA1 are therefore critical to confer solid protection, and the Aotus model can be used to down-select future AMA1

  13. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  14. Simultaneous targeting of prostate stem cell antigen and prostate-specific membrane antigen improves the killing of prostate cancer cells using a novel modular T cell-retargeting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Claudia; Feldmann, Anja; Koristka, Stefanie; Cartellieri, Marc; Dimmel, Maria; Ehninger, Armin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bachmann, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Recently, we described a novel modular platform technology in which T cell-recruitment and tumor-targeting domains of conventional bispecific antibodies are split to independent components, a universal effector module (EM) and replaceable monospecific/monovalent target modules (TMs) that form highly efficient T cell-retargeting complexes. Theoretically, our unique strategy should allow us to simultaneously retarget T cells to different tumor antigens by combining the EM with two or more different monovalent/monospecific TMs or even with bivalent/bispecific TMs, thereby overcoming limitations of a monospecific treatment such as the selection of target-negative tumor escape variants. In order to advance our recently introduced prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific modular system for a dual-targeting of prostate cancer cells, two additional TMs were constructed: a monovalent/monospecific TM directed against the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and a bivalent/bispecific TM (bsTM) with specificity for PSMA and PSCA. The functionality of the novel dual-targeting strategies was analyzed by performing T cell activation and chromium release assays. Similar to the PSCA-specific modular system, the novel PSMA-specific modular system mediates an efficient target-dependent and -specific tumor cell lysis at low E:T ratios and picomolar Ab concentrations. Moreover, by combination of the EM with either the bispecific TM directed to PSMA and PSCA or both monospecifc TMs directed to either PSCA or PSMA, dual-specific targeting complexes were formed which allowed us to kill potential escape variants expressing only one or the other target antigen. Overall, the novel modular system represents a promising tool for multiple tumor targeting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  16. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan may be helpful in the case of ductal variant prostate cancer when prostate specific membrane antigen ligand positron emission tomography scan is negative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, Louise M.; Wong, David; Yaxley, John

    2017-01-01

    Gallium-68 prostate specific membrane antigen ligand (Ga-68 PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning is emerging as a useful imaging modality for the staging of suspected and known recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer and in staging of newly diagnosed higher grade prostate cancer. However, we have observed at our institution that in some cases of the more aggressive ductal variant, Ga-68 PSMA uptake has sometimes been poor compared with prominent 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) avidity seen in F-18 FDG PET/CT, which would suggest that FDG PET/CT scans are important in staging of ductal pattern prostate cancer.

  17. Proteomic study via a non-gel based approach of meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine obtained from strain CU385: a road map for discovering new antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jeovanis; Betancourt, L Zaro H; Sardiñas, Gretel; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Delgado, Maité; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando; Sánchez, Aniel; González, Luis J; Padrón, Gabriel; Campa, Concepción; Sotolongo, Franklin; Barberó, Ramón; Guillén, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis; Besada, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    This work presents the results from a study of the protein composition of outer membrane vesicles from VA-MENGOC-BC (Finlay Institute, Cuba), an available vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Proteins were identified by means of SCAPE, a 2DE-free method for proteome studies. More than one hundred proteins were detected by tandem liquid chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of fractions enriched in peptides devoid of histidine or arginine residues, providing a detailed description of the vaccine. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified components resulted in the identification of 31 outer membrane proteins and three conserved hypothetical proteins, allowing the cloning, expression, purification and immunological study of two of them (NMB0088 and NMB1796) as new antigens.

  18. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major......(Δ) (Ex2-6/) (Δ) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour...

  19. Purification of the Membrane Compartment for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of Exogenous Antigens in Cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Jun; Otani, Mayu; Sakai, Takahiro; Hatta, Shinichi

    2017-08-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly capable of processing and presenting internalized exogenous antigens upon major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules also known as cross-presentation (CP). CP plays an important role not only in the stimulation of naïve CD8 + T cells and memory CD8 + T cells for infectious and tumor immunity but also in the inactivation of self-acting naïve T cells by T cell anergy or T cell deletion. Although the critical molecular mechanism of CP remains to be elucidated, accumulating evidence indicates that exogenous antigens are processed through endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) after export from non-classical endocytic compartments. Until recently, characterizations of these endocytic compartments were limited because there were no specific molecular markers other than exogenous antigens. The method described here is a new vesicle isolation protocol, which allows for the purification of these endocytic compartments. Using this purified microsome, we reconstituted the ERAD-like transport, ubiquitination, and processing of the exogenous antigen in vitro, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome system processed the exogenous antigen after export from this cellular compartment. This protocol can be further applied to other cell types to clarify the molecular mechanism of CP.

  20. Characterization of an apically derived epithelial membrane glycoprotein from bovine milk, which is expressed in capillary endothelia in diverse tissues

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A glycoprotein (PAS IV) of apparent Mr 76,000 was purified from bovine milk-fat-globule membrane and partially characterized. PAS IV contained mannose, galactose, and sialic acid as principal sugars (approximately 5.3% total carbohydrate [wt/wt]) and existed in milk in at least four isoelectric variants. The glycoprotein appeared to be an integral membrane protein by several criteria. PAS IV was recovered in the detergent phase of Triton X-114 extracts of milk-fat-globule membrane at room tem...

  1. Solution Structure, Membrane Interactions, and Protein Binding Partners of the Tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a Vaccine Antigen from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.; Craik, David J.; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument. PMID:24429291

  2. Solution structure, membrane interactions, and protein binding partners of the tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a vaccine antigen from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J; Daly, Norelle L; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jones, Malcolm K; Craik, David J; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-03-07

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument.

  3. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for Epstein-Barr virus-associated membrane antigen prepared from B95-8 cell culture supernatants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelken, G.; Klein, G.

    1977-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated membrane antigen (MA) was concentrated from B95-8 cell culture media by precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by chromatography on Bio-Gel A-50m. In a RAJI cell-binding assay, MA-positive material could only be found in the void volume of the column. After ultracentrifugation all antigenic activity appeared in the pellet, which suggested that MA was present in aggregates, presumably fragments of cellular membranes and/or virus envelopes. The MA-containing preparation was photopolymerized in polyacrylamide gel. The homogenized gel was used in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay with 125 I-labeled IgG from an anti-MA positive reference serum and an anti-MA negative control serum. The specificity of the reaction was confirmed in blocking tests with anti-EBV positive and negative sera. A good correlation was found between the results obtained in the radioimmunoassay and the results obtained in direct immunofluorescence tests for the detection of MA. The existence of at least two subspecificities of the MA complex could be confirmed by this radioimmunoassay

  4. Identification of neurotensin-related peptides in human thymic epithelial cell membranes and relationship with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Y; Thome, A N; Vandersmissen, E; Charlet, C; Franchimont, D; Martens, H; Lhiaubet, A M; Schimpff, R M; Rostène, W; Geenen, V

    1997-06-01

    This study shows the expression at the cell surface of human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) of a neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity. NT radio-immunoassay (RIA) revealed that cultured human TEC contain +/-5 ng immunoreactive (ir) NT/10(6) cells, of which 5% is associated with plasma cell membranes. HPLC analysis of NT-ir present in human TEC showed a major peak of NT-ir corresponding to NT1-13. NT-ir was not detected in the supernatant of human TEC cultures. Using an affinity column prepared with a anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibody, NT-ir-related peptides were retained on the column and eluted together with MHC class I-related proteins. According to the elution time on HPLC of these peptides, they correspond to intact NT1-13, as well as to smaller fragments of NT1-13.

  5. Membrane-Active Epithelial Keratin 6A Fragments (KAMPs) Are Unique Human Antimicrobial Peptides with a Non-αβ Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Judy T. Y.; Wang, Guangshun; Tam, Yu Tong; Tam, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global health problem that threatens millions of lives each year. Natural antimicrobial peptides and their synthetic derivatives, including peptoids and peptidomimetics, are promising candidates as novel antibiotics. Recently, the C-terminal glycine-rich fragments of human epithelial keratin 6A were found to have bactericidal and cytoprotective activities. Here, we used an improved 2-dimensional NMR method coupled with a new protocol for structural refinement by low temperature simulated annealing to characterize the solution structure of these kerain-derived antimicrobial peptides (KAMPs). Two specific KAMPs in complex with membrane mimicking sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles displayed amphipathic conformations with only local bends and turns, and a central 10-residue glycine-rich hydrophobic strip that is central to bactericidal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-αβ structure for human antimicrobial peptides. Direct observation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that KAMPs deformed bacterial cell envelopes and induced pore formation. Notably, in competitive binding experiments, KAMPs demonstrated binding affinities to LPS and LTA that did not correlate with their bactericidal activities, suggesting peptide-LPS and peptide-LTA interactions are less important in their mechanisms of action. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of KAMPs-bacterial factor complexes indicated that membrane surface lipoprotein SlyB and intracellular machineries NQR sodium pump and ribosomes are potential molecular targets for the peptides. Results of this study improve our understanding of the bactericidal function of epithelial cytokeratin fragments, and highlight an unexplored class of human antimicrobial peptides, which may serve as non-αβ peptide scaffolds for the design of novel peptide-based antibiotics. PMID:27891122

  6. Membrane-Active Epithelial Keratin 6A Fragments (KAMPs Are Unique Human Antimicrobial Peptides with a Non-αβ Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Tsz Ying Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global health problem that threatens millions of lives each year. Natural antimicrobial peptides and their synthetic derivatives, including peptoids and peptidomimetics, are promising candidates as novel antibiotics. Recently, the C-terminal glycine-rich fragments of human epithelial keratin 6A were found to have bactericidal and cytoprotective activities. Here, we used an improved 2-dimensional NMR method coupled with a new protocol for structural refinement by low temperature simulated annealing to characterize the solution structure of these kerain-derived antimicrobial peptides (KAMPs. Two specific KAMPs in complex with membrane mimicking sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS micelles displayed amphipathic conformations with only local bends and turns, and a central 10-residue glycine-rich hydrophobic strip that is central to bactericidal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-αβ structure for human antimicrobial peptides. Direct observation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that KAMPs deformed bacterial cell envelopes and induced pore formation. Notably, in competitive binding experiments, KAMPs demonstrated binding affinities to LPS and LTA that did not correlate with their bactericidal activities, suggesting peptide-LPS and peptide-LTA interactions are less important in their mechanisms of action. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of KAMPs-bacterial factor complexes indicated that membrane surface lipoprotein SlyB and intracellular machineries NQR sodium pump and ribosomes are potential molecular targets for the peptides. Results of this study improve our understanding of the bactericidal function of epithelial cytokeratin fragments, and highlight an unexplored class of human antimicrobial peptides, which may serve as non-αβ peptide scaffolds for the design of novel peptide-based antibiotics.

  7. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography for Prostate Cancer: Distribution of Disease and Implications for Radiation Therapy Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Watson, Tahne; Denham, Jim; Shakespeare, Thomas P; Rutherford, Natalie; McLeod, Nicholas; Picton, Kevin; Ainsworth, Paul; Bonaventura, Tony; Martin, Jarad M

    2017-11-01

    To explore the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-avid distribution of prostate cancer (PC) on positron emission tomography (PET), both at the time of initial diagnosis and at the time of relapse after definitive local treatment. A total of 179 PSMA PET scans in patients with nil or ≤3 lesions on conventional imaging were retrospectively categorized into 3 subgroups: group A, high-risk PC with no prior definitive therapy (n=34); group B, prior prostatectomy (n=75); and group C, prior radiation therapy (n=70). The numbers and locations of the PSMA-avid lesions were mapped. The PSMA-positive lesions were identified subjectively by a nuclear medicine physician on the basis of clinical experience and taking into account the recent literature and artefacts. A total of 893 PSMA-avid lesions were identified; at least 1 lesion was detected in 80% of all scans. A high detection rate was present even at very low serum PSA levels (eg, at PSA ≤0.20 ng/mL in group B, the detection rate was 46%). Thirty-eight percent of studies revealed extrapelvic disease (41%, 31%, and 46% in groups A, B, and C, respectively). Almost one-third of all studies showed only oligometastases (24%, 36%, and 31% in groups A, B, and C, respectively). A large proportion of these (40%) were a solitary lesion. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET demonstrated a large number of otherwise unknown metastatic lesions. Therefore we recommend PSMA PET for more accurate assessment of disease burden in initial staging of high-risk PC, as well as for restaging in patients with prostate-specific antigen relapse after primary therapies. Furthermore, a high proportion of oligometastases on PSMA PET provides a prime opportunity to investigate the role of targeted local therapies for oligometastatic PCs. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. First evidence of SGPL1 expression in the cell membrane silencing the extracellular S1P siren in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nadja; Adamus, Anna; Frank, Marcus; Kraft, Karin; Kühn, Juliane; Müller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara; Kasten, Annika; Seitz, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a main regulator of cell survival, proliferation, motility, and platelet aggregation, and it is essential for angiogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking. In that S1P acts as a second messenger intra- and extracellularly, it might promote cancer progression. The main cause is found in the high S1P concentration in the blood, which encourage cancer cells to migrate through the endothelial barrier into the blood vessels. The irreversible degradation of S1P is solely caused by the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 overexpression reduces cancer cell migration and therefore silences the endogenous S1P siren, which promotes cancer cell attraction-the main reason for metastasis. Since our previous metabolomics studies revealed an increased SGPL1 activity in association with successful breast cancer cell treatment in vitro, we further investigated expression and localization of SGPL1. Expression analyses confirmed a very low SGPL1 expression in all breast cancer samples, regardless of their subtype. Additionally, we were able to prove a novel SGPL expression in the cytoplasm membrane of non-tumorigenic breast cells by fusing three independent methods. The general SGPL1 downregulation and the loss of the plasma membrane expression resulted in S1P dependent stimulation of migration in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20. Not only S1P stimulated migration could be repressed by overexpressing the natural SGPL1 variant not but also more general migratory activity was significantly reduced. Here, for the first time, we report on the SGPL1 plasma membrane location in human, non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines silencing the extracellular S1P siren in vitro, and thereby regulating pivotal cellular functions. Loss of this plasma membrane distribution as well as low SGPL1 expression levels could be a potential prognostic marker and a viable target for therapy. Therefore, the precise role of SGPL1 for cancer

  9. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes within chitosan-hyaluronan membrane-derived 3D tumor spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Jang; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Cancer drug development has to go through rigorous testing and evaluation processes during pre-clinical in vitro studies. However, the conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture is often discounted by the insufficiency to present a more typical tumor microenvironment. The multicellular tumor spheroids have been a valuable model to provide more comprehensive assessment of tumor in response to therapeutic strategies. Here, we applied chitosan-hyaluronan (HA) membranes as a platform to promote three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid formation. The biological features of tumor spheroids of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells on chitosan-HA membranes were compared to those of 2D cultured cells in vitro. The cells in tumor spheroids cultured on chitosan-HA membranes showed higher levels of stem-like properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as NANOG, SOX2, CD44, CD133, N-cadherin, and vimentin, than 2D cultured cells. Moreover, they exhibited enhanced invasive activities and multidrug resistance by the upregulation of MMP2, MMP9, BCRC5, BCL2, MDR1, and ABCG2 as compared with 2D cultured cells. The grafting densities of HA affected the tumor sphere size and mRNA levels of genes on the substrates. These evidences suggest that chitosan-HA membranes may offer a simple and valuable biomaterial platform for rapid generation of tumor spheroids in vitro as well as for further applications in cancer stem cell research and cancer drug screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of endotoxicity of Shigella generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA) by genetic lipid A modifications: relative activation of TLR4 and TLR2 pathways in different mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Omar; Pesce, Isabella; Giannelli, Carlo; Aprea, Susanna; Caboni, Mariaelena; Citiulo, Francesco; Valentini, Sara; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; MacLennan, Calman Alexander; D'Oro, Ugo; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2014-09-05

    Outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria are attractive vaccine candidates as they present surface antigens in their natural context. We previously developed a high yield production process for genetically derived particles, called generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA), from Shigella. As GMMA are derived from the outer membrane, they contain immunostimulatory components, especially lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined ways of reducing their reactogenicity by modifying lipid A, the endotoxic part of LPS, through deletion of late acyltransferase genes, msbB or htrB, in GMMA-producing Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains. GMMA with resulting penta-acylated lipid A from the msbB mutants showed a 600-fold reduced ability, and GMMA from the S. sonnei ΔhtrB mutant showed a 60,000-fold reduced ability compared with GMMA with wild-type lipid A to stimulate human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in a reporter cell line. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed a marked reduction in induction of inflammatory cytokines (S. sonnei ΔhtrB, 800-fold; ΔmsbB mutants, 300-fold). We found that the residual activity of these GMMA is largely due to non-lipid A-related TLR2 activation. In contrast, in the S. flexneri ΔhtrB mutant, a compensatory lipid A palmitoleoylation resulted in GMMA with hexa-acylated lipid A with ∼10-fold higher activity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells than GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A, mostly due to retained TLR4 activity. Thus, for use as vaccines, GMMA will likely require lipid A penta-acylation. The results identify the relative contributions of TLR4 and TLR2 activation by GMMA, which need to be taken into consideration for GMMA vaccine development. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Embryonic cholesterol esterification is regulated by a cyclic AMP-dependent pathway in yolk sac membrane-derived endodermal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siou-Huei Wang

    Full Text Available During avian embryonic development, endodermal epithelial cells (EECs absorb yolk through the yolk sac membrane. Sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT is important for esterification and yolk lipid utilization during development. Because the major enzyme for yolk sac membrane cholesteryl ester synthesis is SOAT1, we cloned the avian SOAT1 promoter and elucidated the cellular functions of SOAT1. Treatments with either glucagon, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, an adenylate cyclase activator (forskolin, a cAMP analog (dibutyryl-cAMP, or a low glucose concentration all increased SOAT1 mRNA accumulation in EECs from Japanese quail, suggesting that SOAT1 is regulated by nutrients and hormones through a cAMP-dependent pathway. Activity of protein kinase A (PKA was increased by IBMX, whereas co-treatment with the PKA inhibitor, H89 negated the increase in PKA activity. Cyclic AMP-induced EECs had greater cholesterol esterification than untreated EECs. By promoter deletion and point-mutation, the cAMP-response element (-349 to -341 bp was identified as critical in mediating transcription of SOAT1. In conclusion, expression of SOAT1 was regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway and factors that increase PKA will increase SOAT1 to improve the utilization of lipids in the EECs and potentially modify embryonic growth.

  12. Unusual Self-Assembly of the Recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein-Based Fusion Antigen CTH522 Into Protein Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Karlsen, Kasper; Jensen, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic but is a c......Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic...... but is a challenging vaccine candidate by being an integral membrane protein, and the immunogenicity depends on a correctly folded structure. We investigated the biophysical properties of the recombinant MOMP-based fusion antigen CTH522, which is tested in early human clinical trials. It consists of a truncated......-defined secondary structural elements, and no thermal transitions were measurable. Chemical unfolding resulted monomers that upon removal of the denaturant self-assembled into higher order structures, comparable to the structure of the native protein. The conformation of CTH522 in nanoparticles is thus not entirely...

  13. Codon optimisation to improve expression of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-specific membrane-associated antigen by Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Douarre, Pierre E; Soulimane, Tewfik; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; MacSharry, John; Coffey, Aidan; Sleator, Roy D; O'Mahony, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Subunit and DNA-based vaccines against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) attempt to overcome inherent issues associated with whole-cell formulations. However, these vaccines can be hampered by poor expression of recombinant antigens from a number of disparate hosts. The high G+C content of MAP invariably leads to a codon bias throughout gene expression. To investigate if the codon bias affects recombinant MAP antigen expression, the open reading frame of a MAP-specific antigen MptD (MAP3733c) was codon optimised for expression against a Lactobacillus salivarius host. Of the total 209 codons which constitute MAP3733c, 172 were modified resulting in a reduced G+C content from 61% for the native gene to 32.7% for the modified form. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the PnisA promoter; allowing controlled heterologous expression in L. salivarius. Expression was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and microplate fluorometry via GFP tags translationally fused to the C-termini of the two MptD genes. A > 37-fold increase in expression was observed for the codon-optimised MAP3733synth variant over the native gene. Due to the low cost and improved expression achieved, codon optimisation significantly improves the potential of L. salivarius as an oral vaccine stratagem against Johne's disease. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR post-translational turnover and in its plasma membrane stability in airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ferru-Clément

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is a chloride channel that is expressed on the apical plasma membrane (PM of epithelial cells. The most common deleterious allele encodes a trafficking-defective mutant protein undergoing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD and presenting lower PM stability. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR turnover and trafficking in a human bronchiolar epithelial cell line (CFBE41o- expressing wild-type CFTR. Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family that fulfils numerous cell functions, one of which is endocytosis and recycling process via actin cytoskeleton remodelling. When we treated cells with chemical inhibitors such as ML141 against Cdc42 and wiskostatin against the downstream effector N-WASP, we observed that CFTR channel activity was inhibited, in correlation with a decrease in CFTR amount at the cell surface and an increase in dynamin-dependent CFTR endocytosis. Anchoring of CFTR to the cortical cytoskeleton was then presumably impaired by actin disorganization. When we performed siRNA-mediated depletion of Cdc42, actin polymerization was not impacted, but we observed actin-independent consequences upon CFTR. Total and PM CFTR amounts were increased, resulting in greater activation of CFTR. Pulse-chase experiments showed that while CFTR degradation was slowed, CFTR maturation through the Golgi apparatus remained unaffected. In addition, we observed increased stability of CFTR in PM and reduction of its endocytosis. This study highlights the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway at several levels of CFTR biogenesis and trafficking: (i Cdc42 is implicated in the first steps of CFTR biosynthesis and processing; (ii it contributes to the stability of CFTR in PM via its anchoring to cortical actin; (iii it promotes CFTR endocytosis and presumably its sorting toward lysosomal degradation.

  15. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2006-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and α-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1α and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis

  16. Study of CD69 antigen expression and integrity of leukocyte cellular membrane in stored platelet concentrates following irradiation and treatment with Mirasol® PRT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachert, Elżbieta; Woźniak, Jolanta; Antoniewicz-Papis, Jolanta; Krzywdzińska, Agnieszka; Kubis, Jolanta; Mikołowska, Agata; Letowska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Leukocytes in transfused blood components, particularly residual lymphocytes, have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of various adverse reactions. One of the most severe is transfusionassociated graft versus host disease (TA-GvHD) following transfusion of blood components contaminated with immunocompetent T lymphocytes. Irradiation is a routine method for protection against TA-GvHD. According to the literature, some pathogen reduction methods have also been proven effective for the inactivation of T lymphocytes, and so they may be considered as an alternative to irradiation. Comparison of CD69 antigen expression and the integrity of the leukocyte cellular membrane in stored platelet concentrates (PCs) following irradiation with the Gammacell 3000 Elan (Nordion Inc., Ottawa, Canada) and treatment with the Mirasol® Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) System (Terumo BCT, Lakewood, USA). The study included seven experiments. For each experiment we used 3 PCs, for Mirasol® PRT System treatment (M), for Gammacell 3000 Elan irradiation (R), and for the control (C). 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, USA) permeability was used to determine lymphocyte viability while CD69 antigen expression was the marker of lymphocyte activation. Analyses of 7-AAD and CD69 antigen expression were performed in a FACS Canto I flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, USA). During 6 storage days, viable lymphocyte count decreased to 28% (p = 0.001) in the Mirasol® PRT System treated PCs and to 65% (p = 0.004) in the irradiated PCs. A statistically significant increase in CD69 expression in the irradiated PCs was observed; 1.3-fold on day 3 and 1.5-fold on day 6. In the Mirasol ® PRT System treated PCs, no statistically significant increase was observed. The in vitro results suggest that the Mirasol® PRT System is as effective as irradiation due to donor leukocyte inactivation capacity.

  17. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  18. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans

  19. Potential Impact of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on the Acquisition of Antibodies Against Glutamate-Rich Protein and Apical Membrane Antigen 1 in Children Living in Southern Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Sylla, Khadime; Sow, Doudou

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is defined as the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial drug to children during the peak of malaria transmission season with the aim of preventing malaria-associated mortality and morbidity. SMC using sulfadoxine-pyrimetham......Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is defined as the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial drug to children during the peak of malaria transmission season with the aim of preventing malaria-associated mortality and morbidity. SMC using sulfadoxine......-pyrimethamine (SP) combined with amodiaquine (AQ) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission. However, a concern is whether SMC can delay the natural acquisition of immunity toward malaria parasites in areas with intense SMC delivery. To investigate this......, total IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens glutamate-rich protein R0 (GLURP-R0) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in Senegalese children under the age of 10 years in 2010 living in Saraya and Velingara districts (with SMC...

  20. Detection of intracellular canine distemper virus antigen in mink inoculated with an attenuated or a virulent strain of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1989-09-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, the distribution of viral antigen in various tissues and blood mononuclear leukocytes was studied in wild mink, either vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) or experimentally inoculated with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of CDV. Viral antigen was detected in cells of the lymphoid system 6 to 12 days after vaccination. From 2 to 3 days after inoculation with the virulent strain, CDV antigen was demonstrated in cells of the lymphoid system and, during the incubation period, the antigen had spread to the epithelia and brain at days 6 and 12, respectively. In clinical cases of acute fatal canine distemper, the viral antigen was detected in a wide variety of tissues, including the cells of the lymphoid system, epithelial cells of skin, mucous membranes, lung, kidney, and cells of the CNS. The diagnostic importance of CDV antigen detection is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  1. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  2. Ultrastructural study of electron dense deposits in renal tubular basement membrane: prevalence and relationship to epithelial atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim L C; Killingsworth, Murray C

    2014-08-01

    This study reports the prevalence of immune deposits associated with the proximal and distal tubules in a series of routine renal biopsies received in our department during a single calendar year. From 87 cases, 65 (74%) were found to have glomerular immune deposits by immunofluorescence. Tubular immune deposits were found in 12 cases (18%), 3 of which had no glomerular deposits. By transmission electron microscopy (EM), 58 cases (66%) were found to have deposits of granular or vesicular material associated with the tubular basement membranes (TBM). Finely granular electron dense deposits appeared to correspond to the immune deposits seen by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and may be a sensitive marker of immune deposition.

  3. 18F-DCFBC Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted PET/CT Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer: Correlation With Multiparametric MRI and Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Adler, Stephen; Bednarova, Sandra; Berman, Rose; Ton, Anita T; McKinney, Yolanda; Eclarinal, Philip; Hill, Craig; Afari, George; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Mease, Ronnie C; Merino, Maria J; Jacobs, Paula M; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Pomper, Martin G; Choyke, Peter L

    2017-10-01

    To assess the ability of (N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine) (F-DCFBC), a prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted PET agent, to detect localized prostate cancer lesions in correlation with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histopathology. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant, prospective, institutional review board-approved study included 13 evaluable patients with localized prostate cancer (median age, 62.8 years [range, 51-74 years]; median prostate-specific antigen, 37.5 ng/dL [range, 3.26-216 ng/dL]). Patients underwent mpMRI and F-DCFBC PET/CT within a 3 months' window. Lesions seen on mpMRI were biopsied under transrectal ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided biopsy, or a radical prostatectomy was performed. F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were evaluated blinded and separately for tumor detection on a lesion basis. For PET image analysis, MRI and F-DCFBC PET images were fused by using software registration; imaging findings were correlated with histology, and uptake of F-DCFBC in tumors was compared with uptake in benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules and normal peripheral zone tissue using the 80% threshold SUVmax. A total of 25 tumor foci (mean size, 1.8 cm; median size, 1.5 cm; range, 0.6-4.7 cm) were histopathologically identified in 13 patients. Sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 36% and 96%, respectively, for all tumors. For index lesions, the largest tumor with highest Gleason score, sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 61.5% and 92%, respectively. The average SUVmax for primary prostate cancer was higher (5.8 ± 4.4) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules (2.1 ± 0.3) or that of normal prostate tissue (2.1 ± 0.4) at 1 hour postinjection (P = 0.0033). The majority of index prostate cancers are detected with F-DCFBC PET/CT, and this may be a prognostic indicator based on uptake and staging. However, for detecting prostate cancer with high sensitivity, it

  4. Phase 1/2a study of the malaria vaccine candidate apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-l) administered in adjuvant system AS01B or AS02A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Spring (Michele Donna); J.F. Cummings (James); C.F. Ockenhouse (Christian); S. Dutta (Shantanu); R. Reidler (Randall); E. Angov (Evelina); E. Bergmann-Leitner (Elke); V.A. Stewart (Ann); S. Bittner (Stacey); L. Juompan (Laure); M.G. Kortepeter (Mark); R. Nielsen (Robin); U. Krzych (Urszula); E. Tierney (Ev); L.A. Ware (Lisa); M. Dowler (Megan); C.C. Hermsen (Cornelus); R.W. Sauerwein (Robert); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); O. Ofori-Anyinam (Opokua); D.E. Lanar (David); J.L. Williams (Jack); K.E. Kester (Kent); K. Tucker (Kathryn); M. Shi (Meng); E. Malkin (Elissa); C. Long (Carole); C.L. Diggs (Carter); L. Soisson (Lorraine Amory); M.C. Dubois; W.R. Ballou (Ripley); J. Cohen (Joe); D.G. Heppner (Gray)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This Phase 1/2a study evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an experimental malaria vaccine comprised of the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) representing the 3D7 allele formulated with either the AS01B or AS02A

  5. First evidence of SGPL1 expression in the cell membrane silencing the extracellular S1P siren in mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Engel

    Full Text Available The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a main regulator of cell survival, proliferation, motility, and platelet aggregation, and it is essential for angiogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking. In that S1P acts as a second messenger intra- and extracellularly, it might promote cancer progression. The main cause is found in the high S1P concentration in the blood, which encourage cancer cells to migrate through the endothelial barrier into the blood vessels. The irreversible degradation of S1P is solely caused by the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1. SGPL1 overexpression reduces cancer cell migration and therefore silences the endogenous S1P siren, which promotes cancer cell attraction-the main reason for metastasis. Since our previous metabolomics studies revealed an increased SGPL1 activity in association with successful breast cancer cell treatment in vitro, we further investigated expression and localization of SGPL1. Expression analyses confirmed a very low SGPL1 expression in all breast cancer samples, regardless of their subtype. Additionally, we were able to prove a novel SGPL expression in the cytoplasm membrane of non-tumorigenic breast cells by fusing three independent methods. The general SGPL1 downregulation and the loss of the plasma membrane expression resulted in S1P dependent stimulation of migration in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20. Not only S1P stimulated migration could be repressed by overexpressing the natural SGPL1 variant not but also more general migratory activity was significantly reduced. Here, for the first time, we report on the SGPL1 plasma membrane location in human, non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines silencing the extracellular S1P siren in vitro, and thereby regulating pivotal cellular functions. Loss of this plasma membrane distribution as well as low SGPL1 expression levels could be a potential prognostic marker and a viable target for therapy. Therefore, the precise role of

  6. The Disulfide Bond Cys255-Cys279 in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Is Required for Membrane Insertion of Anthrax Protective Antigen Pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacquez

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin receptors act as molecular clamps or switches that control anthrax toxin entry, pH-dependent pore formation, and translocation of enzymatic moieties across the endosomal membranes. We previously reported that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the immunoglobulin-like (Ig domain of the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2 inhibited the function of the protective antigen (PA pore. In the present study, the disulfide linkage in the Ig domain was identified as Cys255-Cys279 and Cys230-Cys315. Specific disulfide bond deletion mutants were achieved by replacing Cys residues with Ala residues. Deletion of the disulfide bond C255-C279, but not C230-C315, inhibited the PA pore-induced release of the fluorescence dyes from the liposomes, suggesting that C255-C279 is essential for PA pore function. Furthermore, we found that deletion of C255-C279 did not affect PA prepore-to-pore conversion, but inhibited PA pore membrane insertion by trapping the PA membrane-inserting loops in proteinaceous hydrophobic pockets. Fluorescence spectra of Trp59, a residue adjacent to the PA-binding motif in von Willebrand factor A (VWA domain of ANTXR2, showed that deletion of C255-C279 resulted in a significant conformational change on the receptor ectodomain. The disulfide deletion-induced conformational change on the VWA domain was further confirmed by single-particle 3D reconstruction of the negatively stained PA-receptor heptameric complexes. Together, the biochemical and structural data obtained in this study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of the receptor disulfide bond C255-C279 in anthrax toxin action. Manipulation of the redox states of the receptor, specifically targeting to C255-C279, may become a novel strategy to treat anthrax.

  7. Apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, John C.; Shannon, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Details are given for the design, calibration, and operation of an apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of living epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane, 10 μm thick and 5 mm in diameter. Although similar in concept to bulge tests used to investigate the mechanical properties of micromachined thin films, cell-elastomer composite diaphragm inflation tests pose a unique set of experimental challenges. Composite diaphragm (CD) specimens are extremely compliant (E MIN =0 μl, V MAX ≤40 μl) while simultaneously recording the inflation pressure acting at the fixed boundary of the specimen, p(r=a). Using a carefully prescribed six-cycle inflation test protocol, the apparatus is shown to be capable of measuring the [V,p(r=a)] inflation response of a cell-elastomer CD with random uncertainties estimated at ±0.45 μl and ±2.5 Pa, respectively

  8. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, I.E.; Wilhelm, S.M.; Eisen, A.Z.

    1988-01-01

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin

  9. Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a porcine lung epithelial cell line with the involvement of caspase 3 and the MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, B; Bai, F F; Wei, Y; Liu, M J; Feng, Z X; Xiong, Q Y; Hua, L Z; Shao, G Q

    2015-09-25

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) are important in the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma genus of bacteria. We investigated whether Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae LAMPs have pathogenic potential by inducing apoptosis in a St. Jude porcine lung epithelial cell line (SJPL). LAMPs from a pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae (strain 232) were used in the research. Our investigation made use of diamidino-phenylindole (DAPI) and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and Annexin-V-propidium iodide staining. After LAMP treatment for 24 h, typical changes were induced, chromosomes were concentrated, apoptotic bodies were observed, the 3'-OH groups of cleaved genomes were exposed, and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 36.5 ± 11.66%. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 were activated and cytochrome c (cyt c) was released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm; poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was digested into two fragments; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was phosphorylated; and the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax increased while the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 decreased. LAMPs also stimulated SJPL cells to produce nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. This study demonstrated that LAMPs from M. hyopneumoniae can induce apoptosis in SJPL cells through the activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, cyt c, Bax, and p38 MAPK, thereby contributing to our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, which should improve the treatment of M. hyopneumoniae infections.

  10. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET imaging and immunohistochemistry in adenoid cystic carcinoma-@]@a preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein Nulent, Thomas J.W.; Es, Robert J.J. van [Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Krijger, Gerard C.; Keizer, Bart de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de [Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willems, Stefan M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the head and neck is an uncommon malignant epithelial tumour of the secretory glands. Many patients develop slowly growing local recurrence and/or distant metastasis, for which treatment options are limited. A retrospective analysis of 9 AdCC patients was conducted to analyse the visualization of AdCC on PSMA PET/CT and to investigate the expression of PSMA on primary, recurrent and metastatic AdCC tumour tissue using immunohistochemistry. Local recurrence occurred in six patients and eight developed distant metastasis. All PET/CTs depicted PSMA-ligand uptake. Four PSMA PET/CTs showed suspected residual disease, eight scans depicted uptake in areas suspected of distant metastasis. Median Maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUV{sub max}) in local recurrent and distant metastatic AdCC was 2.52 (IQR 2.41-5.95) and 4.01 (IQR 2.66-8.71), respectively. All primary tumours showed PSMA expression on immunohistochemistry (5-90% expression), as well as all available specimens of local recurrence and distant metastases. PSMA PET/CT is able to detect and visualize local recurrent and distant metastatic AdCC. PSMA-specific targeting is supported by PSMA expression on immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  11. Phase I trial of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milowsky, Matthew I; Nanus, David M; Kostakoglu, Lale; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Bander, Neil H

    2004-07-01

    To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity, human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response, pharmacokinetics, organ dosimetry, targeting, and preliminary efficacy of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 ((90)Y-J591) in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC). Patients with androgen-independent PC and evidence of disease progression received indium-111-J591 for pharmacokinetic and biodistribution determinations followed 1 week later by (90)Y-J591 at five dose levels: 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 mCi/m(2). Patients were eligible for up to three re-treatments if platelet and neutrophil recovery was satisfactory. Twenty-nine patients with androgen-independent PC received (90)Y-J591, four of whom were re-treated. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen at 20 mCi/m(2), with two patients experiencing thrombocytopenia with non-life-threatening bleeding episodes requiring platelet transfusions. The 17.5-mCi/m(2) dose level was determined to be the MTD. No re-treated patients experienced DLT. Nonhematologic toxicity was not dose limiting. Targeting of known sites of bone and soft tissue metastases was seen in the majority of patients. No HAHA response was seen. Antitumor activity was seen, with two patients experiencing 85% and 70% declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels lasting 8 and 8.6 months, respectively, before returning to baseline. Both patients had objective measurable disease responses. An additional six patients (21%) experienced PSA stabilization. The recommended dose for (90)Y-J591 is 17.5 mCi/m(2). Acceptable toxicity, excellent targeting of known sites of PC metastases, and biologic activity in patients with androgen-independent PC warrant further investigation of (90)Y-J591 in the treatment of patients with PC.

  12. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen basedenzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14% cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMPPCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48. Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  13. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  14. Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Transport via Epithelial Na+ Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunaka, Yoshinori; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Ohta, Mariko; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nakahari, Takashi; Kubota, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Renal epithelial Na+ transport plays an important role in homeostasis of our body fluid content and blood pressure. Further, the Na+ transport in alveolar epithelial cells essentially controls the amount of alveolar fluid that should be kept at an appropriate level for normal gas exchange. The epithelial Na+ transport is generally mediated through two steps: (1) the entry step of Na+ via epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane and (2) the extrusion step of Na+ via the Na+, K+-ATPase at the basolateral membrane. In general, the Na+ entry via ENaC is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the regulation of ENaC plays an essential role in control of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. In this paper, we discuss two major factors in ENaC regulation: (1) activity of individual ENaC and (2) number of ENaC located at the apical membrane. PMID:22028593

  15. The world of epithelial sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisao

    2017-06-01

    An epithelium is a layer of closely connected cells covering the body or lining a body cavity. In this review, several fundamental questions are addressed regarding the epithelium. (i) While an epithelium functions as barrier against the external environment, how is barrier function maintained during its construction? (ii) What determines the apical and basal sides of epithelial layer? (iii) Is there any relationship between the apical side of the epithelium and the apical membrane of an epithelial cell? (iv) Why are hepatocytes (liver cells) called epithelial, even though they differ completely from column-like shape of typical epithelial cells? Keeping these questions in mind, multiple shapes of epithelia were considered, extracting a few of their elemental processes, and constructing a virtual world of epithelia by combining them. Epithelial cells were also classified into several types based on the number of apical domains of each cell. In addition, an intracellular organelle was introduced within epithelial cells, the vacuolar apical compartment (VAC), which is produced within epithelial cells surrounded by external cell matrix (ECM). The VAC interacts with areas of cell-cell contact of the cell surface membrane and is converted to apical membrane. The properties of VACs enable us to answer the initial questions posed above. Finally, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of epithelial morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  16. Outer Membrane Protein A Conservation among Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates Suggests Its Potential as a Protective Antigen and Diagnostic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Evans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus threatens one billion people in the Asia-Pacific area and cases have emerged outside this region. It is caused by infection with any of the multitude of strains of the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. A vaccine that affords heterologous protection and a commercially-available molecular diagnostic assay are lacking. Herein, we determined that the nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of outer membrane protein A (OmpA are highly conserved among 51 O. tsutsugamushi isolates. Molecular modeling revealed the predicted tertiary structure of O. tsutsugamushi OmpA to be very similar to that of the phylogenetically-related pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, including the location of a helix that contains residues functionally essential for A. phagocytophilum infection. PCR primers were developed that amplified ompA DNA from all O. tsutsugamushi strains, but not from negative control bacteria. Using these primers in quantitative PCR enabled sensitive detection and quantitation of O. tsutsugamushi ompA DNA from organs and blood of mice that had been experimentally infected with the Karp or Gilliam strains. The high degree of OmpA conservation among O. tsutsugamushi strains evidences its potential to serve as a molecular diagnostic target and justifies its consideration as a candidate for developing a broadly-protective scrub typhus vaccine.

  17. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  18. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  19. Quantitative characterisation of clinically significant intra-prostatic cancer by prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression and cell density on PSMA-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domachevsky, Liran; Goldberg, Natalia; Bernstine, Hanna; Nidam, Meital; Groshar, David

    2018-05-30

    To quantitatively characterize clinically significant intra-prostatic cancer (IPC) by prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression and cell density on PSMA-11 positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). Retrospective study approved by the institutional review board with informed written consent obtained. Patients with a solitary, biopsy-proven prostate cancer, Gleason score (GS) ≥7, presenting for initial evaluation by PET/computerised tomography (PET/CT), underwent early prostate PET/MR immediately after PSMA-11 tracer injection. PET/MR [MRI-based attenuation correction (MRAC)] and PET/CT [CT-based AC (CTAC)] maximal standardised uptake value (SUVmax) and minimal and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin, ADCmean; respectively) in normal prostatic tissue (NPT) were compared to IPC area. The relationship between SUVmax, ADCmin and ADCmean measurements was obtained. Twenty-two patients (mean age 69.5±5.0 years) were included in the analysis. Forty-four prostate areas were evaluated (22 IPC and 22 NPT). Median MRAC SUVmax of NPT was significantly lower than median MRAC SUVmax of IPC (p prostate cancer patients with GS ≥ 7. • PSMA PET/MR metrics differentiate between normal and tumoural prostatic tissue. • A multi-parametric approach combining molecular and anatomical information might direct prostate biopsy. • PSMA PET/MR metrics are warranted for radiomics analysis.

  20. The normal chain length distribution of the O antigen is required for the interaction of Shigella flexneri 2a with polarized Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilei Hoare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Essential to the establishment of the disease is the invasion of the colonic epithelial cells. Here we investigated the role of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS O antigen in the ability of S. flexneri to adhere to and invade polarized Caco-2 cells. The S. flexneri 2a O antigen has two preferred chain lengths: a short O antigen (S-OAg regulated by the WzzB protein and a very long O antigen (VL-OAg regulated by Wzz pHS2. Mutants with defined deletions of the genes required for O-antigen assembly and polymerization were constructed and assayed for their abilities to adhere to and enter cultured epithelial cells. The results show that both VL- and S-OAg are required for invasion through the basolateral cell membrane. In contrast, the absence of O antigen does not impair adhesion. Purified LPS does not act as a competitor for the invasion of Caco-2 cells by the wild-type strain, suggesting that LPS is not directly involved in the internalization process by epithelial cells.

  1. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  2. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen and mouse 4-1BBL genes and its effect on dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Weng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to construct a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen (tPSMA and mouse 4-1BBL genes and to determine its effect on dendritic cells (DCs generated from bone marrow suspensions harvested from C57BL/6 mice for which the effect of 4-1BBL on DCs is not clear, especially during DCs processing tumor-associated antigen. Replication deficient adenovirus AdMaxTM Expression System was used to construct recombinant adenovirus Ad-tPSMA-internal ribosome entry site-mouse 4-1BBL (Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL and Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Day 7 proliferating DC aggregates generated from C57BL/6 mice were collected as immature DCs and further mature DCs were obtained by lipopolysaccharide activated immature DCs. After DCs were exposed to the recombinant adenovirus with 250 multiplicity of infection, the expression of tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were detected by Western blot, and the apoptosis and phenotype of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12 in the supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Proliferation of T cells was detected by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were expressed correctly. The apoptosis rate of DCs transfected with Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL was 14.6%, lower than that of control DCs. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules [CD80 (81.6 ± 5.4% and CD86 (80.13 ± 2.81%] up-regulated in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-pulsed DCs, and the level of IL-6 (3960.2 ± 50.54 pg/mL and IL-12 (249.57 ± 12.51 pg/mL production in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-transduced DCs were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those in control DCs. Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL induced higher T-cell proliferation (OD450 = 0.614 ± 0.018, indicating that this recombinant adenovirus can effectively enhance the activity of DCs.

  3. Use of radioimmune assay in investigating reagents to be used in the immunocytochemical localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in immune complexes in the kidney of patients with membranous nephropathy and Australia antigenaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe-Coote, S [South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg (South Africa). Inst. for Electron Microscopy

    1983-09-01

    Radioimmune assay (RIA) was used to investigate the effect of fixatives on antigenicity of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the effect of pronase on the elution of antibody (Ab) from the HBsAg-Ab complex. The effect of pronase on Ab elution was also tested on sections of kidney from a patient with the immune complex disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was located in pronase treated and untreated sections using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Glutareldehyde was shown to be the fixative of choice for studies involving HBsAg. All fixatives were shown to have less effect on antigenicity at 4/sup 0/C than at room temperature. Osmium tetroxide reduced antigenicity to one-third, even at 4/sup 0/C. RIA and SLE kidney section studies showed that Ab was eluted from immune complexes by pronase. Pre-fixation of the antigen (Ag) by glutaraldehyde appears to have no effect on the final elution, although fixation after pronase treatment seemed to enhance the elution effects. The availability of an RIA kit with HBsAg- and Ab-coated beads was of great assistance in evaluating reagents to be used in immunoperoxidase studies of HBsAg in immune complexes of patients with membranous nephropathy and Australia antigenaemia.

  4. Development of (99m)Tc-labeled asymmetric urea derivatives that target prostate-specific membrane antigen for single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sampei, Sotaro; Matsuoka, Daiko; Harada, Naoya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Arimitsu, Kenji; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed strongly in prostate cancers and is, therefore, an attractive diagnostic and radioimmunotherapeutic target. In contrast to previous reports of PMSA-targeting (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complexes that are cationic or lack a charge, no anionic (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complexes have been reported. Notably, the hydrophilicity conferred by both cationic and anionic charges leads to rapid hepatobiliary clearance, whereas an anionic charge might better enhance renal clearance relative to a cationic charge. Therefore, an improvement in rapid clearance would be expected with either cationic or anionic charges, particularly anionic charges. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel anionic (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complex ([(99m)Tc]TMCE) and evaluated its use as a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging probe for PSMA detection. Direct synthesis of [(99m)Tc]TMCE from dimethyl iminodiacetate, which contains both the asymmetric urea and succinimidyl moiety important for PSMA binding, was performed using our microwave-assisted one-pot procedure. The chelate formation was successfully achieved even though the precursor included a complicated bioactive moiety. The radiochemical yield of [(99m)Tc]TMCE was 12-17%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% after HPLC purification. [(99m)Tc]TMCE showed high affinity in vitro, with high accumulation in LNCaP tumors and low hepatic retention in biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies. These findings warrant further evaluation of [(99m)Tc]TMCE as an imaging agent and support the benefit of this strategy for the design of other PSMA imaging probes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 99mTc-labeling and evaluation of a HYNIC modified small-molecular inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jianping; Hu, Silong; He, Simin; Bao, Xiao; Ma, Guang; Luo, Jianmin; Cheng, Jingyi; Zhang, Yingjian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established target in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated a novel 99m Tc-labeled small molecular inhibitor of PSMA. Methods: This new small-molecular inhibitor of PSMA, 6-hydrazinonicotinate-Aminocaproic acid-Lysine-Urea-Glutamate (HYNIC-ALUG) was radiolabeled by 99m Tc and was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using PCa models (PC-3 and LNCaP). Radiation dosimetry was assessed in mice. Results: 99m Tc-HYNIC-ALUG showed excellent stability in different media. A cell assay preliminarily displayed its specificity for PSMA. The inhibitor showed good pharmacokinetics making it suitable for in vivo imaging. PC-3-derived tumors showed no obvious radioactive uptake; however, the LNCaP-derived tumors showed very high radioactive uptake which was significantly decreased by the selective PSMA inhibitor 2-PMPA. Biodistribution in LNCaP xenografts showed an optimum tumor-to-blood ratio of 24.23 ± 3.54 at 2 h. Tumor uptake was also decreased in the inhibition experiment with 2-PMPA (19.45 ± 2.14%ID/g versus 1.42 ± 0.15%ID/g at 2 h). The effective dose of the 99m Tc-HYNIC-ALUG was 8.4E-04 mSv/MBq. Conclusions: A new 99m Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor with specific accumulation in PSMA-positive tumors and low background in other organs was synthesized. The radiopharmaceutical also showed very low radiation dosimetry. This agent may significantly improve the diagnosis, staging, and subsequent monitoring of therapeutic effects in PCa patients.

  6. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen I gene in parasite population from the China-Myanmar border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Zhenjun; Feng, Yonghui; Li, Peipei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Fan, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) gene in Southeast Asia, we determined PfAMA1 sequences from 135 field isolates collected from the China-Myanmar border area and compared them with 956 publically available PfAMA1 sequences from seven global P. falciparum populations. This analysis revealed high genetic diversity of PfAMA1 in global P. falciparum populations with a total of 229 haplotypes identified. The genetic diversity of PfAMA1 gene from the China-Myanmar border is not evenly distributed in the different domains of this gene. Sequence diversity in PfAMA1 from the China-Myanmar border is lower than that observed in Thai, African and Oceanian populations, but higher than that in the South American population. This appeared to correlate well with the levels of endemicity of different malaria-endemic regions, where hyperendemic regions favor genetic cross of the parasite isolates and generation of higher genetic diversity. Neutrality tests show significant departure from neutrality in the entire ectodomain and Domain I of PfAMA1 in the China-Myanmar border parasite population. We found evidence supporting a substantial continent-wise genetic structure among P. falciparum populations, with the highest genetic differentiation detected between the China-Myanmar border and the South American populations. Whereas no alleles were unique to a specific region, there were considerable geographical differences in major alleles and their frequencies, highlighting further necessity to include more PfAMA1 alleles in vaccine designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiolabeling of anti-human prostatic specific membrane antigen antibody with 99Tcm and its biodistribution in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Shaohua; Shen Jiangfan; Tao Rong; Ji Xiaowen; Wang Yancheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the binding affinity of 99 Tc m labeled anti-human prostatic specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody (McAb) J591 to prostate cancer cells and the biodistribution of 99 Tc m -J591 in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer. Methods: The McAb J591 was labeled with vTcm by improved Schwarz method and the labeled McAb was purified by Sephadex G-50. The binding affinity of J591 with prostate cancer cells was measured by Flow Cytometry. The nude mice bearing PSMA-positive C4-2 prostate carcinoma xenografts were served as experiment groups, mice with PSMA-negative pc3 tumors served as controls. The biodistribution of 99 Tc m -J591 were carried out in both model nude mice. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency of 99 Tc m -J591 was 78.9±6.2%, and radiochemical purity was more than 90% after purification. The 99 Tc m -J591 showed a good combination with PSMA-positive C4-2 cells and no combination with PSMA-negative PC3 cells in vitro. The biodistribution results showed that 99 Tcm-J591 was accumulated in tumor tissue during the 2-24 hours after injection in experiment groups, and no significant uptake in control group. The uptake of 99 Tcm-J591 in tumor tissue reached a maximum 15.91±5.16 % ID/g in experimental group at 12h post-injection. There was a significant difference compared with controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The monoclonal antibody J591 exhibits an excellent immuno-reactivity and tumor targeting property, and it may be used in diagnosis and target therapy of prostate cancer. (authors)

  9. Humanised IgG1 antibody variants targeting membrane-bound carcinoembryonic antigen by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, S Q; Umana, P; Mössner, E; Ntouroupi, T; Brünker, P; Schmidt, C; Wilding, J L; Mortensen, N J; Bodmer, W F

    2009-11-17

    The effect of glycoengineering a membrane specific anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (this paper uses the original term CEA for the formally designated CEACAM5) antibody (PR1A3) on its ability to enhance killing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by human immune effector cells was assessed. In vivo efficacy of the antibody was also tested. The antibody was modified using EBNA cells cotransfected with beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III and the humanised hPR1A3 antibody genes. The resulting alteration of the Fc segment glycosylation pattern enhances the antibody's binding affinity to the FcgammaRIIIa receptor on human immune effector cells but does not alter the antibody's binding capacity. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is inhibited in the presence of anti-FcgammaRIII blocking antibodies. This glycovariant of hPR1A3 enhances ADCC 10-fold relative to the parent unmodified antibody using either unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear or natural killer (NK) cells and CEA-positive CRC cells as targets. NK cells are far more potent in eliciting ADCC than either freshly isolated monocytes or granulocytes. Flow cytometry and automated fluorescent microscopy have been used to show that both versions of hPR1A3 can induce antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by monocyte-derived macrophages. However, the glycovariant antibody did not mediate enhanced ADCP. This may be explained by the relatively low expression of FcgammaRIIIa on cultured macrophages. In vivo studies show the efficacy of glycoengineered humanised IgG1 PR1A3 in significantly improving survival in a CRC metastatic murine model. The greatly enhanced in vitro ADCC activity of the glycoengineered version of hPR1A3 is likely to be clinically beneficial.

  10. Phase 1/2a study of the malaria vaccine candidate apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 administered in adjuvant system AS01B or AS02A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele D Spring

    Full Text Available This Phase 1/2a study evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an experimental malaria vaccine comprised of the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 representing the 3D7 allele formulated with either the AS01B or AS02A Adjuvant Systems.After a preliminary safety evaluation of low dose AMA-1/AS01B (10 microg/0.5 mL in 5 adults, 30 malaria-naïve adults were randomly allocated to receive full dose (50 microg/0.5 mL of AMA-1/AS01B (n = 15 or AMA-1/AS02A (n = 15, followed by a malaria challenge. All vaccinations were administered intramuscularly on a 0-, 1-, 2-month schedule. All volunteers experienced transient injection site erythema, swelling and pain. Two weeks post-third vaccination, anti-AMA-1 Geometric Mean Antibody Concentrations (GMCs with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs were high: low dose AMA-1/AS01B 196 microg/mL (103-371 microg/mL, full dose AMA-1/AS01B 279 microg/mL (210-369 microg/mL and full dose AMA-1/AS02A 216 microg/mL (169-276 microg/mL with no significant difference among the 3 groups. The three vaccine formulations elicited equivalent functional antibody responses, as measured by growth inhibition assay (GIA, against homologous but not against heterologous (FVO parasites as well as demonstrable interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma responses. To assess efficacy, volunteers were challenged with P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes, and all became parasitemic, with no significant difference in the prepatent period by either light microscopy or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. However, a small but significant reduction of parasitemia in the AMA-1/AS02A group was seen with a statistical model employing qPCR measurements.All three vaccine formulations were found to be safe and highly immunogenic. These immune responses did not translate into significant vaccine efficacy in malaria-naïve adults employing a primary sporozoite challenge model, but encouragingly, estimation of parasite

  11. Lu-177-PSMA-617 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Stability, Bio-distribution and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kabasakal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses and to study the in vivo and in vitro stability as well as pharmacokinetic characteristics of lutetium-177 (Lu-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-617. Methods: For this purpose, 7 patients who underwent Lu-177-PSMA therapy were included into the study. The injected Lu-177-PSMA-617 activity ranged from 3.6 to 7.4 GBq with a mean of 5.2±1.8 GBq. The stability of radiotracer in saline was calculated up to 48 h. The stability was also calculated in blood and urine samples. Post-therapeutic dosimetry was performed based on whole body and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT scans on dual-headed SPECT/CT system. Results: The radiochemical yield of Lu-177-PSMA-617 was >99%. It remained stable in saline up to 48 h. Analyses of the blood and urine samples showed a single radioactivity peak even at 24 hours after injection. Half-life of the distribution and elimination phases were calculated to be 0.16±0.09 and 10.8±2.5 hours, respectively. The mean excretion rate was 56.5±8.8% ranging from 41.5% to 65.4% at 24 h. Highest radiation estimated doses were calculated for parotid glands and kidneys (1.90±1.19 and 0.82±0.25 Gy/GBq respectively. Radiation dose given to the bone marrow was significantly lower than those of kidney and parotid glands (p<0.05 (0.030±0.008 Gy/GBq. Conclusion: Lu-177-PSMA-617 is a highly stable compound both in vitro and in vivo. Lu-177-PSMA-617 therapy seems to be a safe method for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. The fractionation regime that enables the longest duration of tumor control and/or survival will have to be developed in further studies.

  12. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel 18F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel 18 F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The 18 F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 mSv/MBq. Non

  13. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel {sup 18}F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Hegele-Hartung, Christa [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Wuppertal, Germany, Wuppertal (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel {sup 18}F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The {sup 18}F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 m

  14. Cell membrane antigen-antibody complex dissociation by the widely used glycine-HCL method: an unreliable procedure for studying antibody internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, G; Ford, C H

    1993-02-01

    Methods following the process of binding and internalization of antibodies to cell surface antigens have often employed low pH isoosmolar buffers in order to dissociate surface antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used buffers is a 0.05 M glycine-HCL buffer pH 2.8. Since the efficacy of action of this buffer was critical to a series of internalization experiments employing monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expressing cancer cell lines in this laboratory, we tested its performance in a number of different assays. Our results indicate that this buffer only partially dissociates antigen-antibody bonds and therefore can introduce major inaccuracies in internalization experiments.

  15. Determination of the mean transit time for the transport of aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA across the pulmonary epithelial membrane. A plasma sample method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sofie; Lassen, N A; Rossing, Niels Nygaard

    1988-01-01

    During the last decade it has been customary to estimate pulmonary epithelial permeability (P-P) as the pulmonary clearance of inhaled nebulized 99mTc-DTPA from a time-activity (t-a) curve registered externally by monitoring over the chest. The t-a curve, however, is not defined by the degree of ...

  16. Regulation of Trafficking, Membrane Retention and Turnover of the Na+, HCO3- Co-Transporter NBCn1 in Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christina Wilkens

    normal conditions. Furthermore, we found that the small scaffolding protein RACK1 co-localizes with NBCn1 in membrane protrusions and is important for NBCn1 membrane stability. Collectively, the work in this thesis has contributed with new understanding of the mechanisms involved in cisplatin...

  17. Evaluation of RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells cultured on amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khalooghi, Keynoush; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Kanavi, Mojgan Rezaie; Samiei, Shahram; Pakravesh, Jalil

    2011-06-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a key role in the maintenance of the normal functions of the retina. Tissue engineering using amniotic membrane as a substrate to culture RPE cells may provide a promising new strategy to replace damaged RPE. We established a method of culturing RPE cells over the amniotic membrane as a support for their growth and transplantation. The transcription of specific genes involved in cellular function of native RPE, including RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase, were then measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Data showed a considerable increase in transcription of RPE65, CD68, and VEGF in RPE cells cultured on amniotic membrane. The amounts of CRALBP and tyrosinase transcripts were not affected. This may simply indicate that amniotic membrane restricted dedifferentiation of RPE cells in culture. The results suggest that amniotic membrane may be considered as an elective biological substrate for RPE cell culture.

  18. Expression of P-cadherin identifies prostate-specific-antigen-negative cells in epithelial tissues of male sexual accessory organs and in prostatic carcinomas. Implications for prostate cancer biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, A. P.; Harner, G. D.; Knudsen, K. A.; McBrearty, F. X.; Grujic, E.; Salazar, H.; Han, A. C.; Keshgegian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Cadherins constitute a family of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules the individual members of which are essential for the sorting of cells into tissues during development. In this study, we examined the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and P-cadherin in tissues obtained from radical prostatectomies. Epithelial cells of prostatic glands, ejaculatory ducts, and seminal vesicles expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. P-cadherin was expressed in epithelial cells of the seminal ...

  19. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  20. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  1. A Novel ¹¹¹In-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Nanobody for Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Veldhoven-Zweistra, Joke; Bolkestein, Michiel; Hoeben, Sander; Koning, Gerben A; Boerman, Otto C; de Jong, Marion; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2015-07-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target specificity and rapid background clearance. We developed a novel anti-PSMA Nanobody (JVZ-007) for targeted imaging and therapy of PCa. Here, we report on the application of the (111)In-radiolabeled Nanobody for SPECT/CT imaging of PCa. A Nanobody library was generated by immunization of a llama with 4 human PCa cell lines. Anti-PSMA Nanobodies were captured by biopanning on PSMA-overexpressing cells. JVZ-007 was selected for evaluation as an imaging probe. JVZ-007 was initially produced with a c-myc-hexahistidine (his) tag allowing purification and detection. The c-myc-his tag was subsequently replaced by a single cysteine at the C terminus, allowing site-specific conjugation of chelates for radiolabeling. JVZ-007-c-myc-his was conjugated to 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-DTPA) via the lysines, whereas JVZ-007-cys was conjugated to maleimide-DTPA via the C-terminal cysteine. PSMA targeting was analyzed in vitro by cell-binding experiments using flow cytometry, autoradiography, and internalization assays with various PCa cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). The targeting properties of radiolabeled Nanobodies were evaluated in vivo in biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging experiments, using nude mice bearing PSMA-positive PC-310 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumors. JVZ-007 was successfully conjugated to DTPA for radiolabeling with (111)In at room temperature. (111)In-JVZ007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ007-cys internalized in LNCaP cells and bound to PSMA-expressing PDXs and, importantly, not to PSMA-negative PDXs and human kidneys. Good tumor targeting and fast blood clearance were observed for (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his and (111)In

  2. B-cell responses to pregnancy-restricted and -unrestricted Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 antigens in Ghanaian women naturally exposed to malaria parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and memory B-cell frequencies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in a cohort of P. falciparum-exposed nonpregnant Ghanaian women. The antigens used were a VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 (IT4VAR04) with expression restricted to parasites infecting the placenta, as well as two...... commonly recognized PfEMP1 proteins (HB3VAR06 and IT4VAR60) implicated in rosetting and not pregnancy restricted. This enabled, for the first time, a direct comparison in the same individuals of immune responses specific for a clinically important parasite antigen expressed only during well-defined periods...

  3. The expression and functional activity of membrane-bound human leukocyte antigen-G1 are influenced by the 3'-untranslated region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Signe Goul; Hantash, Basil M; Zhao, Longmei

    2013-01-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is an immunosuppressive molecule acting on both the innate and adaptive immune system. A 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs66554220) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the HLA-G gene has been associated with a number of diseases, pregnancy complication...

  4. File list: ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  7. Optimization of micro-fabricated porous membranes for intestinal epithelial cell culture and in vitro modeling of the human intestinal barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair Gourikutty Sajay, Bhuvanendran; Yin, Chiam Su; Ramadan, Qasem

    2017-12-01

    In vitro modeling of organs could provide a controlled platform for studying physiological events and has great potential in the field of pharmaceutical development. Here, we describe the characterization of in vitro modeling of the human intestinal barrier mimicked using silicon porous membranes as a substrate. To mimic an intestinal in vivo setup as closely as possible, a porous substrate is required in a dynamic environment for the cells to grow rather than a static setup with an impermeable surface such as a petri dish. In this study, we focus on the detailed characterization of Caco-2 cells cultured on a silicon membrane with different pore sizes as well as the effect of dynamic fluid flow on the model. The porous silicon membrane together with continuous perfusion of liquid applying shear stress on the cells enhances the differentiation of polarized cells by providing access to the both their basal and apical surfaces. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.5-3 µm were used and a shear stress of ~0.03 dyne cm-2 was created by applying a low flow rate of 20 nl s-1. By providing these optimized conditions, cells were able to differentiate with columnar morphology, which developed microvilli structures on their apical side and tight junctions between adjacent cells like those in a healthy human intestinal barrier. In this setup, it is possible to study the important cellular functions of the intestine such as transport, absorption and secretion, and thus this model has great potential in drug screening.

  8. Linoleic Acid Permeabilizes Gastric Epithelial Cells by Increasing Connexin43 Levels in the Cell Membrane Via a GPR40- and Akt-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Cisterna, Bruno A.; Salas, Daniela P.; Delgado-López, Fernando; Lampe, Paul D.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC of similar intensity and additive with LA-induced change. Treatment with a CD36 blocker or transfection with siRNA-GPR120 maintain the LA-induced Cx HC activity. However, cells transfected with siRNA-GPR40 did not show LA-induced Cx HC activity but activity was increased upon exposure to DCFS, confirming the presence of activatable Cx HCs in the cell membrane. Treatment with AKTi (Akt inhibitor) abrogated the LA-induced Cx HC activity. In HeLa cells transfected with Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43), LA induced phosphorylation of surface Cx43 at serine 373 (S373), site for Akt phosphorylation. HeLa-Cx43 but not HeLa-Cx43 cells with a S373A mutation showed a LA-induced Cx HC activity directly related to an increase in cell surface Cx43 levels. Thus, the increase in membrane permeability induced by LA is mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway activated by GPR40 that leads to an increase in membrane levels of Cx43 phosphorylated at serine 373 via Akt. PMID:26869446

  9. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  10. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  11. Structural Studies on Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) Malaria Antigens Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Stig

    Chemistry (App I) [1]. VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA in the placental tissue of pregnant women hereby causing severe malaria symptoms endangering both mother and child. The minimal VAR2CSA region required to effectively bind CSA was determined to be the N-terminal DBL domain, DBL2X which we locate......Infection with the pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum parasite causes the potentially deadly Malaria disease which leads to over 1 million fatalities each year according to the WHO (World Health Organization). Individuals subjected to multiple infections gradually become immune to the disease...... symptoms and vaccine research is focused on trying to mimic or advance this immune acquisition. Immunity is primarily caused by acquisition of antibodies directed against a family of Plasmodium protein antigens called PfEMP1s located on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The PfEMP1 proteins are adhesive...

  12. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  13. Detection and partial characterization of a midlamina lucida-hemidesmosome-associated antigen (19-DEJ-1) present within human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Jester, J

    1989-01-01

    , esophagus, cervix, and cornea, and BMs surrounding smooth muscle in medium-sized vessels, placenta, uterus, and esophagus. When 16 human fetal skins (aged 54-142 gestational days) were examined, the antigen was first detected at 81 days. Using immunoperoxidase and immunogold staining techniques, indirect......A murine anti-human monoclonal antibody (19-DEJ-1) has been produced that binds to basement membranes (BMs) of the dermoepidermal junction and arrector pili muscles but not to either dermal glandular or vascular BMs. 19-DEJ-1 also recognizes BMs underneath epithelia of buccal mucosa, tongue......-specific proteoglycan that is present within BMs along the epithelial-connective tissue interface and around smooth muscle in skin and other selected organs. Its unique ultrastructural localization suggests the possibility that 19-DEJ-1 may recognize an antigenic epitope of either anchoring filaments or alternatively...

  14. Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran S. Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of only a finite number of tobacco toxins have been studied. Here, we describe exposure of cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to low concentrations of tobacco carcinogens: nickel sulphate, benzo(bfluoranthene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. After a 24-hour exposure, EGFR was expressed in cell membrane and cytoplasm, BCL-2 was expressed only in the irregular nuclei of large atypical cells, MKI67 was expressed in nuclei with no staining in larger cells, cytoplasmic BIRC5 with stronger nuclear staining was seen in large atypical cells, and nuclear TP53 was strongly expressed in all cells. After only a 24-hour exposure, cells exhibited atypical nuclear and cytoplasmic features. After a 48-hour exposure, EGFR staining was localized to the nucleus, BCL-2 was slightly decreased in intensity, BIRC5 was localized to the cytoplasm, and TP53 staining was increased in small and large cells. BCL2L1 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells at 24- and 48-hour exposures. We illustrate that short-termexposure of a bronchial epithelial cell line to smoking-equivalent concentrations of tobacco carcinogens alters the expression of key proliferation regulatory genes, EGFR, BCL-2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, TP53, and MKI67, similar to that reported in biopsy specimens of pulmonary epithelium described to be preneoplastic lesions.

  15. A novel ELISA using a recombinant outer membrane protein, rTp0663, as the antigen for serological diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Xie, Yafeng; Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Yongjian; Kuang, Xingxing; Zhao, Feijun; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuangquan; Liang, Mingxing; Li, Li; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    The lack of Treponema pallidum-specific antigens with highly accurate diagnosis makes the diagnosis of syphilis challenging. A soluble recombinant version of a new diagnostic protein Tp0663 has been produced. The serodiagnostic potential of this protein was assessed by screening 3326 serum samples simultaneously evaluated by rapid plasma reagin and T. pallidum particle agglutination tests. Kappa (κ) coefficients were used to compare the concordance between clinical diagnosis and the Tp0663-based ELISA or the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP chemiluminescent immunoassay (Abbott GmbH and Co. KG). Using the results of clinical diagnosis as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of Tp0663 were found to be 98.83% (95% confidence interval (CI) 96.61-99.60%) and 100% (95% CI 99.88-100%), respectively. In comparison, the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP assay was found to have a lower sensitivity (97.27%, 95% CI 94.46-98.67%) and specificity (99.61%, 95% CI 99.32-99.78%). In particular, the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP exhibited a false-positive rate of 0.39%. Moreover, the ELISA was in perfect agreement with the gold standard, with a κ value of 0.99, comparable to that of ARCHITECT Syphilis TP (0.96). These results identified Tp0663 as a novel serodiagnostic candidate with great potential for developing novel tests for the diagnosis of syphilis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Formulation of an inhibitor radiopharmaceutical of prostatic antigen of {sup 177}Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys membrane; Formulacion de un radiofarmaco inhibidor del antigeno prostatico de membrana {sup 177}Lu-Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, D.

    2015-07-01

    The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that is expressed on the cell membrane and highly expressed in prostate cancer. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the peptide sequence Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys inhibit PSMA activity through an electrostatic interaction with the Zn. Several theragnostic radiopharmaceuticals with base in {sup 177}Lu have been developed for radiotherapy of specific molecular targets because gamma and beta emissions of the radionuclide (β = 0.498 MeV and γ= 0.133 MeV). However, there is currently no label a formulation for preparing a radiopharmaceutical of {sup 177}Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys useful treatment of prostate cancer. The aim of this research was to optimize and document the process of production of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys for sanitary registration application before the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). The optimization of the production process was assessed a factorial design of three variables with mixed levels (3 x 3 x 2) where the dependent variable is the radiochemical purity, the analytical method was validated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Next, process validation was carried out by labeling 3 lots of the optimized formulation of the radiopharmaceutical (5.55 GBq (2.16 μg) of {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3}, 90 mg peptide PSMA, 50 mg ascorbic acid and 150 μL of acetate buffer 1 M ph 5), long-term stability was performed by high resolution liquid chromatography) to determine its useful shelf life. 3 validation batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in the Production Plant of Radiopharmaceuticals of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), meet specifications preset by obtaining a sterile and free development of bacterial endotoxin yields of labeled 100% and which retains its quality characteristics radiochemical purity greater than 90% for at least 15 days. (Author)

  17. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  18. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  19. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  20. An anti-phospholipase A2 receptor quantitative immunoassay and epitope analysis in membranous nephropathy reveals different antigenic domains of the receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Behnert

    Full Text Available The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R was recently discovered as a target autoantigen in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN. Published evidence suggests that the autoantibodies directed towards a conformation dependent epitope are currently effectively detected by a cell based assay (CBA utilizing indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on tissue culture cells transfected with the PLA2R cDNA. Limitations of such IIF-CBA assays include observer dependent subjective evaluation of semi-quantitative test results and the protocols are not amenable to high throughput diagnostic testing. We developed a quantitative, observer independent, high throughput capture immunoassay for detecting PLA2R autoantibodies on an addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA platform. Since reactive domains of PLA2R (i.e. epitopes could be used to improve diagnostic tests by using small peptides in various high throughput diagnostic platforms, we identified PLA2R epitopes that bound autoantibodies of IMN patients. These studies confirmed that inter-molecular epitope spreading occurs in IMN but use of the cognate synthetic peptides in immunoassays was unable to conclusively distinguish between IMN patients and normal controls. However, combinations of these peptides were able to effectively absorb anti-PLA2R reactivity in IIF-CBA and an immunoassay that employed a lysate derived from HEK cells tranfected with and overexpressing PLA2R. While we provide evidence of intermolecular epitope spreading, our data indicates that in addition to conformational epitopes, human anti-PLA2R reactivity in a commercially available CBA and an addressable laser bead immunoassay is significantly absorbed by peptides representing epitopes of PLA2R.

  1. A Phase 2a Randomized Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of the 1790GAHB Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigen Vaccine against Shigella sonnei Administered Intramuscularly to Adults from a Shigellosis-Endemic Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina W. Obiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is a mild-to-severe diarrheal infection, caused by the genus Shigella, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB based on generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA in Kenya, a Shigella-endemic country. This phase 2a, observer-blind, controlled randomized study (NCT02676895 enrolled 74 healthy adults aged 18–45 years, of whom 72 were vaccinated. Participants received, in a 1:1:1 ratio, two vaccinations with the 1790GAHB vaccine at doses of either 1.5/25 μg of O antigen (OAg/protein (group 1.5/25 μg or 5.9/100 μg (group 5.9/100 μg at day (D 1 and D29, or vaccination with a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine at D1 and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine at D29 (control group. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs, serious AEs (SAEs, and AEs of special interest (neutropenia and reactive arthritis were collected. Anti-S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS serum immunoglobulin G (IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMC were evaluated at D1, D29, and D57 and compared to anti-S. sonnei LPS antibody levels in convalescent patients naturally exposed to S. sonnei. The percentages of participants with seroresponse were also calculated. The most frequently reported solicited local and systemic AEs across all groups were pain and headache, respectively. Only one case of severe systemic reaction was reported (severe headache after first vaccination in group 5.9/100 μg. Seven and three episodes of neutropenia, assessed as probably or possibly related to vaccination respectively, were reported in the investigational and control groups, respectively. No other SAEs were reported. Despite very high baseline anti-S. sonnei LPS serum IgG levels, the 1790GAHB vaccine induced robust antibody responses. At D29, GMC increased 2.10- and 4.43-fold from baseline in groups 1.5/25 and 5.9/100

  2. Variation in the immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 and apical membrane antigen-1 in children residing in the different epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Moye, Adzemye Linus; Wiylanyuy, Adzemye Basil; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2017-11-09

    Studies to assess the immune responses against malaria in Cameroonian children are limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 19 ) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in children residing in the different epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon. In a cross-sectional survey performed between April and July 2015, 602 children between 2 and 15 years (mean ± SD = 5.7 ± 3.7), comprising 319 (53%) males were enrolled from five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the high inland plateau (HIP) strata, the south Cameroonian equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the high western plateau (HWP) strata, and the coastal (C) strata. The children were screened for clinical malaria (defined by malaria parasitaemia ≥ 5000 parasites/µl plus axillary temperature ≥ 37.5 °C). Their antibody responses were measured against P. falciparum MSP-1 19 and AMA-1 vaccine candidate antigens using standard ELISA technique. A majority of the participants were IgG responders 72.1% (95% CI 68.3-75.6). The proportion of responders was higher in females (p = 0.002) and in children aged 10 years and above (p = 0.005). The proportion of responders was highest in Limbe (C strata) and lowest in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p malaria (p malaria parasites. The immune responses varied considerably across the different strata: the highest levels observed in the C strata and the lowest in the HIP strata. Furthermore, malaria transmission in Cameroon could be categorized into two major groups based on the serological reaction of the children: the southern (comprising C and SCEF strata) and northern (comprising HWP, HIP and SS strata) groups. These findings may have significant implications in the design of future trials for evaluating malaria vaccine candidates in Cameroon.

  3. Does Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) identify cells with regenerative, endocrine and neuroendocrine potentials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Floridon; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Thorsen, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a circulating EGF multidomain glycoprotein. FA1 and its membrane-associated precursor is defined by the mRNAs referred to as delta-like (dlk), preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) or zona glomerulosa-specific factor (ZOG). Using a polyclonal antibody recognising both forms......, the localisation of FA1/dlk was analysed in embryonic and fetal tissues between week 5 to 25 of gestation and related to germinal origin and development. FA1 was observed in endodermally derived hepatocytes, glandular cells of the pancreas anlage, and in respiratory epithelial cells. FA1 was also present...... in mesodermally derived cells of the renal proximal tubules, adrenal cortex, Leydig and Hilus cells of the testes and ovaries, fetal chondroblasts, and skeletal myotubes. Ectodermally derived neuro- and adenohypophysial cells, cells in the floor of the 3rd ventricle and plexus choroideus were also FA1 positive...

  4. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  5. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKriptokokosis merupakan infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan Cryptococcus sp. Predileksi jamur tersebut adalah susunan saraf pusat dan selaput otak. Terdapat 5 spesies Cryptococcus sp. yang menyebabkan penyakit pada manusia; yang paling banyak adalah Cr. neoformans dan Cr. gattii. Diagnosis kriptokokosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala klinis, pemeriksaan laboratoris serta radiologis. Pemeriksaan laboratoris dilakukan dengan identifikasi morfologi, serologi danPCR. Pemeriksaan secara morfologi dengan tinta India positif  bila jumlah sel jamur 10  sel/ml spesimen. Kultur dilakukan di media sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA dan niger sheed agar (NSA, jamur tumbuh setelah 5-7 hari. Deteksi antigen dan antibodi dilakukan pada cairan tubuh dan tidak membutuhkan waktu lama. Deteksi antibodi Cr.neoformans memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut, IgA masih positif setelah 1-2 tahun fase penyembuhan, IgG dapat persisten, pada individu imunokompromis menunjukkan hasil yang sangat kompleks dan dalam menentukan diagnosis sering tidak konsisten. Polisakarida adalah komponen paling berperan dalam virulensi Cr. neoformans. Komponen polisakarida terutama glucuronoxylomannan merupakan petanda penting dalam diagnosis kriptokokosis secara serologis. Deteksi antigen Cr. neoformans memiliki kelebihan yaitu menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut/kronis, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas tinggi, dapat mendeteksi polisakarida hingga 10 ng/ml sehingga dengan kadarantigen yang minimal tetap dapat mendiagnosis kriptokokosis.Kata kunci: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigenAbstractCryptococcosis is systemic infection that caused by Cryptococcus sp. Predilection of this fungi is the central nervous system and brain membrane. There are 5 species of Cryptococcus sp. that cause cryptococcosis in human; but the majority are caused by Cr. neoformans and Cr. gattii. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made based on clinical symptoms

  6. Immunization with the Malaria Diversity-Covering Blood-Stage Vaccine Candidate Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 DiCo in Complex with Its Natural Ligand PfRon2 Does Not Improve the In Vitro Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Spiegel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1 can induce strong parasite growth-inhibitory antibody responses in animals but has not achieved the anticipated efficacy in clinical trials. Possible explanations in humans are the insufficient potency of the elicited antibody responses, as well as the high degree of sequence polymorphisms found in the field. Several strategies have been developed to improve the cross-strain coverage of PfAMA1-based vaccines, whereas innovative concepts to increase the potency of PfAMA1-specific IgG responses have received little attention even though this may be an essential requirement for protective efficacy. A previous study has demonstrated that immunization with a complex of PyAMA1 and PyRON2, a ligand with an essential functional role in erythrocyte invasion, leads to protection from lethal Plasmodium yoelli challenge in an animal model and suggested to extend this strategy toward improved strain coverage by using multiple PfAMA1 alleles in combination with PfRon2L. As an alternative approach along this line, we decided to use PfRon2L in combination with three PfAMA1 diversity covering variants (DiCo to investigate the potential of this complex to induce more potent parasite growth inhibitory immune response in combination with better cross-strain-specific efficacy. Within the limits of the study design, the ability of the PfAMA1 DiCo-Mix to induce cross-strain-specific antibodies was not affected in all immunization groups, but the DiCo–PfRon2L complexes did not improve the potency of PfAMA1-specific IgG responses.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of 64Copper Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Primary Lymph Node Staging of Intermediate- to High-risk Prostate Cancer: Our Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Francesco; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Moschini, Marco; Ferro, Matteo; Musi, Gennaro; Butticè, Salvatore; Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Damiano, Rocco

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 64 Copper prostate-specific membrane antigen ( 64 Cu-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the primary lymph node (LN) staging of a selected cohort of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. An observational prospective study was performed in 23 patients with intermediate- to high-risk PCa, who underwent 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT for local and lymph nodal staging before laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with an extended pelvic LN dissection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for LN status of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT were calculated using the final pathological findings as reference. Furthermore, we evaluated the correlation of intraprostatic tumor extent and grading with 64 Cu-PSMA intraprostatic distribution. Pathological analysis of LN involvement in 413 LNs harvested from our study cohort identified a total of 22 LN metastases in 8 (5%) of the 23 (35%) PCa patients. Imaging-based LN staging in a per-patient analysis showed that 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT was positive in 7 of 8 LN-positive patients (22%) with a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 93.7%, considering the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) at 4 hours as our reference. Receiver operating characteristic curve was characterized by an area under the curve of 0.938. A significant positive association was observed between SUV max at 4 hours with Gleason score, index, and cumulative tumor volume. In our intermediate- to high-risk PCa patients study cohort, we showed the high diagnostic accuracy of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT for primary LN staging before radical prostatectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conservation of myeloid surface antigens on primate granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letvin, N L; Todd, R F; Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Griffin, J D

    1983-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with myeloid cell surface antigens were used to study evolutionary changes in granulocyte surface antigens from primate species. Certain of these granulocyte membrane antigens are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, indicating the potential functional importance of these structures. The degree of conservation of these antigens reflects the phylogenetic relationship between primate species. Furthermore, species of the same genus show similar patterns of binding to this panel of anti-human myeloid antibodies. This finding of conserved granulocyte surface antigens suggests that non-human primates may provide a model system for exploring uses of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of human myeloid disorders.

  9. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue......The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...

  10. Pathophysiology of Corneal Scarring in Persistent Epithelial Defects After PRK and Other Corneal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven E; Medeiros, Carla S; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2018-01-01

    To analyze corneal persistent epithelial defects that occurred at 3 to 4 weeks after -4.50 diopter (D) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits and apply this pathophysiology to the treatment of persistent epithelial defects that occur after any corneal manipulations or diseases. Two of 168 corneas that had -4.50 D PRK to study epithelial basement membrane regeneration developed spontaneous persistent epithelial defects that did not heal at 3 weeks after PRK. These were studied with slit-lamp photographs, immunohistochemistry for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transmission electron microscopy. Myofibroblasts developed at the stromal surface within the persistent epithelial defect and for a short distance peripheral to the leading edge of the epithelium. No normal epithelial basement membrane was detectable within the persistent epithelial defect or for up to 0.3 mm behind the leading edge of the epithelium, although epithelial basement membrane had normally regenerated in other areas of the zone ablated by an excimer laser where the epithelium healed promptly. A persistent epithelial defect in the cornea results in the development of myofibroblasts and disordered extracellular matrix produced by these cells that together cause opacity within, and a short distance beyond, the persistent epithelial defect. Clinicians should treat persistent epithelial defects within 10 days of non-closure of the epithelium to facilitate epithelial healing to prevent long-term stromal scarring (fibrosis). [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(1):59-64.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The genetic and molecular basis of bacterial invasion of epithelial cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasion of epithelial cells was demonstrated to be triggered by invasion plasmid antigens B, C, and D ( IpaB, IpaC and IpaD ) which is accomplished by intracellular spread gene icsA. The invasion of epithelial cells by some individual species of bacteria were also reviewed.Yersinia enterocolitica invasiveness was shown ...

  12. Management of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, Mehdi; Hammersmith, Kristin M

    2018-04-24

    To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development. Current cases of HSV epithelial keratitis are manageable with available medications, but new advancements are required to decrease disease burden in the future. HSV vaccine can be revolutionary.

  13. Polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith S Málaga-Machaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. The production and use of polyclonal antibodies may contribute to an increase in the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.Polyclonal antibodies were raised in alpacas, rabbits, and hens immunized with trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen, membrane proteins, trypomastigote lysate antigen and recombinant 1F8 to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis was performed to determine specificity of the developed antibodies. An antigen capture ELISA of circulating antigens in serum, plasma and urine samples was developed using IgY polyclonal antibodies against T. cruzi membrane antigens (capture antibody and IgG from alpaca raised against TESA. A total of 33 serum, 23 plasma and 9 urine samples were analyzed using the developed test. Among serum samples, compared to serology, the antigen capture ELISA tested positive in 55% of samples. All plasma samples from serology positive subjects were positive in the antigen capture ELISA. All urine positive samples had corresponding plasma samples that were also positive when tested by the antigen capture ELISA.Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detection of circulating antigens in both the plasma and urine of infected individuals. Detection of antigens is direct evidence of the presence of the parasite, and could be a better surrogate of current infection status.

  14. Pre-therapeutic dosimetry of normal organs and tissues of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitor in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasakal, Levent; AbuQbeitah, Mohammad; Ayguen, Aslan; Yeyin, Nami [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Demirci, Emre [Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Toklu, Turkay [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    {sup 177}Lu-617-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand seems to be a promising tracer for radionuclide therapy of progressive prostate cancer. However, there are no published data regarding the radiation dose given to the normal tissues. The aim of the present study was to estimate the pretreatment radiation doses in patients who will undergo radiometabolic therapy using a tracer amount of {sup 177}Lu-labeled PSMA ligand. The study included seven patients with progressive prostate cancer with a mean age of 63.9 ± 3.9 years. All patients had prior PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and had intense tracer uptake at the lesions. The injected {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 activity ranged from 185 to 210 MBq with a mean of 192.6 ± 11.0 MBq. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2-cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min and 24, 48, and 120 h) after injection. Whole-body images were obtained at 4, 24, 48, and 120 h post-injection (p.i.). The geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts was determined through region of interest (ROI) analysis. Attenuation correction was applied using PSMA PET/CT images. The OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. The calculated radiation-absorbed doses for each organ showed substantial variation. The highest radiation estimated doses were calculated for parotid glands and kidneys. Calculated radiation-absorbed doses per megabecquerel were 1.17 ± 0.31 mGy for parotid glands and 0.88 ± 0.40 mGy for kidneys. The radiation dose given to the bone marrow was significantly lower than those of kidney and parotid glands (p < 0.05). The calculated radiation dose to bone marrow was 0.03 ± 0.01 mGy/MBq. Our first results suggested that {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 therapy seems to be a safe method. The dose-limiting organ seems to be the parotid glands rather than kidneys and bone marrow. The lesion radiation doses are

  15. Cancer vaccines: an update with special focus on ganglioside antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Roberto J; Guthmann, Marcel D; Gabri, Mariano R; Carnero, Ariel J L; Alonso, Daniel F; Fainboim, Leonardo; Gomez, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    the Inmunologia Molecular> (CIM) from La Havana, Cuba, to developed new strategies for specific active immunotherapy. The project included two ganglioside based vaccines and one anti-idiotypic vaccine. We focused on two antigens: first GM3, an ubiquitous antigen which is over-expressed in several epithelial tumor types; and a second one, N-Glycolyl-GM3 a more molecule, not being expressed in normal tissues and recently found in several neoplastic cells, in particular breast, melanoma and neuroectodermal cancer cells. We developed two vaccines, one with each antigen, both using proteins derived from the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Neisseria Meningitidis B, as carriers. We developed also the 1E10 vaccine; an anti-idiotype vaccine designed to mimic the N-Glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This monoclonal antibody is an Ab2-type-antibody which recognizes the Ab1 antibody called P3, the latter is a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes gangliosides as antigens. Since 1998 we initiated a clinical development program for these three compounds. Results of the phase I clinical trials proved that the three vaccines were safe and able to elicit specific antibody responses. In addition we were able to demonstrate the activation of the cellular arm of the immune response in patients treated with the GM3 vaccine. Although phase I trials are not designed to evaluate antitumor efficacy, it was encouraging to observe tumor shrinkage in some patients treated both with the GM3 and N-Glycolyl-GM3 vaccines. We have already begun a phase II program in several neoplastic diseases, with all three vaccines.

  16. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. ► The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. ► Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. ► Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  17. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chun-Hua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Liu, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Huang, Shelly [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, Peng-Yuan, E-mail: medp7123@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yang, Ping-Chang, E-mail: yangp@mcmaster.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  18. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  19. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  20. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  1. Purinergic signalling in epithelial ion transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    , including ion transport. In this review, I will first introduce the main components of the extracellular ATP signalling, which have become known as the purinergic signalling system. With more than 50 components or processes, just at cell membranes, it ranks as one of the most versatile signalling systems......-regulators of secretion. On an organ level, both receptor types can exert physiological functions and together with other partners in the purinergic signalling, integrated models for epithelial secretion and absorption are emerging....

  2. Matriptase zymogen supports epithelial development, homeostasis and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Stine; Tadeo, Daniel; Le-Gall, Sylvain M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Matriptase is a membrane serine protease essential for epithelial development, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as a central orchestrator of pathogenic pericellular signaling in the context of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. Matriptase is an unusual protease in that its...... previously reported for transgenic mice mis-expressing wildtype epidermal matriptase. Equally surprising, mice engineered to express only zymogen-locked endogenous matriptase, unlike matriptase null mice, were viable, developed epithelial barrier function, and regenerated the injured epithelium. Compatible...

  3. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  4. Immune response to Lactobacillus plantarum expressing Borrelia burgdorferi OspA is modulated by the lipid modification of the antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz del Rio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the use of lactic acid bacteria as mucosal delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens, microbicides and therapeutics. We investigated the mechanism by which a mucosal vaccine based in recombinant lactic acid bacteria breaks the immunological tolerance of the gut in order to elicit a protective immune response.We analyzed how the lipid modification of OspA affects the localization of the antigen in our delivery vehicle using a number of biochemistry techniques. Furthermore, we examined how OspA-expressing L. plantarum breaks the oral tolerance of the gut by stimulating human intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte derived dendritic cells and measuring cytokine production. We show that the leader peptide of OspA targets the protein to the cell envelope of L. plantarum, and it is responsible for protein export across the membrane. Mutation of the lipidation site in OspA redirects protein localization within the cell envelope. Further, we show that lipidated-OspA-expressing L. plantarum does not induce secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it breaks oral tolerance of the gut via Th1/Th2 cell mediated immunity, as shown by the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by human dendritic cells, and by the production of IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, respectively.Lipid modification of OspA expressed in L. plantarum modulates the immune response to this antigen through a Th1/Th2 immune response.

  5. Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginés, Silvia; Mariño, Marta; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Morimoto, Chikao; Callebaut, Christian; Hovanessian, Ara; Casadó, Vicent; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    The extra-enzymic function of cell-surface adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme mainly localized in the cytosol but also found on the cell surface of monocytes, B cells and T cells, has lately been the subject of numerous studies. Cell-surface ADA is able to transduce co-stimulatory signals in T cells via its interaction with CD26, an integral membrane protein that acts as ADA-binding protein. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ADA-CD26 interaction plays a role in the adhesion of lymphocyte cells to human epithelial cells. To meet this aim, different lymphocyte cell lines (Jurkat and CEM T) expressing endogenous, or overexpressing human, CD26 protein were tested in adhesion assays to monolayers of colon adenocarcinoma human epithelial cells, Caco-2, which express high levels of cell-surface ADA. Interestingly, the adhesion of Jurkat and CEM T cells to a monolayer of Caco-2 cells was greatly dependent on CD26. An increase by 50% in the cell-to-cell adhesion was found in cells containing higher levels of CD26. Incubation with an anti-CD26 antibody raised against the ADA-binding site or with exogenous ADA resulted in a significant reduction (50-70%) of T-cell adhesion to monolayers of epithelial cells. The role of ADA-CD26 interaction in the lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion appears to be mediated by CD26 molecules that are not interacting with endogenous ADA (ADA-free CD26), since SKW6.4 (B cells) that express more cell-surface ADA showed lower adhesion than T cells. Adhesion stimulated by CD26 and ADA is mediated by T cell lymphocyte function-associated antigen. A role for ADA-CD26 interaction in cell-to-cell adhesion was confirmed further in integrin activation assays. FACS analysis revealed a higher expression of activated integrins on T cell lines in the presence of increasing amounts of exogenous ADA. Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. PMID

  6. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD. In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706 of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  7. Transplante de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas alógenas expandidas ex vivo sobre membrana amniótica: relato de caso Transplantation of allogenic limbal epithelial stem cells cultivated ex vivo on amniotic membrane: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvaro Pereira Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente apresentou falência de transplante de limbo e conjuntiva de doador vivo alógeno no olho direito após ceratoconjuntivite epidêmica. Após alguns meses, foi submetida a transplante de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas alógenas cultivadas ex vivo sobre membrana amniótica (primeiro caso no Brasil, tendo evoluído com epitelização total da córnea e melhora da acuidade visual. Após o 3º mês da cirurgia, iniciou-se neovascularização superficial periférica com piora da transparência corneana. A visão manteve-se 0,1 após um ano de cirurgia.Case report of a patient who developed failure of an allogenic living related conjunctival limbal transplantation in the right eye after an episode of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. After a few months, she underwent transplantation of allogenic limbal epithelial stem cells cultivated ex vivo on amniotic membrane (first case in Brazil. The patient evolved with total corneal epithelialization and improvement of the visual acuity. Three months after the surgery, peripheral superficial neovascularization with worsening of the corneal transparency was observed. The vision remained 0.1 after one year of the transplantation.

  8. Prostate specific antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine proteases, is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain. Secreted exclusively by epithelial cells of the prostate gland, PSA is found largely in seminal plasma. Only a small amount of PSA can be found in normal serum. Serum PSA levels are found to be, considerably increased in prostate cancer patients. A number of studies on PSA have made great achievement on its biochemistry, analytical method and clinical application. PSA as one of the most important tumor marker, is used to help diagnosis and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of prostate cancer

  9. Polarized Airway Epithelial Models for Immunological Co-Culture Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Würtzen, Peter A; Hansen, Søren Werner Karlskov

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells line all cavities and surfaces throughout the body and play a substantial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Asthma and other atopic diseases are increasing worldwide and allergic disorders are hypothesized to be a consequence of a combination of dysregulation...... of the epithelial response towards environmental antigens and genetic susceptibility, resulting in inflammation and T cell-derived immune responses. In vivo animal models have long been used to study immune homeostasis of the airways but are limited by species restriction and lack of exposure to a natural...

  10. Distribution and number of epidermal growth factor receptors in skin is related to epithelial cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Basketter, D A; Couchman, J R

    1983-01-01

    receptors are detected on the epithelial cells overlying the basement membranes of the epidermis, sebaceous gland, and regions of the hair follicle all of which have proliferative capacity. In marked contrast, tissues which have started to differentiate and lost their growth potential, carry either...... and temporal control of epithelial proliferation....

  11. Cloning and characterization of the immunodominant membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... A; Amp, antigenic membranes protein; AY, aster yellows; CPh, clover phyllody; JHP ... host-phytoplasma interactions and the IDPs are classified into three distinct types: type I was ..... Range of phytoplasma concentrations in ...

  12. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  13. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  14. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    which represent secondary gene products. They are synthesized in a stepwise fashion from a precursor by the action of different glycosyltransferases. In non-keratinized oral mucosa, a sequential elongation of the carbohydrates is associated with differentiation of epithelial cells, resulting...... in expression of precursors on basal cells and A/B antigens on spinous cells. Reduction or complete deletion of A/B antigen expression in oral carcinomas has been reported, a phenotypic change that is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential of the tumours and with the mortality rates of the patients....... Disappearance of the antigens is ascribed to the absence of A or B transferase gene expression. Several studies have shown that loss of A and B antigen expression is associated with increased cell motility, invasion in matrigel, and tumourigenecity in syngenic animals. In vivo studies of human oral wound...

  15. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins

  16. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...... and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K channels may be of importance....

  17. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  18. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  19. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  20. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted. PMID:21898857

  1. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma compared to normal salivary gland tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Noura M; Salem, Hend M; Dahmoush, Heba M

    2017-07-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor which displays biological, histological and clinical diversity thus representing a challenge for its diagnosis and management. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein identified as a tumor specific antigen due to its frequent overexpression in the majority of epithelial carcinomas and its correlation with prognosis. It is considered to be a promising biomarker used as a therapeutic target already in ongoing clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern, cellular characterization and level of EpCAM expression in MEC and demonstrate its correlation with histologic grading which may benefit future clinical trials using EpCAM targeted therapy. 48 specimens (12 normal salivary gland tissue and 36 MEC) were collected and EpCAM membranous expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Total immunoscore (TIS) was evaluated, the term 'EpCAM overexpression' was given for tissues showing a total immunoscore >4. A highly significant difference was observed between TIS percent values in control and different grades of MEC (p<0.001). High grade MEC (HG-MEC) was the highest EpCAM expressor. In addition, EpCAM expression pattern differed among the different grades. EpCAM expression was detected in MEC, and its overexpression correlated with increasing the histological grade. The diffuse membranous expression in HG-MEC could be of diagnostic value in relation to the patchy expression observed in both low grade and intermediate grade MEC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane glycoprotein involved in normal and neoplastic cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quackenbush, E.; Clabby, M.; Gottesdiener, K.M.; Barbosa, J.; Jones, N.H.; Strominger, J.L.; Speck, S.; Leiden, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the heavy chain of the heterodimeric human membrane glycoprotein 4F2 have been isolated by immunoscreening of a λgt11 expression library. The identity of these clones has been confirmed by hybridization to RNA and DNA prepared from mouse L-cell transfectants, which were produced by whole cell gene transfer and selected for cell-surface expression of the human 4F2 heavy chain. DNA sequence analysis suggest that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs encode an approximately 526-amino acid type II membrane glycoprotein, which is composed of a large C-terminal extracellular domain, a single potential transmembrane region, and a 50-81 amino acid N-terminal intracytoplasmic domain. Southern blotting experiments have shown that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs are derived from a single-copy gene that has been highly conserved during mammalian evolution

  4. The subapical compartment : a traffic center in membrane polarity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D; Tyteca, D; van IJzendoorn, SCD

    2004-01-01

    Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces

  5. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  6. Immunohistochemical study of epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochicha O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are known to influence the biology (proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of overlying epithelia. In the intestine, myofibroblasts have been demonstrated to be essential for epithelial differentiation. It is therefore hypothesized that myofibroblasts may also be involved in intestinal metaplasia that is characteristic of Barrett esophagus. Objective: This study endeavors to immunohistologically evaluate epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett′s metaplasia. Materials and Methods: Nineteen archival esophageal endoscopic biopsies of Barrett′s metaplasia were immune-phenotyped for the following epithelial and myofibroblast antigens - cytokeratins (CK 8, 13, 18, CDX2 (Caudal type homeobox 2, a-smooth muscle actin (SMA. Results: α-SMA immunostaining revealed close association between myofibroblasts and metaplastic Barrett′s epithelium but not with normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Myofibroblasts were more prominent in dysplastic than in non-dysplastic Barrett metaplasia. CDX2 and CK 8/18, indicators of intestinal differentiation were expressed in Barrett metaplasia but not normal esophageal squamous epithelium, while the reverse was the case for CK 13, which only stained normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Conclusion: Although their precise role is yet to be clearly defined, sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are very likely involved in the pathogenesis of Barrett′s metaplasia.

  7. Celiac Disease: Role of the Epithelial BarrierSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schumann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In celiac disease (CD a T-cell–mediated response to gluten is mounted in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in a malabsorptive enteropathy histologically highlighted by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. Recent data point to the epithelial layer as an under-rated hot spot in celiac pathophysiology to date. This overview summarizes current functional and genetic evidence on the role of the epithelial barrier in CD, consisting of the cell membranes and the apical junctional complex comprising sealing as well as ion and water channel-forming tight junction proteins and the adherens junction. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are discussed, including apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, biology of intestinal stem cells, alterations in the apical junctional complex, transcytotic uptake of gluten peptides, and possible implications of a defective epithelial polarity. Current research is directed toward new treatment options for CD that are alternatives or complementary therapeutics to a gluten-free diet. Thus, strategies to target an altered epithelial barrier therapeutically also are discussed. Keywords: Celiac Sprue, Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy, Tight Junction, Epithelial Polarity, Partitioning-Defective Proteins, α-Gliadin 33mer

  8. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  9. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  10. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  11. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Caitlin; Alexander, Sherene; Prabhu, Neeta

    2017-01-15

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease associated with human papilloma virus types 13 and 32. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings, and most lesions are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously with time. The purpose of this paper is to describe a five-year-old girl who presented with multiple intraoral lesions on the buccal mucosa and tongue, which regressed spontaneously in 15 months.

  12. Does Increased Expression of the Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase Isoform 2 Confer Resistance to Apoptosis on Breast Cancer Cells?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanHouten, Joshua N

    2008-01-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) is highly expressed on the apical membrane of mammary epithelial cells during lactation, and is the predominant pump responsible for calcium transport into milk...

  13. The role of CD4 in antigen-independent activation of isolated single T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelso, A; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    The membrane molecule CD4 (L3T4) is thought to facilitate activation of Class II H-2-restricted T cells by binding to Ia determinants on antigen-presenting cells. Recent reports suggest that CD4 can also contribute to antigen-independent activation by anti-T cell receptor (TCR) antibodies. An ass...

  14. Antigenic Variation of TprK Facilitates Development of Secondary Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Tara B.; Molini, Barbara J.; Fernandez, Mark C.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2014-01-01

    Although primary syphilis lesions heal spontaneously, the infection is chronic, with subsequent clinical stages. Healing of the primary chancre occurs as antibodies against outer membrane antigens facilitate opsonophagocytosis of the bacteria by activated macrophages. TprK is an outer membrane protein that undergoes antigenic variation at 7 variable regions, and variants are selected by immune pressure. We hypothesized that individual TprK variants escape immune clearance and seed new dissemi...

  15. Stimulation of Na+ -K+ -pump currents by epithelial nicotinic receptors in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Lottig, Lena; Diener, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl - secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data have shown expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl - secretion by nicotine, in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. Here, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport. Ussing chamber experiments were performed, using rat distal colon with intact epithelia. Epithelia were basolaterally depolarized to measure currents across the apical membrane. Apically permeabilized tissue was also used to measure currents across the basolateral membrane in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Nicotine had no effect on currents through Cl - channels in the apical membrane or on currents through K + channels in the apical or the basolateral membrane. Instead, nicotine stimulated the Na + -K + -pump as indicated by Na + -dependency and sensitivity of the nicotine-induced current across the basolateral membrane to cardiac steroids. Effects of nicotine were inhibited by nicotinic receptor antagonists such as hexamethonium and mimicked by dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, a chemically different nicotinic agonist. Simultaneous stimulation of epithelial muscarinic and nicotinic receptors led to a strong potentiation of transepithelial Cl - secretion. These results suggest a novel concept for the cholinergic regulation of transepithelial ion transport by costimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic epithelial receptors and a unique role of nicotinic receptors controlling the activity of the Na + -K + -ATPase. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  17. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  18. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  19. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  20. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    Corneal epithelium is being regenerated throughout life by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) believed to be located in histologically defined stem cell niches in corneal limbus. Defective or dysfunctional LESCs result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) causing pain and decreased visual acuity...... subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum...

  1. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  3. Isocyanate test antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, M.H.; Alarie, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    A test antigen for detecting antibodies to a diisocyanate comprises the reaction product of a protein and a monoisocyanate derived from the same radical as the diisocyanate. The diisocyanates most usually encountered and therefore calling for antibody detection are those of toluene, hexamethylene, methylene, isophorone and naphthylene. The preferred protein is human serum albumin. (author)

  4. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  5. The preparation and clinical use of a radioimmunoassay CA125 kit for the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenshu

    1992-01-01

    A self-made radioimmunoassay CA125 kit (using OC125 monoclonal antibody ascites offered by Dr. Bast Laboratory which was purified, solidified and labelled with 125 I) was used for serum determination in 80 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and in 40 standard antigen samples. The results demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between our self-made CA 125 kit and an imported CENTOCOR CA125 kit (P 125 kit is very useful in monitoring epithelial ovarian cancer

  6. Antigen entrapped in the escheriosomes leads to the generation of CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Faisal M; Khan, Masood A; Nasti, Tahseen H; Ahmad, Nadeem; Mohammad, Owais

    2003-06-02

    In previous study, we demonstrated the potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) lipid liposomes (escheriosomes) to undergo membrane-membrane fusion with cytoplasmic membrane of the target cells including professional antigen presenting cells. Our present study demonstrates that antigen encapsulated in escheriosomes could be successfully delivered simultaneously to the cytosolic as well as endosomal processing pathways of antigen presenting cells, leading to the generation of both CD4(+) T-helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. In contrast, encapsulation of same antigen in egg phosphatidyl-choline (egg PC) liposomes, just like antigen-incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) complex, has inefficient access to the cytosolic pathway of MHC I-dependent antigen presentation and failed to generate antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. However, both egg PC liposomes as well as escheriosomes-encapsulated antigen elicited strong humoral immune response in immunized animals but antibody titre was significantly higher in the group of animals immunized with escheriosomes-encapsulated antigen. These results imply usage of liposome-based adjuvant as potential candidate vaccine capable of eliciting both cell-mediated as well as humoral immune responses. Furthermore, antigen entrapped in escheriosomes stimulates antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation and also enhances the level of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 in the immunized animals.

  7. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON

    2016-01-01

    The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...

  8. Altered expression of epithelial cell surface glycoconjugates and intermediate filaments at the margins of mucosal wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Grøn, B.; Mandel, U.

    1998-01-01

    Alterations in cell to cell adhesion are necessary to enable the type of cell movements that are associated with epithelial wound healing and malignant invasion. Several studies of transformed cells have related epithelial cell movement to changes in the cell surface expression of the carbohydrate......-T antigen. The changes induced by wounding in the expression of collagen IV, laminin gamma2-chain (laminin-5), and laminin alpha5-chain were similar to those found in skin wounds and served to define the region of epithelial movement. This region was found to show a marked increase in staining for both...... epithelium, a pattern of expression similar to K16, which was also strongly upregulated in both the outgrowth and the adjacent nonwounded epithelium. These findings provide further support for an influence of such carbohydrate structures on the migratory behavior of epithelial cells....

  9. Epithelial trafficking of Sonic hedgehog by megalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos R; Zeng, Jibin; El Alfy, Mohamed; Barth, Jeremy L; Chintalapudi, Mastan Rao; McCarthy, Robert A; Incardona, John P; Argraves, W Scott

    2006-10-01

    We present here evidence of in vivo epithelial endocytosis and trafficking of non-lipid-modified Sonic hedgehog (ShhN) when infused into rat efferent ducts via microinjection. Initially, exogenous ShhN is detected in endocytic vesicles and early endosomes located near the apical plasma membrane of non-ciliated cells. Within 30-60 min following infusion, ShhN can be detected in lysosomes and at basolateral regions of non-ciliated cells. Basolaterally, ShhN was observed along the extracellular surfaces of interdigitated plasma membranes of adjacent cells and in the extracellular compartment underlying the efferent duct epithelium. Uptake and subcellular trafficking of infused ShhN by non-ciliated cells could be blocked by either anti-megalin IgG or the megalin antagonist, RAP. Ciliated cells, which do not express megalin, displayed little if any apical internalization of ShhN even though they were found to express Patched-1. However, ShhN was found in coated pits of lateral plasma membranes of ciliated cells as well as in underlying endocytic vesicles. We conclude that megalin-mediated endocytosis of ShhN can occur in megalin-expressing epithelia in vivo, and that the internalized ShhN can be targeted to the lysosome or transcytosed in the plane of the epithelium or across the epithelium. These findings highlight the multiple mechanisms by which megalin may influence Shh morphogen gradients in vivo.

  10. A method for visualizing surface-exposed and internal PfEMP1 adhesion antigens in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Dominique; Sowa, Kordai M; Salanti, Ali

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The insertion of parasite antigens into the host erythrocyte membrane and the structure and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum adhesion receptors on that membrane are poorly understood. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and a novel labelling and fixation method have been used...... fluorochromes has been developed for laser scanning confocal optical microscopy and the analysis of the developmental expression of malaria adhesion antigens....

  11. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (pacrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (pacrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  12. Light Responsive Polymer Membranes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, stimuli responsive materials have gained significant attention in membrane separation processes due to their ability to change specific properties in response to small external stimuli, such as light, pH, temperature, ionic strength, pressure, magnetic field, antigen, chemical composition, and so on. In this review, we briefly report recent progresses in light-driven materials and membranes. Photo-switching mechanisms, valved-membrane fabrication and light-driven properties are examined. Advances and perspectives of light responsive polymer membranes in biotechnology, chemistry and biology areas are discussed.

  13. Splenic epithelial cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Jalali, U.

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of spleen are rare entities. Congenital splenic cysts are even more uncommon comprising of only 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. We report a case of 22 years old female who presented with history of 2 years abdominal pain and gradual distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Laboratory tests show thrombocytopenia with platelets count of 97000 per cubic millimeter and anemia with hemoglobin 8.7 gram per deciliter. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done and the weight of the spleen was found to be 1.5 kilogram. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst. The aetiology, diagnostic modalities and treatment options are discussed in the case report. (author)

  14. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalvia, Maria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Castellani, Stefano [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); D’Antonio, Palma [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Perna, Giuseppe [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Carbone, Annalucia [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Capozzi, Vito [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conese, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.conese@unifg.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in

  15. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasalvia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; D’Antonio, Palma; Perna, Giuseppe; Carbone, Annalucia; Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Capozzi, Vito; Conese, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in the

  16. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twite, Nicolas [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Andrei, Graciela [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Kummert, Caroline [ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Donner, Catherine [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasme Hospital, Route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels (Belgium); Perez-Morga, David [Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institut de Biologie et Médecine Moléculaires, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); De Vos, Rita [Pathology Department, U.Z. Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 12, Leuven (Belgium); Snoeck, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Snoeck@Rega.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Marchant, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.marchant@ulb.ac.be [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  17. Cdc42 is crucial for the establishment of epithelial polarity during early mammalian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Li, Shaohua; Chrostek-Grashoff, Anna

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane, but exhi......To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane...

  18. Ontogeny of pulmonary alveolar epithelial markers of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Brady, M F; Brody, J S

    1990-02-01

    We studied differentiation of the pulmonary epithelium in the periphery of fetal rat lung in vivo and in vitro by comparing the ontogeny of cell-surface glycoconjugates with that of surfactant phospholipids. Apical surface binding of the lectin Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) and expression of a 200-kDa MPA-binding glycoprotein (MPA-gp200) was evident at 20 days gestation in type 2 cells, but did not correlate with ultrastructural features of type 2 cell differentiation. Epithelial cells isolated from peripheral lung of 18-day gestation fetal rats displayed hormone-sensitive surfactant synthesis prior to the hormone-insensitive expression of MPA-gp200. Expression of MPA-gp200 occurred in association with the appearance of many new apical surface proteins suggesting a hormone-independent process of polar membrane differentiation. Thus membrane and secretory differentiation are discordant and can be dissociated. In vivo binding of Ricinus communis 1 agglutinin (RCA1), an apical marker of the differentiated alveolar type 1 cell occurred in undifferentiated peripheral lung epithelial cells as early as 18 days gestation, disappeared from differentiating type 2 cells and appeared in differentiated type 1 cells. Both undifferentiated fetal epithelial cells at 18 days gestation and fully differentiated type 1 cells express multiple glycoproteins with terminal beta-linked galactose residues which bind RCA1. Some of these RCA1-binding glycoproteins appear to be similar. These observations suggest that alveolar epithelial type 1 cells may derive directly from undifferentiated peripheral lung epithelial cells as well as from fully differentiated type 2 cells. In addition, terminal differentiation of fetal lung peripheral epithelium into type 1 and type 2 cells may involve repression as well as induction of differentiation-related genes.

  19. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  20. Neutrophil Interactions with Epithelial Expressed ICAM-1 Enhances Intestinal Mucosal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, JC; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, AC; Weber, DA; Neish, AS; Nusrat, A; Parkos, CA

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. While epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 plays an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing. PMID:26732677

  1. Neutrophil interactions with epithelial-expressed ICAM-1 enhances intestinal mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, J C; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, A C; Weber, D A; Neish, A S; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A

    2016-09-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. Although epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 has an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing.

  2. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  3. Oral epithelial cell reaction after exposure to Invisalign plastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaraj, Thyagaseely; Simet, Samantha; Beatty, Mark; Premaraj, Sundaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Invisalign plastic aligners (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) are used to correct malocclusions. The aligners wrap around the teeth and are in contact with gingival epithelium during treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cellular responses of oral epithelium exposed to Invisalign plastic in vitro. Oral epithelial cells were exposed to eluate obtained by soaking Invisalign plastic in either saline solution or artificial saliva for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Cells grown in media containing saline solution or saliva served as controls. Morphologic changes were assessed by light microscopy. The 3-[4, 5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell viability and membrane integrity, respectively. Cellular adhesion and micromotion of epithelial cells were measured in real time by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Cells exposed to saline-solution eluate appeared rounded, were lifted from the culture plates, and demonstrated significantly increased metabolic inactivity or cell death (P <0.05). Saliva eluates did not induce significant changes in cell viability compared with untreated cells. Flow cytometry and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing showed that cells treated with saline-solution eluate exhibited compromised membrane integrity, and reduced cell-to-cell contact and mobility when compared with saliva-eluate treatment. Exposure to Invisalign plastic caused changes in viability, membrane permeability, and adhesion of epithelial cells in a saline-solution environment. Microleakage and hapten formation secondary to compromised epithelial integrity might lead to isocyanate allergy, which could be systemic or localized to gingiva. However, these results suggest that saliva might offer protection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem [Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P. [Electron Microscopy Unit, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Iwaarden, J. Freek van, E-mail: f.vaniwaarden@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  5. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  6. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    of expression of these antigens in the benign lesions was similar to that of normal oral mucosa, i.e. expression of: N-acetyllactosamine on basal cells, H antigen on parabasal cells, and Lex and Ley on spinous cells. However, lesions with epithelial dysplasia showed H antigen on all spinous cells, and often......The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... also on basal cells, with expression of Lex and Ley restricted to the most superficial part of the epithelium above the H-positive cell layers. In carcinomas most cells were negative for H antigen but were positive for Ley and Lex in 5 out of 8 cases....

  7. Binding of Candida albicans to Human CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 Modulates the Inflammatory Response of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Klaile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa, including the gastrointestinal tract, as a commensal. In immunocompromised patients, C. albicans can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause fatal invasive infections. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a, CEACAM5 (CEA, and CEACAM6 (CD66c are immunomodulatory receptors expressed on human mucosa and are recruited by bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we show for the first time that a fungal pathogen (i.e., C. albicans also binds directly to the extracellular domain of human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5, and CEACAM6. Binding was specific for human CEACAMs and mediated by the N-terminal IgV-like domain. In enterocytic C2BBe1 cells, C. albicans caused a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM1 and induced higher expression of membrane-bound CEACAM1 and soluble CEACAM6. Lack of the CEACAM1 receptor after short hairpin RNA (shRNA knockdown abolished CXCL8 (interleukin-8 secretion by C2BBe1 cells in response to C. albicans. In CEACAM1-competent cells, the addition of recombinant soluble CEACAM6 reduced the C. albicans-induced CXCL8 secretion.

  8. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  9. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers....... In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...... use. Although most oral pathologists possibly recognize and accept the criteria for grading epithelial dysplasia, firstly based on architectural features and then of cytology, there is great variability in their interpretation of the presence, degree and significance of the individual criteria...

  10. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Borges

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. RESULTS: Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13 in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75 was statistically larger (P < 0.001. Several clinical features were analyzed, but only parity was shown to influence CD83 antigen expression in the adjacent breast tissue, such that positive expression was more evident in nulliparous women (P = 0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the CD83 antigen in the fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  11. Characterization of retrokeratoprosthetic membranes in the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Rebecca C; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Michaud, Norman A; Dohlman, Claes H; Colby, Kathryn A

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate retroprosthetic membranes that can occur in 25% to 65% of patients with the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro). Two patients with Peter anomaly and 2 with neurotrophic scarred corneas underwent revisions of their type 1 KPros because of visually compromising retroprosthetic membranes. The excised membranes were studied by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue stains. Immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic examination were also used. Light microscopic examination revealed that the retro-KPro fibrous membranes originated from the host's corneal stroma. These mildly to moderately vascularized membranes grew through gaps in the Descemet membrane to reach behind the KPro back plate and adhere to the anterior iris surface, which had undergone partial lysis. In 2 cases, the fibrous membranes merged at the pupil with matrical portions of metaplastic lens epithelium, forming a bilayered structure that crossed the optical axis. Retro-KPro membranes stained positively for α-smooth muscle actin but negatively for pancytokeratin. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of actin filaments within myofibroblasts and small surviving clusters of metaplastic lens epithelial cells. Stromal downgrowth, rather than epithelial downgrowth, was the major element of the retro-KPro membranes in this series. Metaplastic lens epithelium also contributed to opacification of the visual axis. Florid membranous inflammation was not a prominent finding and thus probably not a requisite stimulus for membrane development. Further advances in prosthetic design and newer antifibroproliferative agents may reduce membrane formation.

  12. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  13. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Microfluidic squeezing for intracellular antigen loading in polyclonal B-cells as cellular vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Szeto, Gregory; van Egeren, Debra; Worku, Hermoon; Sharei, Armon; Alejandro, Brian; Park, Clara; Frew, Kirubel; Brefo, Mavis; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-05-01

    B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation.

  15. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  16. In vivo antibody-mediated modulation of aminopeptidase A in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, S; Dijkman, H B; van Son, J P; Wetzels, J F; Assmann, K J

    1999-07-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) is one of the many renal hydrolases. In mouse kidney, APA is predominantly expressed on the brush borders and sparsely on the basolateral membranes of proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, when large amounts of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against APA were injected into mice, we observed strong binding of the MAbs to the basolateral membranes, whereas the MAbs bound only transiently to the brush borders of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. In parallel, APA itself disappeared from the brush borders by both endocytosis and shedding, whereas it was increasingly expressed on the basolateral sides. Using ultrastructural immunohistology, we found no evidence for transcellular transport of endocytosed APA to the basolateral side of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The absence of transcellular transport was confirmed by experiments in which we used a low dose of the MAbs. Such a low dose did not result in binding of the MAbs to the brush borders and had no effect on the presence of APA in the brush borders of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. In these experiments we still could observe binding of the MAbs to the basolateral membranes in parallel with the local appearance of APA. In addition, treatment of mice with chlorpromazine, a calmodulin antagonist that interferes with cytoskeletal function, largely inhibited the MAb-induced modulation of APA. Our studies suggest that injection of MAbs to APA specifically interrupts the normal intracellular traffic of this enzyme in proximal tubular epithelial cells. This intracellular transport is dependent on the action of cytoskeletal proteins.

  17. Apical Membrane Potassium Conductance in Guinea Pig Gallbladder Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    did block the accompanying der short-circuit conditions except for brief periods (300 change in fR.. TEA was ineffective when added to the ms) during...toad skin. Biochim. 29. RICHARDS, N. W., AND D. C. DAWSON. Single potassium channelsBiophys. Acta 728: 455-459, 1983. blocked by lidocaine and quinidine

  18. Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

    2012-11-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1...

  20. Investigation of SNARE-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xin

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand how polarized membrane trafficking pathways change during the loss of epithelial cell polarity during cancer progression we have studied syntaxins 3 and 4 in prostate cancer...

  1. A novel method for isolation of epithelial cells from ovine esophagus for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheiner, Tanja; Kuess, Anna; Dye, Julian; Saxena, Amulya K

    2014-01-01

    The yield of a critical number of basal epithelial cells with high mitotic rates from native tissue is a challenge in the field of tissue engineering. There are many protocols that use enzymatic methods for isolation of epithelial cells with unsatisfactory results for tissue engineering. This study aimed to develop a protocol for isolating a sufficient number of epithelial cells with a high Proliferating Index from ovine esophagus for tissue engineering applications. Esophageal mucosa was pretreated with dispase-collagenase solution and plated on collagen-coated culture dishes. Distinction of the various types of epithelial cells and developmental stages was done with specific primary antibodies to Cytokeratins and to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). Up to approximately 8100 epithelial cells/mm2 of mucosa tissue were found after one week of migration. Cytokeratin 14 (CK 14) was positive identified in cells even after 83 days. At the same time the Proliferating Index was 71%. Our protocol for isolation of basal epithelial cells was successful to yield sufficient numbers of cells predominantly with proliferative character and without noteworthy negative enzymatic affection. The results at this study offer the possibility of generation critical cell numbers for tissue engineering applications.

  2. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  3. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  4. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  5. Water permeability of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José Jaime; Bundgaard, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Water transport properties of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) were studied in cultures of pigmented epithelial cells (PE) from the ciliary body of the eye. Here, the membrane that faces upwards contains NKCCs and can be subjected to rapid changes in bathing solution composition and osmolarity...

  6. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  7. Spontaneous release of soluble HL-A antigens from platelets during conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautigny, A; Bernier, I; Colombani, J; Jollès, P

    1975-01-01

    Experiments with the aim of studying the solubilisation of HL-A antigens from blood platelets by methods which do not involve any biologically active processes (moderate, discontinuous agitation of a low concentration of platelets suspended in a saline medium, in the presence of an antiseptic; supernatants collected at frequent intervals) have shown that platelets release membrane proteins, including HL-A antigens, spontaneously. Optimal conditions for the treatment of membrane proteins have been perfected. The great stability of HL-A antigens under these conditions permits prolonged treatment. The products extracted are soluble and extremely complex. The molecular weight of the HL-A antigens is between 40,000 and 70,000.

  8. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  9. Adhesion to the host cell surface is sufficient to mediate Listeria monocytogenes entry into epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Fabian E.; Rengarajan, Michelle; Chavez, Natalie; Radhakrishnan, Prathima; Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie; Siemers, Kathleen; Luckett, William S.; Lauer, Peter; Nelson, W. James; Theriot, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. Listeria monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells in tissue culture. Instead, invasion increased due to increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial monolayers with compromised cell–cell junctions. Furthermore, expression of a mutant E-cadherin lacking the intracellular domain was sufficient for efficient L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells. Importantly, direct biotin-mediated binding of bacteria to surface lipids in the plasma membrane of host epithelial cells was sufficient for uptake. Our results indicate that the only requirement for L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells is adhesion to the host cell surface, and that E-cadherin–mediated coupling of the bacterium to F-actin is not required. PMID:28877987

  10. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  11. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  12. Age related changes in erythrocyte A and B antigen strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B; Ishii, Goro

    1961-11-01

    The strength of A and B antigens of the erythrocyte, as indicated by agglutinability with dilutions of specific antibody, has been investigated in a group of subjects in Hiroshima. Antigen strength was found to rise to maximal levels at age 25 to 29, and decline with advancing years. Degree of irradiation from the Hiroshima atomic bomb in 1945 did not appear in the limited sample to affect this age-dependent structural property of erythrocytes. Antigen strength of females was somewhat less than that of males for those individuals from 20 to 40 years of age. When compared with group A or B subjects, individuals of group AB demonstrated full strength of both A and B antigens. Since Rh antigenicity also has been reported to change with age, it seems probable that multiple changes in the erythrocyte membrane occur with age. Further investigation into the nature of these changes may be fruitful to an understanding of aging processes at the cellular level. 13 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  13. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...... induced apoptosis in several activated T-cell populations and T-cell lines, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3-negative T-cell lines. In contrast, RPE cells induced little or no apoptosis in resting peripheral T cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II monoclonal antibodies, which...

  14. Ovarian carcinoma glyco-antigen targeted by human IgM antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC cells expression of a novel carbohydrate antigen was defined using a human VH4-34 encoded IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb216. MAb216 binds to a poly N-acetyllactosamine epitope expressed on B cells and kills normal and malignant B cells in vitro and in vivo. EOC patient ascites and EOC cell lines were used to study the anti tumor effect of mAb216. Various assays were used to characterize the epitope and demonstrate antibody-mediated binding and cytotoxicity in EOC. Drug and antibody combination effects were determined by calculating the combination index values using the Chou and Talalay method. MAb216 displays direct antibody mediated cytotoxicity on a population of human EOC tumor and ascites samples and EOC cell lines, which express high amounts of poly N-acetyllactosamine epitope, carried by CD147/CD98. Eighty four percent of patient samples, including platin resistant, had a tumor population that bound the monoclonal antibody. The binding pattern of mAb216 and mechanism of cytotoxicity was similar to that seen on normal and malignant B cells with unique general membrane disruption and "pore" formation. In vitro incubation with mAb216 and cisplatin enhanced killing of OVCAR3 cell line. In EOC cell lines percent cytotoxicity correlated with percent expression of epitope. Although in vitro data shows specific EOC cytotoxicity, for possible treatment of EOC MAb216 would need to be evaluated in a clinical trial with or without chemotherapy.

  15. Surface co-expression of two different PfEMP1 antigens on single Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes facilitates binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Louise; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Bengtsson, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a major role in cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE), antigenic variation, and immunity to malaria. The current consensus on control of variant surface antigen expression is that only one PfEMP1 encoded by one var...

  16. Mature IgM-expressing plasma cells sense antigen and develop competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Pascal; Moro-Sibilot, Ludovic; Barthly, Lucas; Jagot, Ferdinand; This, Sébastien; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Colisson, Renaud; Hobeika, Elias; Fest, Thierry; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Sicard, Antoine; Mondière, Paul; Genestier, Laurent; Nutt, Stephen L.; Defrance, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells. Fully mature IgM-expressing plasma cells resident in the bone marrow retain expression of a functional BCR, whereas their IgG+ counterparts do not. Antigen boost modifies the gene expression profile of IgM+ plasma cells and initiates a cytokine production program, characterized by upregulation of CCL5 and IL-10. Our results demonstrate that IgM-expressing plasma cells can sense antigen and acquire competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge. PMID:27924814

  17. Immunohistochemical studies of the periodontal membrane in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Nolting, Dorrit; Kjær, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the periodontal membrane of human primary teeth immunohistochemically, while focusing on the epithelial layer of Malassez, fibers, and peripheral nerves, and to compare the findings with those of a previous study of human permanent teeth. Material and methods. Nineteen human...... could be identical to those in regions with no resorption. Conclusion. In regions without resorption, spatial organization of the periodontal membrane of primary teeth was similar to that of permanent teeth, although the number and distribution of epithelial cells and fibers differed. In regions...

  18. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  19. Novel Treponema pallidum Recombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Kubanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized.

  20. Novel Treponema pallidum Recombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanov, Aleksey; Runina, Anastassia; Deryabin, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized.

  1. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  2. Retinal pigment epithelial atrophy following indocyanine green dye-assisted surgery for serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To report subretinal migration of indocyanine green dye (ICG and subsequent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during macular surgery for serous macular detachment. A 65-year-old woman presented with residual epiretinal membrane and serous detachment of the macula following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membrane. She underwent resurgery with ICG-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular tamponade. Intraoperatively a large area of subretinal ICG was seen with subsequent RPE mottling and atrophy of the macula in the area involved during follow-up. This case demonstrates that subretinal migration of ICG is possible and can be toxic to RPE.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of 3 H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  5. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  6. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN, were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA or pertussis toxin (PT deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells.

  7. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Itandehui Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Martinez, Margarito; Mayoral, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Laura; Aguilar, Sergio; Zenteno, Edgar; Pina, Maria del Socorro; Hernández, Pedro

    2012-12-24

    Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  8. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos Itandehui Belem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Findings Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  9. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  10. Socket Preservation with d-PTFE Membrane: Histologic Analysis of the Newly Formed Matrix at Membrane Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Domenico; Cugnetto, Riccardo; Lollobrigida, Marco; Guerra, Fabrizio; Vestri, Annarita; Gianno, Francesca; Bosco, Sandro; Lamazza, Luca; De Biase, Alberto

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an exposed high-density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membrane in preventing epithelial migration in postextraction sockets. For this purpose, a histologic description of the newly formed soft tissue underlying the membrane is presented. The periodontal status of the adjacent teeth was also evaluated to assess the gingival response. Ten premolar extraction sockets were treated. After tooth extraction, the sockets were filled with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and covered with d-PTFE membranes. Subperiosteal pockets were created to ensure the stability of the membranes. Membranes were left intentionally exposed and were atraumatically removed after 28 days. At that time, a bioptic specimen of the newly formed soft tissue under the membranes was taken. All the histologic samples showed a dense connective tissue without epithelial cells and no signs of foreign body reaction. No significant variation of the periodontal indices was observed on the teeth adjacent to the extraction sites. The study results indicate that exposed d-PTFE membranes can prevent epithelial migration in healing sockets without consequences on the periodontal health.

  11. EMMPRIN Modulates Epithelial Barrier Function through a MMP–Mediated Occludin Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Eric; Vallée, Benoit; Delbé, Jean; Mourah, Samia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Tremouilleres, Magali; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Doan, Serge; Baudouin, Christophe; Menashi, Suzanne; Gabison, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disease that develops as a result of alteration of tear fluid, leading to osmotic stress and a perturbed epithelial barrier. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may be important in dry eye disease, as its genetic knockout conferred resistance to the epithelial disruption. We show that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; also termed CD147), an inducer of MMP expression, participates in the pathogenesis of dry eye through MMP-mediated cleavage of occludin, an important component of tight junctions. EMMPRIN expression was increased on the ocular surface of dry eye patients and correlated with those of MMP-9. High osmolarity in cell culture, mimicking dry eye conditions, increased both EMMPRIN and MMP-9 and resulted in the disruption of epithelial junctions through the cleavage of occludin. Exogenously added recombinant EMMPRIN had similar effects that were abrogated in the presence of the MMP inhibitor marimastat. Membrane occludin immunostaining was markedly increased in the apical corneal epithelium of both EMMPRIN and MMP-9 knock-out mice. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between EMMPRIN and occludin membrane staining was consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo as a function of corneal epithelial cells differentiation. These data suggest a possible role of EMMPRIN in regulating the amount of occludin at the cell surface in homeostasis beyond pathological situations such as dry eye disease, and EMMPRIN may be essential for the formation and maintenance of organized epithelial structure. PMID:21777561

  12. Translocation of SiO2-NPs across in vitro human bronchial epithelial monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, I; Vranic, S; Boland, S; Borot, M C; Marano, F; Baeza-Squiban, A

    2013-01-01

    Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO 2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO 2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm 2 ) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.

  13. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  14. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  15. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  17. 大黄鱼三种病原弧菌外膜蛋白交叉保护性抗原筛选%Selection of cross-protective antigens from outer membrane proteins of three pathogenic vibrios isolated from infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇文; 毛芝娟; 于涟

    2012-01-01

    . parahaemolyticus and one V. alginolyticus by physiological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Their outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were extracted and the SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results show that three immuno-blots with common molecular weight presented at approximate 45 kDa, 35 kDa and 22 kDa on their OMP electrophoretogram, indicating the existence of antigens with cross-protection in their OMPs. With the aids of combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D) and Western blotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), a deduced porin (GenBank Accession No. ZP01260407) from V. alginolyticus and a maltoporin precursor (GenBank Accession No. NP801154) from V. parahaemolyticus were able to react with polyclonal antibody to whole V. harveyi, suggesting these two proteins could act as the cross-protective antigens and the vaccines prepared with these porins would be probable to bring cross protection to three different vibrios.

  18. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Liu

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3 expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001. Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (p<0.05 and a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER by 180.0% (p<0.001. While the expression of tight junctional protein did not change in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05. Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  19. Epithelial growth by rat vibrissae follicles in vitro requires mesenchymal contact via native extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.E.; Paus, R.; Stenn, K.S.; Kuklinska, E.; Moellmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    An in vitro assay utilizing the rat vibrissa anagen follicle as a model for studying the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMI) in hair growth is described. Through selective disruption of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, we investigate whether the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermal papilla and basement membrane zone (BMZ) serves a crucial function in hair follicle EMI. Epithelial bulbs incubated intact within their follicular sheaths incorporate thymidine primarily into cells of the hair matrix and outer root sheath, as shown by autoradiography. However, after removal of its mesenchymal associations (dermal papilla and extrabulbar connective tissue), the epithelial bulb showed no incorporation. Neither externally added collagen (type I or IV) nor the basement membrane components in Matrigel could substitute for the growth supporting influence of native surrounding stroma. Mechanical separation of the bulb from the dermal papilla in the basement membrane zone inhibited thymidine incorporation by the epithelium even though mesenchyme was still in close proximity. Enzymatic digestion of the dermal papilla ECM and the basal lamina by Dispase, a fibronectinase and type IV collagenase, also inhibited bulb growth without evidence of cytotoxicity. These experiments suggest that direct epithelial to mesenchymal contact is required for the support of follicular epithelial growth in vitro and that specific ECM components, possibly fibronectin and/or type IV collagen, rather than diffusable factors alone, play a crucial role in the mechanism of hair follicle EMI. The in vitro system described here provides an alternative to developmental EMI models and may serve as a valuable tool for studying EMI in the adult mammalian organism

  20. Myoferlin depletion in breast cancer cells promotes mesenchymal to epithelial shape change and stalls invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Li

    Full Text Available Myoferlin (MYOF is a mammalian ferlin protein with homology to ancestral Fer-1, a nematode protein that regulates spermatic membrane fusion, which underlies the amoeboid-like movements of its sperm. Studies in muscle and endothelial cells have reported on the role of myoferlin in membrane repair, endocytosis, myoblast fusion, and the proper expression of various plasma membrane receptors. In this study, using an in vitro human breast cancer cell model, we demonstrate that myoferlin is abundantly expressed in invasive breast tumor cells. Depletion of MYOF using lentiviral-driven shRNA expression revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells reverted to an epithelial morphology, suggesting at least some features of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. These observations were confirmed by the down-regulation of some mesenchymal cell markers (e.g., fibronectin and vimentin and coordinate up-regulation of the E-cadherin epithelial marker. Cell invasion assays using Boyden chambers showed that loss of MYOF led to a significant diminution in invasion through Matrigel or type I collagen, while cell migration was unaffected. PCR array and screening of serum-free culture supernatants from shRNA(MYOF transduced MDA-MB-231 cells indicated a significant reduction in the steady-state levels of several matrix metalloproteinases. These data when considered in toto suggest a novel role of MYOF in breast tumor cell invasion and a potential reversion to an epithelial phenotype upon loss of MYOF.

  1. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) isoform balance as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yuka; Hagiwara, Natsumi; Radisky, Derek C.; Hirai, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program promotes cell invasion and metastasis, and is reversed through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) after formation of distant metastases. Here, we show that an imbalance of gene products encoded by the transcriptional factor C/EBPβ, LAP (liver-enriched activating protein) and LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein), can regulate both EMT- and MET-like phenotypic changes in mouse mammary epithelial cells. By using tetracycline repressive LIP expression constructs, we found that SCp2 cells, a clonal epithelial line of COMMA1-D cells, expressed EMT markers, lost the ability to undergo alveolar-like morphogenesis in 3D Matrigel, and acquired properties of benign adenoma cells. Conversely, we found that inducible expression of LAP in SCg6 cells, a clonal fibroblastic line of COMMA1-D cells, began to express epithelial keratins with suppression of proliferation. The overexpression of the C/EBPβ gene products in these COMMA1-D derivatives was suppressed by long-term cultivation on tissue culture plastic, but gene expression was maintained in cells grown on Matrigel or exposed to proteasome inhibitors. Thus, imbalances of C/EBPβ gene products in mouse mammary epithelial cells, which are affected by contact with basement membrane, are defined as a potential regulator of metastatic potential. - Highlights: • We created a temporal imbalance of C/EBPβ gene products in the mammary model cells. • The temporal up-regulation of LIP protein induced EMT-like cell behaviors. • The temporal up-regulation of LAP protein induced MET-like cell behaviors. • Excess amount of C/EBPβ gene products were eliminated by proteasomal-degradation. • Basement membrane components attenuated proteasome-triggered protein elimination

  2. Modified Cajal's trichrome stain as a diagnostic aid in the study of epithelial pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpagaselvi Sanjai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of initial epithelial pathology maybe difficult in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, Carcinoma In Situ and other atypical epithelial malignancies, under routine Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stain. The detection of minor basement membrane alterations in doubtful cases is both time consuming and confusing. Aims: To evaluate efficacy of Modified Cajal's Trichrome Stain (CTS in relation to Haematoxylin and Eosin for study of epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, micro invasive SCC, frank SCC, and SCC in lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of mild epithelial dysplasia (n = 2, moderate epithelial dysplasia (n = 2, severe epithelial dysplasia (n = 4, carcinoma in situ (n = 1, micro-invasive SCC (n = 4, verrucous carcinoma (n = 1, and frank OSCC (n = 5 were stained with CTS and H&E. The sections were compared based on set histopathological criteria. Results and Conclusion: In SCC cases stained with CTS, invasion into connective tissue and keratin pearls were strikingly evident. Depth of invasion could be more accurately determined. Tumour cells in lymph node were intensely contrasted and easily discernible. Thus, CTS is a good differential stain, clearly delineating the epithelial elements from the connective tissue elements visually. This helps in tracing the basement membrane very clearly. It is an economic, rapid and easy to use method which cannot replace Haematoxylin and Eosin stain in cancer diagnosis, but can definitely be used adjunctive to it. Prompt diagnosis is crucial to effective treatment, and this stain assists in early and rapid diagnosis of cancer.

  3. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  4. The fate of epithelial cells in the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Gibson, P R

    1999-08-01

    One hundred and forty biopsies of the colon and rectum, collected during routine colonoscopies of 51 patients aged 19 to 74 years, were examined using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that surface epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, passing through fenestrations in the basement membrane to where they enter the lamina propria and are taken up by macrophages; and it is hypothesized that apoptotic cells are carried through the fenestrations on a current of fluid. The study also found that epithelial cells positioned over the crypts are better attached and more robust than those more distant from the crypt opening; and it is further hypothesized that, after reaching the top of the crypts, some goblet cells cease secreting mucus and pass onto the surface compartment of absorptive cells. An unexpected finding was that the lower regions of the crypts commonly contain isolated necrotic colonocytes. Apoptotic cells were rarely observed in the crypt epithelium. The findings of this study support the "recycling" model of epithelial cell death in the surface compartment of the human colon.

  5. Hypoxia activated EGFR signaling induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Misra

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multi-step process which requires the conversion of polarized epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. EMT is essential during embryonic morphogenesis and has been implicated in the progression of primary tumors towards metastasis. Hypoxia is known to induce EMT; however the molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Using the A431 epithelial cancer cell line, we show that cells grown under hypoxic conditions migrated faster than cells grown under normal oxygen environment. Cells grown under hypoxia showed reduced adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM probably due to reduced number of Vinculin patches. Growth under hypoxic conditions also led to down regulation of E-cadherin and up regulation of vimentin expression. The increased motility of cells grown under hypoxia could be due to redistribution of Rac1 to the plasma membrane as opposed to increased expression of Rac1. EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor is a known inducer of EMT and growth of A431 cells in the absence of oxygen led to increased expression of EGFR (EGF Receptor. Treatment of A431 cells with EGF led to reduced cell adhesion to ECM, increased cell motility and other EMT characteristics. Furthermore, this transition was blocked by the monoclonal antibody Cetuximab. Cetuximab also blocked the hypoxia-induced EMT suggesting that cell growth under hypoxic conditions led to activation of EGFR signaling and induction of EMT phenotype.

  6. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  7. Polymeric membranes for guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Ferreira, Ana M; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2011-10-01

    In this review, different barrier membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) are described as a useful surgical technique to enhance bone regeneration in damaged alveolar sites before performing implants and fitting other dental appliances. The GBR procedure encourages bone regeneration through cellular exclusion and avoids the invasion of epithelial and connective tissues that grow at the defective site instead of bone tissue. The barrier membrane should satisfy various properties, such as biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, non-toxicity, and a degradation rate that is long enough to permit mechanical support during bone formation. Other characteristics such as tissue integration, nutrient transfer, space maintenance and manageability are also of interest. In this review, various non-resorbable and resorbable commercially available membranes are described, based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid) and their copolymers. The polyester-based membranes are biodegradable, permit a single-stage procedure, and have higher manageability than non-resorbable membranes; however, they have shown poor biocompatibility. In contrast, membranes based on natural materials, such as collagen, are biocompatible but are characterized by poor mechanical properties and stability due to their early degradation. Moreover, new approaches are described, such as the use of multi-layered, graft-copolymer-based and composite membranes containing osteoconductive ceramic fillers as alternatives to conventional membranes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, Nancy; Sympson, C. J.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1994-12-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a major role in development and tissue regeneration. Basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM), but not fibronectin or collagen, was shown to suppress apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by antibodies to beta 1 integrins or by overexpression of stromelysin-1, which degrades ECM. Expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) correlated with the loss of ECM, and inhibitors of ICE activity prevented apoptosis. These results suggest that ECM regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells through an integrin-dependent negative regulation of ICE expression.

  9. Forces and dynamics in epithelial domes of controlled size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Ibars, Ernest; Casares, Laura; Gomez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Uroz, Marina; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    Mechanobiology of epithelia plays a central role in morphogenesis, wound healing, and tumor progression. Its current understanding relies on mechanical measurements on flat epithelial layers. However, most epithelia in vivo exhibit a curved 3D shape enclosing a pressurized lumen. Using soft micropatterned substrates we produce massive parallel arrays of epithelial domes with controlled size and basal shape. We measure epithelial traction, tension, and luminal pressure in epithelial domes. The local stress tensor on the freestanding epithelial membrane is then mapped by combining measured luminal pressure and local curvature. We show that tension and cell shape are highly anisotropic and vary along the meridional position of the domes. Finally, we establish constitutive relations between shape, tension, and pressure during perturbations of the contractile machinery, osmotic shocks, and spontaneous fluctuations of dome volume. Our findings contradict a description of the epithelium as a fluid capillary surface. Cells in the dome are unable to relax into a uniform and isotropic tensional state through sub- and supra-cellular rearrangements. Mapping epithelial shape, tension, and pressure will enable quantitative studies of mechanobiology in 3D epithelia of controlled size and shape.

  10. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Nascimento; Facina, Gil; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrin Guerreiro; Waitzberg, Angela Flávia Logullo; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13) in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75) was statistically larger (P fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  11. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if heterogeneity of tissue cancer antigen 125 (CA125) expression is present in epithelial serous adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate whether there is a correlation between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade. A total of 10 patients...... diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients....... Mean tissue CA125 expression for each patient ranged from 36% to 98%. Intrapatient variations in tissue expression ranged from 10% to 90% point. No significant correlations between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade were found. We found that the tissue expression...

  12. Synergic activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6 and 9 in response to Ureaplasma parvum & urealyticum in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafilou, Martha; De Glanville, Benjamin; Aboklaish, Ali F; Spiller, O Brad; Kotecha, Sailesh; Triantafilou, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), preterm labour (PL) pneumonia in neonates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. The mechanisms by which Ureaplasmas cause such diseases remain unclear, but it is believed that inappropriate induction of inflammatory responses is involved, triggered by the innate immune system. As part of its mechanism of activation, the innate immune system employs germ-lined encoded receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in order to "sense" pathogens. One such family of PRRs are the Toll like receptor family (TLR). In the current study we aimed to elucidate the role of TLRs in Ureaplasma-induced inflammation in human amniotic epithelial cells. Using silencing, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK) transfected cell lines, we demonstrate that TLR2, TLR6 and TLR9 are involved in the inflammatory responses against Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum serovars. Ureaplasma lipoproteins, such as Multiple Banded antigen (MBA), trigger responses via TLR2/TLR6, whereas the whole bacterium is required for TLR9 activation. No major differences were observed between the different serovars. Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly.

  13. Synergic activation of toll-like receptor (TLR 2/6 and 9 in response to Ureaplasma parvum & urealyticum in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Triantafilou

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM, preterm labour (PL pneumonia in neonates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. The mechanisms by which Ureaplasmas cause such diseases remain unclear, but it is believed that inappropriate induction of inflammatory responses is involved, triggered by the innate immune system. As part of its mechanism of activation, the innate immune system employs germ-lined encoded receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs in order to "sense" pathogens. One such family of PRRs are the Toll like receptor family (TLR. In the current study we aimed to elucidate the role of TLRs in Ureaplasma-induced inflammation in human amniotic epithelial cells. Using silencing, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK transfected cell lines, we demonstrate that TLR2, TLR6 and TLR9 are involved in the inflammatory responses against Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum serovars. Ureaplasma lipoproteins, such as Multiple Banded antigen (MBA, trigger responses via TLR2/TLR6, whereas the whole bacterium is required for TLR9 activation. No major differences were observed between the different serovars. Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly.

  14. De novo expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in Bowman’s capsule coincides with replacement of parietal epithelial cell layer with proximal tubule-like epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai, Niloofar M.; North, Paula E.; Regner, Kevin R.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Duris, Christine B.; Blodgett, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    In kidney nephron, parietal epithelial cells line the Bowman’s capsule and function as a permeability barrier for the glomerular filtrate. Bowman’s capsule cells with proximal tubule epithelial morphology have been found. However, the effects of tubular metaplasia in Bowman’s capsule on kidney function remain poorly understood. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a major role in reabsorption of glucose in the kidney and is expressed on brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the...

  15. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel trafficking and function by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Planès, Carole; Escudier, Estelle; Fanen, Pascale; Coste, André; Clerici, Christine

    2007-11-23

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been shown to correct the cellular trafficking of several mutant or nonmutant plasma membrane proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins. The objective of the study was to determine whether 4-PBA may influence the functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). Using primary cultures of HNEC, we demonstrate that 4-PBA (5 mm for 6 h) markedly stimulated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity and that this was related to an increased abundance of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The increase in ENaC cell surface expression (i) was due to insertion of newly ENaC subunits as determined by brefeldin A experiments and (ii) was not associated with cell surface retention of ENaC subunits because endocytosis of ENaC subunits was unchanged. In addition, we find that ENaC co-immunoprecipitated with the heat shock protein constitutively expressed Hsc70, that has been reported to modulate ENaC trafficking, and that 4-PBA decreased Hsc70 protein level. Finally, we report that in cystic fibrosis HNEC obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients, 4-PBA increased functional expression of ENaC as demonstrated by the increase in amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunit expression in the apical membrane. Our results suggest that in HNEC, 4-PBA increases the functional expression of ENaC through the insertion of new alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits into the apical membrane and also suggest that 4-PBA could modify ENaC trafficking by reducing Hsc70 protein expression.

  16. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  17. Identification of distinct populations of prostasomes that differentially express prostate stem cell antigen,Annexin A1, and GLIPR2 in Humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313888515; van Dissel-Emiliani, F.M.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/089742354; van Adrichem, N.P.H.; van Wijnen, M.; Wauben, M.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112675735; Stout, T.A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828831; Stoorvogel, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074352385

    2012-01-01

    In addition to sperm cells, seminal fluid contains various small membranous vesicles. These include prostasomes, membrane vesicles secreted by prostate epithelial cells. Prostasomes have been proposed to perform a variety of functions, including modulation of (immune) cell activity within the female

  18. Identification of distinct populations of prostasomes that differentially express prostate stem cell antigen, annexin A1, and GLIPR2 in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, M.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F.M.; van Adrichem, N.P.; Wijnen, M.H.; Wauben, M.H.M.; Stout, T.A.; Stoorvogel, W.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to sperm cells, seminal fluid contains various small membranous vesicles. These include prostasomes, membrane vesicles secreted by prostate epithelial cells. Prostasomes have been proposed to perform a variety of functions, including modulation of (immune) cell activity within the female

  19. Peritoneal inflammation – A microenvironment for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinsong

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is a significant cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality in women. Preferential involvement of peritoneal structures contributes to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients. Advances in biotechnology, such as cDNA microarray, are a product of the Human Genome Project and are beginning to provide fresh opportunities to understand the biology of EOC. In particular, it is now possible to examine in depth, at the molecular level, the complex relationship between the tumor itself and its surrounding microenvironment. This review focuses on the anatomy, physiology, and current immunobiologic research of peritoneal structures, and addresses certain potentially useful animal models. Changes in both the inflammatory and non-inflammatory cell compartments, as well as alterations to the extracellular matrix, appear to be signal events that contribute to the remodeling effects of the peritoneal stroma and surface epithelial cells on tumor growth and spread. These alterations may involve a number of proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, either membrane or non-membrane bound, and integrins. Interactions between these molecules and molecular structures within the extracellular matrix, such as collagens and the proteoglycans, may contribute to a peritoneal mesothelial surface and stromal environment that is conducive to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. These alterations need to be examined and defined as possible prosnosticators and as therapeutic or diagnostic targets.

  20. Aquaporin 2 promotes cell migration and epithelial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Rice, William; Gu, Zhizhan; Li, Jian; Huang, Jianmin; Brenner, Michael B; Van Hoek, Alfred; Xiong, Jianping; Gundersen, Gregg G; Norman, Jim C; Hsu, Victor W; Fenton, Robert A; Brown, Dennis; Lu, Hua A Jenny

    2012-09-01

    The aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel, expressed in kidney collecting ducts, contributes critically to water homeostasis in mammals. Animals lacking or having significantly reduced levels of AQP2, however, have not only urinary concentrating abnormalities but also renal tubular defects that lead to neonatal mortality from renal failure. Here, we show that AQP2 is not only a water channel but also an integrin-binding membrane protein that promotes cell migration and epithelial morphogenesis. AQP2 expression modulates the trafficking and internalization of integrin β1, facilitating its turnover at focal adhesions. In vitro, disturbing the interaction between AQP2 and integrin β1 by mutating the RGD motif led to reduced endocytosis, retention of integrin β1 at the cell surface, and defective cell migration and tubulogenesis. Similarly, in vivo, AQP2-null mice exhibited significant retention of integrin β1 at the basolateral membrane and had tubular abnormalities. In summary, these data suggest that the water channel AQP2 interacts with integrins to promote renal epithelial cell migration, contributing to the structural and functional integrity of the mammalian kidney.

  1. Nonpolar interactions between trans-membrane helical EGF peptide and phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and cholesterol. Molecular dynamics simulation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Róg, T.; Murzyn, K.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of four lipid bilayers with inserted trans-membrane helical fragment of epithelial growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGF peptide) was performed. The lipid bilayers differ in their lipid composition and consist of (i) unsaturated phosphatidylcholine

  2. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  3. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  4. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  5. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  6. Localization of the terminal steps of O-antigen synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, B.C.; Osborn, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous immunoelectron microscopic studies have shown that both the final intermediate in O-antigen synthesis, undecaprenol-linked O polymer, and newly synthesized O-antigenic lipopolysaccharide are localized to the periplasmic face of the inner membrane. In vivo pulse-chase experiments now provide further evidence that attachment of O antigen to core lipopolysaccharide, as well as polymerization of O-specific polysaccharide chains, takes place at the periplasmic face of the membrane. Mutants doubly conditional in lipopolysaccharide synthesis [kdsA(Ts) pmi] were constructed in which synthesis of core lipopolysaccharide and O antigen are temperature sensitive and mannose dependent, respectively. Periplasmic orientation of O antigen:core lipopolysaccharide ligase was established by experiments showing rapid chase of undecaprenol-linked O polymer, previously accumulated at 42 degrees C in the absence of core synthesis, into lipopolysaccharide following resumption of core formation at 30 degrees C. In addition, chase of the monomeric O-specific tetrasaccharide unit into lipopolysaccharide was found in similar experiments in an O-polymerase-negative [rfc kdsA(Ts) pmi] mutant, suggesting that polymerization of O chains also occurs at the external face of the inner membrane

  7. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, J.; Yu, N.; Caridade, S.G.; Luz, G.M.; Gomes, M.E.R.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting periodontal regeneration by physically blocking migration of epithelial cells. The present work proposes a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce a novel guided

  8. The Many Faces of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an immunological paradox, where fetal antigens encoded by polymorphic genes inherited from the father do not provoke a maternal immune response. The fetus is not rejected as it would be theorized according to principles of tissue transplantation. A major contribution to fetal tolerance...... is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a nonclassical HLA protein displaying limited polymorphism, restricted tissue distribution, and a unique alternative splice pattern. HLA-G is primarily expressed in placenta and plays multifaceted roles during pregnancy, both as a soluble and a membrane-bound molecule......, differences in HLA-G isoform expression, and possible differences in functional activity. Furthermore, we highlight important observations regarding HLA-G genetics and expression in preeclampsia that future research should address....

  9. Doxorubicin-anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoconjugate activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V J; Ford, C H; Tsaltas, G; Gallant, M E

    1989-04-01

    An in vitro model consisting of a series of 11 human cancer cell lines with varying density of expression of membrane carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been used to evaluate conjugates of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) covalently linked by a carbodiimide method to goat polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to CEA. Conjugates were produced which retained both antigen binding and drug cytotoxicity. IC50 values were determined for free drug, free drug mixed with unconjugated antibodies and for the immunoconjugates. Cell lines that were very sensitive to free drug (IC50 less than 100 ng/ml) were also found to be highly sensitive to conjugated drug and similarly cell lines resistant to drug (IC50 greater than 1,000 ng/ml) were also resistant to conjugated drug. Although there was no correlation between CEA expression and conjugates efficacy, competitive inhibition studies using autologous antibody to block conjugate binding to cells indicated immunoconjugates specificity for the CEA target.

  10. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  11. Effect of radiation on the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareyama, M.; Imai, K.; Kubo, K.; Takahashi, H.; Koshiba, H.; Hinoda, Y.; Shidou, M.; Oouchi, A.; Yachi, A.; Morita, K. (Sapporo Medical College (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The changes of antigenic expression of cultured human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells caused by irradiation were investigated to elucidate the immune responses to localized irradiation. The expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) showed remarkable increases in the culture supernatant and on the surface of the membrane of irradiated cells. The expression of major histocompatibility complex Class I antigen on the membrane also was enhanced by irradiation. In addition, the irradiated cell groups, when analyzed using a CEA-specific probe, showed remarkable increases in the CEA mRNA. These enhancements increased in the 10-Gy and 15-Gy irradiated populations compared with the 5-Gy irradiated population. These results suggest that the enhancement of expression of CEA by radiation takes place at the CEA gene expression (mRNA) level but not at the protein level.

  12. Apoptosis in the human periodontal membrane evaluated in primary and permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Thomsen, Bjarke; Kjær, Inger

    2011-01-01

    that resorption is connected to apoptosis of the epithelial cells of Malassez. The purpose of this study is to localize cells undergoing apoptosis in the periodontal membrane of human primary and permanent teeth. Materials and methods. Human primary and permanent teeth were examined immunohistochemically...... for apoptosis and epithelial cells of Malassez in the periodontal membrane. All teeth examined were extracted in connection with treatment. Results. Apoptosis was seen in close proximity to the root surface and within the epithelial cells of Malassez. This pattern of apoptotis is similar in the periodontal...... membrane in primary and permanent teeth. Conclusions. The inter-relationship between apoptotis and root resorption cannot be concluded from the present study. Apoptosis seen in close proximity to the root surface presumably corresponds to the highly innervated layer of the periodontal membrane...

  13. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are made of a well-polarized monolayer of epithelial cells, and their morphology is maintained strictly for their proper functions. Previously, we showed that Rac1 activation is suppressed at the apical membrane in the mature organoid, and that such spatially biased Rac1 activity is required for the polarity maintenance. Here we identify Chimaerin, a GTPase activating protein for Rac1, as a suppressor of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane. Depletion of Chimaerin causes over-activation of Rac1 at the apical membrane in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, followed by luminal cell accumulation. Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology.

  14. The establishment of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S J; Leaf, D S; Moore, H P; Gerhart, J C

    1992-09-01

    Delineation of apical and basolateral membrane domains is a critical step in the epithelialization of the outer layer of cells in the embryo. We have examined the initiation of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus and show that membrane traffic is not polarized in oocytes but polarized membrane domains appear at first cleavage. The following proteins encoded by injected RNA transcripts were used as markers to monitor membrane traffic: (a) VSV G, a transmembrane glycoprotein preferentially inserted into the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells; (b) GThy-1, a fusion protein of VSV G and Thy-1 that is localized to the apical domains of polarized epithelial cells; and (c) prolactin, a peptide hormone that is not polarly secreted. In immature oocytes, there is no polarity in the expression of VSV G or GThy-1, as shown by the constitutive expression of both proteins at the surface in the animal and vegetal hemispheres. At meiotic maturation, membrane traffic to the surface is blocked; the plasma membrane no longer accepts the vesicles synthesized by the oocyte (Leaf, D. L., S. J. Roberts, J. C. Gerhart, and H.-P. Moore. 1990. Dev. Biol. 141:1-12). When RNA transcripts are injected after fertilization, VSV G is expressed only in the internal cleavage membranes (basolateral orientation) and is excluded from the outer surface (apical orientation, original oocyte membrane). In contrast, GThy-1 and prolactin, when expressed in embryos, are inserted or released at both the outer membrane derived from the oocyte and the inner cleavage membranes. Furthermore, not all of the cleavage membrane comes from an embryonic pool of vesicles--some of the cleavage membrane comes from vesicles synthesized during oogenesis. Using prolactin as a marker, we found that a subset of vesicles synthesized during oogenesis was only released after fertilization. However, while embryonic prolactin was secreted from both apical and basolateral surfaces, the secretion of oogenic prolactin

  15. Electrospun polyurethane membranes for Tissue Engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Laís P., E-mail: lagabriel@gmail.com [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amélia [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Macedo, Milton; Jardini, André L.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Tissue Engineering proposes, among other things, tissue regeneration using scaffolds integrated with biological molecules, growth factors or cells for such regeneration. In this research, polyurethane membranes were prepared using the electrospinning technique in order to obtain membranes to be applied in Tissue Engineering, such as epithelial, drug delivery or cardiac applications. The influence of fibers on the structure and morphology of the membranes was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). In vitro cells attachment and proliferation was investigated by SEM, and in vitro cell viability was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Live/Dead® assays. It was found that the membranes present an homogeneous morphology, high porosity, high surface area/volume ratio, it was also observed a random fiber network. The thermal analysis showed that the membrane degradation started at 254 °C. In vitro evaluation of fibroblasts cells showed that fibroblasts spread over the membrane surface after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. This study supports the investigation of electrospun polyurethane membranes as biocompatible scaffolds for Tissue Engineering applications and provides some guidelines for improved biomaterials with desired properties.

  16. Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song-yue; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Min; Hua, Yan-Hong; Yuan, Shuofeng; Watt, Rory M; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2012-09-26

    Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally-required for soluble versus

  17. Expression of Ricinus communis receptors on epithelial cells in oral carcinomas and oral wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelsteen, E; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-12-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for Ricinus communis Fraction 1 (RCA1) in oral carcinomas and in oral epithelial cells during wound healing has been studied by use of fluorescein-tagged RCA1. Biopsies from 15 human oral carcinomas and adjacent normal mucosa showed RCA1 receptors at the cell membranes in the basal and spinous layer of the normal epithelium, whereas receptors could not be demonstrated in invading islands of the tumors. In healing oral wounds from eight humans and three monkeys, RCA1 receptors were demonstrated both in normal epithelium adjacent to the wounds and in the epithelial outgrowth from the wound margin. Titrations, however, showed that the epithelial outgrowth reacted more weakly than did the normal adjacent epithelium. These results support previous in vitro studies showing changes in carbohydrate composition of moving normal cells and of malignant cells, a finding that may be of interest in relation to formation of metastases.

  18. Breast fibroblasts modulate epithelial cell proliferation in three-dimensional in vitro co-culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadlonova, Andrea; Novak, Zdenek; Johnson, Martin R; Bowe, Damon B; Gault, Sandra R; Page, Grier P; Thottassery, Jaideep V; Welch, Danny R; Frost, Andra R

    2005-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts associated with in situ and invasive breast carcinoma differ phenotypically from fibroblasts associated with normal breast epithelium, and these alterations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) may promote breast carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts during carcinogenesis and their influence on epithelial cell growth and behavior could lead to novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. To this end, the effect of CAF and normal breast-associated fibroblasts (NAF) on the growth of epithelial cells representative of pre-neoplastic breast disease was assessed. NAF and CAF were grown with the nontumorigenic MCF10A epithelial cells and their more transformed, tumorigenic derivative, MCF10AT cells, in direct three-dimensional co-cultures on basement membrane material. The proliferation and apoptosis of MCF10A cells and MCF10AT cells were assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. Additionally, NAF and CAF were compared for expression of insulin-like growth factor II as a potential mediator of their effects on epithelial cell growth, by ELISA and by quantitative, real-time PCR. In relatively low numbers, both NAF and CAF suppressed proliferation of MCF10A cells. However, only NAF and not CAF significantly inhibited proliferation of the more transformed MCF10AT cells. The degree of growth inhibition varied among NAF or CAF from different individuals. In greater numbers, NAF and CAF have less inhibitory effect on epithelial cell growth. The rate of epithelial cell apoptosis was not affected by NAF or CAF. Mean insulin-like growth factor II levels were not significantly different in NAF versus CAF and did not correlate with the fibroblast effect on epithelial cell proliferation. Both NAF and CAF have the ability to inhibit the growth of pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells. NAF have greater inhibitory capacity than CAF

  19. Isolation and characterization of antigen-Ia complexes involved in T cell recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Sette, A; Colon, S M

    1986-01-01

    Using equilibrium dialysis, it has been previously demonstrated that immunogenic peptides bind specifically to the Ia molecules serving as restriction elements in the immune response to these antigens. Using gel filtration to study the formation of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-I-Ad complexes, it is he......Using equilibrium dialysis, it has been previously demonstrated that immunogenic peptides bind specifically to the Ia molecules serving as restriction elements in the immune response to these antigens. Using gel filtration to study the formation of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-I-Ad complexes...... with glutaraldehyde revealed that the ovalbumin peptide was cross-linked solely to the alpha chain of I-Ad. Planar membranes containing I-Ad-OVA complexes stimulated a T cell response with 2 X 10(4) less antigen than required when uncomplexed antigen was used, thus demonstrating the biologic importance...

  20. Effects of proteolytic enzymes and neuraminidase on the I and i erythrocyte antigen sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doinel, C.; Ropars, C.; Salmon, C.

    1978-01-01

    Homogeneous cold agglutinins, purified and labelled with 125 I, have been used in a study of the effects of neuraminidase and proteolytic enzymes on the I and i reactivities of human adult erythrocytes. Measurements were made of antigen site numbers, equilibrium constants and thermodynamic parameters. There was enhanced reactivity after enzyme treatment as well as after the release of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Steric factors were shown to be of primary importance in the accessibility of the I and i antigenic determinant. After enzyme treatment, the antigenic structures became more homogeneous in their reaction with antibodies. The heterogeneity of binding constants observed with antigenic determinants of non-treated erythrocytes is probably due to the wide range of spatial distribution of these receptors within the membrane. (author)

  1. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G during pregnancy part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Louise; Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a class Ib molecule with restricted tissue distribution expressed on trophoblast cells and has been proposed to have immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy. Soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) can be generated by the shedding of membrane-bound HLA-G molecules; however...... of importance for production of sHLA-G in the mother and child, or it may support the theory that sHLA-G in the pregnant woman and the fetus is partly derived from a "shared organ", the placenta....

  2. Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with enterococcal endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, H; Mizumura, Y; Uraoka, T; Takata, M; Sugimoto, T; Miwa, A; Yamagishi, T

    1985-01-01

    An autopsy case of membranous glomerulonephritis associated with enterococcal endocarditis was reported. Although enterococcal antigen was not identified in glomerular deposits, the eluate from the patient's renal tissue was shown to specifically recombine with cells of the enterococcus isolated from his own ante mortem blood. Hypocomplementemia, circulating immune complexes and antienterococcal antibodies were also observed. These findings suggest that enterococcus-related immune complexes played a role in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis associated with enterococcal endocarditis in this patient.

  3. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  4. Mammary collective cell migration involves transient loss of epithelial features and individual cell migration within the epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Andrew J.; Huebner, Robert J.; Palsdottir, Hildur; Lee, Jessie K.; Perez, Melissa J.; Jorgens, Danielle M.; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Cheung, Kevin J.; Werb, Zena; Auer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Normal mammary morphogenesis involves transitions between simple and multilayered epithelial organizations. We used electron microscopy and molecular markers to determine whether intercellular junctions and apico-basal polarity were maintained in the multilayered epithelium. We found that multilayered elongating ducts had polarized apical and basal tissue surfaces both in three-dimensional culture and in vivo. However, individual cells were only polarized on surfaces in contact with the lumen or extracellular matrix. The basolateral marker scribble and the apical marker atypical protein kinase C zeta localized to all interior cell membranes, whereas PAR3 displayed a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that the apico-basal polarity was incomplete. Despite membrane localization of E-cadherin and β-catenin, we did not observe a defined zonula adherens connecting interior cells. Instead, interior cells were connected through desmosomes and exhibited complex interdigitating membrane protrusions. Single-cell labeling revealed that individual cells were both protrusive and migratory within the epithelial multilayer. Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) further reduced intercellular adhesion on apical and lateral surfaces but did not disrupt basal tissue organization. Following morphogenesis, segregated membrane domains were re-established and junctional complexes re-formed. We observed similar epithelial organization during mammary morphogenesis in organotypic culture and in vivo. We conclude that mammary epithelial morphogenesis involves a reversible, spatially limited, reduction in polarity and intercellular junctions and active individualistic cell migration. Our data suggest that reductions in polarity and adhesion during breast cancer progression might reflect partial recapitulation of a normal developmental program. PMID:22344263

  5. Regulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channels in small intestine as studied by quantitative mRNA detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, M. van; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Kemp, J.W.C.M. van der; Leeuwen, J.P.P.M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 are localized to the brush border membrane of intestinal cells and constitute the postulated rate-limiting entry step of active Ca2+ absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of these channels. To this end, the

  6. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Changes in Matrix Metalloproteinases in Diabetes Patients' Tears After Vitrectomy and the Relationship With Corneal Epithelial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takehiro; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Arimura, Shogo; Gozawa, Makoto; Takihara, Yuji; Inatani, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies indicate involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic keratopathy. To evaluate MMP levels in the tears of patients with diabetes, we investigated changes in MMP levels during perioperative periods and clarify the relationship with corneal epithelial disorders following vitrectomy. Matrix metalloproteinase levels in tears were measured by multiplex bead array in patients with or without diabetes who were scheduled for vitrectomy. Twenty-two patients with diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 patients with epiretinal membrane or macular hole (control group), were recruited. Changes in MMP levels during perioperative periods and the relationship with corneal epithelial disorders after vitrectomy were analyzed. The levels of MMP-2, -9, and -10 at 1 day after surgery in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. At 1 week after surgery, MMP-10 levels in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. After vitrectomy, corneal epithelial disorders occurred in six patients in the diabetic group but not in the control group. In the diabetic group, MMP-10 levels in tears of patients with corneal epithelial disorders were significantly higher than those in patients without corneal epithelial disorders. The MMP concentration in tears of patients with diabetes was higher than in nondiabetic patients after vitrectomy. High MMP-10 levels were observed in patients with diabetes and corneal epithelial disorders after vitrectomy. Aberrant levels of MMP-10 may cause corneal epithelial disorder after vitrectomy.

  8. Characterization of a 14,000 dalton antigen of Dirofilaria immitis infective third stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, S.A.; Cachia, P.J.; Wong, M.M.; Hurrell, J.G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunogenic proteins of Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) were identified by probing extracts of adult worms or their excretory-secretory proteins (ESP) blotted to nitrocellulose following SDS-PAGE with control or infected dog sera. A 14,000 dalton antigen (a prominent component of ESP by protein staining) was consistently recognized both in extracts and ESP by dog sera as early as three months post infection. This indicates a larval origin for the antigen since no adult worms are present until approximately five months post infection. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) prepared against the 14,000 dalton antigen confirmed by immunoblotting that this antigen is expressed by infective third stage larvae, adults and microfilariae and is present intact in the sera of infected dogs. Surface-labelling of whole adult D. immitis with Na 125 I produced radiolabelled antigens closely corresponding to those of ESP. An anti-14,000 dalton MAb was able to immunoprecipitate radiolabelled antigen which strongly suggest a surface or membrane location in the intact organism. Gel filtration data suggests that the protein is a native monomer. A MAb-affinity column has been used to purify the 14,000 dalton antigen to at least 98% homogeneity in one step from crude worm extracts. Further fractionation by HPLC yields a homogeneous preparation. Amino acid analysis and the N-terminal amino acid sequence data will be presented

  9. Associative link of clinical manifestations of the secondary syphilis of skin and mucosa with histocompatibility antigens Class I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Koshkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients with different clinical symptoms of secondary syphilis (ulcer chancres, pustular syphilis, hypertrophic papules, widespread leukoderma and alopecia were examined in order to study the distribution pattern of histocompatibility antigens of the first class in patients with secondary syphilis of the skin and mucous membranes. As a result of the study, the presence of an associative relationship between the distribution pattern of histocompatibility antigens of the first class and various clinical manifestations in patients with secondary syphilis was established.

  10. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  11. Epithelial Permeability Alterations in an In Vitro Air-Liquid Interface Model of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Beste, Kyle A.; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory upper-airway disease with numerous etiologies. Patients with a characteristic subtype of CRS, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), display increased expression of Th2 cytokines and antigen-specific IgE. Various sinonasal inflammatory conditions are associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare epithelial permeability and intercellular junctional protein expression amongst cultured primary sinonasal cells from AFRS patients versus non-inflammatory controls. Methods Epithelial cells isolated from paranasal sinus mucosa of AFRS and non-inflammatory control patients were grown to confluence on permeable supports and transitioned to air-liquid interface (ALI). Trans-epithelial resistance (TER) was measured with a horizontal Ussing chamber to characterize the functional permeability of each cell type. After TER recordings were complete, a panel of intercellular junctional proteins was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence labeling followed by confocal microscopy. Results After 12 samples were measured from each group, we observed a 41% mean decrease in TER in AFRS cells (296±89 ohms × cm2) compared to control (503±134 ohms × cm2, P=0.006). TER deficits observed in AFRS were associated with decreased expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A), and increased expression of a leaky tight junction protein claudin-2. Conclusions Cultured sinonasal epithelium from AFRS patients displayed increased epithelial permeability and altered expression of intercellular junctional proteins. Given that these cells were not incubated with inflammatory cytokines in vitro, the cultured AFRS epithelial alterations may represent a retained modification in protein expression from the in vivo phenotype. PMID:22927233

  12. Force-dependent breaching of the basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy T; Thakar, Dhruv; Weaver, Valerie M

    2017-01-01

    Clinically, non-invasive carcinomas are confined to the epithelial side of the basement membrane and are classified as benign, whereas invasive cancers invade through the basement membrane and thereby acquire the potential to metastasize. Recent findings suggest that, in addition to protease-mediated degradation and chemotaxis-stimulated migration, basement membrane invasion by malignant cells is significantly influenced by the stiffness of the associated interstitial extracellular matrix and the contractility of the tumor cells that is dictated in part by their oncogenic genotype. In this review, we highlight recent findings that illustrate unifying molecular mechanisms whereby these physical cues contribute to tissue fibrosis and malignancy in three epithelial organs: breast, pancreas, and liver. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings and the biological properties and clinical challenges linked to the unique biology of each of these organs. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increase in Docetaxel-Resistance of Ovarian Carcinoma-Derived RMG-1 Cells with Enhanced Expression of Lewis Y Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Lin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial carcinomas of the ovary exhibit the highest mortality rate among gynecologic malignancies. Studies found that the metabolism of glycolipids or carbohydrates is associated with acquirement of anticancer drug-resistance by cancer cells. This study was to characterize possible involvement of Lewis Y (LeY antigen in the drug-resistance of cancer cells. We transfected the α1,2-fucosyltransferase gene into human ovarian carcinoma-derived RMG-1 cells and established RMG-1-hFUT cells with enhanced expression of LeY. We determined the effects of docetaxel on the survival of cells by MTT assaying and observed the apoptosis of cells in the presence of docetaxel by flow cytometric analysis and by transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membranes and intracellular granules in RMG-1-hFUT cells were stained with anti-LeY antibody, the intensity of the staining was higher than that in control cells. The RMG-1-hFUT cells exhibited higher resistance to docetaxel than the control cells with regard to the docetaxel concentration and time course. After treatment with 10 μg/mL docetaxel for 72 h, the control cells, but not RMG-1-hFUT, contained abundant positively stained cell debris due to disintegration of the cytoskeleton. On transmission electron microscopy, although the control cells treated with docetaxel as above showed the following morphology, i.e., absence of villi, cells shrunken in size, pyknosis, agglutinated chromatin and cell buds containing nuclei in the process of apoptosis, the RMG-1-hFUT cells showed only agglutinated chromatin and vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In summary, cells with enhanced expression of LeY were shown to acquire docetaxel-resistance, indicating the possible involvement of glycoconjugates in the drug-resistance.

  14. Expression of blood group antigens A and B in pancreas of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENKA GEORGIEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of blood group antigens (BGA A and B in tissues of different vertebrates is still controversial. There are few investigations on vertebrate pancreas and no obvious explanation of their tissue expression. The aim of the present study is to follow and compare the pancreatic expression of BGA A and B in representatives of five vertebrate classes. The biotin-streptavidin-proxidase labeling system was used for immunohistochemical detection of BGA by monoclonal antibodies to human A and B antigens. The present study reveals specific immunoreactivity in acinar and epithelial cells of pancreatic efferent ducts in species free-living vertebrates. The immunoperoxidase staining shows antigenic heterogeneity in the cellular localization. The number of positive cells and the intensity of expression vary in different species. Endothelial cells are positive only in the pancreas of Emys orbicularis. The lack of BGA A and B in some species suggests that the expression of these antigens is dependent not only on the evolutionary level of the species, but mainly on some genetic control mechanisms. The production of BGA A and B and the variability in their cellular localization probably reflect the stage of cell differentiation and the mechanisms of pancreatic secretor function. The presence of histo BGA in endodermal acinar pancreatic cells confirms the assumption for the high antigenic stability and conservatism of these molecules in vertebrate histogenesis and evolution.

  15. Developmental mechanisms of the tympanic membrane in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Masaki; Kitazawa, Taro; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Hirai, Tamami; Iseki, Sachiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The tympanic membrane is a thin layer that originates from the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesenchyme. Molecular-genetic investigations have revealed that interaction between epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the pharyngeal arches is essential for development of the tympanic membrane. We have recently reported that developmental mechanisms underlying the tympanic membrane seem to be different between mouse and chicken, suggesting that the tympanic membrane evolved independently in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes. In this review, we summarize previous studies of tympanic membrane formation in the mouse. We also discuss its formation in amniotes from an evolutionary point of view. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Epithelial Cell Adherence Mediated by the Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Tia Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Mammarappallil, Joseph G.; Elsinghorst, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are capable of invading cultured epithelial cells derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tia locus has been shown to direct the synthesis of Tia, a 25-kDa outer membrane protein. Tia is sufficient to confer the adherence and invasion phenotypes on laboratory stains of E. coli, suggesting that this pr...

  17. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays o