Sample records for epitaxial-side-down mounting process

  1. Inspection of surface-mount device images using wavelet processing (United States)

    Carillo, Gerardo; Cabrera, Sergio D.; Portillo, Angel


    In this paper, the wavelet transform is used on surface mount device (SMD) images to devise a system used to inspect the presence of SMDs in printed circuit boards. The complete system involves preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. The images correspond to three cases: SMD present (SMD), SMD not present with a speck of glue (GLUE), and SMD not present (noSMD). For each case, two images are collected using top and side illuminations but these are first combined into one image before proceeding to do further processing. Preprocessing is done by applying the wavelet transform to the images to expose details. Using 500 images for each of the three cases, various features are considered from different wavelet subbands, using one or several transform levels, to find four good discriminating parameters. Classification is performed sequentially using a two-level binary decision-tree. Two features are combined into a two-component feature vector and are fed into the first level that compares the SMD vs noSMD cases. The second level uses another feature vector produced by combining two other features and then compares the SMD and GLUE cases. The features used give no cluster overlap on the training set and simple parallelpiped classifier is devised at each level of the tree producing no errors on this set. Results give 99.6% correct classification when applied to a separate testing set consisting of 500 images for each case. All the errors are made to level 2 classifying six SMD images erroneously as GLUE.

  2. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating (United States)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi


    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  3. Seasonal geomorphic processes and rates of sand movement at Mount Baldy dune in Indiana, USA (United States)

    Kilibarda, Zoran; Kilibarda, Vesna


    Winds are very strong, frequent, and have high energy (annual DP ∼800 VU) along the southern shores of Lake Michigan, allowing the coexistence of fixed and active dunes. Six years (2007-13) of monitoring Mount Baldy in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore reveals that this is the most active coastal dune in the Great Lakes region. This paper documents aeolian processes and changes in the dune's morphology that occur temporarily, following storms, or seasonally, due to weather (climate) variations. Most of the sand transport in this area takes place during strong storms with gale force (>17.5 m/s) winds, which occur in the autumn and winter months. A single storm, such as the October 28-31, 2013 event, can contribute 25% of the annual sand transport and dune movement inland. In its most active year (June 1, 2011 through May 31, 2012), Mount Baldy moved inland on average 4.34 m, with a maximum of 6.52 m along the blowout's axis (155° azimuth). During this particularly active season, there were six storms with sustained gale force winds, winter air temperatures were warmer than average, and shelf ice on Lake Michigan lasted only one day. The dune is least active during the summer season, when the winds are weakest. The late fall and winter winds are the strongest. But in a typical year, most of the dune's advance inland takes place during the spring thaw when sand is released from over-steepened and lumpy slip face, allowing it to avalanche to the toe of the slip face. However, with a warming air temperatures, a reduction in the duration of winter shelf ice, and rising Lake Michigan levels, the annual rates of sand transport and dune movement may increase. The recent Mount Baldy management strategy, which includes planting vegetation and installing wind barriers on the dune's stoss side in an effort to fix the dune and stop its further movement inland, may potentially cause the destruction of the mobile sand, open dune habitat, resulting in the extinction of rare

  4. Forming the stress state of a vibroisolated building in the process of mounting rubber steel vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashevskiy Mikhail Aronovich


    Full Text Available The necessity to specificate the formation process of stress-strain state of buildings in the construction process is a new problem which requires including real production characteristics going beyond calculation models into calculation methods. Today the construction process lacks this specification. When mounting vibroisolators the stress-strein of a structure state is changing. The mounting method of vibroisolators is patented and consists in multistage successive compression loading of each vibroisolator with the constant speed and following fixation of this displacement. The specified engineering method of rubber-steel pads calculation in view of change of their form during deformation, nonlinearity, rheological processes is offered. Resilient pads look like rubber plates rectangular in plane reinforced on the basic surfaces with metal sheets. The influence of a time-variable static load and free vibrations of loaded pads are considered.

  5. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna (United States)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Murè, Filippo


    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ˜1-2km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (˜2km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  6. Drilling, processing and first results for Mount Johns ice core in West Antarctica Ice Sheet


    Schwanck,Franciele; Simões,Jefferson Cardia; Handley,Michael; Mayewski,Paul Andrew; Bernardo,Ronaldo Torma; Aquino,Francisco Eliseu


    ABSTRACT: An ice core, 92.26 m in length, was collected near the ice divide of the West Antarctica ice sheet during the 2008/2009 austral summer. This paper described the fieldwork at the Mount Johns site (79º55'S; 94º23'W) and presented the first results of the upper 45.00 m record covering approximately 125 years (1883 - 2008), dated by annual layer counting and volcanic reference horizons. Trace element concentrations in 2,137 samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass s...

  7. The SLAC Design and Manufacturing Process of Sphere-Mounted Reflectors (Oct 1997)

    CERN Document Server

    Ruland, R E


    Sphere-Mounted Reflectors (SMRs) are used at SLAC for a variety of alignment purposes. They consist of a retroreflective set of mirrors mounted inside a hollowed out sphere. The most significant property of these is that the reflected beam emerging from the SMR is parallel to the incoming beam. The reflector is comprised of three reflective surfaces that are mutually orthogonal forming the geometrical equivalent of the corner of a cube. Initially a series of 1 1/2 inch (38.10 mm) versions were purchased for $3250 each. These consisted of steel balls that were hollowed out allowing an air-cube to be precisely inserted into the ball so that the apex of the mirror planes would intersect the center of the ball. This is critical so that when the SMR is placed into a ''nest'' it will always reflect from the same three-dimensional position regardless what orientation it is in. Due to the high cost of manufacturing, a delivery time of several months, and with no assurance that the reflector will pass quality control,...

  8. Groundmass crystallization of Mount St. Helens dacite, 1980 1986: a tool for interpreting shallow magmatic processes (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.


    The 1980 1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano provides an unprecedented opportunity to observe the evolution of a silicic magma system over a short time scale. Groundmass plagioclase size measurements are coupled with measured changes in matrix glass, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide chemistry to document increasing groundmass crystallinity, and thus to better constrain proposed physical models of the post-May 18, 1980 magmatic reservoir. Measurements of plagioclase microlite and microphenocryst sizes demonstrate that relatively rapid growth (approximately 10-9 cm/s) of groundmass plagioclase occurred immediately subsequent to May 18. Relatively rapid plagioclase growth continued through the end of 1980 at an average rate of 3x10-11 cm/s; plagioclase growth rates then decreased to post-1980 seismicity (Endo et al. 1990), although it does not explain the experimental data of Hill and Rutherford (1989) on the growth rate of amphibole reaction rims. Textural measurements on Mount St. Helens dacite can also be used to evaluate crystallization kinetics in silicic magmas, systems for which experimental data is almost non-existent. Plagioclase growth rates are 5 10 times slower than estimated plagioclase growth rates in basaltic systems, a result consistent with the higher viscosity of a more silicic melt. Furthermore, patterns of textural change (both average crystal size and number density) are similar to those observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption by Lipman and Banks (1987), suggesting that the only modification to the crystallization behavior of plagioclase required in extrapolation from basaltic systems is a moderate decrease in rates, such that the rate of crystallization scales with the melt viscosity.

  9. Observations of paraglacial processes on glacier forelands in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan


    The large and extensively debris-covered valley glaciers in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park immediate east of the Main Divide in the Southern Alps of New Zealand experienced a substantial frontal retreat and vertical downwasting during the past few decades, often connected with the development of a proglacial lake and retreat by calving. Their Holocene glacier forelands are characterised by huge lateral moraines and multi-ridged lateral moraine systems alongside smaller terminal moraines and frontal outwash heads. Placed within a very dynamic general geomorphological regime of various efficient process-systems, these Holocene glacier forelands are currently affected by substantial paraglacial modification. These paraglacial processes have already caused some consequences for the touristic infrastructure in the area and are likely to cause further problems for the accessibility of established tramping routes, tourist huts, and lookouts in the near and medium future. One of the first steps in a project under development presented here is a detailed visual comparison of changes documented during the past 15 Years on the glacier forelands of Hooker, Mueller and Tasman Glaciers in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park. It reveals considerable erosion especially on the proximal slopes of the lateral moraines by gully development and retreat of erosion scars at their crest in order of several metres in just a few years. Different processes contribute to high erosion rates, among others rill erosion connected to mid-slope springs that only are temporarily active following substantial rainfall events, efficient gully incision, and slumping. Although any quantification of the actual erosion rates is just preliminary and further studies are necessary in order to make reliable predictions for future development, the amount of paraglacial erosion in this environment is very high compared to other regions and highlights the current importance of the paraglacial process-system in the

  10. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  11. The Mounting process and dielectric tests of the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6(220 Kv); Montaje y pruebas dielectricas de la estacion blindada en gas SF6 (220 kV) 'Parque Caballero'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoud, Carlos; Bobadilla, Alberto [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)


    This document approaches the aspects referring to the mounting and also dielectric tests for the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6. This type of installation represents a innovation regarding substations in urban centres. The most relevant items in relation to the mounting process are shown in a summarized way, as well as the aspects related to dielectric tests executed during the substation commissioning.

  12. Vaginitis test - wet mount (United States)

    Wet prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... a rash, painful intercourse, or odor after intercourse. Trichomoniasis , a sexually transmitted disease. Vaginal yeast infection .

  13. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Hematite-bearing Ridge on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Potential Mineralogical Process Analog for the Mount Sharp Hematite Ridge (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.; Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Mertzman, S. A.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed in Gale Crater in August 2012 and is currently roving towards the layered central mound known as Mount Sharp [1]. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral data indicate Mount Sharp contains an 5 km stratigraphic sequence including Fe-Mg smectites, hematite, and hydrated sulfates in the lower layers separated by an unconformity from the overlying anhydrous strata [1,2,3]. Hematite was initially detected in CRISM data to occur in the lower sulfate layers on the north side of the mound [2]. [3] further mapped a distinct hematite detection occurring as part of a 200 m wide ridge that extends 6.5 km NE-SW, approximately parallel with the base of Mount Sharp. It is likely a target for in-situ analyses by Curiosity. We document here the occurrence of a stratum of hematite-bearing breccia that is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii) (Fig.1). The stratum is more resistant to weathering than surrounding material, giving it the appearance of a ridge. The Mauna Kea hematite ridge is thus arguably a potential terrestrial mineralogical and process analog for the Gale Crater hematite ridge. We are acquiring a variety of chemical and mineralogical data on the Mauna Kea samples, with a focus on the chemical and mineralogical information already available or planned for the Gale hematite ridge.

  14. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn


    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  15. Effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on the radiative and chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere (United States)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Grant, Keith E.; Connell, Peter S.; Wuebbles, Donald J.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory two-dimensional zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the global atmosphere was used to study the effects of the 15 June 1991 eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo volcano on stratospheric processes. SAGE 2 time-dependent aerosol surface area density and optical extinction data were used as input into the model. By 22 December 1991, a maximum equatorial change of -1.8 percent in column ozone was derived from heterogeneous chemical processes that convert NO(x) into HNO3 on sulfuric acid aerosols. Radiative feedbacks from increased aerosol optical thickness independently changes column ozone by approximately -3.5 percent for the same period. This occurs from increasing the net heating of the lower stratosphere, which indirectly increases chemical reaction rates via their temperature dependence and from changes in actinic fluxes, which directly modify photodissociation rates. Including both heterogeneous and radiative effects changes column ozone by -5.5 percent. The model-derived change overestimates the decrease in column ozone relative to the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite. Maximum local ozone decreases of 12 percent were derived in the equatorial region, at 25 km. Model-derived column NO2 peaked (-14 percent) at 30 deg S in October 1991. The timing of the NO2 peak is consistent with observation, but the model underestimates the magnitude of the decrease. Local concentrations of NO(x) (NO + NO2), ClO(x) (Cl + ClO), and HO(x) (OH + HO2), in the lower stratosphere between 30 deg S and 30 deg N, were calculated to have changed by -40 percent, +100 to +160 percent, and +120 to +140 percent respectively.

  16. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process (United States)

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.


    ), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.

  17. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali


    Full Text Available Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR engine mount characterization. MR engine mount was developed to investigate the vibration isolation process. An engine mount test machine was designed to measure the displacement, relative velocity and damper force with respect to current supply to characterize the hysteresis behavior of the damper and as force tracking control of the MR engine mount.

  18. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  19. SXI prototype mirror mount (United States)


    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  20. SXI prototype mirror mount (United States)


    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Friction Contact Master Belt with the Gun Mount Barrel During the Process of High-Speed Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezulinsky Jaroslav


    Full Text Available The friction in the gun mount barrel at sliding speeds of artillery projectile 500 - 700 m/s is not sufficiently studied. The main problem is to increase the efficiency of the master belt with a significant increase of the interaction parameters of the barrel with the projectile. To determine the effect of heating on the change of physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer and friction coefficient on the surface of the master belt were made mathematical modeling of heat transfer.

  2. Fiscal 1998 report on data processing for geothermal energy development enhancement. No. A-4 Mount Kumbetsu area (primary data processing); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-4. Kunbetsu chiiki (dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is part of the state-operated 'geothermal energy development enhancement' project, under which a comprehensive analysis is conducted into the results of a survey of geothermal resources in existence in the Mount Kumbetsu area. The local geothermal structure is examined, and the Kumbetsu hot spring area, the Uebetsu river middle reach area, and the Unabetsu hot spring area are extracted as promising high-temperature supply areas. The Kumbetsu hot spring area and the Uebetsu river middle reach area lie on a heave positioned west of the Mount Musa/Mount Shitabanupuri fault. There is a distinguished bending in the zone of discontinuous resistivity, and, when geology is considered, it is inferred that there exists a geothermal fluid field formed by the Mount Musa/Mount Shitabanupuri fault running NNW-SSW and a fracture zone that runs across the fault. The two areas are located at spots where gravity gradient is sharp. It is concluded that, with the alteration zone, temperature distribution, etc., also taken into account, the Kumbetsu hot spring area is the more promising as a source of geothermal energy. The water of the Kumbetsu hot spring is of the Cl-SO{sub 4} type, 64.5 degrees C hot and neutral, and arises from the depth where water of meteoric origin is heated by heat conduction. The heat source is supposedly the magma reservoir whose eruption once formed Mount Unabetsu etc. (NEDO)

  3. Frictional processes during flank motion at Mount Etna (Italy): experimental characterisation of slip on similar and dissimilar volcanic and sedimentary rocks. (United States)

    Rozanski, Wojciech; Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Castagna, Angela; Mitchell, Thomas; Heap, Michael; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Hirose, Takehiro; Dingwell, Donald


    The edifice of Mount Etna (Italy) is structurally unstable, exhibiting a near continuous ESE seaward sliding along a set of faults due to interplay between regional tectonics, gravity instability and magma intrusion. Continuous seismic and ground deformation monitoring reveals the resulting large-scale flank motion at variable rates. The mechanisms controlling this faulting kinetic remains, however, poorly constrained. Examination of the fault zones reveals a range of rock types along the different fault segments: fresh and altered basalt, clay and limestone. As lithological contrasts can jeopardise the structural stability of an edifice, we experimentally investigate the frictional properties of these rocks using low- to high-velocity-rotary shear tests on similar and dissimilar rocks to better understand episodes of slow flank motion as well as rapid and catastrophic sector collapse events. The first set of experiments was performed at velocities up to 1.2 m/s and at normal stresses of 1.5 MPa, commensurate with depths of the contacts seen in the Etna edifice. Friction experiments on clay gouge shows the strong rate-weakening dependence of slip in this material as well as the release of carbon dioxide. Friction experiments on solid rocks show a wider range of mechanical behaviour. At high velocity (>0.6 m/s) volcanic rocks tend to melt whereas the clay and limestone do not; rather they decarbonate, which prevents the rock from achieving the temperature required for melting. Experiments on dissimilar rocks clearly show that composition of host rocks affects the composition and viscosity of the resultant frictional melt, which can have a dramatic effect on shear stress leading to fault weakening or strengthening depending on the combination of host rock samples. A series of low- to moderate-slip velocity experiments is now being conducted to complement our dataset and provide a more complete rock friction model applicable to Mount Etna.

  4. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.


    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  5. Clamp-mount device (United States)

    Clark, K. H. (Inventor)


    A clamp-mount device is disclosed for mounting equipment to an associated I-beam and the like structural member of the type having oppositely extending flanges wherein the device comprises a base and a pair of oppositely facing clamping members carried diagonally on the base clamping flanges therebetween and having flange receiving openings facing one another. Lock means are carried diagonally by the base opposite the clamping members locking the flanges in the clamping members. A resilient hub is carried centrally of the base engaging and biasing a back side of the flanges maintaining tightly clamped and facilitating use on vertical as well as horizontal members. The base turns about the hub to receive the flanges within the clamping members. Equipment may be secured to the base by any suitable means such as bolts in openings. Slidable gate latches secure the hinged locks in an upright locking position. The resilient hub includes a recess opening formed in the base and a rubber-like pad carried in this opening being depressably and rotatably carried therein.

  6. Advanced centering of mounted optics (United States)

    Wenzel, Christian; Winkelmann, Ralf; Klar, Rainer; Philippen, Peter; Garden, Ron; Pearlman, Sasha; Pearlman, Guy


    Camera objectives or laser focusing units consist of complex lens systems with multiple lenses. The optical performance of such complex lens systems is dependent on the correct positioning of lenses in the system. Deviations in location or angle within the system directly affect the achievable image quality. To optimize the achievable performance of lens systems, these errors can be corrected by machining the mount of the lens with respect to the optical axis. The Innolite GmbH and Opto Alignment Technology have developed a novel machine for such center turning operation. A confocal laser reflection measurement sensor determines the absolute position of the optical axis with reference to the spindle axis. As a strong advantage compared to autocollimator measurements the utilized Opto Alignment sensor is capable of performing centration and tilt measurements without changing objectives on any radius surface from 2 mm to infinity and lens diameters from 0.5 mm to 300 mm, including cylinder, aspheric, and parabolic surfaces. In addition, it performs significantly better on coated lenses. The optical axis is skewed and offset in reference to the spindle axis as determined by the measurement. Using the information about the mount and all reference surfaces, a machine program for an untrue turning process is calculated from this data in a fully automated manner. Since the optical axis is not collinear with the spindle axis, the diamond tool compensates for these linear and tilt deviations with small correction movements. This results in a simple machine setup where the control system works as an electronic alignment chuck. Remaining eccentricity of <1 μm and angular errors of < 10 sec are typical alignment results.

  7. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh


    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  8. Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell, JR.J.F.


    This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system

  9. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)


    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  10. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  11. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph


    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  12. The head-mounted microscope. (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J


    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  14. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  15. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  16. Climbing Mount Probable (United States)

    Harper, Marc Allen


    This work attempts to explain the relationships between natural selection, information theory, and statistical inference. In particular, a geometric formulation of information theory known as information geometry and its deep connections to evolutionary game theory inform the role of natural selection in evolutionary processes. The goals of this…

  17. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting (United States)

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles


    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  18. Mounting clips for panel installation (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco


    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  19. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus


    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  20. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano (United States)


    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  1. Mounting power cables on SOLEIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    The power couplers are mounted on the SOLEIL cryomodule in a clean room. The cryomodule will allow superconducting technology to be used at SOLEIL, the French national synchrotron facility. This work is carried out as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA Saclay, the French National Atomic Energy Commission.

  2. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  3. Tension pneumocephalus: Mount Fuji sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulastya Sanyal


    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male was operated for a space occupying lesion in the brain. A noncontrast computed tomography scan done in the late postoperative period showed massive subdural air collection causing compression of bilateral frontal lobes with widening of interhemispheric fissure and the frontal lobes acquiring a peak like configuration - causing tension pneumocephalus-"Mount Fuji sign." Tension pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the extradural or intradural spaces in sufficient volume to exert a mass or pressure effect on the brain, leading to brain herniation. Tension pneumocephalus is a surgical emergency, which needs immediate intervention in the form of decompression of the cranial cavity by a burr hole or needle aspiration. The Mount Fuji sign differentiates tension pneumocephalus from pneumocephalus.


    Van Loenen, Richard E.; Conyac, Martin D.


    A mineral survey of the Mount Henry Roadless Area, Lincoln County, Montana, was conducted. A small area located along the southwest boundary was determined to have a probable mineral-resource potential for low-grade deposits of stratabound copper and silver. There is little possibility for locatable mineral, coal, oil, gas, and geothermal resources in the remainder of the area. There are no mines, prospects, or records of mineral production within the roadless area.

  5. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin


    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  6. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans


    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.


    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.


    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  8. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.


    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  9. A lower-melting-point solder alloy for surface mounts (United States)

    McCormack, M. T.; Degani, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Gesick, W. R.


    Significant manufacturing cost reductions can be realized with lower-temperature surface mount processing by increasing yields and using less expensive components and boards. A lower-melting-point solder alloy (nominal composition Sn-41.75Pb-8Bi0.5Ag) has been developed that enables significant reductions in peak reflow temperatures during surface-mount assembly. The solder alloy is compatible with standard Pb-Sn surface finishes, melts within the temperature range of ≈166-172°C,andhas promising mechanical properties.

  10. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman


    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  11. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation (United States)

    Godha, S.; Lachapelle, G.


    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Generally, mountains determine the characteristics of particular areas, because of the island phenomenon they cause. However, the geological origins of mountains are multiple and they are located in different climatic regions. Nevertheless, in all aspects they reflect the basic elements of the local biologic unit. The shapes, climates, diverse water resources, biocenoses and the generated soils are the different components that determine, through their dynamic interaction, the “Mountain” ecosystem. Tectonic subduction processes lead to the development of islands such as Martinique, whose basic structure consists of a series of mountains (among them Mount Pele. Like the topographic divisions, the local micro-climates, water courses, different soils (themselves the consequences of the presence of the mountain itself and successive volcanic eruptions determine, over time, the organization of the diverse vegetal entities.

  13. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G


    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  14. Surface mount technology terms and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrow, Phil


    In today's fast-paced world of technology, keeping up with new terms and concepts can be quite a challenge. Surface Mount Technology Terms and Concepts is an invaluable reference containing over 1000 terms and definitions used in the SMT field. Each term is followed by a paragraph or two explaining the meaning and how it fits into the surface mount industry. The easy lookup and concise explanations make it ideal for those starting out in the field as well as professionals already involved in surface mount design and assembly.Glossary of over 1000 surface mount technology terms

  15. Implementasi Rangkaian Elektronika Menggunakan Teknologi Surface Mount




    Salahsatu perkembangan perangkat elektronika adalah miniaturisasi, yakni pengurangan pada volume perangkat. Dan teknologi yang berperan penting dalam proses miniaturisasi adalah teknologi Surface Mount. Teknologi Surface Mount adalah teknologi komponen yang berusaha nengurangi ukuran komponen dan diletakkan secara langsung pada permukaan PCB. Teknologi ini menggantikan teknologi sebelumnya, yakni teknologi thru hole, dimana dalam pemasangannya dilakukan pelubangan pada PCB. Pemakaian kompo...

  16. Mount Athos: Between autonomy and statehood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin


    Full Text Available Legal status of the Mount Athos is characterized by many special features that make it internationally unique legal regime. The author analyzes peculiarities of Mount Athos territorial status, legal position of residents and visitors, as well as organization of Mount Athos authorities. The author concludes that the Mount Athos is characterized by a kind of para-sovereignty. Its autonomy involves not only the internal organization, autonomous governance and religious autonomy, but it also includes many elements of secular life of their visitors. Mount Athos has its own, separate legislative, administrative and judicial powers, while the Statute of the Mount Athos has greater legal force than all the other laws of the Greek state, because the state can not unilaterally change its provisions. Having in mind that the wide self-government is vested in church authorities and that the monks have very specific way of living, the author takes a position that the Mount Athos represent 'monastic state', but without statehood. The author also states that the Mount Athos will be faced with many challenges in the context of spreading of an assimilating, universal conception of human rights.

  17. Drill cuttings mount formation study (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye


    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  18. Astrophotography on the go using short exposures with light mounts

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Joseph


    No longer are heavy, sturdy, expensive mounts and tripods required to photograph deep space. With today's advances in technology, all that is required is an entry-DSLR and an entry level GoTo telescope. Here is all of the information needed to start photographing the night sky without buying expensive tracking mounts. By using multiple short exposures and combining them with mostly ‘freeware’ computer programs, the effect of image rotation can be minimized to a point where it is undetectable in normal astrophotography, even for a deep-sky object such as a galaxy or nebula. All the processes, techniques, and equipment needed to use inexpensive, lightweight altazimuth and equatorial mounts and very short exposures photography to image deep space objects are explained, step-by-step, in full detail, supported by clear, easy to understand graphics and photographs.   Currently available lightweight mounts and tripods are identified and examined from an economic versus capability perspective to help users deter...

  19. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao


    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  20. Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.


    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world, an 8-by-10-km basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the volcano known as Mount Mazama (fig. 1) during a rapid series of explosive eruptions about 7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 m, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 km2 of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, virtually all of Mount Mazama, and most of the area of the geologic map. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama's climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, greatly enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. Lastly, the many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama are a source of information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive

  1. Modeling of Wind Turbine Gearbox Mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Ebbesen


    Full Text Available In this paper three bushing models are evaluated to find a best practice in modeling the mounting of wind turbine gearboxes. Parameter identification on measurements has been used to determine the bushing parameters for dynamic simulation of a gearbox including main shaft. The stiffness of the main components of the gearbox has been calculated. The torsional stiffness of the main shaft, gearbox and the mounting of the gearbox are of same order of magnitude, and eigenfrequency analysis clearly reveals that the stiffness of the gearbox mounting is of importance when modeling full wind turbine drivetrains.

  2. 1980 Mount Saint Helens, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred at 15 32 UT, only seconds before the explosion that began the eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. This eruption and blast blew off the top...

  3. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: June 1991 Eruptions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mount Pinatubo is an andesitic island arc volcano, located on the southern Luzon Island, Philippines. Prior to 1991 it had been dormant for more than 635 years. On...

  4. Analysis of adjusting effects of mounting force on frequency conversion of mounted nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Su, Ruifeng; Liu, Haitao; Liang, Yingchun; Lu, Lihua


    Motivated by the need to increase the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of nonlinear optics with large apertures, a novel mounting configuration with active adjusting function on the SHG efficiency is proposed and mechanically and optically studied. The adjusting effects of the mounting force on the distortion and stress are analyzed by the finite element methods (FEM), as well as the contribution of the distortion and stress to the change in phase mismatch, and the SHG efficiency are theoretically stated. Further on, the SHG efficiency is calculated as a function of the mounting force. The changing trends of the distortion, stress, and the SHG efficiency with the varying mounting force are obtained, and the optimal ones are figured out. Moreover, the mechanism of the occurrence of the optimal values is studied and the adjusting strategy is put forward. Numerical results show the robust adjustment of the mounting force, as well as the effectiveness of the mounting configuration, in increasing the SHG efficiency.

  5. Inspection of the integrity of surface mounted integrated circuits on a printed circuit board using vision


    Yakoub, Imad


    Machine vision technology has permeated many areas of industry, and automated inspection systems are playing increasingly important roles in many production processes. Electronic manufacturing is a good example of the integration of vision based feedback in manufacturing and the assembly of surface mount PCBs is typical of the technology involved. There are opportunities to use machine vision during different stages of the surface mount process. The problem in the inspection of solder joints ...

  6. An inertia-type hybrid mount combining a rubber mount and a piezostack actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Moon


    Full Text Available This paper has been focused on developing a new hybrid mount for shipboard equipment used in naval surface ships and submarines. While the hybrid mount studied in our previous research was 100 kg-class series-type mount, the new hybrid mount has been designed as an inertia-type mount capable of supporting a static of 500 kg. The proposed mount consists of a commercial rubber resilient mount, a piezostack actuator and an inertial mass. The piezostack actuator connected with the inertial mass generates actively the control force. The performances of the proposed mount with a newly designed specific controller have been evaluated in accordance with US military specifications and compared with the passive mount. An isolation system consisting of four proposed mounts and auxiliary devices has been also tested. Through a series of experimental tests, it has been confirmed that the proposed mount provides better performance than the US Navy's standard passive mounts.

  7. Engine mounts and structural joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    properly implemented, a separate problem-specific solution must be constructed for each joint/structure problem considered. A more general set of analysis tools and design dynamics is required to understand existing designs better and to develop alternate joints based on new or improved welding processes. A problem is ...

  8. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George


    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  9. Fluorescent visualization of macromolecules in Drosophila whole mounts. (United States)

    Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro; Machado, Luciana Claudia Herculano; Moda, Livia Maria Rosatto


    The ability to determine the expression dynamics of individual genes "in situ" by visualizing the precise spatial and temporal distribution of their products in whole mounts by histochemical and immunocytochemical reactions has revolutionized our understanding of cellular processes. Drosophila developmental genetics was one of the fields that benefited most from these technologies, and a variety of fluorescent methods were specifically designed for investigating the localization of developmentally important proteins and cell markers during embryonic and post embryonic stages of this model organism. In this chapter we present detailed protocols for fluorescence immunocytochemistry of whole mount embryos, imaginal discs, pupal retinas, and salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as methods for fluorescent visualization of specific subcellular structures in these tissues.

  10. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements......In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  11. The CUREA Program at Mount Wilson (United States)

    Turner, Paula C.; LoPresto, J. C.; Simmons, M.


    For fifteen years, Mount Wilson Observatory has been host to a unique educational program designed to introduce undergraduate students of physics and astronomy to elements of observational solar and stellar astrophysics. Founded by faculty members from four-year colleges who dubbed themselves the Consortium for Undergraduate Research and Education in Astronomy (CUREA), the CUREA program is an intensive two-week course in observational astronomy. It includes lectures by astronomers and physicists, observational exercises in both solar and stellar astrophysics, tours of various research facilities on the mountain and in the Los Angeles area, and an observational mini-project designed and executed by each student during the second week of the program. This paper will present the program’s curriculum and goals, a brief history, and examples of observational projects undertaken by recent participants. CUREA is administered by the Mount Wilson Observatory Association, using facilities provided by the Mount Wilson Institute.

  12. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA


    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  13. The mounting system of lenses in ASPIICS coronagraph (United States)

    Veselý, Martin; Vít, Tomáš; Pleštil, Jan


    This article describes the mounting system of lenses in a coronagraph ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). ASPIICS is developed and produced in cooperation of twenty partners from seven countries. It is a part of the ESA's PROBA-3 mission, which includes a formation flight of a pair of satellites at orbit. Coronagraph itself consists of three objectives, where the last one is composed by one objective tube for each lens plus holder and Lyot stop. To achieve high accuracy of mounting of the individual lenses, it was necessary to achieve tight geometric and dimensional tolerances for manufacturing of the objectives barrels. In order to minimize the stress and to prevent the displacement of the lens from ideal position during a temperature change on orbit, an athermal solution was proposed. This is achieved by inserting a Teflon ring of a suitable thickness between the lens surface, objective barrel and the spring washer with a precisely defined contact force. It was necessary to find a suitable technological process of manufacturing, because of the specific behavior of PTFE during turning and complex design of other parts. All parameters of mounting system were repeatedly verified by a thermomechanical analysis in FEM software, based on tests of real parts.

  14. Reflow Soldering of Surface Mount Electronic Components in a Laboratory


    Erickson, Christopher J.; Durfee, Dallin S.


    We present a basic tutorial for implementing surface mount technology in lab-built scientific instruments. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using surface mount chips. We also describe methods for the development and prototyping of surface mount circuitry in home-built electronics. The method of soldering surface mount components in a common toaster oven is described. We provide advice from our own experience in developing this technology, and argue that surface mount technology ...

  15. Mount Sinai and Mount Zion: Discontinuity and continuity in the book of Hebrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisani Ramantswana


    Full Text Available The author of Hebrews draws significant contrasts between Mount Sinai and Mount Zion which both played a major role in the old covenant. For the author of Hebrews the former mountain, Mount Sinai, only had limited significance with respect to the new covenant, whereas the latter mountain, Mount Zion, continued to have significance in the new covenant. Mount Zion was viewed as a shadow of the heavenly reality, which is the true destination for the pilgrimage community. Mount Sinai as the locus of encounter or meeting between God and Israel only played a transitory role, whereas Mount Zion had perpetual significance as the destination, the dwelling place of God and his people.Berg Sinai en Berg Sion: Diskontinuïteit en kontinuïteit in die brief aan die Hebreërs. Die skrywer van Hebreërs wys op betekenisvolle teenstellings tussen Berg Sinai en Berg Sion, wat elkeen ’n beduidende rol in die ou verbond gespeel het. Vir die Hebreërskrywer het Berg Sinai egter beperkte betekenis vir die nuwe verbond, terwyl Sion nog steeds betekenis het. Berg Sion word as skaduwee van die hemelse werklikheid beskou, wat die uiteindelike bestemming van die pelgrimsgemeenskap is. Berg Sinai, as die lokus van ontmoeting tussen God en Israel, speel slegs ‘n oorgangsrol, terwyl Berg Sion steeds beduidende betekenis het as bestemming en woonplek van God en sy volk.

  16. MANUS: a wheelchair-mounted rehabilitation robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, B.J.F.; Evers, H.G.; Woerden, J.A. van


    Rehabilitation robots are assistive devices designed for use by people with severe disability in order to gain independence in tasks of daily living. MANUS is a wheelchair-mounted general-purpose manipulator now in use with over 100 people in their homes in the Netherlands, in France and in other

  17. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.


    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  18. PC board mount corrosion sensitive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex L.; Casias, Adrian L.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Laguna, George R.


    The present invention relates to surface mount structures including a capacitive element or a resistive element, where the element has a property that is responsive to an environmental condition. In particular examples, the structure can be optionally coupled to a printed circuit board. Other apparatuses, surface mountable structures, and methods of use are described herein.

  19. June 1992 Mount Spurr, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following 39 years of inactivity, Crater Peak vent on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano burst into eruption at 7:04 a.m. Alaska daylight time (ADT) on June 27,...

  20. Solidly Mounted Resonator with Optimized Acoustic Reflector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, Andreas; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart


    The quality factor (Q) of the Solidly Mounted Resonator is limited by acoustic losses caused by waves leaking through the mirror stack. Traditionally employed acoustic mirror reflects only longitudinal waves and not shear waves. Starting with the stop-band theory and the principle of spacer layers

  1. Reliability Analysis of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) (United States)


    380, 1981. 7. J. DeVore; "The Mechanisms of Solderability and Solderability Related Failures," General Electric, WCIII-43, Printed Circuit World Convention...34Thermal Cycles and Surface Mounting Attachment Reliability," Circuit World , Vol. Il, 1985 76. J. Collett; "SMT Solder Joint Reliability," IPC-TP-708

  2. Experimental evaluation of regression model-based walking speed estimation using lower body-mounted IMU. (United States)

    Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Park, Edward J


    This study provides a concurrent comparison of regression model-based walking speed estimation accuracy using lower body mounted inertial sensors. The comparison is based on different sets of variables, features, mounting locations and regression methods. An experimental evaluation was performed on 15 healthy subjects during free walking trials. Our results show better accuracy of Gaussian process regression compared to least square regression using Lasso. Among the variables, external acceleration tends to provide improved accuracy. By using both time-domain and frequency-domain features, waist and ankle-mounted sensors result in similar accuracies: 4.5% for the waist and 4.9% for the ankle. When using only frequency-domain features, estimation accuracy based on a waist-mounted sensor suffers more compared to the one from ankle.

  3. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.


    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  4. The misalignment angle in vessel-mounted ADCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Osinski


    Full Text Available A description of the misalignment angle and the consequences if it occurs is given. It is shown that because of gyrocompass errors, the misalignment angle error a has to be computed for each cruise. A simple method of calibrating the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP mounted on a vessel has been devised by fitting the cosinusoidal function. This is a post-processing method, suitable for calibrating previously collected data. Nevertheless, because of ADCP's constructional peculiarities, the procedure must be repeated for each cruise.

  5. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groitl, Felix, E-mail: [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bartkowiak, Marek [Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bergmann, Ryan M. [Division Large Research Facilities, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Birk, Jonas Okkels [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Markó, Márton [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Neutron Spectroscopy Department, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bollhalder, Alex; Graf, Dieter [Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Niedermayer, Christof [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rüegg, Christian [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Quantum Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Rønnow, Henrik M. [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each other where the neutrons have to pass through the bonding compound of the different analyzer crystals. The different methods, namely screws, shellac, indium soldering and clips, have been evaluated with regards to background, transmission, cooling, activation and handling. The results presented here will give valuable input for future CAMEA-type spectrometers currently planned and designed at various neutron sources.

  6. Development and manufacture of visor for helmet-mounted display (United States)

    Krevor, David H.; McNelly, Gregg; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert


    The manufacturing design and process development for the Visor for the JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System) are discussed. The JHMCS system is a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system currently flying on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 aircraft. The Visor manufacturing processes are essential to both system performance and economy. The Visor functions both as the system optical combiner and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The Visor material is optical polycarbonate. For a military HMD system, the mechanical and environmental properties of the Visor are as necessary as the optical properties. The visor must meet stringent dimensional requirements to assure adequate system optical performance. Injection molding can provide dimensional fidelity to the requirements, if done properly. Concurrent design of the visor and the tool (i.e., the injection mold) is essential. The concurrent design necessarily considers manufacturing operations and the use environment of the Visor. Computer modeling of the molding process is a necessary input to the mold design. With proper attention to product design and tool development, it is possible to improve upon published standard dimensional tolerances for molded polycarbonate articles.

  7. A history of helmet mounted displays (United States)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James


    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  8. Indexing Mount For Rotation Of Optical Component (United States)

    Reichle, Donald J., Jr.; Barnes, Norman P.


    Indexing mount for polarizer, wave plate, birefringent plate, or other optical component facilitates rotation of component to one or more preset angles. Includes hexagonal nut holding polarizer or other optical component. Ball bearing loaded by screw engages notch on cylindrical extension of nut engaging bracket. Time-consuming and tedious angular adjustment unnecessary: component turned quickly and easily, by hand or by use of wrench, to preset angular positions maintained by simple ball-detent mechanism.

  9. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)


    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  10. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam


    Manogna R.L. Vangala; Amrutha Rudraraju; Subramanyam, R. V.


    Introduction: Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Mat...

  11. Distinguishing lower and upper crustal processes in magmas erupted during the buildup to the 7.7 ka climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon, using 238U-230Th disequilibria (United States)

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Johnson, Clark M.; Bacon, Charles R.; Beard, Brian L.; Jicha, Brian R.


    -excess reflects melting and assimilation of young, hydrothermally altered upper crust. The processes related to generating 238U-excess are likely important features at Mt. Mazama that accompanied development of a large-scale silicic magma chamber that led to the caldera-forming eruption.

  12. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires to...

  13. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics]. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding


    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  14. Analysis of the Pyroclastic Flow Deposits of Mount Sinabung and Merapi Using Landsat Imagery and the Artificial Neural Networks Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Riza Kadavi


    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions cause pyroclastic flows, which can destroy plantations and settlements. We used image data from Landsat 7 Bands 7, 4 and 2 and Landsat 8 Bands 7, 5 and 3 to observe and analyze the distribution of pyroclastic flow deposits for two volcanos, Mount Sinabung and Merapi, over a period of 10 years (2001–2017. The satellite data are used in conjunction with an artificial neural network method to produce maps of pyroclastic precipitation for Landsat 7 and 8, then we calculated the pyroclastic precipitation area using an artificial neural network method after dividing the images into four classes based on color. Red, green, blue and yellow were used to indicate pyroclastic deposits, vegetation and forest, water and cloud, and farmland, respectively. The area affected by a volcanic eruption was deduced from the neural network processing, including calculating the area of pyroclastic deposits. The main differences between the pyroclastic flow deposits of Mount Sinabung and Mount Merapi are: the sediment deposits of the pyroclastic flows of Mount Sinabung tend to widen, whereas those of Merapi elongated; the direction of pyroclastic flow differed; and the area affected by an eruption was greater for Mount Merapi than Mount Sinabung because the VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index during the last 10 years of Mount Merapi was larger than Mount Sinabung.

  15. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon


    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  16. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla


    , the user simply captures an image using the HMD’s camera, looks at an object of interest in the image, and speaks out the information to be associated with the object. The gaze location is recorded and visualized with a marker. The voice is transcribed using speech recognition. Gaze annotations can......To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  17. Autonomous head-mounted electrophysiology systems for freely behaving primates. (United States)

    Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin; Shenoy, Krishna V


    Recent technological advances have led to new light-weight battery-operated systems for electrophysiology. Such systems are head mounted, run for days without experimenter intervention, and can record and stimulate from single or multiple electrodes implanted in a freely behaving primate. Here we discuss existing systems, studies that use them, and how they can augment traditional, physically restrained, 'in-rig' electrophysiology. With existing technical capabilities, these systems can acquire multiple signal classes, such as spikes, local field potential, and electromyography signals, and can stimulate based on real-time processing of recorded signals. Moving forward, this class of technologies, along with advances in neural signal processing and behavioral monitoring, have the potential to dramatically expand the scope and scale of electrophysiological studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York. (United States)

    Butler, R N; Adelman, R


    Aging is the third great antecedent to all disease, along with genetic factors and the environment. Yet, the role of aging in the genesis of the conditions of old age constitutes relatively new territory that has not been adequately explored in terms of education, the health care system, and research. A commitment to these areas was made in 1982 when the Mount Sinai Medical Center established the nation's first and only medical school department of geriatrics--the Gerald and May Ellen Ritter Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development. Recognizing that aging of the population constituted a major global public health challenge, leaders of the medical center turned to Robert N. Butler, MD, who was then director of the National Institute on Aging, for guidance in setting up an institute of gerontology and geriatrics. Because only a full-fledged academic department would have a claim on resources, curriculum, and clerkship time, Dr Butler recommended that such a department be developed at Mount Sinai. The Ritter Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development emphasized the wide scope of this new discipline through educational programs, clinical services, health policy studies, and research projects.

  19. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling (United States)


    ... project area. The exploratory drilling in this area would be phased over the course of six years; 51 holes... drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8 W...

  20. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.


    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  1. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska (United States)

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith


    Mount Katmai has long been recognized for its caldera collapse during the great pyroclastic eruption of 1912 (which vented 10 km away at Novarupta in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes), but little has previously been reported about the geology of the remote ice-clad stratovolcano itself. Over several seasons, we reconnoitered all parts of the edifice and sampled most of the lava flows exposed on its flanks and caldera rim. The precipitous inner walls of the 1912 caldera remain too unstable for systematic sampling; so we provide instead a photographic and interpretive record of the wall sequences exposed. In contrast to the several andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes nearby, products of Mount Katmai range from basalt to rhyolite. Before collapse in 1912, there were two overlapping cones with separate vent complexes and craters; their products are here divided into eight sequences of lava flows, agglutinates, and phreatomagmatic ejecta. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive units include rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows along the south rim; a major 22.8-ka rhyolitic plinian fall and ignimbrite deposit; a dacite-andesite zoned scoria fall; a thick sheet of dacite agglutinate that filled a paleocrater and draped the west side of the edifice; unglaciated leveed dacite lava flows on the southeast slope; and the Horseshoe Island dacite dome that extruded on the caldera floor after collapse. Pre-collapse volume of the glaciated Katmai edifice was ∼30 km3, and eruptive volume is estimated to have been 57±13 km3. The latter figure includes ∼40±6 km3 for the edifice, 5±2 km3 for off-edifice dacite pyroclastic deposits, and 12±5 km3 for the 22.8-ka rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits. To these can be added 13.5 km3 of magma that erupted at Novarupta in 1912, all or much of which is inferred to have been withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai. The oldest part of the edifice exposed is a basaltic cone, which gave a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 89 ± 25 ka.

  2. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore. (United States)

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J


    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for forest restoration before a

  3. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors. [hand mounted IR device to detect nearby objects (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing devices suitable for hand mounting on a manipulator are described, which use near IR LED light sources operating at 0.94 micron and silicon detectors, with appropriate signal processing so that the data are unaffected by ambient light. Laboratory tests with simple proximity sensors are described. Extension of the same techniques to yield multipoint or digital sensors is also discussed. A cooperative proximity sensor concept is described, which employs a composite mirror attached to the work piece to generate an unambiguous set of position and orientation signals. A very rudimentary experiment in local control of a manipulator with a pair of hand mounted proximity sensors is also described.

  4. Multiple-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi-Head Beam-Type Surface Mounting Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torabi, S.A.; Hamedi, M.; Ashayeri, J.


    The growing demand for electronic devices has made the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) a promising industry over the last decades. As the demand for printed circuit boards increases, the industry becomes more dependent on highly automated assembly processes using Surface Mounting


    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.


    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  6. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian


    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  7. Mount Isa statement on quad bike safety. (United States)

    Franklin, Richard C; Knight, Sabina; Lower, Tony


    Quad bikes are the leading cause of death in Australian agriculture, with half of these deaths resulting from rollovers. Between 2001 and 2012, there were more than 160 such deaths in Australia, representing a significant burden. There is a diversity of public opinions offered about quad bike safety. The Are You Remotely Interested … in Prevention; Building a Culture of Safety conference held in Mount Isa, Queensland, in August 2012 brought together subject matter experts from across Australia to discuss a range of issues relevant to rural Australia (including quad bikes). During this conference, the Mount Isa Statement for Quad Bike Safety was produced. The intent of the Statement was to draw on existing evidence to highlight solutions and provide a direction for future efforts to reduce the burden of death and injury related to quad bike use. The conference provided an opportunity for those with an interest in quad bike safety to come together in one location, discuss the issues and develop a common direction (the Statement). The Statement is presented in three sections: a statement of the facts that were available at the time of development; a set of recommendations; and what needs to happen next. We believe to the best of our knowledge this is the first time where many potential solutions for keeping people safe while operating quad bikes in agriculture have been explored in a public forum. There are some immediate solutions that people can undertake to keep themselves and those in their care safe when using a quad bike: initially selecting safer vehicles to use; fitting quad bikes with crush protection devices; not carrying passengers or overloading the quads; and wearing helmets.

  8. Development of Mechanical Stress Simulator for Surface-Mount Devices (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keiji


    A mechanical stress simulator for surface-mount devices was developed, which employed the finite-element method. The moisture distribution stage can calculate the moisture distribution of the LSI package exposed to temperature and humidity conditions. The heat conduction stage determines the time-dependent temperature distribution of the package immersed in a solder bath. Using the moisture and temperature distributions thus calculated, the mechanical stress stage gives the mechanical stress distribution in the package. Two groups of samples were prepared for solder dipping experiments. In one group, after dry baking for initialization, samples absorbed moisture by exposure at 30°C 85% (absorption process). In the other group, samples were exposed at 85°C 85% for 168 h and then dry-baked at 70°C (desorption process). These two groups have different moisture distributions in their packages. The results of solder dipping experiments are analyzed from the calculated mechanical stress values. In the absorption process, calculated maximum von Mises equivalent stress over the sectional molding compound \\barσ_max increases monotonically with absorption time. Then, \\barσ_max approaches its saturated value as absorption time tends to infinity. In the desorption process, \\barσ_max decreases with desorption time and approaches the thermal stress value when desorption time tends to infinity. These calculations explain the effect of moisture distribution on package cracking.

  9. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay (United States)


    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features. Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural processElevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  10. Development of novel adjustable focus head mount display for concurrent image-guided treatment applications. (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Ryu, Jaemyung; Yoon, Changhan


    A conventional see-through head mount display contains many optical lenses, which can be problematic in image-guided treatment applications due to its size, weight, structure, and focus limitation. Therefore, we have designed a new type of see-through head mount display with a reduced number of optical lenses and an adequate optical resolution that can be utilized for image-guided treatment applications. A new type of adjustable focus head mount display with expanded virtual images and an external treatment space that can be provided to the eyes of a user by enlarging the images of a small display is designed and investigated in this study. This type of head mount display can be used in image-guided treatment applications because of the dual paths of imaging and treatment from the optical systems. Therefore, this system with an adjustable focus function can aid doctors in obtaining images for the treatment of the eyes of patients because every patient has a unique pupil size. The results of the adjustable focus see-through head mount display showed distortion values of +0.36% in the +1 diopter location and -0.55% in the -4 diopter location, and there are less significant modulation transfer function differences within the ±5 diopter locations. Low optical distortions within ±0.5 diopters can help doctors image the eye conditions of patients through fewer image processing techniques. Therefore, the designed adjustable focus head mount display can provide low optical aberrations and high optical modulation transfer function resolutions for image-guided treatment applications.

  11. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.


    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  12. Righteousness and identity formation in the Sermon on the Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Righteousness is an important term in the first gospel and has a significant concentration in the Sermon on the Mount. The argument in this article is that the first gospel has a community building function. Matthew intentionally uses the word 'righteousness' in the Sermon on the Mount as an instrument to define the identity of ...

  13. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules (United States)

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam


    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  14. Solar electricity potentials and optimal angles for mounting solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for harnessing solar energy using solar panels mounted at optimal inclination angles in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria is presented. The optimal angle for mounting solar panels as presented by Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS) ranges from 11º to 14º in the Southern zone and 13º to 16º ...

  15. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park. (a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  17. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System (United States)

    Lam, M.


    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  18. Unity and universe: understanding pilgrimage to Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni


    Full Text Available Having found the specific universal unity of pilgrimages, namely that pilgrimages are journeys of spiritual transformation, the author began to look more closely at the uniqueness of the content of beliefs embodied in pilgrimages to Mount Athos, particularly with the aim of unfolding the universe of beliefs concealed in the word proskýnima, which is the Greek word for ‘pilgrimage’. Therefore, he shifted his focus from the concept to the word ‘pilgrimage’, denoting the human phenomena of visiting holy and sacred places, persons, mountains, wells and so forth. This article illustrates how our preconceptions of the word ‘pilgrimage’ determine our conception of the concept or category of ‘pilgrimage’, which again determines our interpretation and understanding of the content of beliefs of this form of human phenomenon. As a by-product this article also displays the process of how our limited horizon of conceiving the concepts and words is extended in parallel with the process of research. The article shows how this horizon determines our leaving out fundamental elements of ‘pilgrimages’ which, in this case, are characteristic of visits to the Holy Mountain of Greece.

  19. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board. (United States)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Hummelgård, Magnus; Sidén, Johan; Hummelgård, Christine; Olin, Håkan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik


    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  20. Geologic field trip guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Wright, Heather M.


    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world—an 8 by 10 kilometer (km) basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the Mount Mazama volcano during a rapid series of explosive eruptions ~7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 meters (m), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 square kilometers (km2) of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, and virtually all of Mount Mazama. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama’s climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest United States, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. In addition, many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama provide information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive processes revealed by

  1. Classification problems of Mount Kenya soils (United States)

    Mutuma, Evans; Csorba, Ádám; Wawire, Amos; Dobos, Endre; Michéli, Erika


    Soil sampling on the agricultural lands covering 1200 square kilometers in the Eastern part of Mount Kenya was carried out to assess the status of soil organic carbon (SOC) as a soil fertility indicator, and to create an up-to-date soil classification map. The geology of the area consists of volcanic rocks and recent superficial deposits. The volcanic rocks are related to the Pliocene time; mainly: lahars, phonolites, tuffs, basalt and ashes. A total of 28 open profiles and 49 augered profiles with 269 samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, particle size distribution, percent bases, cation exchange capacity and pH among other parameters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the variability of SOC in different Reference Soil Groups (RGS) and to compare the determined classification units with the KENSOTER database. Soil classification was performed based on the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources 2014. Based on the earlier surveys, geological and environmental setting, Nitisols were expected to be the dominant soils of the sampled area. However, this was not the case. The major differences to earlier survey data (KENSOTER database) are the presence of high activity clays (CEC value range 27.6 cmol/kg - 70 cmol/kg), high silt content (range 32.6 % - 52.4 %) and silt/clay ratio (range of 0.6 - 1.4) keeping these soils out of the Nitisols RSG. There was good accordance in the morphological features with the earlier survey but failed the silt/clay ratio criteria for Nitisols. This observation calls attention to set new classification criteria for Nitisols and other soils of warm, humid regions with variable rate of weathering to avoid difficulties in interpretation. To address the classification problem, this paper further discusses the taxonomic relationships between the studied soils. On the contrary most of the diagnostic elements (like the presence Umbric horizon, Vitric and Andic properties) and the some


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.


    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.

  3. Integration Head Mounted Display Device and Hand Motion Gesture Device for Virtual Reality Laboratory (United States)

    Rengganis, Y. A.; Safrodin, M.; Sukaridhoto, S.


    Virtual Reality Laboratory (VR Lab) is an innovation for conventional learning media which show us whole learning process in laboratory. There are many tools and materials are needed by user for doing practical in it, so user could feel new learning atmosphere by using this innovation. Nowadays, technologies more sophisticated than before. So it would carry in education and it will be more effective, efficient. The Supported technologies are needed us for making VR Lab such as head mounted display device and hand motion gesture device. The integration among them will be used us for making this research. Head mounted display device for viewing 3D environment of virtual reality laboratory. Hand motion gesture device for catching user real hand and it will be visualized in virtual reality laboratory. Virtual Reality will show us, if using the newest technologies in learning process it could make more interesting and easy to understand.

  4. Eruption of Mount St. Helens, May 18, 1980 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens was the most destructive in the history of the United States. Mt. Saint Helens is located in southwest Washington in...

  5. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  6. Macrofungal diversity of Nemrut Mount National Park and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is based on the macrofungi collected from Nemrut Mount National Park and its environs. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 101 taxa belonging to 30 families and 66 genera in Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes classes were identified.

  7. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  8. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.


    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  9. Surface-Mount Rotor Motion Sensing System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  10. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory (United States)

    Brashear, R.


    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  11. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction (United States)

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes


    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  12. SurfCuit: Surface-Mounted Circuits on 3D Prints. (United States)

    Umetani, Nobuyuki; Schmidt, Ryan


    The SurfCuit system integrates circuits into 3D prints by mounting them on the printed surface. SurfCuit does not require tedious circuit casing design or expensive setups, allowing users to build complex, highly conductive circuit patterns for consumer-level desktop fused decomposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers and thus expediting the process of circuit construction for 3D models.

  13. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011-2016) (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; Fanise, Pascal; Drapeau, Laurent; Somma, Janine; Fadel, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Escadafal, Richard


    We present a unique meteorological and snow observational dataset in Mount Lebanon, a mountainous region with a Mediterranean climate, where snowmelt is an essential water resource. The study region covers the recharge area of three karstic river basins (total area of 1092 km2 and an elevation up to 3088 m). The dataset consists of (1) continuous meteorological and snow height observations, (2) snowpack field measurements, and (3) medium-resolution satellite snow cover data. The continuous meteorological measurements at three automatic weather stations (MZA, 2296 m; LAQ, 1840 m; and CED, 2834 m a.s.l.) include surface air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave irradiance, and snow height, at 30 min intervals for the snow seasons (November-June) between 2011 and 2016 for MZA and between 2014 and 2016 for CED and LAQ. Precipitation data were filtered and corrected for Geonor undercatch. Observations of snow height (HS), snow water equivalent, and snow density were collected at 30 snow courses located at elevations between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l. during the two snow seasons of 2014-2016 with an average revisit time of 11 days. Daily gap-free snow cover extent (SCA) and snow cover duration (SCD) maps derived from MODIS snow products are provided for the same period (2011-2016). We used the dataset to characterize mean snow height, snow water equivalent (SWE), and density for the first time in Mount Lebanon. Snow seasonal variability was characterized with high HS and SWE variance and a relatively high snow density mean equal to 467 kg m-3. We find that the relationship between snow depth and snow density is specific to the Mediterranean climate. The current model explained 34 % of the variability in the entire dataset (all regions between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l.) and 62 % for high mountain regions (elevation 2200-2900 m a.s.l.). The dataset is suitable for the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing

  14. Thermal cycling tests on surface-mount assemblies (United States)

    Jennings, C. W.


    The capability of surface-mount (SM) solder joints to withstand various thermal cycle stresses was evaluated through electrical circuit resistance changes of a test pattern and by visual examination for cracks in the solder after exposure to thermal cycling. The joints connected different electrical components, primarily leadless-chip carriers (LCCs), and printed wiring-board (PWB) pads on different laminate substrates. Laminate compositions were epoxy-glass and polyimide-glass with and without copper/Invar/copper (CIC) inner layers, polyimide-quartz, epoxy-Kevlar, and polyimide-Kevlar. The most resistant joints were between small LCCs (24 and 48 pins) and polyimide-glass laminate with CIC inner layers. Processing in joint formation was found to be an important part of joint resistant. Thermal cycling was varied with respect to both time and temperature. A few resistors, capacitors, and inductors showed opens after 500 30-min cycles between -65 C and 125 C. Appreciable moisture contents were measured for laminate materials, especially those of polyimide-Kevlar after equilibration in 100 percent relative humidity at room temperature. If not removed or reduced, moisture can cause delamination in vapor-phase soldering.

  15. Thermal cycling tests on surface-mount assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C.W.


    The capability of surface-mount (SM) solder joints to withstand various thermal cycle stresses was evaluated through electrical circuit resistance changes of a test pattern and by visual examination for cracks in the solder after exposure to thermal cycling. The joints connected different electrical components, primarily leadless-chip carriers (LCCs), and printed wiring-board (PWB) pads on different laminate substrates. Laminate compositions were epoxy-glass and polyimide-glass with and without copper/Invar/copper (CIC) inner layers, polyimide-quartz, epoxy-Kevlar, and polyimide-Kevlar. The most resistant joints were between small LCCs (24 and 48 pins) and polyimide-glass laminate with CIC inner layers. Processing in joint formation was found to be an important part of joint resistant. Thermal cycling was varied with respect to both time and temperature. A few resistors, capacitors, and inductors showed opens after 500 30-min cycles between -65/degree/C and 125/degree/C. Appreciable moisture contents were measured for laminate materials, especially those of polyimide-Kevlar after equilibration in 100/percent/ relative humidity at room temperature. If not removed or reduced, moisture can cause delamination in vapor-phase soldering. 17 refs, 12 figs.,10 tabs.

  16. Inspection of microchip mounting tolerances by 3D vision (United States)

    Behler, Stefan; von Arx, Martin


    We have designed and tested a 3D vision system for measuring microchip surface heights relative to a substrate. The microchip is mounted with an adhesive to the substrate. The goal is to check the thickness of the adhesive layer between microchip and substrate before it is encapsuled by a plastic mold compound. This thickness has a significant influence on the reliability and electrical performance of the microchip. The system consists of one camera, a telecentric lens and three semi-transparent mirrors (beamsplitters). Reference patterns on the microchip and the substrate are imaged and illuminated from opposite 45° angles. This yields sets of coordinates which are used to extract the orientation of the chip relative to the substrate. We found that the vertical resolution of the system is greatly influenced by the setup of the image processing system. In principle, the reference patterns are identical for all chips and substrates of a production lot. Thus, the reference needs to be learned only once on a particular chip. With this setup we achieved a resolution of 2 micrometer. On the other hand, if the reference pattern is learned for each chip individually, we achieved a higher resolution of 1 micrometer. However, learning the pattern for each chip individually is time-consuming and may not be applicable for an on-line production inspection system with 2 - 3 chips per second.

  17. New active machine tool drive mounting on the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švéda J.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new active mounting of the machine tool drives. The commonly used machine tools are at this time mainly equipped with fix-mounting of the feed drives. This structure causes full transmission of the force shocks to the machine bed and thereby restricts the dynamic properties of the motion axis and the whole machine. The spring-mounting of the feed drives is one of the possibilities how to partially suppress the vibrations. The force that reacts to the machine tool bed is transformed thereby the vibrations are lightly reduced. Unfortunately the transformation is not fully controlled. The new active mounting of the machine tool drives allows to fully control the force behaviour that react to the machine body. Thereby the number of excited frequencies on the machine tool bed is significantly reduced. The active variant of the feed drive mounting is characterized by the synergistic cooperation between two series-connected actuators (“motor on motor”. The paper briefly describes design, control techniques and optimization of the feed drives with the new active mounting conception.

  18. Design, analysis, and testing of a CCD array mounting structure (United States)

    Sultana, John A.; O'Neill, Mark B.


    A method has been developed for mounting charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays in an optical telescope so as to minimize thermal defocusing errors. The mounting arrangement was developed for a six-inch aperture, visible band, off-axis reimaging telescope attached to an experimental satellite. The mounting arrangement consists of two pieces: a fiberglass frame which holds the actively cooled CCD package and provides thermal isolation from the telescope body; and a titanium flexure, which acts to minimize structural distortions caused by the difference in thermal expansion properties of the CCD array and the telescope body. This paper describes the design, analysis, and testing of this CCD array mounting arrangement. A detailed finite-element model of the CCD array and the mount was developed and used to predict thermally-induced defocus and gravity sag deformations, as well as natural frequencies. Experimental tests to verify the computer model results were performed using holographic interferometry. Vibration tests were also performed to verify the natural frequencies as well as structural integrity during launch. A comparison of the computer model predictions and the holographic interferometric measurements of thermally-induced defocussing indicates agreement to within 15 to 20%. Both the experimental and computer results indicate that the mounting structure provides focus stability over the operational temperature range of the telescope with sufficient structural integrity to survive the anticipated spacecraft launch loads.

  19. Vibration control of a ship engine system using high-load magnetorheological mounts associated with a new indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller (United States)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Choi, Seung-Bok


    In this work, a new high-load magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount system is devised and applied to control vibration in a ship engine. In the investigation of vibration-control performance, a new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is formulated and realized. The design of the proposed MR mount is based on the flow mode of MR fluid, and it includes two separated coils for generating a magnetic field. An optimization process is carried out to achieve maximal damping force under certain design constraints, such as the allowable height of the mount. As an actuating smart fluid, a new plate-like iron-particle-based MR fluid is used, instead of the conventional spherical iron-particle-based MR fluid. After evaluating the field-dependent yield stress of the MR fluid, the field-dependent damping force required to control unwanted vibration in the ship engine is determined. Subsequently, an appropriate-sized MR mount is manufactured and its damping characteristics are evaluated. After confirming the sufficient damping force level of the manufactured MR mount, a medium-sized ship engine mount system consisting of eight MR mounts is established, and its dynamic governing equations are derived. A new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is then formulated and applied to the engine mount system. The displacement and velocity responses show that the unwanted vibrations of the ship engine system can be effectively controlled in both the axial and radial directions by applying the proposed control methodology.

  20. Receptor localization of steroid hormones and drugs: discoveries through the use of thaw-mount and dry-mount autoradiography


    Stumpf, W.E.


    The history of receptor autoradiography, its development and applications, testify to the utility of this histochemical technique for localizing radiolabeled hormones and drugs at cellular and subcellular sites of action in intact tissues. Localization of diffusible compounds has been a challenge that was met through the introduction of the "thaw-mount" and "dry-mount" autoradiographic techniques thirty years ago. With this cellular receptor autoradiography, used alone or combined with other ...

  1. Geothermal Potential Analysis Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 (Case Study: Mount Ijen) (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Mardiana, R.


    Geothermal energy is also a heat energy contained in the earth’s internal. Indonesia has a total geothermal potential of around 27 GWe. The government is eager for the development of geothermal in Indonesia can run well so that geothermal can act as one of the pillars of national energy. However, the geothermal potential has not been fully utilized. One of the geothermal potention is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is a strato volcano that has a crater lake with a depth of about 190 m and has a very high degree of acidity and the volume of lake water is very large. With the abundance of potential geothermal potential in Indonesia, it is necessary to have an activity in the form of integrated geoscience studies to be able to maximize the potential content that exists in a geothermal area. One of the studies conducted is to do potential mapping. This research performs image data processing of Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, RBI Map, and preliminary survey data. This research carried out the Vegetation Index, surface temperature and altitude. The equipment used in this research includes image processing software, number processing software, GPS Handheld and Laptop. Surface Temperatures in the Mount Ijen have anomalies with large temperatures ranging between 18° C to 38° C. The best correlation value of altitude and ground surface temperature is -0.89 ie the correlation of January surface temperature. While the correlation value of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 vegetation index was 0.81. The land cover confidence matrix scored 80%. Land cover in the research area is dominated by forests by 35% of the research area. There is a potential area of geothermal potential is very high on Mount Ijen with an area of 39.43 hectares located in Wongsorejo District and adjacent to District Sempol.

  2. A Ground Deformation Monitoring Approach to Understanding Magma Chamber Systems and Eruptive Cycles of Mount Cameroon (United States)

    Riley, S.; Clarke, A.


    Mount Cameroon is a 13,400ft basanite volcano on the passive margin of West Africa. It has erupted seven times in the past century making it one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Most recently Mount Cameroon erupted in 1999 and 2000 first issuing strombolian explosions from vents near the summit, and later erupting effusively from a fissure running southwest from the summit (Suh et al., 2003). Prior to 2004, the only monitoring equipment on Mount Cameroon was a small seismometer network installed following the 1982 eruption. By 1999 only a single seismometer in the network was functional. Seismic activity did not rise above background levels until the few days immediately preceding the eruption. In an effort to raise awareness of the volcano's condition and provide a more efficient warning of impending eruptions we have begun constructing a ground deformation network on Mount Cameroon. The new network currently consists of two Applied Geomechanics 711-2A(4X) biaxial tiltmeters capable of resolving 0.1 microradians of tilt. One station is located approximately 500 m from the 2000 summit vent, and the other is approximately 1km away from the central fissure approximately 5km southwest of the 2000 summit vent. Three primary processes could precede eruptions at Mt. Cameroon, offering the opportunity for detection and prediction by our network. These processes are magma chamber pressurization, magma ascent via a central conduit, and/or propagation of magma along the central fissure. Magma chamber location, if a significant chamber exists, is poorly constrained, however, previous petrologic studies on Mount Cameroon (Suh et al., 2003; Fitton et al., 1983) suggest Mount Cameroon magmas originate at a depth less than 40km. Published seismic data (Ambeh, 1989) contains evidence of magmatic activity and possible chambers at depths ranging from 10km to 70km. Preliminary calculations using a simple Mogi model suggest deformation caused by pressurization of a large

  3. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A. Frank


    Full Text Available Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability.

  4. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate E.; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John


    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  5. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds † (United States)

    Frank, Jared A.; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram


    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  6. System for mounting flip chips on substrates; Kiban`yo furippu chip jisso system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Two mass production facilities are developed for mounting bumped IC chips on high-density substrates as in notebook size personal computers. The high-accuracy flip chip bonder is capable of alignment accuracy of {+-}5 micrometers, and installs multiple pin ICs of narrow bump pitches of 80 micrometers on substrates. It delicately controls pressure/heat-related conditions as required for each of the various bonding processes, and is also capable of performing the MCM (multi chip module) packaging in which plural IC chips are mounted on one and the same substrate. The underfill applicator injects sealing resin into between the substrate and ICs, and performs fixed quantity application with a variation of {+-}10% or less through the accurate management of viscosity, application rate, and gaps. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Mixing monoclonal antibody formulations using bottom-mounted mixers: impact of mechanism and design on drug product quality. (United States)

    Gikanga, Benson; Chen, Yufei; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun


    Using bottom-mounted mixers, particularly those that are magnetically driven, is becoming increasingly common during the mixing process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing because of their associated low risk of contamination, ease of use, and ability to accommodate low minimum mixing volumes. Despite these benefits, the impact of bottom-mounted mixers on biologic drug product is not yet fully understood and is scarcely reported. This study evaluated four bottom-mounted mixers to assess their impact on monoclonal antibody formulations. Changes in product quality (size variants, particles, and turbidity) and impact on process performance (sterile filtration) were evaluated after mixing. The results suggested that mixers that are designed to function with no contact between the impeller and the drive unit are the most favorable and gentle to monoclonal antibody molecules. Designs with contact or a narrow clearance tended to shear and grind the protein and resulted in high particle count in the liquid, which would subsequently foul a filter membrane during sterile filtration using a 0.22 μm pore size filter. Despite particle formation, increases in turbidity of the protein solution and protein aggregation/fragmentation were not detected. Further particle analysis indicated particles in the range of 0.2-2 μm are responsible for filter fouling. A small-scale screening model was developed using two types of magnetic stir bars mimicking the presence or absence of contact between the impeller and drive unit in the bottom-mounted mixers. The model is capable of differentiating the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody formulations to bottom-mounted mixers with a small sample size. This study fills an important gap in understanding a critical bioprocess unit operation. Mixing is an important unit operation in drug product manufacturing for compounding (dilution, pooling, homogenization, etc.). The current trend in adopting disposable bottom-mounted mixers has

  8. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam. (United States)

    Vangala, Manogna Rl; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, R V


    Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin - transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin - polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections.

  9. Redesign of a fixture mount to be used as an impression coping and a provisional abutment as well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hsuan-Chen Chang


    Full Text Available Purpose: An integrated fixture mount/impression coping/ temporary abutment can provide many advantages for immediate loading of dental implants, such as simpler procedure, less chair time, cost reduction, and comfort for the patients. Materials and Methods: A newly designed dental implant fixture mount (DIFMA can be used as an impression coping for taking an immediate impression. An immediate load provisional prosthesis can then be fabricated shortly after implant placement to immediately load the implants. This fixture mount can also serve as a temporary abutment for immediate chair-side fabrication of provisional prosthesis. Two clinical cases are presented. Results: A clinical case utilizing the fixture mount abutment (DIFMA/implant assembly is presented. The precision of fitting between the impression copings and implants is secured with this system. The chair time for taking an immediate impression is greatly reduced. Less cost for the restoration is provided and patient comfort is delivered. Conclusions: More patient satisfaction can be conferred by employing the fixture mount in the process of immediate impression taking and as an immediate provisional abutment.

  10. Optimal design of a Φ760 mm lightweight SiC mirror and the flexural mount for a space telescope (United States)

    Li, Zongxuan; Chen, Xue; Wang, Shaoju; Jin, Guang


    A flexural support technique for lightweighted Primary Mirror Assembly (PMA) of a space telescope is presented in this article. The proposed three-point flexural mount based on a cartwheel flexure can maintain the surface figure of the PMA in a horizontal optical testing layout. The on-orbit surface error of the PMA causes significant degradation in image quality. On-ground optical testing cannot determine the zero-gravity figure of the PMA due to surface distortion by gravity. We unveiled the crucial fact that through a delicate mounting structure design, the surface figure can remain constant precisely without inducing distinguishable astigmatism when PMA rotates with respect to the optical axis, and the figure can be considered as the zero-gravity surface figure on the orbit. A design case is described to show the lightweight design of a SiC mirror and the optimal flexural mounting. Topology optimization and integrated opto-mechanical analysis using the finite element method are utilized in the design process. The Primary Mirror and mounting structures were fabricated and assembled. After the PMA mirror surface was polished to λ/50 RMS, optical testing in different clocking configurations was performed, respectively, through rotating the PMA by multiple angles. Test results show that the surface figure remained invariant, indicating that gravity release on the orbit will not cause an additional surface error. Vibration tests including sweep sine and random vibration were also performed to validate the mechanical design. The requirements for the mounting technique in space were qualified.

  11. Optimal design of a Φ760 mm lightweight SiC mirror and the flexural mount for a space telescope. (United States)

    Li, Zongxuan; Chen, Xue; Wang, Shaoju; Jin, Guang


    A flexural support technique for lightweighted Primary Mirror Assembly (PMA) of a space telescope is presented in this article. The proposed three-point flexural mount based on a cartwheel flexure can maintain the surface figure of the PMA in a horizontal optical testing layout. The on-orbit surface error of the PMA causes significant degradation in image quality. On-ground optical testing cannot determine the zero-gravity figure of the PMA due to surface distortion by gravity. We unveiled the crucial fact that through a delicate mounting structure design, the surface figure can remain constant precisely without inducing distinguishable astigmatism when PMA rotates with respect to the optical axis, and the figure can be considered as the zero-gravity surface figure on the orbit. A design case is described to show the lightweight design of a SiC mirror and the optimal flexural mounting. Topology optimization and integrated opto-mechanical analysis using the finite element method are utilized in the design process. The Primary Mirror and mounting structures were fabricated and assembled. After the PMA mirror surface was polished to λ/50 RMS, optical testing in different clocking configurations was performed, respectively, through rotating the PMA by multiple angles. Test results show that the surface figure remained invariant, indicating that gravity release on the orbit will not cause an additional surface error. Vibration tests including sweep sine and random vibration were also performed to validate the mechanical design. The requirements for the mounting technique in space were qualified.

  12. Genetic structure among coastal tailed frog populations of Mount St. Helens is moderated by post-disturbance management (United States)

    Stephen F. Spear; Charles M. Crisafulli; Andrew. Storfer


    Catastrophic disturbances often provide “natural laboratories” that allow for greater understanding of ecological processes and response of natural populations. The 1980 eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano in Washington, USA, provided a unique opportunity to test biotic effects of a large-scale stochastic disturbance, as well as the influence of post-disturbance...

  13. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.


    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  14. Frequency response calibration of recess-mounted pressure transducers (United States)

    Marcolini, M. A.; Lorber, P. F.; Miller, W. T., Jr.; Covino, A. F., Jr.


    A technique is described for measuring the frequency response of pressure transducers mounted inside a model, where a narrow pipette leads to an orifice at the surface. An acoustic driver is mounted to a small chamber which has an opening at the opposite end with an O-ring seal to place over the orifice. A 3.18 mm (1/8 inch) reference microphone is mounted to one side of the chamber. The acoustic driver receives an input of white noise, and the transducer and reference microphone outputs are compared to obtain the frequency response of the pressure transducer. Selected results are presented in the form of power spectra for both the transducer and the reference, as well as the amplitude variation and phase shift between the two signals as a function of frequency. The effect of pipette length and the use of this technique for identifying both blocked orifices and faulty transducers are described.

  15. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges. (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego


    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 degrees C and +150 degrees C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  16. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology (United States)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.


    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  17. Geologic map of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Bacon, Charles


    Crater Lake caldera collapsed about 6,850 yr B.P. during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, a High Cascade basaltic andesitic to dacitic volcanic center that was constructed during a period of about 400,000 yr. The caldera and the products of the climactic eruption are clear evidence for the presence of a shallow magma body that must have supported a hydrothermal system in the recent past. The geology of Mount Mazama has been mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 based on detailed study of the walls of Crater Lake caldera and mapping of the flanks of the volcano. The map shows lavas and fragmental deposits of Mount Mazama, lavas of nearby monogenetic volcanoes, pre-Mazama silicic volcanic rocks, products of the climactic eruption, and glacial deposits. Related topical studies of the volcanology, geochronology, petrology, and geochemistry of the Crater Lake area depend on field relations established by geologic mapping.

  18. Source parameters of microearthquakes at Mount St Helens (USA) (United States)

    Tusa, Giuseppina; Brancato, Alfonso; Gresta, Stefano; Malone, Stephen D.


    We estimate the source parameters for a selection of microearthquakes that occurred at Mount St Helens in the period 1995–1998. Excluding the activity of 2004 September, this time period includes the most intense episode of earthquake activity since the last dome-building eruption in 1986 October. 200 seismograms were processed to obtain seismic moments, source radii, stress drops and average fault slip. The source parameters were determined from the spectral analysis of P waves, after correction for attenuation and site effects. In particular, P-wave quality (Qp) and site (S) factors have been previously calculated in the frequency ranges 2–7 Hz and 18–30 Hz. Because it was impossible to perform corrections for Qp and S over the whole spectrum we applied a new approach, based on the notion of ‘holed spectrum’, to estimate spectral parameters. The term ‘holed spectrum’ indicates a spectrum lacking corrected spectral amplitude values at certain frequencies. We carried out a statistical study to verify that dealing with the ‘holed spectrum’ does not lead to significant differences in the estimates of spectral parameters. We also investigated the dependence of spectral parameters (low-frequency level, corner frequency and high-frequency decay) on the bandwidth of spectral hole, and defined the threshold values for three different spectral models. Displacement ‘holed spectra’, corrected by attenuation and site response, are then used to determine spectral parameters in order to calculate seismic source parameters. Seismic moments range from 1017 to 1019 dyne-cm, source dimensions from 100 to 350 m, and average fault slip from 0.003 to 0.1 cm. Self-similarity seems to break down in that stress drops are very low (0.1–1 bars). We postulate that seismicity is associated with a brittle shear failure mechanism occurring in a highly heterogeneous material under a relatively low stress regime.

  19. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.


    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  20. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.


    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  1. The Most Ancient Maps of Erupting Mount Etna (United States)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia


    Mount Etna, in eastern Sicily, Italy, is an active volcano on whose slopes are the city of Catania and several towns. The volcano, whose eruptions are noted in written sources dating back to the thirteenth century B.C., continues to hold surprises for researchers who examine its eruptive history. During extensive historical research for a new catalog of Etna's eruptions (E. Guidoboni and E. Boschi, manuscript in preparation, 2008), two maps have been found that previously were unknown in the literature. These maps, which are the most ancient ones that represent Mount Etna erupting, provide new elements to evaluate the eruption that started on 19 December 1634 and continued until June 1636.

  2. Mount Sinai Hospital's approach to Ontario's Health System Funding Reform. (United States)

    Chalk, Tyler; Lau, Davina; Morgan, Matthew; Dietrich, Sandra; Beduz, Mary Agnes; Bell, Chaim M


    In April 2012, the Ontario government introduced Health System Funding Reform (HSFR), a transformational shift in how hospitals are funded. Mount Sinai Hospital recognized that moving from global funding to a "patient-based" model would have substantial operational and clinical implications. Adjusting to the new funding environment was set as a top corporate priority, serving as the strategic basis for re-examining and redesigning operations to further improve both quality and efficiency. Two years into HSFR, this article outlines Mount Sinai Hospital's approach and highlights key lessons learned. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  3. Seasonal pattern of reverse mounting in the groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) (United States)

    Bowen, B.S.; Koford, Rolf R.; Vehrencamp, S.L.


    We observed reverse mounting behavior in a color-banded population of Groove-billed Anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris) in Costa Rica. Sex was determined with measurements and laparotomies. Reverse mounting appeared nearly identical to mounting by males. Of 27 mountings in which at least one bird was banded, 15 were reverse mountings. Only reverse mountings (11 observations) were observed in the pre-breeding period. During the breeding season males mounted females in 12 of 16 mountings; one of the reverse mountings followed nest predation. The timing of reverse mounting in anis suggests that it has an adaptive function in courtship. The proximate mechanism may be differential timing between partners in the development of breeding condition or of sexual motivation.

  4. Retrospective validation of a lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro


    Full Text Available This report presents a retrospective methodology to validate a long-term hazard map related to lava-flow invasion at Mount Etna, the most active volcano in Europe. A lava-flow hazard map provides the probability that a specific point will be affected by potential destructive volcanic processes over the time period considered. We constructed this lava-flow hazard map for Mount Etna volcano through the identification of the emission regions with the highest probabilities of eruptive vents and through characterization of the event types for the numerical simulations and the computation of the eruptive probabilities. Numerical simulations of lava-flow paths were carried out using the MAGFLOW cellular automata model. To validate the methodology developed, a hazard map was built by considering only the eruptions that occurred at Mount Etna before 1981. On the basis of the probability of coverage by lava flows, the map was divided into ten classes, and two fitting scores were calculated to measure the overlap between the hazard classes and the actual shapes of the lava flows that occurred after 1981.

  5. A Workflow to Improve the Alignment of Prostate Imaging with Whole-mount Histopathology. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Nir, Dror; Vyas, Lona; Chang, Richard T; Popert, Rick; Cahill, Declan; Challacombe, Ben; Dasgupta, Prokar; Chandra, Ashish


    Evaluation of prostate imaging tests against whole-mount histology specimens requires accurate alignment between radiologic and histologic data sets. Misalignment results in false-positive and -negative zones as assessed by imaging. We describe a workflow for three-dimensional alignment of prostate imaging data against whole-mount prostatectomy reference specimens and assess its performance against a standard workflow. Ethical approval was granted. Patients underwent motorized transrectal ultrasound (Prostate Histoscanning) to generate a three-dimensional image of the prostate before radical prostatectomy. The test workflow incorporated steps for axial alignment between imaging and histology, size adjustments following formalin fixation, and use of custom-made parallel cutters and digital caliper instruments. The control workflow comprised freehand cutting and assumed homogeneous block thicknesses at the same relative angles between pathology and imaging sections. Thirty radical prostatectomy specimens were histologically and radiologically processed, either by an alignment-optimized workflow (n = 20) or a control workflow (n = 10). The optimized workflow generated tissue blocks of heterogeneous thicknesses but with no significant drifting in the cutting plane. The control workflow resulted in significantly nonparallel blocks, accurately matching only one out of four histology blocks to their respective imaging data. The image-to-histology alignment accuracy was 20% greater in the optimized workflow (P workflow. Evaluation of prostate imaging biomarkers using whole-mount histology references should include a test-to-reference spatial alignment workflow. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Hydrogeophysical Conceptual Model of Mount Toondina Impact Crater, South Australia (United States)

    Dressler, D. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Xie, Y.; Simmons, C.


    Mount Toondina, located on the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), South Australia, is a meteorite impact crater and a ground water discharge feature with a water hole, a tufa salt flat and several former mapped springs. Aerial photographs and field survey data indicate that water was flowing from springs as recent as twenty years ago. Geophysical site surveys including electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), gravity and seismic data were utilized to constrain a hydrogeologic model for the site. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys were also utilized to evaluate the site boundaries using Oasis Montaj. Fluid chemistry and electrical conductivity from the site was used along with the geophysical data to constrain FEFLOW models to test hydrogeological conceptual models of the permeability structure of Mount Toondina. It is hypothesized that the spring system is controlled by advective flow from the subsurface artesian aquifer to the ring of vegetation around the perimeter of the impact structure. Additionally, it is hypothesized that the central salt flat portion of the impact crater is influenced by free convective processes. The field data and FEFLOW model results will be used to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and to better predict groundwater flow on other impact craters.

  7. Active hard mount vibration isolation for precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.


    Floor vibrations and acoustic excitation may limit the performance of precision equipment, that is used for example to produce computer chips or to make images of very tiny structures. Therefore, it is common to mount a vibration isolator in the suspension of such equipment to isolate it from these

  8. Volcano ecology: flourishing on the flanks of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli


    Mount St. Helens’ explosive eruption on May 18, 1980, was a pivotal moment in the field of disturbance ecology. The subsequent sustained, integrated research effort has shaped the development of volcano ecology, an emerging field of focused research. Excessive heat, burial, and impact force are some of the disturbance mechanisms following an eruption. They are also...

  9. Birds of Mount Kisingiri, Nyanza Province, including a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Kisingiri comprises a much overlooked highland massif in southern Nyanza Province with a hitherto completely unknown avifauna. Here we detail our findings from three brief exploratory visits undertaken between 2011 and 2014, with a focus on forested habitats above 1800 m in the Gwassi Hills Forest Reserve ...

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of \\'wild\\' woody plant resources at Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the naming and use of plants by Taita who live at Mount Kasigau in Kenya's Eastern Arc Mountains. Plant vouchers and ethnobotanical data were compiled from transects and within 55 ecological plots, and during participant observations, home surveys, and semi-structured interviews with residents.

  11. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Mount Zequalla Monastery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.The present study was undertaken to estimate forest carbon stock along altitudinal gradient in Mount Zequalla Monastery forest.

  12. Common eland Taurotragus oryx on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 150 years after the first Europeans tackled Mount Kilimanjaro, the mammal fauna of Africa's highest mountain is still shrouded in mystery. This even applies to the common eland Taurotragus oryx, the world's second largest antelope, signs of which have been observed at altitudes between 3000 m and 5200 m, ...

  13. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Defence Force (SADF) made effective use of the horse mounted soldier in the Namibian Independence War or 'Border War', 1966 to 1989, in Namibia (South West African) and Angola, in a conflict usually depicted as a series of high profile mechanised infantry operations. Nevertheless, the legacy of the ...

  14. Birds and biogeography of Mount Mecula in Mozambique's Niassa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Mecula's moist forest is small (approximately 136 ha in total) and patchy, and although known botanically to have some montane affinities, was found to support an avifauna more typical of riparian forests of medium to low altitude. The only montane forest species recorded was Lemon Dove Aplopelia larvata.

  15. Assessing climate change impacts on water balance in the Mount ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A statistical downscaling known for producing station-scale climate information from GCM output was preferred to evaluate the impacts of climate change within the Mount Makiling forest watershed, Philippines. The lumped hydrologic BROOK90 model was utilized for the water balance assessment of climate change ...

  16. Mounting improves heat-sink contact with beryllia washer (United States)


    To conduct heat away from electrical components that must be electrically insulated from a metal heat sink, a metal washer and a coil spring are placed between one end of the electrical component and the beryllia washer mounted on the heat sink. The thermal paths are formed by the component lead and base, the metal and beryllia washers, and the compressed spring.

  17. Vegetation types on Mount Akiki, Northern Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, I.E.


    Mount Akiki (16° 37’ N, 120° 53’ E, c. 2760 m alt.) is one of the highest mountain peaks in the Cordillera mountain range, Luzon Island, Philippines. It is situated in the municipality of Benguet, north-east of Baguio City (a world famous tourist city in the region) and is north-west of Mt Pulog,

  18. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Rodents of Mount Chilalo, Arsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on seasonal population dynamics of rodents was carried out on Mount Chilalo from August, 2007 to April, 2008. Six habitats, namely grassland, bush land, montane forest, Erica forest, Afroalpine forest and moor land were identified to carry out live and snap trapping during wet and dry seasons in randomly selected ...

  19. Optimized reflector stacks for solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, André B.M.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    The quality factor (Q) of a solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonator (SMR) is limited by substrate losses, because the acoustic mirror is traditionally optimized to reflect longitudinal waves only. We propose two different design approaches derived from optics to tailor the acoustic mirror for

  20. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic ash from the 1999 eruption of Mount Cameroon volcano has been characterized for its particle size and shape (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), and mineralogy (by X-ray diffractometry, XRD). Also the total fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ...

  1. Adjustable bipod flexures for mounting mirrors in a space telescope. (United States)

    Kihm, Hagyong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Moon, Il Kweon; Yeon, Jeong-Heum; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Woo


    A new mirror mounting technique applicable to the primary mirror in a space telescope is presented. This mounting technique replaces conventional bipod flexures with flexures having mechanical shims so that adjustments can be made to counter the effects of gravitational distortion of the mirror surface while being tested in the horizontal position. Astigmatic aberration due to the gravitational changes is effectively reduced by adjusting the shim thickness, and the relation between the astigmatism and the shim thickness is investigated. We tested the mirror interferometrically at the center of curvature using a null lens. Then we repeated the test after rotating the mirror about its optical axis by 180° in the horizontal setup, and searched for the minimum system error. With the proposed flexure mount, the gravitational stress at the adhesive coupling between the mirror and the mount is reduced by half that of a conventional bipod flexure for better mechanical safety under launch loads. Analytical results using finite element methods are compared with experimental results from the optical interferometer. Vibration tests verified the mechanical safety and optical stability, and qualified their use in space applications.

  2. 49 CFR 571.212 - Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. 571.212 Section 571.212 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.212...

  3. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is ...

  4. Kuidas koostada meeskonda - Mount Everesti ainetel / Marii Karell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karell, Marii, 1980-


    Eesti meeskonna Mount Everesti tippu juhtinud Tõivo Sarmet selgitab toimunud ekspeditsiooni näitel, miks tema peab meeskonna komplekteerimisel oluliseimaks inimeste iseloomuomadusi. Ekstreemoludes hakkama saamiseks tuleb meeles pidada, et eesmärk on ühine ja kellegi ego ei tohi seda nurjata, rõhutab Sarmet. Kommenteerib Alar Sikk

  5. Rollin' in Style!: Students Design Bike Mounted Skateboard Racks (United States)

    Massey, Rick


    Recognizing the increasing popularity of skateboarding, the author has found a project that teaches design and manufacturing concepts--and, of equal importance, really gets his students motivated. He challenges them to design and build a skateboard rack that mounts easily on a bicycle. The project benefits students by teaching creativity, the…

  6. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in mountainous areas, where the topography is very rough. Mount Cameroon, which is the highest summit in central and western Africa, is now known to culminate at 4037.7 ± 0.7 m above sea level. This height is nearly 60 m less than the approximate value of 4095 m published by the National Institute of Cartography.

  7. Stereo acuity and visual acuity in head-mounted displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Mosch, M.


    We have determined how the stereo acuity and visual acuity with Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD’s) depend on the HMD’s spatial resolution. We measured stereo acuity and visual acuity on 6 subjects for three types of HMD, with display resolutions ranging from 0.18 to 0.50 pixel/arcmin. The HMD’s provide

  8. Deformation of Mount Etna substrate as imaged by offshore seismic profiles (United States)

    Argnani, Andrea; Mazzarini, Francesco; Bisson, Marina; Bonazzi, Claudia; Isola, Ilaria


    Despite the clear evidence of active flank dynamics that is affecting the eastern side of Mount Etna, the contribution of tectonic processes has not been yet understood. So far, the various models proposed to explain the observed flank deformation have been based on onshore structural data, coming from the volcanic edifice. The Ionian offshore of Mount Etna has been only recently investigated using multichannel seismic profiles, and offers the opportunity to image the structural features of the substrate of the unstable flank of the volcano. This contribution aims at describing the deformation located offshore Mount Etna using multichannel seismic profiles recently acquired during three seismic surveys (Argnani and Bonazzi, 2005; Pareschi et al., 2006; Argnani et al., 2009). These surveys total over 800 km of high resolution seismic profiles, with record length ranging between 3 and 6 seconds and spatial coverage varying from 16 to 48 folds. The flank deformation of Mount Etna appears to be laterally confined by two tectonic guidelines, trending roughly E-W, located to the north and south of the deforming flank; the northern guideline, in particular, takes the surface expression of a sharp fault (Pernicana Fault). Though often assumed that these boundary structures continue offshore as linear features, connected to a frontal thrust ramp (i.e., Borgia et al., 1992), the occurrence of this simple offshore structural system has not been imaged. In fact, seismic data show a remarkable degree of structural complexity offshore Mount Etna. The Pernicana Fault, for instance, is not continuing offshore as a sharp feature; rather, the deformation is expressed as ENE-WSW folds located very close to the coastline. It is possible that these tectonic structures might have affected the offshore of Mount Etna before the Pernicana Fault system was developed, less than 15 ka ago. The southern guideline of the collapsing eastern flank of the volcano is poorly expressed onshore, and

  9. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.


    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  10. Space Radar Image of Mount Pinatubo Volcano, Philippines (United States)


    These are color composite radar images showing the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 (left image) and October 5,1994 (right image). The images are centered at about 15 degrees north latitude and 120.5 degrees east longitude. Both images were obtained with the same viewing geometry. The color composites were made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in blue. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 65 kilometers (25 miles by 40 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano are easily seen in these images. Red on the high slopes shows the distribution of the ash deposited during the 1991 eruption, which appears red because of the low cross-polarized radar returns at C and L bands. The dark drainages radiating away from the summit are the smooth mudflows, which even three years after the eruptions continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Comparing the two images shows that significant changes have occurred in the intervening five months along the Pasig-Potrero rivers (the dark area in the lower right of the images). Mudflows, called 'lahars,' that occurred during the 1994 monsoon season filled the river valleys, allowing the lahars to spread over the surrounding countryside. Three weeks before the second image was obtained, devastating lahars more than doubled the area affected in the Pasig-Potrero rivers, which is clearly visible as the increase in dark area on the lower right of the images. Migration of deposition to the east (right) has affected many communities. Newly affected areas included the community

  11. Cryogenic optical mounting for short-wave infrared spectrometers (United States)

    Grant, J.; Wood, T.; Bhatti, I.; Cañas, A.; Reddick, P.; van Wyk, P.; Bharadia, S.; Storey, T.; Potterton, T.; Rits, W.; Meijer, H.


    In order to measure atmospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane, water and carbon dioxide from spaceborne platforms, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) immersed grating spectrometers are employed. Due to the need to minimise detector dark current and internal black body radiation from the spectrometer's own structure, these instruments are operated at cryogenic temperatures. ESA's Sentinel 5-Precursor is a small satellite science mission; the platform comprises the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which includes a SWIR module. Optical mounts have been developed for the SWIR module which meet the requirements to cope with the differences in thermal expansion between the optical elements and their structural mounts over cryogenic temperature ranges, be robust against the mechanical environment during launch, and maintain optical alignment stability with a tight volume constraint. Throughout the design of the SWIR spectrometer, flexures were deployed to control deformations due to thermal expansion, the design of interfaces between materials of differing coefficient of thermal expansion was carefully managed, and the geometry of adhesive pads was tightly controlled. Optical mounting concepts were evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). A breadboard programme was undertaken to verify these concepts. FEA and breadboard results were correlated to provide confidence in the design. The breadboard programme consisted of thermal cycling and pull-testing of adhesive joints, as well as environmental and optical testing of representative subsystems. Analysis and breadboarding demonstrated that the optical mounting design will survive the mechanical and thermal environments, and verified the stability of the optical alignment requirements. Novel optical mounting structures have been designed, analysed, assembled, tested and integrated into the optical assemblies of the TROPOMI SWIR spectrometer, creating a compact and robust state of the art instrument

  12. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s Southern Alps


    Allen, S.; Schneider, D.; Owens, I F


    Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems...

  13. Probing the switching state of a surface-mounted azobenzene derivative using femtosecond XUV photoemission (United States)

    Grunau, Jan; Heinemann, Nils; Rohwer, Timm; Zargarani, Dordaneh; Kuhn, Sonja; Jung, Ullrich; Kipp, Lutz; Magnussen, Olaf; Herges, Rainer; Bauer, Michael


    Photoemission spectroscopy using femtosecond XUV light pulses is applied to probe the isomerization state of the molecular switch 3-(4-(4-hexyl-phenylazo)-phenoxy)-propane-1-thiol deposited by liquid phase self-assembly on Au(111). Spectral shifts of valence-electronic signatures that we associate with the carbon C2s orbital enable us to distinguish the trans and the cis isomerization state of the adsorbed molecules. These preliminary results envision the potential to probe reversible switching processes of surface-mounted molecules in real time by tracking the temporal evolution of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a femtosecond XUV photoemission experiment.

  14. Past and present dynamics of sorghum and pearl millet diversity in Mount Kenya region. (United States)

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Deu, Monique; Dussert, Yann; Rono, Bernard; Lamy, Françoise; Marangu, Charles; Kiambi, Dan; Calatayud, Caroline; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Robert, Thierry; Leclerc, Christian


    Crop populations in smallholder farming systems are shaped by the interaction of biological, ecological, and social processes, occurring on different spatiotemporal scales. Understanding these dynamics is fundamental for the conservation of crop genetic resources. In this study, we investigated the processes involved in sorghum and pearl millet diversity dynamics on Mount Kenya. Surveys were conducted in ten sites distributed along two elevation transects and occupied by six ethnolinguistic groups. Varieties of both species grown in each site were inventoried and characterized using SSR markers. Genetic diversity was analyzed using both individual- and population-based approaches. Surveys of seed lot sources allowed characterizing seed-mediated gene flow. Past sorghum diffusion dynamics were explored by comparing Mount Kenya sorghum diversity with that of the African continent. The absence of structure in pearl millet genetic diversity indicated common ancestry and/or important pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. On the contrary, sorghum varietal and genetic diversity showed geographic patterns, pointing to different ancestry of varieties, limited pollen-mediated gene flow, and geographic patterns in seed-mediated gene flow. Social and ecological processes involved in shaping seed-mediated gene flow are further discussed.

  15. Small particles in plumes of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Rose, W. I.; Chuan, R. L.; Woods, D. C.


    Particles in the size range 0.1-25 microns were sampled by aircraft carrying a quartz crystal microcascade in the Mount St. Helens plume on three dates in August and September 1980. Two of the sampling dates represented 'typical' emissions of the volcano between plinian eruptions. One sampling flight was made 1-4 hours before the small plinian eruption of August 7, 1980 when the plume had become discontinuous and visibly darker. The plume sampled on August 7, before the eruption, contained mainly approximately 2-micron diameter silicic glass particles, fragments of the Mount St. Helens magma. The typical plumes sampled on September 22 and August 6 had much smaller concentrations of particles, trimodal size distributions with peaks at 10, 0.4, and 0.1 microns. The particles were largely nonsilicate and apparently represented Cu-Zn oxide (10 micron peak), Al sulfate, chloride, and oxide, and sulfuric acid (smallest size peak).

  16. Wheelchair-mounted accelerometers for measurement of physical activity. (United States)

    Gendle, Shawn C; Richardson, Mark; Leeper, James; Hardin, L Brent; Green, J Matt; Bishop, Phillip A


    To evaluate the validity of a wheelchair frame-mounted accelerometer for the assessment of physical activity of wheelchair users. Twelve collegiate wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The study was conducted in a modern indoor gymnasium at a university in the USA. A randomized, crossover experimental design was used to investigate accelerometer output, participant heart rate, and distance travelled. Participants performed two trials of wheeling at a combination of two different effort levels (light and moderate: Prescribed using perceived exertion) and two different modes (continuous and stop-go). Accelerometer vector magnitude activity counts (VM), heart rate (HR), and distance travelled were significantly different between light and moderate effort (p wheelchair frame-mounted accelerometer differentiated between perceptually-prescribed low and moderate effort levels and may prove to be a valid instrument in the detection of a wheelchair users' physical activity. [Box: see text].

  17. Virtual display design using waveguide hologram in conical mounting configuration (United States)

    Yan, Zhanjun; Li, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yongjun; Kang, Mingwu; Zheng, Zhenrong


    An improved virtual display is proposed by using a waveguide holographic configuration with two total internal reflection holographic gratings in conical mounting and two volume hologram in classical mounting recorded on a single transparent planar waveguide. Using this compact configuration, efficiency can be dramatically improved and assembly is easy to be realized. The main principle and the method of intensity uniformity control are present in the paper. The analysis and simulation results are also explained. The virtual display system design shows good optical performance with 25 deg. field of view, a large pupil about 43 mm, little distortion less than 1%, and low aberration. The configuration can be used to a portable or wearable display.

  18. Surface-mount electronics meet the military's high reliability needs (United States)

    Reynolds, R. A.


    Surface-mount electronics, as opposed to through-hole mounted electronics, will be dominant board assembly technique in the U.S. for at least the next ten years for weight and space saving and for high reliability. New pin-out and packaging standards have been developed, to the benefit of both military and industrial and commercial users. Reliability rather than standards is, however, the major issue, and design, material selection and manufacturing techniques at the board-component interface determine how well any producer's equipment stands up to demanding applications and environments. Problems of matching thermal coefficients of expansion are dwindling as new chip technologies reduce semiconductor power dissipation drastically. The special soldering methods needed, preparation of the circuit board, and the increasingly widespread use of metal-core circuit boards are treated.

  19. High performance heat sink for surface mount applications (United States)

    McKeown, Stephen A.; Levasseur, Robert D.

    Surface-mounted electronic module configurations are sensitive to thermal cycling because the reduced compliance between the component and module increases the thermally induced strain in the solder joint. Providing a thermal match between the component and the module reduces this strain, reduces low-cycle fatigue damage, and increases solder joint life. One way of achieving this thermal match is through the use of a thermally matched heat sink. In addition to having the required coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), heat sinks for surface-mount avionic configurations require low weight and high thermal conductivity. A heat sink has been developed that has thermal conductivity close to aluminum, a CTE close to ceramic, and a weight density only 8 percent higher than aluminum. The flexural modulus of this heat sink is 40 percent higher than aluminum, which results in improved vibration performance.

  20. Righteousness and identity formation in the Sermon on the Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen


    Full Text Available Righteousness is an important term in the first gospel and has a significant concentration in the Sermon on the Mount. The argument in this article is that the first gospel has a community building function. Matthew intentionally uses the word ‘righteousness’ in the Sermon on the Mount as an instrument to define the identity of his community. Though righteousness can be used in a soteriological sense, it is argued that Matthew mainly uses it in an ethical sense. By righteousness Matthew refers to the proper behavioural norms and attitudes for his community. Commitment to Jesus forms the central focus of the community’s identity. Their discipleship is demonstrated by doing the will of God as defined and interpreted by Jesus. Doing the will of God in such a manner is what Matthew regards as the distinguishing mark of this community. Thus they would surpass the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees.

  1. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil


    distribution generated by a radial diffuser is partly controlled by the momentum flow from the diffusers and partly from gravity forces where the thermal load and the temperature difference between room air and supply air deflect the radial wall jet down into the occupied zone. The ceiling diffuser......Experiments with air distribution in rooms generated by a radial ceiling-mounted diffuser and a diffuser generating flow with swirl are compared with the air distribution obtained by mixing ventilation from a wall-mounted diffuser, vertical ventilation and displacement ventilation. The air...... with swirling flow generates a flow pattern in the room which is rather uninfluenced by the thermal load. The flow is highly mixed above the occupied zone and the air movement penetrates the occupied zone close to the walls. All systems are tested in the same room with the same heat load consisting of two...

  2. Sedimentology, Behavior, and Hazards of Debris Flows at Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Scott, K.M.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.


    Mount Rainier is potentially the most dangerous volcano in the Cascade Range because of its great height, frequent earthquakes, active hydrothermal system, and extensive glacier mantle. Many debris flows and their distal phases have inundated areas far from the volcano during postglacial time. Two types of debris flows, cohesive and noncohesive, have radically different origins and behavior that relate empirically to clay content. The two types are the major subpopulations of debris flows at Mount Rainier. The behavior of cohesive flows is affected by the cohesion and adhesion of particles; noncohesive flows are dominated by particle collisions to the extent that particle cataclasis becomes common during near-boundary shear. Cohesive debris flows contain more than 3 to 5 percent of clay-size sediment. The composition of these flows changed little as they traveled more than 100 kilometers from Mount Rainier to inundate parts of the now-populated Puget Sound lowland. They originate as deep-seated failures of sectors of the volcanic edifice, and such failures are sufficiently frequent that they are the major destructional process of Mount Rainier's morphologic evolution. In several deposits of large cohesive flows, a lateral, megaclast-bearing facies (with a mounded or hummocky surface) contrasts with a more clay-rich facies in the center of valleys and downstream. Cohesive flows at Mount Rainier do not correlate strongly with volcanic activity and thus can recur without warning, possibly triggered by non-magmatic earthquakes or by changes in the hydrothermal system. Noncohesive debris flows contain less than 3 to 5 percent clay-size sediment. They form most commonly by bulking of sediment in water surges, but some originate directly or indirectly from shallow slope failures that do not penetrate the hydrothermally altered core of the volcano. In contrast with cohesive flows, most noncohesive flows transform both from and to other flow types and are, therefore, the

  3. The eddy performance: Contemporary ethnography of Mount Tlaloc


    Lorente Fernández, David


    Mount Tlaloc was a very important religious place in the prehispanic age: it was the place where request ceremonies for rain took place on the Mexica Empire. This is the reason for the increasing interest in this place among archaeologists and ethnohistorians. However, systematic ethnography in the region is almost inexistent and the accurate meaning of the offerings and rituals which are still being carried out nowadays is unknown. The article shows the conclusions of a long fieldwork on the...

  4. Isogloss: language and legacy on Mount St. Helens (United States)

    E. Dodd


    Nothing standing aboveground today was here thirty years ago. The ground itself wasn't here. Oh, there was ground, but much of it lay below the surface where my boot soles slip a little in the loose pebbles of pumice. Rolling on loose rock and big ideas, for a moment I lose my sense of balance, glancing first at the sky above, then at the nearby peak of Mount St...

  5. An Analysis of Eye Movements with Helmet Mounted Displays (United States)


    Kalich, M., Lang, G., King , R., and Noback, R., 2009, “Perceptual and Cognitive Effects Due to Operational Factors”, appears in Helmet-Mounted...Robert Wildsunas, J. Lynn Caldwell, Melvyn Kalich, Gregory Lang, Ronal King , and Robert Noback. “Perceptual and Cognitive Effects Due to Operational...2005. Smith, Suzanne D. (2005) Super Cobra (AH-1Z) Human Vibration Evaluation. AFRL-HE-WP- TR-2005-0114, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright

  6. The impact of global warming on Mount Everest. (United States)

    Moore, G W K; Semple, John L


    Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb.

  7. A concept of active mount for space applications (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.


    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  8. MR- and ER-Based Semiactive Engine Mounts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Elahinia


    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion technologies, including hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid, equip vehicles with nonconventional power sources (in addition to the internal combustion engine to provide higher fuel efficiency. However, these technologies tend to lead to higher levels of noise, vibration, and harshness in the vehicles, mainly due to the switching between the multiple power sources involved. In addition, the shocks and vibrations associated with the power sources switching may occur over a wide range of frequencies. It has been proven that passive vibration isolators (e.g., elastomeric and hydraulic mounts are unable to mitigate or totally isolate such shocks and vibrations. Active mounts, while effective, are more complex, require significant power to operate, and can lead to system instabilities. Semiactive vibration isolators have been shown to be as effective as active mounts while being less complex and requiring less power to operate. This paper presents a review of novel semiactive shock and vibration isolators developed using magnetorheological and electrorheological fluids. These fluids change their yield stress in response to an externally applied magnetic and electric field, respectively. As a result, these fluids allow one to transform a passive hydraulic vibration isolator into a semiactive device.

  9. Approximation of Engine Casing Temperature Constraints for Casing Mounted Electronics (United States)

    Kratz, Jonathan L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.


    The performance of propulsion engine systems is sensitive to weight and volume considerations. This can severely constrain the configuration and complexity of the control system hardware. Distributed Engine Control technology is a response to these concerns by providing more flexibility in designing the control system, and by extension, more functionality leading to higher performing engine systems. Consequently, there can be a weight benefit to mounting modular electronic hardware on the engine core casing in a high temperature environment. This paper attempts to quantify the in-flight temperature constraints for engine casing mounted electronics. In addition, an attempt is made at studying heat soak back effects. The Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software is leveraged with real flight data as the inputs to the simulation. A two-dimensional (2-D) heat transfer model is integrated with the engine simulation to approximate the temperature along the length of the engine casing. This modification to the existing C-MAPSS40k software will provide tools and methodologies to develop a better understanding of the requirements for the embedded electronics hardware in future engine systems. Results of the simulations are presented and their implications on temperature constraints for engine casing mounted electronics is discussed.

  10. Influence of Structural Flexibility on the Dynamic Precision of a Vehicle-Mounted Equipment System (United States)


    SAE INTERNATIONAL • Adams/ Car Model Rigid Vehicle Model 4 Cargo bed Frame Body mounts Bumper mounts Equipment enclosure...constrained - Bushings that do not have high stiffness UNCLASSIFIED SAE INTERNATIONAL Flexible Vehicle Model 14 Adams/ car

  11. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system (United States)

    Renner, Adam P.


    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  12. Geomorphic analysis of the river response to sedimentation downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Curran, Christopher A.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Kimball, Halley K.; Gish, Casey C.


    A study of the geomorphology of rivers draining Mount Rainier, Washington, was completed to identify sources of sediment to the river network; to identify important processes in the sediment delivery system; to assess current sediment loads in rivers draining Mount Rainier; to evaluate if there were trends in streamflow or sediment load since the early 20th century; and to assess how rates of sedimentation might continue into the future using published climate-change scenarios. Rivers draining Mount Rainier carry heavy sediment loads sourced primarily from the volcano that cause acute aggradation in deposition reaches as far away as the Puget Lowland. Calculated yields ranged from 2,000 tonnes per square kilometer per year [(tonnes/km2)/yr] on the upper Nisqually River to 350 (tonnes/km2)/yr on the lower Puyallup River, notably larger than sediment yields of 50–200 (tonnes/km2)/yr typical for other Cascade Range rivers. These rivers can be assumed to be in a general state of sediment surplus. As a result, future aggradation rates will be largely influenced by the underlying hydrology carrying sediment downstream. The active-channel width of rivers directly draining Mount Rainier in 2009, used as a proxy for sediment released from Mount Rainier, changed little between 1965 and 1994 reflecting a climatic period that was relatively quiet hydrogeomorphically. From 1994 to 2009, a marked increase in geomorphic disturbance caused the active channels in many river reaches to widen. Comparing active-channel widths of glacier-draining rivers in 2009 to the distance of glacier retreat between 1913 and 1994 showed no correlation, suggesting that geomorphic disturbance in river reaches directly downstream of glaciers is not strongly governed by the degree of glacial retreat. In contrast, there was a correlation between active-channel width and the percentage of superglacier debris mantling the glacier, as measured in 1971. A conceptual model of sediment delivery processes

  13. 77 FR 17410 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative... (United States)


    ... combination refrigerator-freezers, namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for use in bottom mount... external doors designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that incorporate, at a... assembled external drawers designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that...

  14. 76 FR 55044 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Negative... (United States)


    ..., namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers... designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that incorporate, at a minimum: (a) an... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea...

  15. 76 FR 23298 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of... (United States)


    ... in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers, namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for...; (2) any assembled external doors designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea...

  16. White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package (United States)


    Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P Callaway Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P...Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven P Callaway 5d

  17. Non-uniform object counting method in large-format pyramid images applied to CD31 vessel counting in whole-mount digital pathology sections (United States)

    Murray, Mayan; Hill, Melissa L.; Liu, Kela; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.


    Whole-mount pathology imaging has the potential to revolutionize clinical practice by preserving context lost when tissue is cut to fit onto conventional slides. Whole-mount digital images are very large, ranging from 4GB to greater than 50GB, making concurrent processing infeasible. Block-processing is a method commonly used to divide the image into smaller blocks and process them individually. This approach is useful for certain tasks, but leads to over-counting objects located on the seams between blocks. This issue is exaggerated as the block size decreases. In this work we apply a novel technique to enumerate vessels, a clinical task that would benefit from automation in whole-mount images. Whole-mount sections of rabbit VX2 tumors were digitized. Color thresholding was used to segment the brown CD31- DAB stained vessels. This vessel enumeration was applied to the entire whole-mount image in two distinct phases of block-processing. The first (whole-processing) phase used a basic grid and only counted objects that did not intersect the block's borders. The second (seam-processing) phase used a shifted grid to ensure all blocks captured the block-seam regions from the original grid. Only objects touching this seam-intersection were counted. For validation, segmented vessels were randomly embedded into a whole-mount image. The technique was tested on the image using 24 different block-widths. Results indicated that the error reaches a minimum at a block-width equal to the maximum vessel length, with no improvement as the block-width increases further. Object-density maps showed very good correlation between the vessel-dense regions and the pathologist outlined tumor regions.

  18. Systematic detection of seismic events at Mount St. Helens with an ultra-dense array (United States)

    Meng, X.; Hartog, J. R.; Schmandt, B.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Hansen, S. M.; Vidale, J. E.; Vanderplas, J.


    During the summer of 2014, an ultra-dense array of 900 geophones was deployed around the crater of Mount St. Helens and continuously operated for 15 days. This dataset provides us an unprecedented opportunity to systematically detect seismic events around an active volcano and study their underlying mechanisms. We use a waveform-based matched filter technique to detect seismic events from this dataset. Due to the large volume of continuous data ( 1 TB), we performed the detection on the GPU cluster Stampede ( We build a suite of template events from three catalogs: 1) the standard Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) catalog (45 events); 2) the catalog from Hansen&Schmandt (2015) obtained with a reverse-time imaging method (212 events); and 3) the catalog identified with a matched filter technique using the PNSN permanent stations (190 events). By searching for template matches in the ultra-dense array, we find 2237 events. We then calibrate precise relative magnitudes for template and detected events, using a principal component fit to measure waveform amplitude ratios. The magnitude of completeness and b-value of the detected catalog is -0.5 and 1.1, respectively. Our detected catalog shows several intensive swarms, which are likely driven by fluid pressure transients in conduits or slip transients on faults underneath the volcano. We are currently relocating the detected catalog with HypoDD and measuring the seismic velocity changes at Mount St. Helens using the coda wave interferometry of detected repeating earthquakes. The accurate temporal-spatial migration pattern of seismicity and seismic property changes should shed light on the physical processes beneath Mount St. Helens.

  19. Quantifying probabilities of eruptions at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy). (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso


    One of the major goals of modern volcanology is to set up sound risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard must be managed with reliable estimates of quantitative long- and short-term eruption forecasting, but the large number of observables involved in a volcanic process suggests that a probabilistic approach could be a suitable tool in forecasting. The aim of this work is to quantify probabilistic estimate of the vent location for a suitable lava flow hazard assessment at Mt. Etna volcano, through the application of the code named BET (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008). The BET_EF model is based on the event tree philosophy assessed by Newhall and Hoblitt (2002), further developing the concept of vent location, epistemic uncertainties, and a fuzzy approach for monitoring measurements. A Bayesian event tree is a specialized branching graphical representation of events in which individual branches are alternative steps from a general prior event, and evolving into increasingly specific subsequent states. Then, the event tree attempts to graphically display all relevant possible outcomes of volcanic unrest in progressively higher levels of detail. The procedure is set to estimate an a priori probability distribution based upon theoretical knowledge, to accommodate it by using past data, and to modify it further by using current monitoring data. For the long-term forecasting, an a priori model, dealing with the present tectonic and volcanic structure of the Mt. Etna, is considered. The model is mainly based on past vent locations and fracture location datasets (XX century of eruptive history of the volcano). Considering the variation of the information through time, and their relationship with the structural setting of the volcano, datasets we are also able to define an a posteriori probability map for next vent opening. For short-term forecasting vent opening hazard assessment, the monitoring has a leading role, primarily

  20. AA amyloidosis: Mount Sinai experience, 1997-2012. (United States)

    Bunker, Daniel; Gorevic, Peter


    AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A protein. It is typically a consequence of chronic inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease, although more patients are being identified who have more unusual causes or no known inflammatory stimulus. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with AA amyloidosis seen at Mount Sinai during the period of 1997-2012. Particular attention was paid to the patients' underlying diseases, extent of organ involvement, levels of inflammatory markers and proinflammatory cytokines, presence of pyrin gene mutations, and outcomes. Forty-three patients were seen at Mount Sinai with AA amyloidosis during this period. The most common underlying diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (21%) and Crohn's disease (16%), though 21% of patients were considered to have idiopathic AA amyloid after an extensive search found no underlying inflammatory disease. Almost all patients (95%) had renal involvement based on biopsy or clinical criteria, with 19 patients (44%) eventually requiring dialysis and 5 (12%) undergoing renal transplantation. Inflammatory markers were elevated in most patients; however, interleukin-6 was the only consistently elevated cytokine. Three patients (of 9 tested) were found to be positive for the E148Q pyrin gene mutation. Our study confirms the increasing number of patients being seen with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. More research is needed to determine if these patients have an underlying genetic susceptibility encoded in pyrin or other genes. Our study also confirms the dominance of renal disease in this population. The elevated levels of interleukin-6, in comparison with other cytokines, could represent a therapeutic target. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  1. Active Engine Mounting Control Algorithm Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Jashi Darsivan


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of neural network as a controller to isolate engine vibration in an active engine mounting system. It has been shown that the NARMA-L2 neurocontroller has the ability to reject disturbances from a plant. The disturbance is assumed to be both impulse and sinusoidal disturbances that are induced by the engine. The performance of the neural network controller is compared with conventional PD and PID controllers tuned using Ziegler-Nichols. From the result simulated the neural network controller has shown better ability to isolate the engine vibration than the conventional controllers.

  2. Mount Baker lahars and debris flows, ancient, modern, and future (United States)

    Tucker, David S; Scott, Kevin M.; Grossman, Eric E.; Linneman, Scott


    The Middle Fork Nooksack River drains the southwestern slopes of the active Mount Baker stratovolcano in northwest Washington State. The river enters Bellingham Bay at a growing delta 98 km to the west. Various types of debris flows have descended the river, generated by volcano collapse or eruption (lahars), glacial outburst floods, and moraine landslides. Initial deposition of sediment during debris flows occurs on the order of minutes to a few hours. Long-lasting, down-valley transport of sediment, all the way to the delta, occurs over a period of decades, and affects fish habitat, flood risk, gravel mining, and drinking water.

  3. Head-mounted display system for virtual reality (United States)

    He, Ding; Xu, Tong; Wang, Yongtian; Hua, Hong; Hu, Ying


    A head-mounted-display system for virtual reality is developed, which is mainly comprised of a pair of viewing lenses together with LCDs to provide the stereoscopic image, and a tracking device to detect the motion of the head. Each viewing lens contains 4 optical elements, and can give a 120 degree(s) field of view for each eye when used with a 2.2' LCD. The tracking device consists of a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer and a pendulum, which determines the orientation angles of the helmet. Another version of the tracking device capable of measuring 6 degrees of freedom movement of the helmet is currently under development.

  4. Сombined Thermal Insulating Module of Mounted Vented Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabukhina Svetlana


    Full Text Available In order to define an optimum type of mounted vented facades among the existing ones, comparative analysis of two façade modules has been conducted. The first module type is a widespread standard module of hinged vented facade and the second type is less applicable combined thermal insulating module. Those two technologies were compared thermal engineering and energy efficiency parameters. It was defined that the application of a thermal insulating module with combined insulation system improves thermal engineering parameters of the building as well as leads to a substantial savings. This article exposes innovative materials and structure of vented facades which can be applied in modern construction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin MATUSZAK


    Full Text Available Method of performing impact test of tool mounted in micromilling machine spindle is presented. Due to very small tool dimensions performing impact test in classical way is impossible. Accelerometer cannot be used for impulse response measurement. For measurement of tool displacement laser vibrometer is used. Frequency response function was measured in two directions in seven points of micromilling tool. Additionally frequency response function in three points of machine spindle is measured. Resonant frequencies and their amplitude for points on tool and on machine spindle are compared. Results of performed impact tests are shown. Conclusions arising from performed impact tests are presented.

  6. Aluminium Nitride Solidly Mounted BAW Resonators with Iridium Electrodes


    Clement Lorenzo, Marta; Olivares Roza, Jimena; Iborra Grau, Enrique; González Castilla, Sheila; Sangrador García, Jesús; Rimmer, Nick; Rastogi, A; Ivira, B.; Reinhardt, Alexandre


    In this work we investigated the performance of aluminium nitride (AlN)-based solidly mounted resonators (SMR) made with iridium (Ir) bottom electrodes. Ir/AlN/metal stacks were grown on top of insulating Bragg mirrors composed of alternate λ/4 layers of silicon oxi-carbide (SiOC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4).Ir electrodes of various thicknesses were electron-beam evaporated on different adhesion layers, which also acted as seed layers. AlN was deposited by sputtering after conditioning the Ir...

  7. The Mount Sinai clinical pathway for the management of pheochromocytoma. (United States)

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Said, Meena; Gospin, Rebekah; Babic, Nikolina; Brown, Karen; Geer, Eliza B; Kostakoglu, Lale; Krakoff, Lawrence R; Leibowitz, Andrew B; Mehta, Lakshmi; Muller, Simone; Owen, Randall P; Pertsemlidis, David S; Wilck, Eric; Xiao, Guang-Qian; Levine, Alice C; Inabnet, William B


    Pheochromocytomas are complex tumors that require a comprehensive and systematic management plan orchestrated by a multidisciplinary team. To achieve these ends, The Mount Sinai Adrenal Center hosted an interdisciplinary retreat where experts in adrenal disorders assembled with the aim of developing a clinical pathway for the management of pheochromocytomas. The result was a consensus for the diagnosis, perioperative management, and postoperative management of pheochromocytomas, with specific recommendations from our team of adrenal experts, as well as a review of the current literature. Our clinical pathway can be applied by other institutions directly or may serve as a guide for institution-specific management.

  8. A review of adjustable lenses for head mounted displays (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.; Jacoby, Thomas N. L.; Aricescu, Ilinca Å.ž.; Rhodes, Daniel P.


    Adjustable lens technology has the potential to improve Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) through style and comfort by providing optical prescription correction and focussing mechanisms integrated within the HMD. It can also reduce simulator sickness and user experience of 3D through resolution of Vergence Accommodation Conflict, and age-related user problems (presbyopia). We review the available technology and the design constraints to show how a fluid filled lens may be appropriate for AR and MR, and an Alvarez lens may be appropriate for VR.

  9. Head Mounted Display with a Roof Mirror Array Fold (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)


    The present invention includes a head mounted display (HMD) worn by a user. The HMD includes a display projecting an image through an optical lens. The HMD also includes a one-dimensional retro reflective array receiving the image through the optical lens at a first angle with respect to the display and deflecting the image at a second angle different than the first angle with respect to the display. The one-dimensional retro reflective array reflects the image in order to project the image onto an eye of the user.

  10. Parallax error in the monocular head-mounted eye trackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan


    This paper investigates the parallax error, which is a common problem of many video-based monocular mobile gaze trackers. The parallax error is defined and described using the epipolar geometry in a stereo camera setup. The main parameters that change the error are introduced and it is shown how...... each parameter affects the error. The optimum distribution of the error (magnitude and direction) in the field of view varies for different applications. However, the results can be used for finding the optimum parameters that are needed for designing a head-mounted gaze tracker. It has been shown...

  11. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  12. Influence of preservative and mounting media on the size and shape of monogenean sclerites. (United States)

    Fankoua, Severin-Oscar; Bitja Nyom, Arnold R; Bahanak, Dieu Ne Dort; Bilong Bilong, Charles F; Pariselle, Antoine


    Based on Cichlidogyrus sp. (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) specimens from Hemichromis sp. hosts, we tested the influence of different methods to fix/preserve samples/specimens [frozen material, alcohol or formalin preserved, museum process for fish preservation (fixed in formalin and preserved in alcohol)] and different media used to mount the slides [tap water, glycerin ammonium picrate (GAP), Hoyer's one (HM)] on the size/shape of sclerotized parts of monogenean specimens. The results show that the use of HM significantly increases the size of haptoral sclerites [marginal hooks I, II, IV, V, and VI; dorsal bar length, width, distance between auricles and auricle length, ventral bar length and width], and changes their shape [angle opening between shaft and guard (outer and inner roots) in both ventral and dorsal anchors, ventral bar much wider, dorsal one less curved]. This influence seems to be reduced when specimens/samples are fixed in formalin. The systematics of Monogenea being based on the size and shape of their sclerotized parts, to prevent misidentifications or description of invalid new species, we recommend the use of GAP as mounting medium; Hoyer's one should be restricted to monogenean specimens fixed for a long time which are more shrunken.

  13. Assessing potential reasons for different precipitation patterns on Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro (United States)

    Covi, Federico; Gohm, Alexander; Kaser, Georg


    Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya in tropical East Africa are often considered as typically influenced by the same air mass. Yet, both precipitation patterns and glacier behavior differ considerably on these neighboring mountains. This indicates that either different air masses are at play or that precipitation processes are considerably different. The present study aims to investigate the most relevant driving mechanism of precipitation over the two neighboring mountains. First, ERA-Interim reanalysis data are used to characterize the atmospheric background conditions of days with precipitation simultaneously recorded on both Kersten Glacier (Kilimanjaro) and Lewis Glacier (Mt Kenya). From this analysis idealized vertical profiles are constructed and used as an atmospheric reference state for simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The semi-realistic model topography is constructed from a high-resolution digital elevation dataset (SRTM). A series of sensitivity simulations is carried out with modified topography, vertical sounding and surface sensible heat flux to asses the dominant factors governing precipitation over the two mountains. With this, we aim to enhance the climate information from the differently behaving glaciers on the two East African mountains.

  14. Methodology for the selection of weapons mounted on light terrain wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan V. Donevski


    Full Text Available Nowadays, a number of light terrain wheeled vehicles are used for various purposes. Their basic performances are related to achieving high average speed off roads and to overcoming various obstacles. This type of vehicles is mainly used for commercial purposes. Models of these vehicles have been modernized and upgraded during the time but their basic purpose remains the same. However, nowadays there is a need to use these vehicles for other purposes. This is carried out through the process of conversion. The conversion means that a vehicle changes its purpose by the application of various technical solutions. One of conversions is related to the application of weapons on the vehicle chassis. The weapon mounting is connected with various problems such as vehicle stiffness, weapon precision, presence of various oscillations, overall vehicle layout and crew deployment. In order to mount weapons efficiently, the methodology of its selection is proposed. It consists of several phases and the most important of them are the following ones: the consideration of performances of modern light terrain wheeled vehicles, analysis of weapons convenient for application, creation of the vehicle-platform-weapon system mathematical model, analysis of the dynamic characteristics of the created model and the selection of the best solution, experimental research and analysis of theoretical and experimental results. The realization of the proposed methodology will considerably improve the quality of the design of vehicle- platform-weapon systems.

  15. Quick-disconnect harness system for helmet-mounted displays (United States)

    Bapu, P. T.; Aulds, M. J.; Fuchs, Steven P.; McCormick, David M.


    We have designed a pilot's harness-mounted, high voltage quick-disconnect connectors with 62 pins, to transmit voltages up to 13.5 kV and video signals with 70 MHz bandwidth, for a binocular helmet-mounted display system. It connects and disconnects with power off, and disconnects 'hot' without pilot intervention and without producing external sparks or exposing hot embers to the explosive cockpit environment. We have implemented a procedure in which the high voltage pins disconnect inside a hermetically-sealed unit before the physical separation of the connector. The 'hot' separation triggers a crowbar circuit in the high voltage power supplies for additional protection. Conductor locations and shields are designed to reduce capacitance in the circuit and avoid crosstalk among adjacent circuits. The quick- disconnect connector and wiring harness are human-engineered to ensure pilot safety and mobility. The connector backshell is equipped with two hybrid video amplifiers to improve the clarity of the video signals. Shielded wires and coaxial cables are molded as a multi-layered ribbon for maximum flexibility between the pilot's harness and helmet. Stiff cabling is provided between the quick-disconnect connector and the aircraft console to control behavior during seat ejection. The components of the system have been successfully tested for safety, performance, ergonomic considerations, and reliability.

  16. Microwave Temperature Profiler Mounted in a Standard Airborne Research Canister (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; Denning, Richard F.; Fox, Jack


    Many atmospheric research aircraft use a standard canister design to mount instruments, as this significantly facilitates their electrical and mechanical integration and thereby reduces cost. Based on more than 30 years of airborne science experience with the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), the MTP has been repackaged with state-of-the-art electronics and other design improvements to fly in one of these standard canisters. All of the controlling electronics are integrated on a single 4 5-in. (.10 13- cm) multi-layer PCB (printed circuit board) with surface-mount hardware. Improved circuit design, including a self-calibrating RTD (resistive temperature detector) multiplexer, was implemented in order to reduce the size and mass of the electronics while providing increased capability. A new microcontroller-based temperature controller board was designed, providing better control with fewer components. Five such boards are used to provide local control of the temperature in various areas of the instrument, improving radiometric performance. The new stepper motor has an embedded controller eliminating the need for a separate controller board. The reference target is heated to avoid possible emissivity (and hence calibration) changes due to moisture contamination in humid environments, as well as avoiding issues with ambient targets during ascent and descent. The radiometer is a double-sideband heterodyne receiver tuned sequentially to individual oxygen emission lines near 60 GHz, with the line selection and intermediate frequency bandwidths chosen to accommodate the altitude range of the aircraft and mission.

  17. Assessment of a head-mounted miniature monitor (United States)

    Hale, J. P., II


    Two experiments were conducted to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Private Eye, a miniature, head-mounted monitor. The first experiment compared the Private Eye with a cathode ray tube (CRT) and hard copy in both a constrained and unconstrained work envelope. The task was a simulated maintenance and assembly task that required frequent reference to the displayed information. A main effect of presentation media indicated faster placement times using the CRT as compared with hard copy. There were no significant differences between the Private Eye and either the CRT or hard copy for identification, placement, or total task times. The goal of the second experiment was to determine the effects of various local visual parameters on the ability of the user to accurately perceive the information of the Private Eye. The task was an interactive video game. No significant performance differences were found under either bright or dark ambient illumination environments nor with either visually simple or complex task backgrounds. Glare reflected off of the bezel surrounding the monitor did degrade performance. It was concluded that this head-mounted, miniature monitor could serve a useful role for in situ operations, especially in microgravity environments.

  18. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.


    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  19. Sensor 17 Thermal Isolation Mounting Structure (TIMS) Design Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enstrom, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The SENSOR 17 thermographic camera weighs approximately 0.5lbs, has a fundamental mode of 167 Hz, and experiences 0.75W of heat leakage in through the TIMS. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, is comprised of four 300 Series SST washers paired in tandem with P.E.I (Ultem 100) washers. The SENSOR 17 sensor is mounted to a 300 series stainless plate with A-shaped arms. The Plate can be assumed to be at ambient temperatures (≈293K) and the I.R. Mount needs to be cooled to 45K. It is attached to the tip of a cryocooler by a ‘cold strap’ and is assumed to be at the temperature of the cold-strap (≈45K). During flights SENSOR 17 experiences excitations at frequencies centered around 10-30Hz, 60Hz, and 120Hz from the aircraft flight environment. The temporal progression described below depicts the 1st Modal shape at the systems resonant frequency. This simulation indicates Modal articulation will cause a pitch rate of the camera with respect to the body axis of the airplane. This articulation shows up as flutter in the camera.

  20. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: slope perception (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Flanagan, Patrick; Gibbs, Peter


    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. This produces a situation of hyperstereopsis in which binocular disparities are magnified. This has the potential to distort the perception of slope in depth (an important cue to landing), because the slope cue provided by binocular disparity conflicts with veridical cues to slope, such as texture gradients and motion parallax. In the experiments, eight observers viewed sparse and dense textured surfaces tilted in depth under three viewing conditions: normal stereo hyper-stereo (4 times magnification), and hypostereo (1/4 magnification). The surfaces were either stationary, or rotated slowly around a central vertical axis. Stimuli were projected at 6 metres to minimise conflict between accommodation and convergence, and stereo viewing was provided by a Z-screen and passive polarised glasses. Observers matched perceived visual slope using a small tilt table set by hand. We found that slope estimates were distorted by hyperstereopsis, but to a much lesser degree than predicted by disparity magnification. The distortion was almost completely eliminated when motion parallax was present.

  1. A Vehicle-mounted Crop Detector with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjiang ZHONG


    Full Text Available In order to detect crop chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detector for measuring crop canopy spectral characteristics was developed. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with several optical sensor nodes and one control unit. All the optical sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that they could collect the canopy spectral data while in mobile condition. Each optical sensor node was designed to contain four optical channels, which allowed it work at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766 and 850 nm. The control unit included a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator and a GPRS module. It was used to receive, display, store all the data sent from optical sensor nodes and send data to the server through GPRS module. The calibration tests verified the stability of the wireless network and the measurement precision of the sensors. Both stationary and moving field experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental field. Results showed that the correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index had high significance with the highest R2 of 0.6824. Those results showed the potential of the detector for field application.

  2. Diagnosis of pulmonary pneumocystosis by microscopy on wet mount preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAVA Amadeo Javier


    Full Text Available We have compared the searching of the presence of "honeycomb" structures by direct microscopy on wet mount preparations with the direct immunofluorescence (DIF for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP in 115 bronchoalveolar (BAL fluids. The samples belonged to 115 AIDS patients; 87 with presumptive diagnosis of PCP and 28 with presumptive diagnosis other than PCP. The obtained results were coincident in 114 out of 115 studied samples (27 were positive and 87 negative with both techniques. A higher percentage of positive results (32.18% among patients with presumptive diagnosis of PCP with respect to those with presumptive diagnosis other than PCP (3.57% was observed. One BAL fluid was positive only with DIF, showed scarce and isolated P. carinii elements and absence of typical "honeycomb" structures. The searching for "honeycomb" structures by direct microscopy on wet mount preparations could be considered as a cheap and rapid alternative for diagnosis of PCP when other techniques are not available or as screening test for DIF. This method showed a sensitivity close to DIF when it was applied to BAL fluids of AIDS patients with poor clinical condition and it was performed by an experienced microscopist.

  3. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften


    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  4. Community Exposure to Lahar Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Soulard, Christopher E.


    Geologic evidence of past events and inundation modeling of potential events suggest that lahars associated with Mount Rainier, Washington, are significant threats to downstream development. To mitigate potential impacts of future lahars and educate at-risk populations, officials need to understand how communities are vulnerable to these fast-moving debris flows and which individuals and communities may need assistance in preparing for and responding to an event. To support local risk-reduction planning for future Mount Rainier lahars, this study documents the variations among communities in King, Lewis, Pierce, and Thurston Counties in the amount and types of developed land, human populations, economic assets, and critical facilities in a lahar-hazard zone. The lahar-hazard zone in this study is based on the behavior of the Electron Mudflow, a lahar that traveled along the Puyallup River approximately 500 years ago and was due to a slope failure on the west flank of Mount Rainier. This lahar-hazard zone contains 78,049 residents, of which 11 percent are more than 65 years in age, 21 percent do not live in cities or unincorporated towns, and 39 percent of the households are renter occupied. The lahar-hazard zone contains 59,678 employees (4 percent of the four-county labor force) at 3,890 businesses that generate $16 billion in annual sales (4 and 7 percent, respectively, of totals in the four-county area) and tax parcels with a combined total value of $8.8 billion (2 percent of the study-area total). Employees in the lahar-hazard zone are primarily in businesses related to manufacturing, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, wholesale trade, and construction. Key road and rail corridors for the region are in the lahar-hazard zone, which could result in significant indirect economic losses for businesses that rely on these networks, such as the Port of Tacoma. Although occupancy values are not known for each site, the lahar-hazard zone contains numerous

  5. Topology-optimization-based design method of flexures for mounting the primary mirror of a large-aperture space telescope. (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao


    For the development of a large-aperture space telescope, one of the key techniques is the method for designing the flexures for mounting the primary mirror, as the flexures are the key components. In this paper, a topology-optimization-based method for designing flexures is presented. The structural performances of the mirror system under multiple load conditions, including static gravity and thermal loads, as well as the dynamic vibration, are considered. The mirror surface shape error caused by gravity and the thermal effect is treated as the objective function, and the first-order natural frequency of the mirror structural system is taken as the constraint. The pattern repetition constraint is added, which can ensure symmetrical material distribution. The topology optimization model for flexure design is established. The substructuring method is also used to condense the degrees of freedom (DOF) of all the nodes of the mirror system, except for the nodes that are linked to the mounting flexures, to reduce the computation effort during the optimization iteration process. A potential optimized configuration is achieved by solving the optimization model and post-processing. A detailed shape optimization is subsequently conducted to optimize its dimension parameters. Our optimization method deduces new mounting structures that significantly enhance the optical performance of the mirror system compared to the traditional methods, which only focus on the parameters of existing structures. Design results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  6. Opto-Mechanics of the Constellation-X SXT Mirrors: Challenges in Mounting and Assembling the Mirror Segments (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, WIlliam W.; Saha, Timo; Lehan, John P.; Mazzarella, James; Lozipone, Lawrence; Hong, Melinda; Byron, Glenn


    The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescopes consists of segmented glass mirrors with an axial length of 200 mm, a width of up to 400 mm, and a thickness of 0.4 mm. To meet the requirement of less than 15 arc-second half-power diameter with the small thickness and relatively large size is a tremendous challenge in opto-mechanics. How shall we limit distortion of the mirrors due to gravity in ground tests, that arises from thermal stress, and that occurs in the process of mounting, affixing and assembling of these mirrors? In this paper, we will describe our current opto-mechanical approach to these problems. We will discuss, in particular, the approach and experiment where the mirrors are mounted vertically by first suspending it at two points.

  7. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps (United States)

    Allen, S. K.; Schneider, D.; Owens, I. F.


    Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems and flow path modelling are integrated here to explore the extent of ice avalanche, debris flow and lake flood hazard potential in the Mount Cook region. Numerous proglacial lakes have formed during recent decades, but well vegetated, low gradient outlet areas suggest catastrophic dam failure and flooding is unlikely. However, potential impacts from incoming mass movements of ice, debris or rock could lead to dam overtopping, particularly where lakes are forming directly beneath steep slopes. Physically based numerical modeling with RAMMS was introduced for local scale analyses of rock avalanche events, and was shown to be a useful tool for establishing accurate flow path dynamics and estimating potential event magnitudes. Potential debris flows originating from steep moraine and talus slopes can reach road and built infrastructure when worst-case runout distances are considered, while potential effects from ice avalanches are limited to walking tracks and alpine huts located in close proximity to initiation zones of steep ice. Further local scale studies of these processes are required, leading towards a full hazard assessment, and changing glacial conditions over coming decades will necessitate ongoing monitoring and reassessment of initiation zones and potential impacts.

  8. Recent Activity of Glaciers of Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Sigafoos, Robert S.; Hendricks, E.L.


    Knowing the ages of trees growing on recent moraines at Mount Rainier, Wash., permits the moraines to be dated. Moraines which are ridges of boulders, gravel, sand, and dust deposited at the margins of a glacier, mark former limits of a receding glacier. Knowing past glacial activity aids our understanding of past climatic variations. The report documents the ages of moraines deposited by eight glaciers. Aerial photographs and planimetric maps show areas where detailed field studies were made below seven glaciers. Moraines, past ice positions, and sample areas are plotted on the photographs and maps, along with trails, roads, streams, and landforms, to permit critical areas to be identified in the future. Ground photographs are included so that sample sites and easily accessible moraines can be found along trails. Tables present data about trees sampled in areas near the glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash. The data in the tables show there are modern moraines of different age around the mountain; some valleys contain only one modern moraiine; others contain as many as nine. The evidence indicates a sequence of modern glacial advances terminating at about the following A.D. dates: 1525, 1550, 1625-60, 1715, 1730-65, 1820-60, 1875, and 1910. Nisqually River valley near Nisqually Glacier contains one moraine formed before A.D. 1842; Tahoma Creek valley near South Tahoma Glacier contains three moraines formed before A.D. 1528; 1843, and 1864; South Puyallup River valley near Tahoma Glacier, six moraines A.D. 1544, 1761, 1841, 1851, 1863, 1898; Puyallup Glacier, one moraine, A.D. 1846; Carbon Glacier, four moraines, 1519, 1763, 1847, 1876; Winthrop Glacier, four moraines, 1655, 1716, 1760, amid 1822; Emmons Glacier, nine moraines, 1596, 1613, 1661, 1738, 1825, 1850, 1865, 1870, 1901; and Ohanapecosh Glacier, three moraines, 1741, 1846, and 1878. Abandoned melt-water and flood channels were identified within moraine complexes below three glaciers, and their time of

  9. A study on the effect of ageing and intermetallic compound growth on the shear strength of surface mount technology solder joints


    Nath, Jyotishman; Mallik, Sabuj; Bora, Anil


    The effect of ageing and intermetallic compound formation on the surface mount solder joints and its shear strength behavior under extreme mechanical and thermal conditions have been discussed in this paper. The specimens used are solder paste (Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu), bench marker II printed circuit boards (PCB), resistors 1206 and the fabrication of solder joints makes use of conventional surface mount technology (SMT). Reflow process was carried out at a peak temperature of 250 °C and the test sampl...

  10. Parallel optical interconnect between surface-mounted devices on FR4 printed wiring board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments (United States)

    Karppinen, Mikko; Alajoki, Teemu; Tanskanen, Antti; Kataja, Kari; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Karioja, Pentti; Immonen, Marika; Kivilahti, Jorma


    Technologies to design and fabricate high-bit-rate chip-to-chip optical interconnects on printed wiring boards (PWB) are studied. The aim is to interconnect surface-mounted component packages or modules using board-embedded optical waveguides. In order to demonstrate the developed technologies, a parallel optical interconnect was integrated on a standard FR4-based PWB. It consists of 4-channel BGA-mounted transmitter and receiver modules as well as of four polymer multimode waveguides fabricated on top of the PWB using lithographic patterning. The transmitters and receivers built on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates include flip-chip mounted VCSEL or photodiode array and 4x10 Gb/s driver or receiver IC. Two microlens arrays and a surface-mounted micro-mirror enable optical coupling between the optoelectronic device and the waveguide array. The optical alignment is based on the marks and structures fabricated in both the LTCC and optical waveguide processes. The structures were optimized and studied by the use of optical tolerance analyses based on ray tracing. The characterized optical alignment tolerances are in the limits of the accuracy of the surface-mount technology.

  11. Surficial extent and conceptual model of hydrothermal system at Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Frank, David


    A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly destructive manner about 5000 years ago. Today, hydrothermal processes are depositing clayey alteration products that have the potential to reset the stage for similar events in the future. Areas of active hydrothermal alteration occur in three representative settings: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m 2) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82 °C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit, where alteration products include smectite, halloysite and disordered kaolinite, cristobalite, tridymite, opal, alunite, gibbsite, and calcite. (2) A small area (less than 500 m 2) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60 °C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver with smectite alteration and chalcedony, tridymite, and opal-A encrustations. Similar areas probably occur at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls. (3) Sulfate- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs at 9-24 °C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers, where calcite, opal-A, and gypsum are being deposited. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers. Maximum spring temperatures of 19-25 °C and 38-50 °C, respectively, and extensive travertine deposits have developed in these more distant localities. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration minerals and fluids suggest a conceptual model of a narrow, central hydrothermal system within Mount Rainier, with steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 km of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is marked by discharge of

  12. Practical low-cost stereo head-mounted display (United States)

    Pausch, Randy; Dwivedi, Pramod; Long, Allan C., Jr.


    A high-resolution head-mounted display has been developed from substantially cheaper components than previous systems. Monochrome displays provide 720 by 280 monochrome pixels to each eye in a one-inch-square region positioned approximately one inch from each eye. The display hardware is the Private Eye, manufactured by Reflection Technologies, Inc. The tracking system uses the Polhemus Isotrak, providing (x,y,z, azimuth, elevation and roll) information on the user''s head position and orientation 60 times per second. In combination with a modified Nintendo Power Glove, this system provides a full-functionality virtual reality/simulation system. Using two host 80386 computers, real-time wire frame images can be produced. Other virtual reality systems require roughly 250,000 in hardware, while this one requires only 5,000. Stereo is particularly useful for this system because shading or occlusion cannot be used as depth cues.

  13. Physiological motion modeling for organ-mounted robots. (United States)

    Wood, Nathan A; Schwartzman, David; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N


    Organ-mounted robots passively compensate heartbeat and respiratory motion. In model-guided procedures, this motion can be a significant source of information that can be used to aid in localization or to add dynamic information to static preoperative maps. Models for estimating periodic motion are proposed for both position and orientation. These models are then tested on animal data and optimal orders are identified. Finally, methods for online identification are demonstrated. Models using exponential coordinates and Euler-angle parameterizations are as accurate as models using quaternion representations, yet require a quarter fewer parameters. Models which incorporate more than four cardiac or three respiration harmonics are no more accurate. Finally, online methods estimate model parameters as accurately as offline methods within three respiration cycles. These methods provide a complete framework for accurately modelling the periodic deformation of points anywhere on the surface of the heart in a closed chest. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof (United States)

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C


    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  15. Diagenetic Crystal Clusters and Dendrites, Lower Mount Sharp, Gale Crater (United States)

    Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R.; Van Beek, J.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Thompson, L.; Wiens, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Farmer, J.; Minitti, M.; hide


    Since approximately Sol 753 (to sol 840+) the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover has been investigating the Pahrump locality. Mapping of HiRise images suggests that the Pahrup locality represents the first occurrence of strata associated with basal Mount Sharp. Considerable efforts have been made to document the Pahrump locality in detail, in order to constrain both depositional and diagenetic facies. The Pahrump succession consists of approximately 13 meters of recessive-weathering mudstone interbedded with thin (decimeter-scale) intervals of more erosionally resistant mudstone, and crossbedded sandstone in the upper stratigraphic levels. Mudstone textures vary from massive, to poorly laminated, to well-laminated. Here we investigate the distribution and structure of unusual diagenetic features that occur in the lowermost portion of the Pahrump section. These diagenetic features consist of three dimensional crystal clusters and dendrites that are erosionally resistant with respect to the host rock.

  16. The Mount Wilson Optical Shop during the Second World War (United States)

    Abrahams, P.


    During the Second World War, the Optical Shop of Mount Wilson Observatory, located in Pasadena, engaged in a variety of exacting and pioneering ventures in optical design and fabrication. Roof prisms for military optics were produced on a large scale, leading to the production of an instruction manual, for guidance in other workshops. Triple mirrors, or autocollimating corner cubes, were another precision part made in large numbers. Aerial photography was extensively developed. Test procedures for measuring resolution of lenses were researched. Various camera shutters and film sweep mechanisms were devised. The most significant work concerned Schmidt cameras, for possible use in night-time aerial photography. Variations included a solid Schmidt, and the Schmidt Cassegrain, which was fabricated for the first time at MWO. Key figures include Don Hendrix, Roger Hayward, Aden Meinel, and Walter Adams.

  17. Plants Biodiversity of Jobolarangan Forest Mount Lawu: 2. Spermatophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to make: (1 a list of Spermatophyte plants at Jobolarangan forest in mount Lawu, and (2 the ecological and the economical benefits of the plants. All Spermatophyte plants on the forest were studied. The research procedures were including species collection in the field, make up herbaria, morphological observations in the laboratory, and interview to residents and government administrations. The results showed that in the forest were found 142 species Spermatophyte plants, in which 126 species of 54 family were identified, consisting of 78 species of herbs, 26 species of bushes, and 21 species of trees. Ecological benefits of the plants were hydrological regulation, keep out landslide and erosions etc., however economical benefits of the plants were log, firewood, charcoal, honey bee, medicinal plants, etc.

  18. Post Traumatic Tension Pneumocephalus: The Mount Fuji Sign

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, J


    Pneumocephalus is defined as the presence of intracranial air. This is most commonly secondary to a traumatic head injury. Tension pneumocephalus presents radiologically with compression of the frontal lobes and widening of the interhemispheric space between the frontal lobes. It is often termed the Mount Fuji sign due to a perceived similarity with an iconic mountain peak in Japan. We present the case of a 52-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department shortly before 8am on a Saturday morning following an assault. He was alert and ambulatory with no clinical evidence of raised intracranial pressure. A plain radiograph of the facial bones showed significant pneumocephalus. A later CT was consistent with a tension pneumocephalus which usually necessitates urgent decompression.The patient showed no clinical signs or symptoms of raised intracranial pressure and was managed conservatively. He was discharged home 16 days later with no neurological deficit

  19. Square Van Atta reflector with conducting mounting flame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø


    by transmission lines of equal electrical length. The dipoles are placed in a plane which is parallel to the conducting plate when this is present. In the theory, each pair of antenna elements with the interconnecting transmission line is represented by an equivalent circuit. The mutual impedance between...... the antenna elements and the reradiation from the elements as well as from the conducting plate have been taken into account. The influence of the conducting plate on the induced dipole currents has been treated using the theory of images. The scattering cross section of Van Atta reflectors with or without......A theoretical and numerical analysis of square Van Atta reflectors has been carried out with or without a conducting plate, used for mounting of the antenna elements. The Van Atta reflector investigated has antenna elements which are parallel half-wave dipoles interconnected in pairs...

  20. Mount St. Helens: A 30-year legacy of volcanism (United States)

    Vallance, James W.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Scott, William E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Pierson, Thomas C.


    The spectacular eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 electrified scientists and the public. Photodocumentation of the colossal landslide, directed blast, and ensuing eruption column—which reached as high as 25 kilometers in altitude and lasted for nearly 9 hours—made news worldwide. Reconnaissance of the devastation spurred efforts to understand the power and awe of those moments (Figure 1). The eruption remains a seminal historical event—studying it and its aftermath revolutionized the way scientists approach the field of volcanology. Not only was the eruption spectacular, but also it occurred in daytime, at an accessible volcano, in a country with the resources to transform disaster into scientific opportunity, amid a transformation in digital technology. Lives lost and the impact of the eruption on people and infrastructure downstream and downwind made it imperative for scientists to investigate events and work with communities to lessen losses from future eruptions.

  1. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin


    Light field displays have advantages over traditional stereoscopic head mounted displays, for example, because they can overcome the vergence-accommodation conflict. However, rendering light fields can be a heavy task for computers due to the number of images that have to be rendered. Since much...... of the information of the different images is redundant, we use pixel reprojection from the corner cameras to compute the remaining images in the light field. We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test. In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme...... cases, the reprojection approach is not capable of creating the light field. We conclude that pixel reprojection is a feasible method for rendering light fields as far as quality of perspective and diffuse shading is concerned, but render time needs to be reduced to make the method practical....

  2. Review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) development (United States)

    Shiota, Shigeo; Nakao, Masahiro; Shimizu, Akira


    An overview of the development review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) is presented. Temperature rise tests were conducted on wire wound chip resistors installing them on substrates made of alumina, glass epoxy resin, or polyimide to determine their temperature rise characteristics, and maximum load factors were determined taking substrate heat resisting temperature and solder melting temperature into consideration. Evaluation tests were conducted on the filters' resistance to environments (thermal shock, anti hydroscopicity, thermal stability, loaded life, shock, random vibration, radiation resistance, out gassing), and the subject filters functioned satisfactory with exception of difficulty of conducting the thermal stability test at 125 C which was lower than the temperature specified in the NASDA's (National Space Development Agency of Japan's) specification due to problems of heat resistance of the molding resin material.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setya Dewanta


    Full Text Available This study estimates recreational value of Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi (TNGM – Mount MerapiNational Park in Kaliurang, Yogyakarta with a travel cost method. Since the visitors are not the frequentones, the paper estimates the visitor’s utility using a categorical regression technique. Applyingin-depth interview on visitors from August 1st until August 15th 2009, the results suggest that the utilityfunction for recreation at volcano national park is better estimated using the negative binomialdistribution model. It also finds that the economic value of recreation at volcano national park is Rp222,000, and that the total consumer surplus for recreation national park is Rp 31.2 billion.Keywords: Travel cost valuation, binomial regression model, recreation national park valuationJEL classification numbers: D12, L83

  4. Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mount Deans Pegmatite Field, Eastern Yilgarn Craton/Australia (United States)

    Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard


    , Nb-Ta minerals, lepidolite, petalite and spodumene, the high K/Rb ratios (>200) and low Zn (<140 ppm) and Th (<20 ppm) contents, indicate that the pegmatites in the Mount Deans area belong to the muscovite-rare element class of the LCT family. Therefore the Mount Deans pegmatite field only posses a limited potential to host significant amounts of rare elements. However, the observation of type I pegmatites that are crosscut by type II pegmatites, the high amount of lepidolite in type II and the observation of lepidolite replacement structures in type I are evidences for a two stage development during pegmatite formation. Also poorly understood at present, the process that leads to the formation of type II pegmatites is considered to be associated with a major element mobilization that could lead to a local enrichment of elements to an economic level and therefore should be the focus of future studies.

  5. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian


    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  6. Sustainability and vulnerability: Understanding the anomaly from disaster perspectives. Case study: Glagaharjo Village in Mount Merapi (United States)

    Depari, C. D. A.


    In its concern for human safety, the Government’s policy to relocate those living in disaster prone areas is twofold: it is perceptibly profound yet socially cataclysmic. This anomaly, created by the contradiction between the need for sustainability and the fact of vulnerability, could be found in the case of Mount Merapi. Communities living in the hazardous zone of Merapi, particularly those in Glagaharjo Village, are acknowledged for their persistent rejection of relocation programs despite their high exposure to the catastrophic impacts of eruptions. To mitigate the impacts, a safe and conducive dwelling place which considers the characteristics of these affected communities must be encouraged. This research adopts a consensus method towards responses obtained through a Likert scale-questionnaire and measured with a statistical program. Prior this process, theoretical reviews toward the concept of place attachment, place dependence and place identity was established in order to determine the research variables for the questionnaire.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.


    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  8. Mapping a Volcano Hazard Area of Mount Sinabung Using Drone: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Tarigan, A. P. M.; Suwardhi, D.; Fajri, M. N.; Fahmi, F.


    Mount Sinabung is still active since its first eruption in 2010 and has been declared as national disaster. The persistent eruptions afterward have been lively and affected severely the surrounding villages located within the 5 km from its crater. The purpose of this study is to explore drone technology and its applicability in mapping a volcanic hazard area. The first essential step in this study is to have a well-defined mission flight in order to acquire air photos that can be processed in the subsequent procedures. The following steps including geometry correction and photos stitching were conducted automatically using proper software. It is found that the resulting photo mosaic and 3D map can be obtained in effective and efficient manner and several important interpretations can be made from them.

  9. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China. (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian


    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  10. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform (United States)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison


    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). Scanning data mapped the canopy heights and widths, and detected cotton bolls.

  11. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Shin


    Full Text Available This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship 's hull. Optimal design specifications are determined through experimental analysis. The detailed design of the hybrid mount is determined through several design steps with electromagnetic numerical analysis using Maxwell Software(S/W. The hybrid mount that combines a rubber mount and an electromagnetic actuator has a fail-safe function for shock resistance. The mount is fabricated and tested using a universal testing machine to evaluate the design specifications. Finally, numerical simulation of the hybrid mount is performed to confirm control performance and applicability.

  12. A full-color SXGA TN AMLCD for military head-mounted displays and viewer applications (United States)

    Woodard, Ollie; Lo, Jason; Khandaker, Murshed; Gassel, John; Herrmann, Frederick; Ong, Hiap; Tsaur, Bor Yeu; Reese, Colin


    We report progress in developing a 0.97-in diagonal AMLCD with a full color SXGA resolution. A 1280×1024×3 dot array was developed with integrated color pixel filters to create an SXGA color pixel array. These displays are fabricated on 8-inch SOI wafers and transferred to glass wafers to produce transmissive liquid crystal displays. Improvements have been made in this AMLCD to bring the fabrication process to manufacturing. Fabricating a 3.9 million pixel dot display on a 1-inch die required a new display design and fabrication in an 8-inch wafer line. The 8-inch process provided enhanced process capabilities and tighter design rules to achieve good performance and reasonable starting yields. An ASIC driver and ultra thin efficient backlight were developed to miniaturize the display module and to reduce total power to < 750mW for soldier mounted applications. Total package size is less than 0.5 in 3. The ASIC will also drive Kopin SVGA and VGA color displays singly or in pairs for binocular applications. An end-to-end 8-inch wafer process was established at the wafer foundry and at Kopin. A 3-year manufacturing technology insertion program (Mantech) has begun to optimize the 8-inch line processes and the SXGA color display. Meeting yield and performance goals will reduce display cost and enable systems performance goals. Key results include vivid, high-resolution color, wide viewing angles and low power operation. Performance data and specifications will be presented.

  13. CMS ECAL Endcap (EE) Dee Assembly - SC mounting on Dee 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Cockerill, D


    Protection panels on back of Dee 1, Completion of SC mounting, 03/10/2007: Completion of SC mounting (aart from the inner 3-2-1)on the first quadrant of Dee 1 and subsequent survey. 22-28/08/2007: The first supercrystals on Dee1, Dee1 in 867 with the first column of SCs ready for mounting, Dee1 with its protection panels over the laser monitoring fibre system

  14. Failure of the merger of the Mount Sinai and New York University hospitals and medical schools: part 1. (United States)

    Kastor, John A


    This is the first of two articles in this issue of Academic Medicine that, together, report the author's findings from his study of the attempts by the leaders of Mount Sinai and New York University (NYU) academic health centers in New York City to merge their medical schools and hospitals, and the failure of those attempts. The contemporary and predicted effects of managed care, capitation, and the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 were major factors stimulating this and other mergers at academic health centers. The hospital executives and board members also anticipated saving significant amounts of money by consolidating back-office functions and clinical services. The leadership at Mount Sinai were the most enthusiastic proponents of the merger. At NYU, many trustees feared that their hospital, which was generating a surplus when the merger was being planned, and its medical school, which operated at a deficit and was dependent on hospital earnings, would, in time, drain the university's endowment if the merger took place. Accordingly, some of the leading trustees favored separating its hospital and medical school from the university and consigning them to a new company with Mount Sinai. Influential members of the NYU faculty strongly opposed this. The attempt to create a merged entity of the hospitals and medical schools failed after several frustrating months of interinstitutional negotiations. The trustees and executives then attempted to develop a merger of only the hospitals; that process is described in the companion article in this issue of Academic Medicine.

  15. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.


    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  16. Multi-objective optimal design of magnetorheological engine mount based on an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Duan, Xuwei; Deng, Zhaoxue; Li, Yinong


    A novel flow-mode magneto-rheological (MR) engine mount integrated a diaphragm de-coupler and the spoiler plate is designed and developed to isolate engine and the transmission from the chassis in a wide frequency range and overcome the stiffness in high frequency. A lumped parameter model of the MR engine mount in single degree of freedom system is further developed based on bond graph method to predict the performance of the MR engine mount accurately. The optimization mathematical model is established to minimize the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed. In this mathematical model, the lumped parameters are considered as design variables. The maximum of force transmissibility and the corresponding frequency in low frequency range as well as individual lumped parameter are limited as constraints. The multiple interval sensitivity analysis method is developed to select the optimized variables and improve the efficiency of optimization process. An improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. The synthesized distance between the individual in Pareto set and the individual in possible set in engineering is defined and calculated. A set of real design parameters is thus obtained by the internal relationship between the optimal lumped parameters and practical design parameters for the MR engine mount. The program flowchart for the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is given. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in minimizing the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed.

  17. Precursor slope distress leading up to the 2010 Mount Meager landslide, British Columbia (United States)

    Roberti, Gioachino; Ward, Brent; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Friele, Pierre; Clague, John; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco


    Volcanoes are highly prone to landslides, in part due to erosion of the flanks by glaciers and streams. Mount Meager (British Columbia, Canada) is a glacier-clad volcano that is one of the most landslide-prone areas in Canada, due in part to glacial erosion. In 2010, the south flank of the volcano failed catastrophically, generating one of the largest (˜50 x 106 m 3) landslides in Canadian history. We document the evolution of the edifice up to the time of this failure using an archive of historic aerial photographs spanning the period from 1948 to 2006. Oblique digital photos taken after the landslide yielded information on the geology and internal structure of the volcano. All photos were processed with Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. We used the SfM products to produce pre-and post-failure geomorphic maps that document glacier and edifice changes. The maps show that a glacier below the 2010 landslide source area re-advanced in the 1980s, then rapidly retreated up to the present. Our photographic reconstruction documents 60 years of progressive development of tension cracks, bulging, and precursor failures (1998, 2009) at the toe of the 2010 failure zone. The final 2010 collapse was conditioned by glacial debuttressing and triggered by hot summer weather accompanied by ice and snow melt. Meltwater increased porewater pressures in fragmented and fractured material at the base of the 2010 failure zone, causing it to mobilize, which in turn triggered several secondary failures controlled by lithology and faults. The landslide retrogressed from the base of the slope to near the peak of Mount Meager and involved basement rock and the overlying volcanic sequence. Elsewhere on the flanks of Mount Meager, large fractures have developed in recently deglaciated areas, conditioning these slopes for collapse and debris avalanches. Potential failures in these areas have larger volumes than the 2010 landslide. Atmospheric warming over the next several decades will

  18. Vibration measurements of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope mount, Coudé rotator, and enclosure assemblies (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.


    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, with a 4-meter off-axis primary mirror and 16 meter rotating Coudé laboratory within the telescope pier. The off-axis design requires a mount similar to an 8-meter on-axis telescope. Both the telescope mount and the Coudé laboratory utilize a roller bearing technology in place of the more commonly used hydrostatic bearings. The telescope enclosure utilizes a crawler mechanism for the altitude axis. As these mechanisms have not previously been used in a telescope, understanding the vibration characteristics and the potential impact on the telescope image is important. This paper presents the methodology used to perform jitter measurements of the enclosure and the mount bearings and servo system in a high-noise environment utilizing seismic accelerometers and high dynamic-range data acquisition equipment, along with digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Data acquisition and signal processing were implemented in MATLAB. In the factory acceptance testing of the telescope mount, multiple accelerometers were strategically located to capture the six axes-of-motion of the primary and secondary mirror dummies. The optical sensitivity analysis was used to map these mirror mount displacements and rotations into units of image motion on the focal plane. Similarly, tests were done with the Coudé rotator, treating the entire rotating instrument lab as a rigid body. Testing was performed by recording accelerometer data while the telescope control system performed tracking operations typical of various observing scenarios. The analysis of the accelerometer data utilized noise-averaging fast Fourier transform (FFT) routines, spectrograms, and periodograms. To achieve adequate dynamic range at frequencies as low as 3Hz, the use of special filters and advanced windowing functions were necessary. Numerous identical automated tests were compared to identify and select the data sets

  19. The eddy performance: Contemporary ethnography of Mount Tlaloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Fernández, David


    Full Text Available Mount Tlaloc was a very important religious place in the prehispanic age: it was the place where request ceremonies for rain took place on the Mexica Empire. This is the reason for the increasing interest in this place among archaeologists and ethnohistorians. However, systematic ethnography in the region is almost inexistent and the accurate meaning of the offerings and rituals which are still being carried out nowadays is unknown. The article shows the conclusions of a long fieldwork on the region which describes a therapeutic ceremony where the offering consists in the performing of an eddy —an identification with the water spirits to copy their behavior. Such eddy is related to another array of offerings which includes the donation of seeds or their smell as food. With the analysis of the ritual, the complex contemporary cosmology is explored showing a link between Mount Tlaloc and the local irrigation system: their irrigation channels and the springs are a whole from a conceptual and geographic point of view.

    El Monte Tláloc constituyó un importante sitio ceremonial regional en la época prehispánica: era el lugar en el que se realizaban los ritos petitorios de lluvia del Imperio mexica. Por ello ha despertado el interés creciente de arqueólogos y etnohistoriadores. Sin embargo, la etnografía sistemática de la zona es prácticamente inexistente, al grado de que desconocemos exactamente el sentido de las ofrendas y los rituales que continúan realizándose allí. En este sentido, el artículo presenta las conclusiones de un prolongado trabajo de campo en el área y describe un rito terapéutico en el que la ofrenda es la teatralización de un «remolino actuado», es decir, una identificación con los espíritus del agua por el recurso de imitar sus acciones. Dicho remolino se asocia también con otra variedad de ofrendas que incluyen la donación de semillas o sus aromas como alimento. A partir de un análisis del rito se

  20. Continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures at Mount Etna (Italy) (United States)

    Madonia, Paolo; Rizzo, Andrea L.; Diliberto, Iole S.; Favara, Rocco


    In this paper we present the first data of temperature continuously recorded in two fumarole fields (designated VOR and HOR) located in the summit area of Mount Etna volcano (Italy). The time series embraces two distinct periods: (1) October 2007 to November 2009, during which an effusive eruption occurred from May 2008 to July 2009, and (2) November 2011 to June 2012, characterized by the occurrence of strong paroxysms (fire fountains and lava flow). The analysis of the temperature signal in both the time and frequency domains, and its comparison with meteorological observations allowed us to separate the exogenous influences from the effects of variations in the activity state of the volcano. The acquired data were weakly affected by seasonal cycles of the air temperature and strongly affected by the rainfall. Optimization of site conditions (i.e., sensor depth and soil permeability) markedly reduced meteorological disturbances. The distance from the main degassing and/or eruptive fractures was crucial to maximizing the probability of the technical survival of the monitoring apparatus, which was seriously affected by the emission of acidic gases, tephra fallout, and lava flows. Apart from the exogenous influences, the most appreciable variation was observed at VOR, where a huge increase in fumarole temperature was detected immediately after the onset of the 2008-2009 eruption. Such an anomalous increase was attributed to the rapid ascent of magma feeding the eruptive fracture. Another abrupt increase in temperature was recorded at HOR in March and April 2012. During this period the frequency of paroxysm occurrence increased markedly, and this led us to hypothesize that the thermal anomaly was due to the intrusion of a new batch of magma in the conduits of the southeast crater. Medium- to long-term monitoring (weeks to months) of fumarole temperatures revealed variations that were attributed to pressurization/depressurization phases of the shallow volcanic system

  1. Depositional and diagenetic variability within the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone: Implications for carbon dioxide sequestration (United States)

    Bowen, B.B.; Ochoa, R.I.; Wilkens, N.D.; Brophy, J.; Lovell, T.R.; Fischietto, N.; Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.


    The Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is the major target reservoir for ongoing geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations throughout the midwest United States. The potential CO2 reservoir capacity, reactivity, and ultimate fate of injected CO2 depend on textural and compositional properties determined by depositional and diagenetic histories that vary vertically and laterally across the formation. Effective and efficient prediction and use of the available pore space requires detailed knowledge of the depositional and diagenetic textures and mineralogy, how these variables control the petrophysical character of the reservoir, and how they vary spatially. Here, we summarize the reservoir characteristics of the Mount Simon Sandstone based on examination of geophysical logs, cores, cuttings, and analysis of more than 150 thin sections. These samples represent different parts of the formation and depth ranges of more than 9000 ft (>2743 m) across the Illinois Basin and surrounding areas. This work demonstrates that overall reservoir quality and, specifically, porosity do not exhibit a simple relationship with depth, but vary both laterally and with depth because of changes in the primary depositional facies, framework composition (i.e., feldspar concentration), and diverse diagenetic modifications. Diagenetic processes that have been significant in modifying the reservoir include formation of iron oxide grain coatings, chemical compaction, feldspar precipitation and dissolution, multiple generations of quartz overgrowth cementation, clay mineral precipitation, and iron oxide cementation. These variables provide important inputs for calculating CO2 capacity potential, modeling reactivity, and are also an important baseline for comparisons after CO2 injection. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  2. Magma Intrusion at Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Temporal Gravity Variations (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Lisowski, Mike; Dzursin, Dan; Poland, Mike; Schilling, Steve; Diefenbach, Angie; Wynn, Jeff


    Mount St. Helens is a stratovolcano in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, best known for its explosive eruption in May 1980 - deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in US history. Volcanic activity renewed in September 2004 with a dome forming eruption that lasted until 2008. This eruption was surprising because the preceding four years had seen the fewest earthquakes and no significant deformation since the 1980-86 eruption ended. After the dome forming eruption ended in July 2008, the volcano seismic activity and deformation went back to background values. Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. A high-precision gravity monitoring network (referenced to a base station 36 km NW of the volcano) was set up at Mount St Helens in 2010. Measurements were made at 12 sites on the volcano (at altitudes between 1200 and 2350 m a.s.l.) and 4 sites far afield during the summers of 2010, 2012, and 2014. The repeated gravity measurements revealed an increase in gravity between 2010 and 2014. Positive residual gravity anomalies remained after accounting for changes in surface height, in the Crater Glacier, and in the shallow hydrothermal aquifer. The pattern of residual gravity changes, with a maximum of 57±12 μGal from 2010 to 2014, is radially symmetric and centered on the 2004-08 lava dome. Inversion of the residual gravity signal points to a source 2.5-4 km beneath the crater floor (i.e., in the magma conduit that fed eruptions in 1980-86 and 2004-08). We attribute the gravity increase to re-inflation of the magma plumbing system following the 2004-8 eruption. Recent seismic activity (e.g., the seismic swarm of March 2016) has been interpreted as a response to the slow recharging of the volcano magma chamber.

  3. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues (United States)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina


    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  4. Implicit LES of Flow Over Wall-Mounted Hump (United States)

    Sekhar, Susheel; Mansour, Nagi; Sekhar/Mansour Team


    Implicit LES of turbulent flow over wall-mounted hump is conducted to understand the physics of separated flows, and to provide data for RANS modeling and development. A modified version of the FDL3DI code that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using high-order compact difference scheme and filter, and the standard recycling/rescaling method for generating a fully developed turbulent boundary layer at the inlet, is used. A mean velocity profile with Reθ = 1 , 400 is imposed at the inlet. Qualitative assessment shows that the separation bubble is comparable in size with experiment. A detailed analysis, including comparisons of mean velocity profiles with experimental data before separation and after reattachment, is made. Quantitative comparisons of Reynolds stress profiles, as well as budgets of Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy are also presented. Physics of the flow post-reattachment is the focus of this study. Results from this effort will be used to further set up simulations at a higher Reynolds number (Reθ = 3 , 500).

  5. Re-development of the Mount Evans Womble Observatory (United States)

    Stencel, Robert E.


    Mount Evans in the Colorado Front Range hosts one of the highest altitude observatories in the USA, at an elevation of 14,148 ft (4,312 m). The observatory is operated under a Forest Service use permit, recently renewed for another 30 years. At times, observing conditions (seeing, water vapor column, etc.) can be as good as anywhere. The existing twin 0.72 m f/21 R-C telescopes are solar powered and internet connected. However, jet stream winds in 2012 destroyed the 15 year old, 22.5 ft diameter Ash dome. The replacement, custom dome design/install was rushed, and suffers from a number of flaws. Given that, plus the aging telescope and operating system, we are planning, and seeking partners and investor funds, to re-develop the facility. Facets of this may include replacing the twin apertures with a single full-aperture telescope for remote operations and sky monitoring, replacing the flawed dome with an innovative dome design, renewable power upgrades, and outreach programs for the many thousands of mountain visitors seasonally. As elsewhere, we are grappling with increases in atmospheric water vapor and out-of-control regional light pollution growth, but believe that the site continues to hold great potential. Interested parties are invited to contact the first author for further information. Website: .

  6. Gaze contingent hologram synthesis for holographic head-mounted display (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Hong, Sunghee; Shin, Choonsung; Kang, Hoonjong


    Development of display and its related technologies provides immersive visual experience with head-mounted-display (HMD). However, most available HMDs provide 3D perception only by stereopsis, lack of accommodation depth cues. Recently, holographic HMD (HHMD) arises as one viable option to resolve this problem because hologram is known to provide full set of depth cues including accommodation. Moreover, by virtue of increasing computational power, hologram synthesis from 3D object represented by point cloud can be calculated in real time even with rigorous Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula. However, in HMD, rapid gaze change of the user requires much faster refresh rate, which means that much faster hologram synthesis is indispensable in HHMD. Because the visual acuity falls off in the visual periphery, we propose here to accelerate synthesizing hologram by differentiating density of point cloud projected on the screen. We classify the screen into multiple layers which are concentric circles with different radii, where the center is aligned with gaze of user. Layer with smaller radius is closer to the region of interest, hence, assigned with higher density of point cloud. Because the computation time is directly related to the number of points in point cloud, we can accelerate synthesizing hologram by lowering density of point cloud in the visual periphery. Cognitive study reveals that user cannot discriminate those degradation in the visual periphery if the parameters are properly designed. Prototype HHMD system will be provided for verifying the feasibility of our method, and detailed design scheme will be discussed.

  7. Legendary Mount Vesuvius is subject of intensive volcanological study (United States)

    Spera, Frank

    The Roman population centers of Pompeii and Herculaneum (circa 15,000 inhabitants) were destroyed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D. after centuries of repose. Many times since then its eruptions have claimed human lives; basaltic lava flows from an eruption in 1631 killed 3,000. Vesuvius' location, near the heart of the Roman empire—a center of learning in the ancient world—led it to become the site ofsome of the earliest volcanological studies on record.In letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger documented the sequence of events of the 79 A.D. plinian eruption. Geophysical studies of volcanoes were pioneered by Italian volcanologists who installed seismographs in an observatory on the flanks of Vesuvius to study volcano seismology and to forecast and monitor eruptions early this century. It is easy to understand why interest in Vesuvius has been so keen: it is accessible, persistently active, and a large population resides nearby. Today, around 1 million people live within the shadow of this potentially explosive and dangerous volcano.

  8. Visualizing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Whole Mount Staining (United States)

    Dun, Xin-peng; Parkinson, David B.


    Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis), in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis) repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries. PMID:25738874

  9. Visualizing peripheral nerve regeneration by whole mount staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-peng Dun

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.

  10. Minimization of number of setups for mounting machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolman, Pavel; Nchor, Dennis; Hampel, David [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Žák, Jaroslav [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)


    The article deals with the problem of minimizing the number of setups for mounting SMT machines. SMT is a device used to assemble components on printed circuit boards (PCB) during the manufacturing of electronics. Each type of PCB has a different set of components, which are obligatory. Components are placed in the SMT tray. The problem consists in the fact that the total number of components used for all products is greater than the size of the tray. Therefore, every change of manufactured product requires a complete change of components in the tray (i.e., a setup change). Currently, the number of setups corresponds to the number of printed circuit board type. Any production change affects the change of setup and stops production on one shift. Many components occur in more products therefore the question arose as to how to deploy the products into groups so as to minimize the number of setups. This would result in a huge increase in efficiency of production.

  11. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu


    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  12. Power curve measurement with a nacelle mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Courtney, Michael


    is tested. A pulsed lidar prototype, measuring horizontally, was installed on the nacelle of a multi-megawatt wind turbine. A met mast with a top-mounted cup anemometer standing at two rotor diameters in front of the turbine was used as a reference. After a data-filtering step, the comparison of the 10 min...... mean wind speed measured by the lidar to that measured by the cup anemometer showed a deviation of about 1.4% on average. The power curve measured with the lidar was very similar to that measured with the cup anemometer although the lidar power curve was slightly distorted because of the deviation...... the wind measured by the mast. Finally, the lidar is never in the wake of the turbine under test contrary to the cup anemometer; therefore, the wind sector usable for power curve measurement was larger than the sector for which the cup anemometer was not disturbed by any obstacle. The power curve obtained...

  13. Body surface mounted biomedical monitoring system using Bluetooth. (United States)

    Nambu, Masayuki


    Continuous monitoring in daily life is important for the health condition control of the elderly. However, portable or wearable devices need to carry by user on their own will. On the other hand, implantation sensors are not adoptable, because of generic users dislike to insert the any object in the body for monitoring. Therefore, another monitoring system of the health condition to carry it easily is necessary. In addition, ID system is necessary even if the subject live with few families. Furthermore, every measurement system should be wireless system, because not to obstruct the daily life of the user. In this paper, we propose the monitoring system, which is mounted on the body surface. This system will not obstruct the action or behavior of user in daily life, because this system attached the body surface on the back of the user. In addition, this system has wireless communication system, using Bluetooth, and acquired data transfer to the outside of the house via the Internet.

  14. Study of Mistletoe in Joben Resort Forest Mount Rinjani Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Dwi Fikriani


    Full Text Available Mistletoes are one group of hemiparasite plants, including the Lorantaceae family that have potential as medicinal. These hemiparasite plants can attack flowering plant (Magnoliophyta and non-floweing plant (Pinophyta, especially on the main stems, branches and twigs. The objective of this research is to identify the species of mistletoe and its hosts, make identification key, descriptions, and to make a distribution map of mistletoe in Joben Resort forest south of Mount Rinjani Lombok. This study is descriptive explorative research with three kinds of collecting sample methods i.e exploration, continous strip sampling, and delenation method. The research found five species of mistletoes are included in three genera i.e Amyema cuernosensis, Amyema enneantha, Amyema tristis, Macrosolen retusus and Scurrula artropurpurea. These five kinds of mistletoe are associated with 23 hosts species of plants, 18 genera from 13 families. The most favorite host of these mistletoes is Ficus septica, and the most agresive mistletoe is Scurrula artropurpurea. The important finding of the research is finding new species or new record of mistletoes. The benefit of these new record or new species is providing new material of new medicinal for treating some diseases such as various cancers.

  15. Position Sensorless Drive o SRM Mounted on Hydraulic Pump Unit (United States)

    Kosaka, Takashi; Nabeya, Yoshinari; Ohyama, Kazunobu; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    Recently, Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM)have been applied to several industrial products such as fans, blowers, pumps and so forth because of their simple construction and relatively high e ciency.As one of the examples, Daikin Industries Ltd.has been successful in manufacturing hydraulic pump unit using 2.2kW three-phase SRM with shaft mounted position sensor for its control. This paper presents the position sensorless drive o the SRM for the purposes of reducing cost and down sizing of the hydraulic pump unit system.The controller, intentionally designed for this special application, realizes the following characteristics;the maximum and minimum speeds are 5000 and 300rpm, the speed response between the maximum and minimum speeds is within 100msec and the starting torque is less than 20% of the rated torque.The experimental studies using the hydraulic pump unit show that the proposed sensorless control scheme satis es the requirements for this application.

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu


    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  17. Energetic and developmental costs of mounting an immune response in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amat, Juan A.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Visser, G. Henk

    It is assumed that there is a trade-off between the costs allocated to mounting an immune defence and those allocated to costly functions such as breeding and moulting. The physiological basis for this is that mounting an immune response to pathogen challenge has energetic and/or nutrient costs

  18. Immersive Eating: Evaluating the Use of Head-Mounted Displays for Mixed Reality Meal sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Bjørner, Thomas


    This paper documents a pilot study evaluating a simple approach allowing users to eat real food while exploring a virtual environment (VE) through a head-mounted display (HMD). Two cameras mounted on the HMD allowed for video-based stereoscopic see-through when the user’s head orientation pointed...

  19. Analysis of the Stress State in Brake Caliper Mounts of Front Motorbike Suspensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Croccolo, D; De Agostinis, M; Olmi, G; Tizzanini, A

    ... than the traditional one and allows using brake discs with a different diameter by simply adding or removing some spacers between the mounts and the caliper. Finally, in radial mounts screws are mainly stressed by axial loads instead of tangential ones. Since it is really difficult to relate the loads to the actual stresses acting on the front motorbike component...

  20. 77 FR 11567 - Notice of Extension of Visitor Services-Mount Rainier National Park (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Extension of Visitor Services--Mount Rainier National Park AGENCY: National..., the National Park Service intends to request an extension of visitor services in Mount Rainier National Park for a period not to exceed one year from the expiration date of the current contract. DATES...

  1. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight...

  2. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in...

  3. Measurement & Minimization of Mount Induced Strain on Double Crystal Monochromator Crystals (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Alcock, S. G.


    Opto-mechanical mounts can cause significant distortions to monochromator crystals and mirrors if not designed or implemented carefully. A slope measuring profiler, the Diamond-NOM [1], was used to measure the change in tangential slope as a function of crystal clamping configuration and load. A three point mount was found to exhibit the lowest surface distortion (Diamond Light Source.

  4. Vertical repositioning accuracy of magnetic mounting systems on 4 articulator models. (United States)

    Lee, Wonsup; Kwon, Ho-Beom


    Research of the ability of a cast mounted on an articulator on maintaining the identical position of a cast mounted on an articulator after repeated repositioning is lacking, despite the possible effects this may have on the occlusion of a mounted cast. The purpose of this in vitro study was to verify and compare the vertical repositioning accuracy of 4 different, commercially available articulator magnetic mounting plate systems. Four articulators and their associated magnetic mounting plates were selected for the study. These were the Artex AR articulator (Amann Girrbach AG), the Denar Mark II articulator (Whip Mix Corp), the Kavo Protar Evo articulator (Kavo Dental GmbH), and the SAM3 articulator (SAM Präzisionstechnik GmbH). Three new magnetic mounting plates were prepared for each articulator system. The repositioning accuracy of each mounting plate was evaluated by comparing the standard deviation of the vertical distances measured between the mounting plate and a laser displacement sensor. The lower arm of the articulator was secured, and the vertical distance was measured by positioning the laser displacement sensor positioned vertically above the mounting plate. Once the vertical distance was measured, the mounting plate was detached from the articulator and reattached manually to prepare for the next measurement. This procedure was repeated 30 times for each of the 3 magnetic mounting plates. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for 2-stage nested design and the Levene test (α=.05). Significant differences were detected among articulator systems and between magnetic mounting plates of the same type. The standard deviations of the measurements made with the Artex AR articulator, Denar Mark II articulator, Kavo Protar Evo articulator, and SAM3 articulator were 0.0027, 0.0308, 0.0214, and 0.0215 mm, respectively. Thus, the repositioning accuracy could be ranked in the order as follows: Artex AR, Kavo Protar Evo, SAM3, and Denar Mark II. The position of the

  5. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry. (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L


    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality.

  6. Infrared vision techniques in quality control of surface-mount circuit board solder paste printing (United States)

    Alander, Jarmo T.; Huusko, Mikko; Karonen, Aimo; Kuusrainen, Jari; Unonius, Lars


    In this work we have applied infrared camera techniques in a prototype of a quality control system for surface mount circuit board solder paste printing. The prototype system consists of a stepper motor controlled conveyor for board transportation and indexing, an infrared camera for paste pad temperature profile recording, a CCD camera for board and pad registration and recording, a pulse heating set-up, a video frame grabber and signal processor unit for preliminary image processing, and a PC for operator control, high level autonomous control and processing of preprocessed infrared and visual image data and communications with the other shop floor information and quality control systems. The operator interface is built on top of Windows 3.1, which makes it easy to operate and to connect to other programs at will. The prototype system was capable to process the locations and areas at over 100 solder paste pads per second speed and to evaluate the volumes of the pads within error tolerance of approximately equals 20%. The most severe obstacle in applying IR techniques in SMT product lines seems to be the current high cost of suitable IR scanning devices. Only slightly modified, the developed infrared quality control and testing system prototype can be used also in other electronics assembly line applications like solder checking and functional checking of boards by monitoring the thermal properties of solders and components correspondingly.

  7. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin


    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  8. From Mount Sinai to Mount Scopus: differences in the role and value of fine needle aspiration for evaluating thyroid nodules. (United States)

    Mazeh, Haggi; Greenstein, Alexander; Swedish, Kristin; Arora, Shalini; Hermon, Hila; Ariel, Ilana; Divino, Celia; Freund, Herbert R; Weber, Kaare


    Fine needle aspiration is the main diagnostic tool used to assess thyroid nodules. To correlate FNA cytology results with surgical pathological findings in two teaching medical centers across the Atlantic. We retrospectively identified 484 patients at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem and Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, by means of both preoperative FNA cytology and a final histopathological report. Results compared FNA diagnosis, histological findings and frozen section results (Mt. Sinai only). The sensitivity value of FNA at Hadassah was 83.0% compared with 79.1% at Mt. Sinai (NS). Specificity values were 86.6 vs. 98.5% (P Sinai (P Sinai (78.5%) with sensitivity and specificity values of 72.3% and 100%. Frozen section results altered the planned operative course in only 6 patients (2.5%). Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 12 patients at Hadassah vs. 2 patients at Mt. Sinai (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of FNA at the two institutions was comparable. While malignancy on frozen section is highly specific, it should be used selectively for suspicious FNA results. Follicular lesions and the rate of malignancy in such lesions were more common at Hadassah, favoring a more aggressive surgical approach.

  9. Stress tensor computations at Mount St. Helens (1995-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gresta


    Full Text Available Fault plane solutions of 459 events occurring between 1995 and 1998 at Mount St. Helens (State of Washington, Northwest U.S.A. were considered in order to infer the state of stress beneath the volcano. These events occurred in two distinct depth zones. The shallower zone is between 2 and 5.5 km, with shocks clustering in a tight cylindrical distribution about 1 km in radius directly beneath the crater. The deeper events are spread over a larger volume from 5.5 to 10 km depth and surround an aseismic zone below and slightly west of the lava dome. Faulting is characterized by a mixture of strike-slip, reverse and normal faults with maximum compression axes which do not cluster around a single direction. In the deep zone, between 5.5 and 10 km, P axes define a wheel-spoke pattern pointing radially away from the center of the aseismic zone. The 459 fault plane solutions were inverted for stress tensor parameters using the algorithm of Gephart and Forsyth. The inversion of the whole data set revealed that faulting was not produced by a uniform stress distribution. The subdivision of the zone into smaller volumes significantly reduced misfit and confidence areas of the solutions, whereas temporal subdivision of the sample did not lead to significant improvements in terms of stress uniformity. We suggest that the inhomogeneous stress field is consistent with a varying pressure source originating from the inferred crustal magma chamber and a thin conduit extending above it.

  10. Medication Use Among Mount Everest Climbers: Practice and Attitudes. (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; Grissom, Colin; Freer, Luanne; Hackett, Peter


    Luks, Andrew M., Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, and Peter Hackett. Medication use among mount Everest climbers: practice and attitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 17:315-322, 2016.-The lay public, media, and medical experts have expressed concern about the ethics of climbers using medications to improve performance and increase the odds of summit success while climbing at high altitude, but the true incidence of this practice remains unclear. We conducted an anonymous survey of climbers who have attempted to climb Mt. Everest to gather information about medication use and attitudes toward medication and supplemental oxygen use while climbing the mountain. One hundred eighty-seven individuals completed the survey, providing information about medication and oxygen use for 262 expeditions to Mt. Everest between 1963 and 2015, the majority of which occurred after the year 2000. The majority of respondents were male (82%) and from English-speaking countries (75%). Medications were used on 43% of climbs, with acetazolamide being the most commonly used medication. Reported use of dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil, or tadalafil was uncommon as was use of multiple medications at the same time. The majority of respondents indicated that it was acceptable for climbers to use medications and supplemental oxygen to prevent altitude illness while climbing Mt. Everest. Opinions were more mixed regarding whether summiting without the use of medications or oxygen carried the same value as reaching the summit using those interventions. Our data suggest that less than one-half of Mt. Everest climbers use medications during their expedition, with the primary medication used being acetazolamide, for prevention of altitude illness. Given the limitations of the study design and preliminary nature of these data, further research is warranted to further clarify these issues.

  11. Structural analysis of the eruptive fissures at Mount Etna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mazzarini


    Full Text Available Mount Etna produces frequent eruptions from its summit craters and from fissures on its flanks. The flank fissures trend approximately radially to the summit, and are mainly concentrated in three rift zones that are located on the NE, S and W flanks. Many flank eruptions result from lateral magma transfer from the central conduit into fractures intersecting the flanks, although some eruptions are fed through newly formed conduits that are not directly linked to the central conduit. We analyzed the structural features of eruptions from 1900 to the present, one of the most active periods in the documented eruptive history of Etna, which comprised 35 summit and 33 flank events. Except for a small eruption on the W flank in 1974, all of the flank eruptions in this interval occurred on or near the NE and S rifts. Eruptions in the NE sector were generally shorter, but their fissure systems developed more rapidly and were longer than those in the S sector. In contrast, summit eruptions had longer mean durations, but generally lower effusion rates (excluding paroxysmal events characterized by very high effusion rates that lasted only a few hours. This database was examined considering the main parameters (frequency and strike of the eruptive fissures that were active over the last ~2 ka. The distribution in time and space of summit and flank eruptions appears to be closely linked to the dynamics of the unstable E to S flank sector of Etna, which is undergoing periodic displacements induced by subvolcanic magma accumulation and gravitational pull. In this framework, magma accumulation below Etna exerts pressure against the unbuttressed E and S flanks, which have moved away from the rest of the volcano. This has caused an extension to the detachment zones, and has facilitated magma transfer from the central conduit into the flanks.

  12. Cinder cones of Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. SutawIdjaja


    Full Text Available Mount Slamet volcanic field in Central Java, Indonesia, contains thirty five cinder cones within an area of 90 sq. km in the east flank of the volcano. The cinder cones occur singly or in small groups, with diameter of the base ranges from 130 - 750 m and the height is around 250 m. Within the volcanic field, the cinder cones are spread over the volcanic area at the distance of 4 to 14 km from the eruption center of the Slamet Volcano. They are concentrated within latitudes 7°11’00” - 7°16’00” S,, and longitudes 109°15’00” - 109°18’00” E. The density of the cinder cones is about 1.5 cones/km2. Most of the cinder cones lie on the Tertiary sedimentary rocks along the NW-trending fault system and on radial fractures. The structural pattern may be related to the radial faults in this region. The cone surfaces are commonly blanketed by Slamet air-falls and lava flows. The deposits consist of poorly bedded, very coarse-grained, occasionally overlain by oxidized scoria, and large-sized of ballistic bombs and blocks. There are various kind of volcanic bombs originating from scoriae ballistic rock fragments. The other kind of volcanic bombs are breadcrust bomb, almond seed or contorted shape. All of the cinder cones have undergone degradation, which can be observed from the characters of gully density and surface morphology. By using Porter parameters, Hco is equal to 0.25 Wco, whilst Wcr is equal to 0.40 Wco. The Hco/Wco ratio is higher than Hco = 0.2 Wco reference line. A radiometric dating using K-Ar method carried out on a scoria bomb yields the age of 0.042 + 0.020 Ma.  


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat


    Full Text Available The process of urbanization has changed the face of the landscape, not only in urban environments, but it also has expanded the areas around it. The changes in land use are increasing not only occurs in areas formerly categorized a semi-intensive, such as agricultural lands, but also in extensive and protection areas. However, in some periphery still characterizes the function of a good environment; especially in rural areas the changes that occurred were limited to their own needs (subsistence, as in Mount Walat, Sukabumi. This study aims to identify and analyze the tropical agro-forestry efforts and to provide landscape ecological pattern in order to preserve the environment and social culture. The method used in this study was a site survey method with focusing on the biophysical condition of the site and analysis of reports or other sources regarding the management processes undertaken. Mount Walat ± 359 Ha area of forest is guided by land use pattern that is divided into four characters, i.e., forest ecosystem, opened forest, ownership land, and countrified. Its area of ± 70 Ha was managed as agro-forestry land. The form of tropical agro-forestry in the country side around the site consists of yard and mixture garden, while in the arable land is a mixture garden. In order to prevent of destruction, then the manager invites Hegarmanah villagers to cooperate in maintaining its sustainability by allowing land to cultivated in Mount Walat agro-forestry, with the terms agreed by both parties, without damaging the forest ecosystem. The study was suggested that the community structures and developmental pathways which arised across a gradient of disturbance frequencies can provide models for alternative agro-forestry solutions. Addressing multiple objectives and sustainability in a complex biophysical and socioeconomic system ought to be a challenging and exciting enterprises.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadežda Čuboňová


    Full Text Available The article deals with the solution to the problem of holding a scanning device – GoPro camera in the vicinity of milling machine EMCO Concept MILL 105, practical part solves the design and production of the fixture. The proposal of the fixture includes the best placing of the fixture within the milling area. On this basis individual variants of this solution are elaborated. The best variant for holding of the camera was selected and fixture production was experimentally performed on a 3D printer – Easy 3D Maker. Fixture functionality was verified on the milling machine.

  15. A scanning probe mounted on a field-effect transistor: Characterization of ion damage in Si. (United States)

    Shin, Kumjae; Lee, Hoontaek; Sung, Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Hyunjung; Moon, Wonkyu


    We have examined the capabilities of a Tip-On-Gate of Field-Effect Transistor (ToGoFET) probe for characterization of FIB-induced damage in Si surface. A ToGoFET probe is the SPM probe which the Field Effect Transistor(FET) is embedded at the end of a cantilever and a Pt tip was mounted at the gate of FET. The ToGoFET probe can detect the surface electrical properties by measuring source-drain current directly modulated by the charge on the tip. In this study, a Si specimen whose surface was processed with Ga+ ion beam was prepared. Irradiation and implantation with Ga+ ions induce highly localized modifications to the contact potential. The FET embedded on ToGoFET probe detected the surface electric field profile generated by schottky contact between the Pt tip and the sample surface. Experimentally, it was shown that significant differences of electric field due to the contact potential barrier in differently processed specimens were observed using ToGOFET probe. This result shows the potential that the local contact potential difference can be measured by simple working principle with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drainage evolution in the debris avalanche deposits near Mount Saint Helens, Washington (United States)

    Beach, G. L.; Dzurisin, D.


    The 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was initiated by a massive rockslide-debris avalanche which completely transformed the upper 25 km of the North Fork Toutle River valley. The debris was generated by one of the largest gravitational mass movements ever recorded on Earth. Moving at an average velocity of 35 m/s, the debris avalanche buried approximately 60 sq km of terrain to an average depth of 45 m with unconsolidated, poorly sorted volcaniclastic material, all within a period of 10 minutes. Where exposed and unaltered by subsequent lahars and pyroclastic flows, the new terrain surface was characterized predominantly by hummocks, closed depressions, and the absence of an identifiable channel network. Following emplacement of the debris avalanche, a complex interrelationship of fluvial and mass wasting processes immediately began operating to return the impacted area to an equilibrium status through the removal of material (potential energy) and re-establishment of graded conditions. In an attempt to chronicle the morphologic evolution of this unique environmental setting, a systematic series of interpretative maps of several selected areas was produced. These maps, which document the rate and character of active geomorphic processes, are discussed.

  17. GNSS Signal Tracking Performance Improvement for Highly Dynamic Receivers by Gyroscopic Mounting Crystal Oscillator. (United States)

    Abedi, Maryam; Jin, Tian; Sun, Kewen


    In this paper, the efficiency of the gyroscopic mounting method is studied for a highly dynamic GNSS receiver's reference oscillator for reducing signal loss. Analyses are performed separately in two phases, atmospheric and upper atmospheric flights. Results show that the proposed mounting reduces signal loss, especially in parts of the trajectory where its probability is the highest. This reduction effect appears especially for crystal oscillators with a low elevation angle g-sensitivity vector. The gyroscopic mounting influences frequency deviation or jitter caused by dynamic loads on replica carrier and affects the frequency locked loop (FLL) as the dominant tracking loop in highly dynamic GNSS receivers. In terms of steady-state load, the proposed mounting mostly reduces the frequency deviation below the one-sigma threshold of FLL (1σ(FLL)). The mounting method can also reduce the frequency jitter caused by sinusoidal vibrations and reduces the probability of signal loss in parts of the trajectory where the other error sources accompany this vibration load. In the case of random vibration, which is the main disturbance source of FLL, gyroscopic mounting is even able to suppress the disturbances greater than the three-sigma threshold of FLL (3σ(FLL)). In this way, signal tracking performance can be improved by the gyroscopic mounting method for highly dynamic GNSS receivers.

  18. GNSS Signal Tracking Performance Improvement for Highly Dynamic Receivers by Gyroscopic Mounting Crystal Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abedi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the efficiency of the gyroscopic mounting method is studied for a highly dynamic GNSS receiver’s reference oscillator for reducing signal loss. Analyses are performed separately in two phases, atmospheric and upper atmospheric flights. Results show that the proposed mounting reduces signal loss, especially in parts of the trajectory where its probability is the highest. This reduction effect appears especially for crystal oscillators with a low elevation angle g-sensitivity vector. The gyroscopic mounting influences frequency deviation or jitter caused by dynamic loads on replica carrier and affects the frequency locked loop (FLL as the dominant tracking loop in highly dynamic GNSS receivers. In terms of steady-state load, the proposed mounting mostly reduces the frequency deviation below the one-sigma threshold of FLL (1σFLL. The mounting method can also reduce the frequency jitter caused by sinusoidal vibrations and reduces the probability of signal loss in parts of the trajectory where the other error sources accompany this vibration load. In the case of random vibration, which is the main disturbance source of FLL, gyroscopic mounting is even able to suppress the disturbances greater than the three-sigma threshold of FLL (3σFLL. In this way, signal tracking performance can be improved by the gyroscopic mounting method for highly dynamic GNSS receivers.

  19. Prediction of Pressing Quality for Press-Fit Assembly Based on Press-Fit Curve and Maximum Press-Mounting Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo You


    Full Text Available In order to predict pressing quality of precision press-fit assembly, press-fit curves and maximum press-mounting force of press-fit assemblies were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA. The analysis was based on a 3D Solidworks model using the real dimensions of the microparts and the subsequent FEA model that was built using ANSYS Workbench. The press-fit process could thus be simulated on the basis of static structure analysis. To verify the FEA results, experiments were carried out using a press-mounting apparatus. The results show that the press-fit curves obtained by FEA agree closely with the curves obtained using the experimental method. In addition, the maximum press-mounting force calculated by FEA agrees with that obtained by the experimental method, with the maximum deviation being 4.6%, a value that can be tolerated. The comparison shows that the press-fit curve and max press-mounting force calculated by FEA can be used for predicting the pressing quality during precision press-fit assembly.

  20. Implications of Dynamic Pressure Transducer Mounting Variations on Measurements in Pyrotechnic Test Apparatus (United States)

    Dibbern, Andreas; Crisafulli, Jeffrey; Hagopia, Michael; McDougle, Stephen H.; Saulsberry, Regor L.


    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are often difficult to make within small pyrotechnic devices, and transducer mounting difficulties can cause data anomalies that lead to erroneous conclusions. Delayed initial pressure response followed by data ringing has been observed when using miniaturized pressure transducer mounting adapters required to interface transducers to small test chambers. This delayed pressure response and ringing, combined with a high data acquisition rate, has complicated data analysis. This paper compares the output signal characteristics from different pressure transducer mounting options, where the passage distance from the transducer face to the pyrotechnic chamber is varied in length and diameter. By analyzing the data and understating the associated system dynamics, a more realistic understanding of the actual dynamic pressure variations is achieved. Three pressure transducer mounting configurations (elongated, standard, and face/flush mount) were simultaneously tested using NASA standard initiators in closed volume pressure bombs. This paper also presents results of these pressure transducer mounting configurations as a result of a larger NASA Engineering and Safety Center pyrovalve test project. Results from these tests indicate the improved performance of using face/flush mounted pressure transducers in this application. This type of mounting improved initial pressure measurement response time by approximately 19 s over standard adapter mounting, eliminating most of the lag time; provided a near step-function type initial pressure increase; and greatly reduced data ringing in high data acquisition rate systems. The paper goes on to discuss other issues associated with the firing and instrumentation that are important for the tester to understand.

  1. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.


    Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.

  2. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System (United States)


    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  3. A study of the TCAS 2 collision avoidance system mounted on a Boeing 737 aircraft (United States)

    Grandchamp, B.; Burnside, W. D.; Rojas, R. G.


    The purpose of this report is to determine the effects of scattering from major aircraft structures on the TCAS 2 collision avoidance system mounted on a Boeing 737. It is found that the major source of scattering for angles of observation above the horizon is the vertical stabilizer and that its effect may be greatly reduced by mounting the TCAS 2 array close to the nose of the aircraft. In addition, by mounting the array close to the nose, the effects of fuselage blockage on the array patterns at elevation angles below the horizon may be greatly reduced in the forward direction.

  4. The design of a vehicle-mounted test system for the thermal performance of solar collector (United States)

    Wen, S. R.; Wu, X. H.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, W.; Liu, L.; Yan, J. C.


    To increase the test efficiency of thermal performance of solar collector, a vehicle- mounted test system with high automation, simple operation, good mobility and stability is proposed in this paper. By refitting a medium bus, design of mechanical system and test loop, and using PC control technology, we implemented the vehicle-mounted system and realized effective integration between vehicle and test equipment. A number of tests have been done, and the results show that the vehicle-mounted test system has good parameters and performance and can be widely used to provide door-to-door testing services in the field of solar thermal application.

  5. Wood moisture monitoring during log house thermal insulation mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Kotásková


    Full Text Available The current designs of thermal insulation for buildings concentrate on the achievement of the required heat transmission coefficient. However, another factor that cannot be neglected is the assessment of the possible water vapour condensation inside the construction. The aim of the study was to find out whether the designed modification of the cladding structure of an existing log house will or will not lead to a risk of possible water vapour condensation in the walls after an additional thermal insulation mounting. The condensation could result in the increase in moisture of the walls and consequently the constructional timber, which would lead to the reduction of the timber construction strength, wood degradation by biotic factors – wood-destroying insects, mildew or wood-destroying fungi. The main task was to compare the theoretically established values of moisture of the constructional timber with the values measured inside the construction using a specific example of a thermal insulated log house. Three versions of thermal insulation were explored to find the solution of a log house reconstruction which would be the optimum for living purposes. Two versions deal with the cladding structure with the insulation from the interior, the third version deals with an external insulation.In a calculation model the results can be affected to a great degree by input values (boundary conditions. This especially concerns the factor of vapour barrier diffusion resistance, which is entered in accordance with the producer’s specifications; however, its real value can be lower as it depends on the perfectness and correctness of the technological procedure. That is why the study also includes thermal technical calculations of all designed insulation versions in the most unfavourable situation, which includes the degradation of the vapour barrier down to 10% efficiency, i.e. the reduction of the diffusion resistance factor to 10% of the original value

  6. Lower Crustal and Moho Reflections Beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Zelt, C. A.; Creager, K.; Ulberg, C. W.; Schmandt, B.; Hansen, S. M.; Abers, G. A.


    The multi-disciplinary project iMUSH (imaging Magma Under St. Helens) was designed to illuminate the magmatic system beneath Mount St Helens (MSH) from the subducting Juan de Fuca slab to the surface using seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The iMUSH active source experiment consisted of 23 large shots and 6000 seismograph locations. Included in the active-source seismic experiment were 2 dense linear profiles striking NW-SE and NE-SW, each with over 1000 receivers ( 150 m spacing) and 8 shots. Using the 1D average velocity model around MSH determined from travel-time analysis (Kiser et al., 2016, Geology), we have common-midpoint stacked STA/LTA envelope functions from all of the data along the NW-SE profile. A number of bright reflection events in the CMP section show remarkably good correspondence with abrupt velocity changes that were imaged in the 2D travel-time analysis in the mid to lower crust and at the Moho: Reflections appear at 20-25 km depth at the tops of two lower crustal high velocity (Vp > 7.5 km/s) bodies. One of these high velocity bodies is directly beneath MSH. The other is 40 km SE of MSH, under the Indian Heaven volcanic field, a basaltic field last active 9 ka. We have interpreted the high velocity bodies as cumulates from Quaternary or Tertiary volcanism. Separating the two high Vp bodies is a lower velocity column (Vp ≤ 6.5 km/s) dipping to the SE from the midcrust to the Moho. In the CMP section, the Moho reflection is bright under the region of low velocity and dims beneath both of the high velocity lower crustal bodies. Seismicity associated with the 1980 eruption extended from the summit to 20 km depth, stopping just above the bright reflection at the top of the MSH high Vp body. Deep long period events under MSH, often associated with motion of magmatic fluids, cluster at 20-30 km depth along the southeastern edge of the same reflection. This leads us to suggest that lower crustal magmas migrate along the southeastern

  7. Introduction: Mount Pinatubo as a test of climate feedback mechanisms (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    The June 15, 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption was a large but relatively shortlived shock to the Earth's atmosphere. It thus provided an excellent opportunity to study the workings of the climate system, to test climate models, and to examine the impacts of climate change on life. The largest eruption of the 20th Century inspired a large amount of research on the connection between volcanic eruptions and the Earth's atmosphere in the 12 years since that eruption, as exemplified by the chapters in this book. Here several additional examples of our new understanding of these connections are presented. While the global cooling after Pinatubo was not surprising, the observed winter warming over Northern Hemisphere continents in the two winters following the eruption is now understood as a dynamic response to volcanically produced temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere from aerosol heating and ozone depletion, and to reduced tropospheric storminess. Interactions of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of tropical stratospheric winds with the climate system are also now better understood by examining their role in the Pinatubo response. We have more confidence in the sensitivity of climate models used for attribution and projection of anthropogenic effects on climate because the strength of the water vapor feedback has been validated with Pinatubo simulations. The response of the biosphere to the Pinatubo eruption also illustrates its sensitivity to climate change and clarifies portions of the carbon cycle. Death of coral in the Red Sea in the winter of 1991-1992 and an unusually large number of polar bear cubs born in the summer of 1992 were two responses to the characteristic winter and summer temperature responses of the climate system. This strengthens our concern about negative impacts of global warming on polar bears and other wildlife. Enhanced vegetation growth from more diffuse and less direct solar radiation took more carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere than

  8. Studying complex decision making in natural settings: using a head-mounted video camera to study competitive orienteering. (United States)

    Omodei, M M; McLennan, J


    Head-mounted video recording is described as a potentially powerful method for studying decision making in natural settings. Most alternative data-collection procedures are intrusive and disruptive of the decision-making processes involved while conventional video-recording procedures are either impractical or impossible. As a severe test of the robustness of the methodology we studied the decision making of 6 experienced orienteers who carried a head-mounted light-weight video camera as they navigated, running as fast as possible, around a set of control points in a forest. Use of the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test indicated that compared with free recall, video-assisted recall evoked (a) significantly greater experiential immersion in the recall, (b) significantly more specific recollections of navigation-related thoughts and feelings, (c) significantly more realizations of map and terrain features and aspects of running speed which were not noticed at the time of actual competition, and (d) significantly greater insight into specific navigational errors and the intrusion of distracting thoughts into the decision-making process. Potential applications of the technique in (a) the environments of emergency services, (b) therapeutic contexts, (c) education and training, and (d) sports psychology are discussed.

  9. Impact of Source Region on the delta18 O signal in snow: A case study from Mount Wrangell Alaska (United States)

    Moore, G.W.K.; Field, Robert D.; Benson, Carl S.


    The stable isotopic composition of water in ice cores is an important source of information on past climate variability. At its simplest level, the underlying assumption is that there is an empirical relationship between the normalized difference in the concentration for these stable isotopes and a specified local temperature at the ice core site. There are, however, nonlocal processes, such as a change in source region or a change in the atmospheric pathway, which can impact the stable isotope signal, thereby complicating its use as a proxy for temperature. In this paper, the importance of these nonlocal processes are investigated through the analysis of the synoptic-scale circulation during a snowfall event at the summit of Mount Wrangell (62 deg N, 144 deg W; 4300 m MSL) in south-central Alaska. During this event there was, over a 1-day period in which the local temperature was approximately constant, a change in delta18 O that exceeded half that normally seen to occur in the region between summer and winter. As shall be shown, this arose from a change in the source region, from the subtropical eastern Pacific to northeastern Asia, for the snow that fell on Mount Wrangell during the event.

  10. Milk-run kanban system for raw printed circuit board withdrawal to surface-mounted equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Li Chee


    Full Text Available Purpose:  The paper aims to present a case study and later simulation analysis on a kanban system that incorporating milk-run operation to draw in raw material to the process. Design/methodology/approach:  Data collection at the case study company for ten weeks followed by a process study called value stream mapping. The proposed kanban model is simulated to test its various performances including total output, average flow time, average work-in-process, SME utilization, and average waiting time. Response surface methodology is adopted to generate suitable representative regression models.  Findings: For all performance measures, simulation results showed that the proposed system consistently outperforms the push system currently practiced. Second, the system indicates the advantages of leveling, particularly in the event of machine failure and blockage. Third, operator in the proposed kanban system has a lower utilization, even with the additional material handling task.   Research limitations/implications: This study only begins to reveal the implication of leveling for production control on multi-machine scenario. The simulation of the system is solely based only the case study. The control parameters critical to the case study, were naturally used. The furtherance of the research should include generalizing the system and devising the respective methodology to facilitate wider applications. Practical implications: Originality/value:  The kanban system is proposed in the light of conflicting interests in handling the surface mounting and the related upstream processes. Such aspect is common to electronics assembly industry.

  11. 76 FR 72440 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final... (United States)


    ... mount combination refrigerator-freezers, namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for use in bottom... assembled external doors designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that incorporate...) any assembled external drawers designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that...

  12. Database for geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Furze, Andrew J; Bard, Joseph A.; Robinson, Joel; Ramsey, David W.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Rowley, Peter D.; MacLeod, Norman S.


    This publication releases digital versions of the geologic maps in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1950 (USGS I-1950), “Geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington” (Kuntz, Rowley, and MacLeod, 1990) ( The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions on May 18, May 25, June 12, July 22, August 7, and October 16–18 produced pyroclastic-flow and related deposits. The distribution and morphology of these deposits, as determined from extensive field studies and examination of vertical aerial photographs, are shown on four maps in I-1950 (maps A–D) on two map sheets. Map A shows the May 18, May 25, and June 12 deposits; map B shows the July 22 deposits; map C shows the August 7 deposits; and map D shows the October 16–18 deposits. No digital geospatial versions of the geologic data were made available at the time of publication of the original maps. This data release consists of attributed vector features, data tables, and the cropped and georeferenced scans from which the features were digitized, in order to enable visualization and analysis of these data in GIS software. This data release enables users to digitally re-create the maps and description of map units of USGS I-1950; map sheet 1 includes text sections (Introduction, Physiography of Mount St. Helens at the time of the 1980 eruptions, Processes of the 1980 eruptions, Deposits of the 1980 eruptions, Limitations of the maps, Preparation of the maps, and References cited) and associated tables and figures that are not included in this data release.

  13. Ethnobotany of utilization, role, and philosopical meaning of parijoto (Medinilla, spp) on Mount Muria in Kudus Regency, Central Java (United States)

    Hanum, Alima Saida; Prihastanti, Erma; Jumari


    One of Indonesian plant species which has not been fully explored in terms of pharmacology is parijoto plant (Medinilla,spp). Medinilla,spp can be found on Mount Muria in Kudus regency, Central Java. This plant can be used as a traditional medicine which is derived from plants as a manifestation of active community participation in solving the healthy problems. Medinilla,spp is closely associated with the ethnic-majority area of mount Muria. Its utilization is still limited as the fruit to be consumed by pregnant women. It is necessary to do in-depth research as part of an effort in the utilization and conservation for the future. The purposes of this study were to determine the utilization, role, and philosophical meaning of Medinilla,spp. This research took place in three villages, they were Japan, Colo, and Pandak. Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews with community and key informants were used in this research. It was found out that Medinilla, spp majority were utilized as the fruit to be consumed by pregnant women and also used as medicine for diarrhea, mouth sores, anti inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial. The preparations process of traditional medical plants were by boiling (70%), way of brewing (15%), and consuming it freshly (15%). The composition of the ingredients were 90% used single material in the form of Medinilla,spp and 10% used addition ingredients such as ginger and turmeric. The philosophical meaning of Medinilla,spp for the people in Mount Muria region was that Medinilla, spp was not merely the fruit to be consumed by pregnant women, but Medinilla, spp was also considered as the fruit to heal various diseases. It referred to a belief that after salah prayer before hand by Sunan Muria, all diseases can be cured.

  14. Hot pressing in conduit faults during lava dome extrusion: Insights from Mount St. Helens 2004-2008 (United States)

    Ryan, Amy G.; Friedlander, Elizabeth A.; Russell, James K.; Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Lori A.


    Rhyodacitic volcanoes such as Mount St. Helens (MSH), Soufrière Hills, Mount Unzen and Mount Pelée erupt spines mantled by layers of magma-derived cataclasite and fault gouge. MSH produced seven lava spines from 2004-2008 composed of low-porosity, compositionally uniform, crystalline dacite. Dome extrusion was attended by continuous 'drumbeat' seismicity, derived from faulting along the conduit margin at 0.5-1 km depth, and evidenced by the enveloping gouge layers. We describe the properties of the gouge-derived fault rocks, including laboratory measurements of porosity and permeability. The gouge varies from unconsolidated powder to lithified low-porosity low-permeability fault rocks. We reconstruct the subsurface ascent of the MSH magma using published field observations and create a model that reconciles the diverse properties of the gouge with conditions in the conduit during ascent (i.e. velocity, temperature). We show lithification of the gouge to be driven by 'hot pressing' processes, wherein the combination of elevated temperature, confining pressure and dwell-time cause densification and solid-state sintering of the comminuted, crystal-rich (glass-poor) gouge. The degree of gouge lithification corresponds with residence time in the conduit such that well-lithified materials reflect extended times in the subsurface due to slower ascent rates. With this insight, we suggest that gouge competence can be used as a first-order estimate of lava ascent rates. Furthermore we posit gouge lithification, which reduces porosity and permeability, inhibits volcanic outgassing thereby increasing the potential for explosive events at spine-producing volcanoes.

  15. Digital bedrock geologic map of the Mount Snow & Readsboro quadrangles, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG95-DM1 Ratcliffe, NM, 1995, Digital bedrock geologic map of the Mount Snow & Readsboro quadrangles, Vermont, scale 1:24000, The bedrock...

  16. A Dihedral Sample Mount for Off-Normal RAM Performance Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bossoli, Robert


    ... (WMRD) Composites and Lightweight Structures Branch (CLSB) anechoic chamber. RAM samples can also be mounted in a full dihedral configuration for simulation of RAM performance in double bounce (corner)-type locations...

  17. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Mount Mansfield 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG2017-2 Thompson, P. J., and Thompson, T. B., 2017, Bedrock Geologic Map of the Mount Mansfield 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Vermont: VGS Open-File...

  18. Digital and preliminary bedrock geologic map of the Mount Carmel quadrangle, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG98-330A Ratcliffe, N.M., and Walsh, G. J., 1998,�Digital and preliminary bedrock geologic map of the Mount Carmel quadrangle, Vermont: USGS...

  19. Determination of the maximum MGS mounting height : phase I crash testing. (United States)


    Post-and-rail guardrail systems encounter environmental conditions, such as severe frost heave or erosion, which : may drastically affect the post embedment depth and rail mounting height. In addition, guardrail systems may be designed : to accommoda...

  20. Conservation in a crowded place : forest and people on Mount Elgon Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, M.


    Key words: tropical forest, conservation management, local livelihoods, forest cover change, disturbance, fuelwood, forest structure, species richness, biomass, Mount Elgon   A growing world population has important consequences for forests. In this study I investigate how

  1. Digital Geologic Map of the Mount Coolidge quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Mount Coolidge quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  2. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is teaming with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  3. A high-resolution optical see-through head-mounted display with eyetracking capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu


    A head-mounted display system with fully-integrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology...

  4. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun-Ho Shin; Seok-Jun Moon; Jeong-Il Kwon; Woo-Jin Jung; Jae-Jin Jeon


    This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship’s hull...

  5. Final Critical Habitat for the Mount Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Mount Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) occur based on the...

  6. Distributed manufacturing with 3-D printing: a case study of recreational vehicle solar photovoltaic mounting systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wittbrodt, Ben; Laureto, John; Tymrak, Brennan; Pearce, Joshua M


    ... of a 3-D printable parametric design for recreational vehicle (RV) solar photovoltaic (PV) racking systems. The design is a four-corner mounting device with the ability to customize the tilt angle and height of the standoff...

  7. Procurement of Gun Mounts for the M1A2 Tank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The inquiry resulted from constituent allegations that the Program Executive Officer for Armored Systems Modernization improperly communicated Government information on Army procurement of gun mounts for the MlA2 tank...

  8. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor II Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations has teamed with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  9. Mount St. Helens Long-Term Sediment Management Plan for Flood Risk Reduction (United States)


    SRS, staged SRS, and dredging – were to be evaluated during continuing planning and engineering. Provided below is the Syllabus from the 1985...2.2 shows the layout of one set of grade control structures. Figure 2.2 Example Layout of One Set of Grade Control Structures Mount St...orientation of the 2-dimensional grid layout . Figure 1. Lower Cowlitz Model Mesh Mount St. Helens Long-Term Sediment Management Plan Progress Report

  10. Mongolian Rotifers on Micr oscope Slides: Instructions to Permanent Specimen Mounts from Expedition Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. Jersabek


    Full Text Available We here describe a method for permanently mounting specimens on microscope slides, as we applied it in the newly established rotifer collection in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The liquid photopolymer NOA 61 was used as a primary sealant for pure glycerine mounts. We furthermore outline simple methods of rotifer narcotization and fi xation in the fi eld that yield, for the majority of species, adequately preserved specimen material for further preparation and identifi cation purposes.

  11. Using Whole Mount in situ Hybridization to Link Molecular and Organismal Biology


    Jacobs, Nicole L.; Albertson, R. Craig; Wiles, Jason R.


    Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) is a common technique in molecular biology laboratories used to study gene expression through the localization of specific mRNA transcripts within whole mount specimen. This technique (adapted from Albertson and Yelick, 2005) was used in an upper level undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Biology laboratory classroom at Syracuse University. The first two thirds of the Comparative Vertebrate Biology lab course gave students the opportunity to study the ...

  12. High Reliability, High Mix, Ultralow Volume Surface Mount Technology for Space Applications (United States)

    Barela, P.; Bonner, K.; Cornford, S.; Wen, A.


    For the past two years, JPL has been working to introduce surface mount technology (SMT) for high reliability space applications. The thrust has centered around four research and development projects, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of SMT for designing, producing, inspecting, and quantifying surface mount printed wiring assemblies for ultralow volume, long life space applications. This paper explores the current approach being pursued at JPL and some of the problems peculiar to applying SMT to spacecraft applications.

  13. Millimetre-wave MMIC packaging compatible with surface-mount technology (SMT)


    Galière, J; Valard, J.L.; Estèbe, E.


    This paper presents an interconnect and packaging solution for millimetre-wave MMIC, based on collective wiring and surface mount technologies. The designed structure consists of an SMT CSP (Chip Scale Package) mounted on printed circuit board (PCB). This packaging concept has been applied to a millimetre-wave LNA and has been measured up to 60 GHz, exhibiting results close to bare die measurements (insertion loss per millimetre-wave transition lower than 0.5dB) and dem...

  14. A Portable Shoulder-Mounted Camera System for Surgical Education in Spine Surgery. (United States)

    Pham, Martin H; Ohiorhenuan, Ifije E; Patel, Neil N; Jakoi, Andre M; Hsieh, Patrick C; Acosta, Frank L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Liu, John C


    The past several years have demonstrated an increased recognition of operative videos as an important adjunct for resident education. Currently lacking, however, are effective methods to record video for the purposes of illustrating the techniques of minimally invasive (MIS) and complex spine surgery. We describe here our experiences developing and using a shoulder-mounted camera system for recording surgical video. Our requirements for an effective camera system included wireless portability to allow for movement around the operating room, camera mount location for comfort and loupes/headlight usage, battery life for long operative days, and sterile control of on/off recording. With this in mind, we created a shoulder-mounted camera system utilizing a GoPro™ HERO3+, its Smart Remote (GoPro, Inc., San Mateo, California), a high-capacity external battery pack, and a commercially available shoulder-mount harness. This shoulder-mounted system was more comfortable to wear for long periods of time in comparison to existing head-mounted and loupe-mounted systems. Without requiring any wired connections, the surgeon was free to move around the room as needed. Over the past several years, we have recorded numerous MIS and complex spine surgeries for the purposes of surgical video creation for resident education. Surgical videos serve as a platform to distribute important operative nuances in rich multimedia. Effective and practical camera system setups are needed to encourage the continued creation of videos to illustrate the surgical maneuvers in minimally invasive and complex spinal surgery. We describe here a novel portable shoulder-mounted camera system setup specifically designed to be worn and used for long periods of time in the operating room.

  15. Ignimbrites of Armenia - Paleomagnetic constraints on flow direction and stratigraphy of pyroclastic activity of Mount Aragats (United States)

    Kirscher, Uwe; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Bachtadse, Valerian


    The Aragats volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes within the Turkish-Armenian-Iranian orogenic plateau. It is located close to the Armenian capital Yerevan, and only 30 km from the only nuclear power plant within the country. Additional to numerous lava flows, Mount Aragats is thought to be the source of at least two large pyroclastic eruptions leading to a huge number of ignimbrite outcrops, which are located surrounding Mount Aragats with an evaluated eruption radius of 50 km. The age of several ignimbrite outcrops has recently been determined to be 0.65 Ma (Meliksetian et al., 2014). The different ignimbrite flows are characterized by huge diversity of colors, degree of welding and textures. Due to that reason some disagreement exist on how these outcrops can be linked and how the eruption process actually happened in terms of different eruption phases and mixing mechanism of magmas during the eruption. To add constraints to this debate we carried out an intensive paleomagnetic investigation on most of the ignimbrite outcrops (32 sites) in terms of directional and anisotropy measurements. Paleomagnetic directional measurements yield basically two polarities: (1) a well grouped normal polarity is present in the majority of the studied sites including 3 sites which have supposedly originated from a different vent located on Turkish territory in the west; (2) a reversed polarity of the remaining sites with a somewhat increased scatter. Based on secular variation arguments and considering the high quality of the data we suggest that at least all young outcrops represent a single eruption phase in the area at 0.65 Ma, which is in agreement with an occurrence during the Brunhes geomagnetic chron. Additional to that, at least one earlier phase of pyroclastic activity took place prior to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.781 Ma). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) suggests initial radial flow directions, which shortly after the eruption become

  16. Structural differences of the enteric nervous system in the cattle forestomach revealed by whole mount immunohistochemistry. (United States)

    Teixeira, A F; Wedel, T; Krammer, H J; Kühnel, W


    The specific motility patterns of the forestomach of ruminants, composed of three structurally distinct compartments (rumen, reticulum, omasum), require an elaborate intramural innervation. To demonstrate the complex structure of the enteric nervous system (ENS), whole mount preparations obtained from different sites of the bovine forestomach were submitted to immunohistochemical procedures in which neuronal (protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament 200) and glial (protein S-100, glial fibrillary acid protein) markers were applied. Immunohistochemistry performed on whole mounts allowed a detailed two-dimensional assessment of the architecture of the intramural nerve networks. Generally, the myenteric and submucosal plexus layers were composed of ganglia and interconnecting nerve fiber strands, whereas the mucosal plexus consisted of an aganglionated nerve network. However, the texture of the ENS showed considerable regional differences concerning the ganglionic size, shape and density and the arrangement of nerve fiber strands. The myenteric plexus of the ruminal wall, showing a low ganglionic density and wide polygonal meshes, contrasted with the nerve network within the ruminal pillar which consisted of ropeladder-like nerve fiber strands and parallel orientated ganglia. The highest ganglionic density was observed at the reticular groove, the most prominent ganglia were found within the omasal wall. Branches of the vagal nerve frequently ramified within the myenteric plexus layers. The submucosal plexus of the rumen was divided into an external and internal layer; the reticular submucosal plexus followed the cristae and cellulae reticuli, the omasal submucosal (sublaminar) plexus showed intra- and parafascicular ganglia apart from ganglia located at the junctions of the nerve network. The mucosal plexus of the rumen consisted of thin nerve fascicles ramifying between the ruminal papillae, and reticular mucosal nerve fibers passed throughout the base of the

  17. Swarms of repeating stick-slip glacierquakes triggered by snow loading at Mount Rainier volcano (United States)

    Allstadt, K.; Malone, S. D.; Shean, D. E.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Vidale, J. E.


    We have detected over 150,000 low-frequency (~1-5 Hz) repeating earthquakes over the past decade at Mount Rainier volcano by scanning continuous seismic data from the permanent seismic network. Most of these were previously undetected due to their small size (M3000 m) on the glacier-covered part of the edifice. They occur primarily in week- to month-long swarms of activity that strongly correlate with precipitation, namely snowfall, with a lag of about 1-2 days. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between inter-event repeat time and the size of the subsequent event - consistent with slip-predictable stick-slip behavior. This pattern suggests that the additional load imparted by the sudden added weight of snow during winter storms triggers a temporary change from smooth aseismic sliding to seismic stick-slip basal sliding in locations where basal conditions are close to frictional instability. This sensitivity is analogous to the triggering of repeating earthquakes due to tiny overall stress changes in more traditional tectonic environments (e.g., tremor modulated by tides, dynamic triggering of repeating earthquakes). Using codawave interferometry on stacks of the repeating waveforms of the families with the most events, we found that the sources move at speeds of ~1 m/day. Using a GAMMA ground based radar interferometer, we collected spatially continuous line-of-sight velocities of several glaciers at Mount Rainier in both summer and late fall. We found that the faster parts of the glaciers also move at ~1 m/day or faster, even in late fall. Movement of the sources of these repeating earthquakes at glacial speeds indicates that the asperities are dirty patches that move with the ice rather than stationary bedrock bumps. The reappearance of some event families up to several years apart suggests that certain areas at the base of certain glaciers are prodigious producers of conditions favorable to this behavior. Stick-slip basal sliding of glaciers is

  18. Indoor pedestrian navigation using foot-mounted IMU and portable ultrasound range sensors. (United States)

    Girard, Gabriel; Côté, Stéphane; Zlatanova, Sisi; Barette, Yannick; St-Pierre, Johanne; van Oosterom, Peter


    Many solutions have been proposed for indoor pedestrian navigation. Some rely on pre-installed sensor networks, which offer good accuracy but are limited to areas that have been prepared for that purpose, thus requiring an expensive and possibly time-consuming process. Such methods are therefore inappropriate for navigation in emergency situations since the power supply may be disturbed. Other types of solutions track the user without requiring a prepared environment. However, they may have low accuracy. Offline tracking has been proposed to increase accuracy, however this prevents users from knowing their position in real time. This paper describes a real time indoor navigation system that does not require prepared building environments and provides tracking accuracy superior to previously described tracking methods. The system uses a combination of four techniques: foot-mounted IMU (Inertial Motion Unit), ultrasonic ranging, particle filtering and model-based navigation. The very purpose of the project is to combine these four well-known techniques in a novel way to provide better indoor tracking results for pedestrians.

  19. Zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA (United States)

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.


    Water quality and zooplankton samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean zooplankton assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most zooplankton species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the zooplankton assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of zooplankton assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.

  20. Fatigue damage behavior of a surface-mount electronic package under different cyclic applied loads (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Hui; Wang, Xi-Shu


    This paper studies and compares the effects of pull-pull and 3-point bending cyclic loadings on the mechanical fatigue damage behaviors of a solder joint in a surface-mount electronic package. The comparisons are based on experimental investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in-situ technology and nonlinear finite element modeling, respectively. The compared results indicate that there are different threshold levels of plastic strain for the initial damage of solder joints under two cyclic applied loads; meanwhile, fatigue crack initiation occurs at different locations, and the accumulation of equivalent plastic strain determines the trend and direction of fatigue crack propagation. In addition, simulation results of the fatigue damage process of solder joints considering a constitutive model of damage initiation criteria for ductile materials and damage evolution based on accumulating inelastic hysteresis energy are identical to the experimental results. The actual fatigue life of the solder joint is almost the same and demonstrates that the FE modeling used in this study can provide an accurate prediction of solder joint fatigue failure.

  1. Oil palm pest infestation monitoring and evaluation by helicopter-mounted, low altitude remote sensing platform (United States)

    Samseemoung, Grianggai; Jayasuriya, Hemantha P. W.; Soni, Peeyush


    Timely detection of pest or disease infections is extremely important for controlling the spread of disease and preventing crop productivity losses. A specifically designed radio-controlled helicopter mounted low altitude remote sensing (LARS) platform can offer near-real-time results upon user demand. The acquired LARS images were processed to estimate vegetative-indices and thereby detecting upper stem rot (Phellinus Noxius) disease in both young and mature oil palm plants. The indices helped discriminate healthy and infested plants by visualization, analysis and presentation of digital imagery software, which were validated with ground truth data. Good correlations and clear data clusters were obtained in characteristic plots of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)LARS and green normalized difference vegetation indexLARS against NDVISpectro and chlorophyll content, by which infested plants were discriminated from healthy plants in both young and mature crops. The chlorophyll content values (μmol m-2) showed notable differences among clusters for healthy young (972 to 1100), for infested young (253 to 400), for healthy mature (1210 to 1500), and for infested mature (440 to 550) oil palm. The correlation coefficients (R2) were in a reasonably acceptable range (0.62 to 0.88). The vegetation indices based on LARS images, provided satisfactory results when compared to other approaches. The developed technology showed promising scope for medium and large plantations.

  2. Experimental Investigation and Simplistic Geochemical Modeling of CO2 Mineral Carbonation Using the Mount Tawai Peridotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omeid Rahmani


    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of CO2 mineral carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH2 derived from the Mount Tawai peridotite (forsterite based (Mg2SiO4 to produce thermodynamically stable magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 was evaluated. The effect of three main factors (reaction temperature, particle size, and water vapor were investigated in a sequence of experiments consisting of aqueous acid leaching, evaporation to dryness of the slurry mass, and then gas-solid carbonation under pressurized CO2. The maximum amount of Mg converted to MgCO3 is ~99%, which occurred at temperatures between 150 and 175 °C. It was also found that the reduction of particle size range from >200 to <75 µm enhanced the leaching rate significantly. In addition, the results showed the essential role of water vapor in promoting effective carbonation. By increasing water vapor concentration from 5 to 10 vol %, the mineral carbonation rate increased by 30%. This work has also numerically modeled the process by which CO2 gas may be sequestered, by reaction with forsterite in the presence of moisture. In both experimental analysis and geochemical modeling, the results showed that the reaction is favored and of high yield; going almost to completion (within about one year with the bulk of the carbon partitioning into magnesite and that very little remains in solution.

  3. Emplacement of a silicic lava dome through a crater glacier: Mount St Helens, 2004-06 (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; LaHusen, R.G.; Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.


    The process of lava-dome emplacement through a glacier was observed for the first time after Mount St Helens reawakened in September 2004. The glacier that had grown in the crater since the cataclysmic 1980 eruption was split in two by the new lava dome. The two parts of the glacier were successively squeezed against the crater wall. Photography, photogrammetry and geodetic measurements document glacier deformation of an extreme variety, with strain rates of extraordinary magnitude as compared to normal alpine glaciers. Unlike normal temperate glaciers, the crater glacier shows no evidence of either speed-up at the beginning of the ablation season or diurnal speed fluctuations during the ablation season. Thus there is evidently no slip of the glacier over its bed. The most reasonable explanation for this anomaly is that meltwater penetrating the glacier is captured by a thick layer of coarse rubble at the bed and then enters the volcano's groundwater system rather than flowing through a drainage network along the bed.

  4. Design of a spreader bar crane-mounted gamma-ray radiation detection system (United States)

    Grypp, Matthew D.; Marianno, Craig M.; Poston, John W.; Hearn, Gentry C.


    Over 95% of imports entering the United States from outside North America arrive by sea at 329 ports of entry. These imports are packaged in more than 11 million cargo containers. Radiation portals monitors routinely scan cargo containers leaving port on specially-designed trucks. To accelerate the process, some commercial entities have placed detection systems on the spreader-bar cranes (SBCs) used to offload. Little is known about the radiation background profiles of systems operating on these cranes. To better understand the operational characteristics of these radiation detection systems; a research team from Texas A&M University (TAMU) mounted three thallium-doped sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] detectors on an SBC at the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office's (DNDO) test track facility at the Port of Tacoma (PoT). These detectors were used to monitor background radiation levels and continuously recorded data during crane operations using a custom-built software package. Count rates and spectral data were recorded for various crane heights over both land and water. The results of this research created a background profile in which count rate was heavily dependent on position demonstrating how detector readings changed in the operational environment.

  5. Point Cloud Generation from sUAS-Mounted iPhone Imagery: Performance Analysis (United States)

    Ladai, A. D.; Miller, J.


    The rapidly growing use of sUAS technology and fast sensor developments continuously inspire mapping professionals to experiment with low-cost airborne systems. Smartphones has all the sensors used in modern airborne surveying systems, including GPS, IMU, camera, etc. Of course, the performance level of the sensors differs by orders, yet it is intriguing to assess the potential of using inexpensive sensors installed on sUAS systems for topographic applications. This paper focuses on the quality analysis of point clouds generated based on overlapping images acquired by an iPhone 5s mounted on a sUAS platform. To support the investigation, test data was acquired over an area with complex topography and varying vegetation. In addition, extensive ground control, including GCPs and transects were collected with GSP and traditional geodetic surveying methods. The statistical and visual analysis is based on a comparison of the UAS data and reference dataset. The results with the evaluation provide a realistic measure of data acquisition system performance. The paper also gives a recommendation for data processing workflow to achieve the best quality of the final products: the digital terrain model and orthophoto mosaic. After a successful data collection the main question is always the reliability and the accuracy of the georeferenced data.

  6. Evaluation of auditory functions for Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers. (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Véronique; Laroche, Chantal; Giguère, Christian; Beaulieu, Marc-André; Legault, Jean-Pierre


    Auditory fitness for duty (AFFD) testing is an important element in an assessment of workers' ability to perform job tasks safely and effectively. Functional hearing is particularly critical to job performance in law enforcement. Most often, assessment is based on pure-tone detection thresholds; however, its validity can be questioned and challenged in court. In an attempt to move beyond the pure-tone audiogram, some organizations like the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are incorporating additional testing to supplement audiometric data in their AFFD protocols, such as measurements of speech recognition in quiet and/or in noise, and sound localization. This article reports on the assessment of RCMP officers wearing hearing aids in speech recognition and sound localization tasks. The purpose was to quantify individual performance in different domains of hearing identified as necessary components of fitness for duty, and to document the type of hearing aids prescribed in the field and their benefit for functional hearing. The data are to help RCMP in making more informed decisions regarding AFFD in officers wearing hearing aids. The proposed new AFFD protocol included unaided and aided measures of speech recognition in quiet and in noise using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) and sound localization in the left/right (L/R) and front/back (F/B) horizontal planes. Sixty-four officers were identified and selected by the RCMP to take part in this study on the basis of hearing thresholds exceeding current audiometrically based criteria. This article reports the results of 57 officers wearing hearing aids. Based on individual results, 49% of officers were reclassified from nonoperational status to operational with limitations on fine hearing duties, given their unaided and/or aided performance. Group data revealed that hearing aids (1) improved speech recognition thresholds on the HINT, the effects being most prominent in Quiet and in conditions of spatial separation

  7. X-38 Mounted on Pylon of B-52 Mothership (United States)


    A close-up view of the X-38 research vehicle mounted under the wing of the B-52 mothership prior to a 1997 test flight. The X-38, which was designed to help develop technology for an emergency crew return vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station, is one of many research vehicles the B-52 has carried aloft over the past 40 years. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space

  8. Whole-mount pathology of breast lumpectomy specimens improves detection of tumour margins and focality. (United States)

    Clarke, Gina M; Holloway, Claire M B; Zubovits, Judit T; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Liu, Kela; Murray, Mayan; Wang, Dan; Yaffe, Martin J


    Technical limitations in conventional pathological evaluation of breast lumpectomy specimens may reduce diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of margin and focality. A novel technique based on whole-mount serial sections enhances sampling while preserving specimen conformation and orientation. The aim of this study was to investigate assessment of focality and margin status by the use of whole-mount serial sections versus simulated conventional sections in lumpectomies. Two pathologists interpreted whole-mount serial sections and simulated conventional sections for 58 lumpectomy specimens by reporting the closest margin and focality. Measurements were compared by the use of McNemar's chi-squared test. Statistically significant differences were observed in the assignment of both margin positivity (P = 0.014) and multifocality (P = 0.021). A positive margin or multifocal disease was identified by the use of whole-mount serial sections but missed in the simulated conventional assessment in 10.3% and 17.2% of all cases, respectively. There was no case in which a positive margin was detected only in the simulated conventional assessment. The whole-mount technique is more sensitive than conventional assessment for identifying a positive margin or multifocal disease in breast lumpectomy specimens. Undersampling in conventional sections was implicated in almost all cases of discordance. The majority of positive margins or secondary foci identified only in whole-mount serial sections concerned in-situ disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Kidney Transplantation: The Mount Sinai Experience. (United States)

    Nair, Vinay; Khaim, Rafael; El-Salem, Fadi; Kent, Rebecca; Lerner, Susan; Berger, Amnon; Miko, Leandra; Rollins, Brett; Ebcioglu, Zeynep; Delaney, Veronica; Sehgal, Vinita; Menon, Madhav; Ames, Scott; Benvenisty, Alan; Wadhera, Vikram; Arvelakas, Antonious; Schiano, Thomas; Rana, Meena; Huprikar, Shirish; Florman, Sander; Shapiro, Ron


    Mount Sinai Hospital in New York has a long history in the field of organ transplantation. The first kidney transplant at Mount Sinai was performed in 1967 by the late Dr. Lewis Burrows and the first laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in New York was performed at Mount Sinai in 1996. Over 3000 kidney transplantations have been performed at Mount Sinai. In the early 1990s, the first hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patient at Mount Sinai underwent a kidney transplant and the first kidney transplant in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in New York was performed at Mount Sinai in 2001. In general, these patients have done well after renal transplantation, with outcomes similar to those seen in non-infected patients. This chapter will describe the evolution of immunosuppressive regimens in HCV positive and HIV positive patients, and will describe the outcomes of kidney transplantation in these patients. Given the favorable outcomes, it is reasonable to continue to offer renal transplantation as a treatment for end stage renal disease patients with HCV and/or HIV. Copyright© 2016 by the Terasaki Foundation Laboratory.

  10. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses (United States)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.


    IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

  11. The stratigraphy and evolution of lower Mount Sharp from spectral, morphological, and thermophysical orbital data sets. (United States)

    Fraeman, A A; Ehlmann, B L; Arvidson, R E; Edwards, C S; Grotzinger, J P; Milliken, R E; Quinn, D P; Rice, M S


    We have developed a refined geologic map and stratigraphy for lower Mount Sharp using coordinated analyses of new spectral, thermophysical, and morphologic orbital data products. The Mount Sharp group consists of seven relatively planar units delineated by differences in texture, mineralogy, and thermophysical properties. These units are (1-3) three spatially adjacent units in the Murray formation which contain a variety of secondary phases and are distinguishable by thermal inertia and albedo differences, (4) a phyllosilicate-bearing unit, (5) a hematite-capped ridge unit, (6) a unit associated with material having a strongly sloped spectral signature at visible near-infrared wavelengths, and (7) a layered sulfate unit. The Siccar Point group consists of the Stimson formation and two additional units that unconformably overlie the Mount Sharp group. All Siccar Point group units are distinguished by higher thermal inertia values and record a period of substantial deposition and exhumation that followed the deposition and exhumation of the Mount Sharp group. Several spatially extensive silica deposits associated with veins and fractures show that late-stage silica enrichment within lower Mount Sharp was pervasive. At least two laterally extensive hematitic deposits are present at different stratigraphic intervals, and both are geometrically conformable with lower Mount Sharp strata. The occurrence of hematite at multiple stratigraphic horizons suggests redox interfaces were widespread in space and/or in time, and future measurements by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover will provide further insights into the depositional settings of these and other mineral phases.

  12. Head-Mounted Display Technology for Low-Vision Rehabilitation and Vision Enhancement. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua R; Ojeda, Lauro V; Wicker, Donna; Day, Sherry; Howson, Ashley; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Moroi, Sayoko E


    To describe the various types of head-mounted display technology, their optical and human-factors considerations, and their potential for use in low-vision rehabilitation and vision enhancement. Expert perspective. An overview of head-mounted display technology by an interdisciplinary team of experts drawing on key literature in the field. Head-mounted display technologies can be classified based on their display type and optical design. See-through displays such as retinal projection devices have the greatest potential for use as low-vision aids. Devices vary by their relationship to the user's eyes, field of view, illumination, resolution, color, stereopsis, effect on head motion, and user interface. These optical and human-factors considerations are important when selecting head-mounted displays for specific applications and patient groups. Head-mounted display technologies may offer advantages over conventional low-vision aids. Future research should compare head-mounted displays with commonly prescribed low-vision aids to compare their effectiveness in addressing the impairments and rehabilitation goals of diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conformal Light Augmented Single Substrate Head-Mounted Display Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) need for space suit displays and processing cores, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to...

  14. CLPX-Ground: Micrometeorological Measurements Over Snow, Tower Mounted (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents micrometeorological data from the Flux over Snow Surfaces (FLOSS) project carried out during the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX)...

  15. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)


    the evaluation of LIDAR-based wind measurement systems to validate the accuracy of remotely measured wind data in marine applications. Specifically, the test-bed will be utilized to systematically evaluate the capability of emerging scanning LIDAR and buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR by: (1) Evaluating a fixed scanning LIDAR against land-based 50 and 60 meter high meteorological masts fitted with research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers; (2) Evaluating a buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR fixed on land and floating in a sheltered bay against a co-located 60 meter high meteorological mast fitted with a research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers and the fixed scanning LIDAR; and (3) Offshore field evaluation of both LIDAR platforms through a comparison of the fixed scanning LIDAR data and data obtained by the buoy mounted LIDAR located 10 miles offshore. The proposed research will systematically validate Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) based wind measurement systems and assess the temporal and spatial variability of the offshore wind resource in the Mid-Atlantic east of New Jersey. The goal of the proposed project is to address the technical and commercial challenges of the offshore wind energy industry by validating and assessing cost-effective, over ocean wind resource characterization technologies. The objective is to systematically evaluate the capability of both scanning and vertically profiling LIDARs to accurately measure 3D wind fields through comparison with fixed met masts and intercomparison among LIDAR platforms. Once validated, data collected by both buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDARs and shore-based, pulsed horizontally scanning LIDARs can be used to accurately assess offshore wind resources and to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in the offshore wind fields. One of the fundamental research questions to be addressed in phase 1 is the assessment of various measurement and data processing schemes to

  16. Discrimination of hot versus cold avalanche deposits: Implications for hazard assessment at Mount Meager, B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Stewart


    Full Text Available The surficial deposits surrounding the Mount Meager volcanic complex include numerous avalanche deposits. These deposits share many attributes: (a they are nearly monolithologic and comprise mainly intermediate volcanic rock clasts, (b they lack internal structure, and (c they are very poorly sorted. Despite these similarities, the avalanche deposits represent two distinct processes. Mass wasting of the Mount Meager volcanic edifice has produced cold rock avalanche deposits, whereas gravitational collapse of active lava domes and flows has produced hot block and ash avalanche deposits. The ability to discriminate between these "hot" and "cold" avalanche deposits is a critical component in the assessment of hazards in volcanic terranes. Hot block and ash avalanche deposits can be distinguished by the presence of radially-oriented joints, breadcrust textures, and incipient welding, which are features indicative of high emplacement temperatures. Conversely, rock avalanche deposits resulting from mass wasting events may be distinguished by the presence of clasts that preserve pre-depositional weathering and jointing surfaces. Volcanic avalanches are mechanically similar to rock avalanches but pose a greater hazard due to high temperatures, increased fluidization from degassing and the potential to decouple highly mobile elutriated ash clouds. The increasing use of hazardous regions such as the Lillooet River valley requires more reliable risk assessment in order to minimize losses from future hazardous events.

  17. Accuracy and precision of equine gait event detection during walking with limb and trunk mounted inertial sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Pfau, Thilo


    . Accuracy (bias) and precision (SD of bias) was calculated to compare force plate and IMU timings for gait events. Data were collected from seven horses. One hundred and twenty three (123) front limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was detected with a bias (SD) of -7 (23) ms, hoof-off with 0.7 (37) ms...... Measurement Units (IMUs). Four IMUs were mounted on the distal limb and five IMUs were attached to the skin over the dorsal spinous processes at the withers, fourth lumbar vertebrae and sacrum as well as left and right tuber coxae. IMU data were synchronised to a force plate array and a motion capture system...... and front limb stance with -0.02 (37) ms. A total of 119 hind limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was found with a bias (SD) of -4 (25) ms, hoof-off with 6 (21) ms and hind limb stance with 0.2 (28) ms. IMUs mounted on the distal limbs and sacrum can detect gait events accurately and precisely....

  18. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan


    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of head-mounted display eyeglasses for teaching surgical skills: A prospective randomised study. (United States)

    Peden, Robert G; Mercer, Rachel; Tatham, Andrew J


    To investigate whether 'surgeon's eye view' videos provided via head-mounted displays can improve skill acquisition and satisfaction in basic surgical training compared with conventional wet-lab teaching. A prospective randomised study of 14 medical students with no prior suturing experience, randomised to 3 groups: 1) conventional teaching; 2) head-mounted display-assisted teaching and 3) head-mounted display self-learning. All were instructed in interrupted suturing followed by 15 minutes' practice. Head-mounted displays provided a 'surgeon's eye view' video demonstrating the technique, available during practice. Subsequently students undertook a practical assessment, where suturing was videoed and graded by masked assessors using a 10-point surgical skill score (1 = very poor technique, 10 = very good technique). Students completed a questionnaire assessing confidence and satisfaction. Suturing ability after teaching was similar between groups (P = 0.229, Kruskal-Wallis test). Median surgical skill scores were 7.5 (range 6-10), 6 (range 3-8) and 7 (range 1-7) following head-mounted display-assisted teaching, conventional teaching, and head-mounted display self-learning respectively. There was good agreement between graders regarding surgical skill scores (rho.c = 0.599, r = 0.603), and no difference in number of sutures placed between groups (P = 0.120). The head-mounted display-assisted teaching group reported greater enjoyment than those attending conventional teaching (P = 0.033). Head-mounted display self-learning was regarded as least useful (7.4 vs 9.0 for conventional teaching, P = 0.021), but more enjoyable than conventional teaching (9.6 vs 8.0, P = 0.050). Teaching augmented with head-mounted displays was significantly more enjoyable than conventional teaching. Students undertaking self-directed learning using head-mounted displays with pre-recorded videos had comparable skill acquisition to those attending traditional wet

  20. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni


    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  1. Simulation of groundwater flow and pumping scenarios for 1900–2050 near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (United States)

    Fine, Jason M.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.


    Groundwater withdrawals from the Upper Cretaceous-age Middendorf aquifer in South Carolina have created a large, regional cone of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Middendorf aquifer in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina. Groundwater-level declines of as much as 249 feet have been observed in wells over the past 125 years and are a result of groundwater use for public water supply, irrigation, and private industry. To address the concerns of users of the Middendorf aquifer, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Mount Pleasant Waterworks (MPW), recalibrated an existing groundwater-flow model to incorporate additional groundwater-use and water-level data since 2008. This recalibration process consisted of a technique of parameter estimation that uses regularized inversion and employs “pilot points” for spatial hydraulic property characterization. The groundwater-flow system of the Coastal Plain physiographic province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference computer code MODFLOW-2000.After the model recalibration, the following six predictive water-management scenarios were created to simulate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area: Scenario 1—maximize MPW reverse-osmosis plant capacity by increasing groundwater withdrawals from the Middendorf aquifer from 3.9 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), which was the amount withdrawn in 2015, to 8.58 Mgal/d; Scenario 2—same as Scenario 1, but with the addition of a 0.5 Mgal/d supply well in the Middendorf aquifer near Moncks Corner, South Carolina; Scenario 3—same as Scenario 1, but with the addition of a 1.5 Mgal/d supply well in the Middendorf aquifer near Moncks Corner, South Carolina; Scenario 4—maximize MPW well capacity by increasing withdrawals from the Middendorf aquifer from 3.9 Mgal/d (in 2015) to 10.16 Mgal

  2. The modern legal status of the Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastatis Haralambos K.


    Full Text Available The peninsula of Athos in Chalkidiki became a center of organized monachal life in monasteries in the year 963, when with the initiative of the Byzantine emperor Nichephorus Phocas the Monastery of Great Laura was founded. Since that time Mount Athos (=MA became the "Holy Mountain" and has attracted the moral and material support of the Byzantine emperors, various Orthodox countries and the flock till today. During this long period of more then one thousand years, MA was armed with a privileged legal status, the existence of which continues till now. The legal status of MA is based on three foundations: I. The law of the Hellenic Republic, II. The Public International Law, and III. The European Law. I. Fundamental significance for the status of MA have the provisions of article 105 of the Greek Constitution. Then is the Charter of MA, which is drawn up and voted by the Athonite monachal authorities and afterwards ratified by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Greek Parliament. The Charter is a law of superior formal force in comparison to the other laws. According to the Constitution and the Charter, MA has an ancient privileged status and is a self-governed part of the Greek State, whose sovereignty remains intact. Spiritually MA is under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, direct in the sense that the Ecumenical Patriarch is also the local bishop of MA The territory of the peninsula is exempt from expropriation and is divided among the twenty Athonite monasteries exclusively. The administrative power lies in self-administration of the first and the second degree. The first is exercised by the ruling twenty monasteries. This number may not be changed, nor may their position in the preeminence, nor towards their dependencies (skates, cells, hermitages. Nowadays all the monasteries are coenobitic, i.e. the monks share a common life and have no private property. The monasteries are administered by the abbot

  3. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of elastomeric mount using vibration power flow and transmissibility methods (United States)

    Arib Rejab, M. N.; Shukor, S. A. Abdul; Sofian, M. R. Mohd; Inayat-Hussain, J. I.; Nazirah, A.; Asyraf, I.


    This paper presents the results of an experimental work to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of elastomeric mounts. It also presents the results of theoretical analysis to determine the transmissibility and vibration power flow of these mounts, which are associated with their contribution to structure-borne noise. Four types of elastomeric mounts were considered, where three of them were made from green natural rubber material (SMR CV60, Ekoprena and Pureprena) and one made from petroleum based synthetic rubber (EPDM). In order to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these elastomeric mounts, dynamic tests were conducted using MTS 830 Elastomer Test System. Dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these mounts were measured for a range of frequency between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, and with a dynamic amplitude of 0.2 mm (p-p). The transmissibility and vibration power flow were determined based on a simple 2-Degree-of-Freedom model representing a vibration isolation system with a flexible receiver. This model reprsents the three main parts of a vehicle, which are the powertrain and engine mounting, the flexible structure and the floor of the vehicle. The results revealed that synthetic rubber (EPDM) was only effective at high frequency region. Natural rubber (Ekoprena), on the other hand, was found to be effective at both low and high frequency regions due to its low transmissibility at resonant frequency and its ability to damp the resonance. The estimated structure-borne noise emission showed that Ekoprena has a lower contribution to structure-borne noise as compared to the other types of elastomeric mounts.

  5. New academic partnerships in global health: innovations at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Ripp, Jonathan; Murphy, Ramon J C; Claudio, Luz; Jao, Jennifer; Hexom, Braden; Bloom, Harrison G; Shirazian, Taraneh; Elahi, Ebby; Koplan, Jeffrey P


    Global health has become an increasingly important focus of education, research, and clinical service in North American universities and academic health centers. Today there are at least 49 academically based global health programs in the United States and Canada, as compared with only one in 1999. A new academic society, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, was established in 2008 and has grown significantly. This sharp expansion reflects convergence of 3 factors: (1) rapidly growing student and faculty interest in global health; (2) growing realization-powerfully catalyzed by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic, the emergence of other new infections, climate change, and globalization-that health problems are interconnected, cross national borders, and are global in nature; and (3) rapid expansion in resources for global health. This article examines the evolution of the concept of global health and describes the driving forces that have accelerated interest in the field. It traces the development of global health programs in academic health centers in the United States. It presents a blueprint for a new school-wide global health program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The mission of that program, Mount Sinai Global Health, is to enhance global health as an academic field of study within the Mount Sinai community and to improve the health of people around the world. Mount Sinai Global Health is uniting and building synergies among strong, existing global health programs within Mount Sinai; it is training the next generation of physicians and health scientists to be leaders in global health; it is making novel discoveries that translate into blueprints for improving health worldwide; and it builds on Mount Sinai's long and proud tradition of providing medical and surgical care in places where need is great and resources few. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  6. Rheocasting an engine mounting bracket in commercial 7075

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA


    Full Text Available is produced by rheo-process commercial 7075 with the patented CSIR-RCS and subsequent high pressure die casting. Section thickness changes and constraining geometry make this a difficult component to rheocast. X-ray radiography is used to evaluate hot tearing...

  7. An Aquatic Journey toward Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp): Sedimentary Rock Evidence observed by Mars Science Laboratory (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Edgar, Lauren; Williams, Rebecca; Rubin, David; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Kocurek, Gary; Anderson, Ryan; Dromart, Gilles; Edgett, Ken; Hardgrove, Craig; Kah, Linda; Mangold, Nicolas; Milliken, Ralph; Minitti, Michelle; Palucis, Marisa; Rice, Melissa; Stack, Katie; Sumner, Dawn; Williford, Ken


    Since leaving Yellowknife Bay (summer 2013), Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity has investigated a number of key outcrops as it traverses along the Rapid Transit Route toward the entry point to begin its investigations of the extensive rock outcrops at the base of Mount Sharp. Rover observations are characterizing the variability of lithologies and sedimentary facies along the traverse and establishing stratigraphic relationships with the aim of reconstructing depositional processes and palaeoenvironments. Here, we report on sedimentological and stratigraphic observations based on images from the Mastcam and MAHLI instruments at Shaler and the Darwin waypoint. The informally named Shaler outcrop, which forms part of the Glenelg member of the Yellowknife Bay formation [1] is remarkable for the preservation of a rich suite of sedimentary structures and architecture, and was investigated on sols 120-121 and 309-324. The outcrop forms a pebbly sandstone body that is ~0.7 m thick and extends for up to 20 m. Shaler is largely characterized by pebbly sandstone facies showing well-developed decimeter-scale trough cross-stratification. Bedding geometries indicate sub-critical angles of climb, resulting in preservation of only the lee slope deposits. The grain size, and the presence and scale of cross-stratification imply sediment transport and deposition by unidirectional currents in a fluvial sedimentary environment. Curiosity investigated the informally named Darwin waypoint between sols 390 and 401, making detailed Mastcam and MAHLI observations at two separate locations. The Darwin outcrop comprises light-toned sandstone beds separated by darker pebbly sandstones. MAHLI observations permit differentiation of distinct sedimentary facies. The Altar Mountain facies is a poorly sorted pebbly sandstone that is rich in fine pebbles. Pebbles are sub-angular to sub-rounded in shape and show no preferred orientation or fabric. Pebbles and sand grains show clast-to-clast contacts

  8. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Allen


    Full Text Available Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems and flow path modelling are integrated here to explore the extent of ice avalanche, debris flow and lake flood hazard potential in the Mount Cook region. Numerous proglacial lakes have formed during recent decades, but well vegetated, low gradient outlet areas suggest catastrophic dam failure and flooding is unlikely. However, potential impacts from incoming mass movements of ice, debris or rock could lead to dam overtopping, particularly where lakes are forming directly beneath steep slopes. Physically based numerical modeling with RAMMS was introduced for local scale analyses of rock avalanche events, and was shown to be a useful tool for establishing accurate flow path dynamics and estimating potential event magnitudes. Potential debris flows originating from steep moraine and talus slopes can reach road and built infrastructure when worst-case runout distances are considered, while potential effects from ice avalanches are limited to walking tracks and alpine huts located in close proximity to initiation zones of steep ice. Further local scale studies of these processes are required, leading towards a full hazard assessment, and changing glacial conditions over coming decades will necessitate ongoing monitoring and reassessment of initiation zones and potential impacts.

  9. Information Pollution, a Mounting Threat: Internet a Major Causality


    Pandita, Ramesh


    The present discourse lasts around, information pollution, causes and concerns of information pollution, internet as a major causality and how it affects the decision making ability of an individual. As, information producers in the process to not to lose the readership of their content, and to cater the information requirements of both the electronic and the print readers, reproduce almost the whole of the printed information in digital form as well. Abundant literature is also equally produ...

  10. Model for determining logistic distribution center: case study of Mount Merapi eruption disaster (United States)

    Ai, T. J.; Wigati, S. S.


    As one of the most active volcano in the earth, Mount Merapi is periodically erupted and it is considered as a natural disaster for the surrounding area. Kabupaten Sleman as one of the nearest location to this mount has to be always prepared to this disaster. The local government already set three different groups of region, in which potentially affected by Mount Merapi eruption, called KRB I, KRB II, and KRB III. Region KRB III is the closest area to the mount crater and most often affected by the eruption disaster. Whenever KRB III is affected, people live in that area usually being transfer to the next region set that is KRB II. The case presented in this paper is located at the KRB II region, which is the second closest region to the mount crater. A humanitarian distribution system has to be set in this region, since usually this region is became the location of shelters for KRB III population whenever a ‘big’ eruption is happened. A mathematical model is proposed in this paper, for determining the location of distribution center, vehicle route, and the amount of goods delivered to each customer. Some numerical illustration are presented in order to know the behavior of the proposed model.

  11. New Az/El mount for Haystack Observatory's Small Radio Telescope kit (United States)

    Cobb, M. L.


    The Small Radio Telescope (SRT) kit was designed by Haystack Observatory as part of their educational outreach effort. The SRT uses a custom designed FFT based radio spectrometer receiver with a controller to position a 2.3m dish to make various radio astronomy observations including the 21 cm spin flip line of atomic hydrogen. Because there is no sizable commercial market for a two dimensional mount for dishes of this size, finding an appropriate provider as been a recurring problem for the project. Originally, the kit used a modified motor mount from Kaultronics called the H180. Two of these motors were combined by a specially designed adaptor to allow motion in azimuth and elevation. When Kaultronics was bought out by California Amplifier they discontinued production of the H180. The next iteration used a compact unit called the alfa-spid which was made in Germany and imported through Canada. The alfa-spid was designed to point various ham radio antennas and proved problematic with 2.3m dishes. Most recently the CASSI (Custom Astronomical Support Services, Inc.) corporation has designed and certified a robust Az/El mount capable of supporting dishes up to 12 feet (3.6m) with 100 MPH wind loads. This paper presents the design and operating characteristics of the new CASSI mount. The CASSI mount is now shipped with the SRT kit and should serve the project well for the foreseeable future.

  12. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.


    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  13. Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement. (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Foroud, Afra; Duckworth, Nadine; Kovacovsky, Stefani D


    Mounting is generally considered to be a male-typical behavior. Female Japanese macaques, in certain populations, are unusual, in that they routinely mount other females. In this study, we examined to what extent female Japanese macaques mount same-sex partners in a male-typical manner. We compared the mount postures males and females adopt and their rate of pelvic thrusting. In addition, we employed a modified form of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to compare patterns of pelvic movement during mounts. LMA is a universal language for movement that describes quantitative features of movement, such as changes in the relation of the body segments, as well as qualitative features, such as the style of movements. Our results indicate that female Japanese macaques do not mount in a male-typical manner. Females exhibited a much greater variety of mount postures than did males. Some of the most common types of mount postures employed by females were never exhibited by males. Females performed fewer pelvic thrusts per mount than males, but they executed more pelvic movements per mount, as well as, greater variety and complexity of movement. In addition, the qualitative style of pelvic mounting that females employed differed, in general, from that of males. We argue that these sex differences in mounting can be explained by the fact that both sexes sought sexual reward via genital stimulation during mounting, but they did so in different ways owing to the constraints imposed by their genital architecture. This study raises the larger question as to what constitutes a male-typical or female-typical behavior.

  14. AluTec (trade-mark) / AluStand. Sloping-roof and facade mounting system; AluTec (mod.dep) / AluStand. Sloping-roof and facade mounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, U.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the use of a modular mounting system for photovoltaic (PV) modules on sloping roofs and facades, whereby the panels can be mounted simply and without the use of tools. The report reviews the results of a project that investigated the use of this mounting system for the installation of a 296-module, 32 kW PV plant. The questions addressed included ease of mounting, safety and security of the modules, time taken for their mounting, snow and wind stability, soiling of the panels and the effect of this demonstration object on visitors. The findings are discussed including the very short time taken to mount the solar generator (3 persons, 1 working day) and the monitoring of the system's performance. The author mentions that, in the meantime, installations in several European countries with a total power of over 3 MW have been realised using this system.

  15. The Late Cenozoic Climatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Mount Everest Region, Central Himalaya (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Hannah

    The collision of India and Eurasia constructed the Himalayan Mountains. Questions remain regarding how subsequent exhumation by climatic and tectonic processes shaped the landscape throughout the Late Cenozoic to create the complex architecture observed today. The Mount Everest region underwent tectonic denudation by extension and bestrides one of the world's most significant rain shadows. Also, glacial and fluvial processes eroded the Everest massif over shorter timescales. In this work, I review new bedrock and detrital thermochronological and geochronological data and both one- and two-dimensional thermal-mechanical modeling that provides insights on the age range and rates of tectonic and erosional processes in this region. A strand of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS), a series of prominent normal-sense structures that dip to the north and strike along the Himalayan spine, is exposed in the Rongbuk valley near Everest. Using thermochronometric techniques, thermal-kinematic modeling, and published (U-Th)/Pb geochronology, I show exhumation rates were high ( 3-4 mm/a) from at least 20 to 13 Ma because of slip on the STDS. Subsequently, exhumation rates dropped drastically to ≤ 0.5 mm/a and remain low today. However, thermochronometric datasets and thermal-kinematic modeling results from Nepal south of Everest reveal a sharp transition in cooling ages and exhumation rates across a major knickpoint in the river profile, corresponding to the modern-day Himalayan rainfall transition. To the north of this transition, exhumation histories are similar to those in Tibet. Conversely, < 3 km south of the transition, exhumation rates were relatively low until the Pliocene, when they increased to 4 mm/a before slowing at 3 Ma. Such contrasting exhumation histories over a short distance suggest that bedrock exhumation rates correlate with modern precipitation patterns in deep time, however, there are competing interpretations regarding this correlation. My work

  16. Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Mounting on or inside Material Layers (United States)

    Shao, Shuai

    There is great desire to employ passive UHF RFID tags for inventory tracking and sensing in a diversity of applications and environments. Owing to its battery-free operation, non-line-of sight detection, low cost, long read range and small form factor, each year billions of RFID tags are being deployed in retail, logistics, manufacturing, biomedical inventories, among many other applications. However, the performance of these RFID systems has not met expectations. This is because a tag's performance deteriorates significantly when mounted on or inside arbitrary materials. The tag antenna is optimized only for a given type of material at a certain location of placement, and detuning takes place when attached to or embedded in materials with dielectric properties outside the design range. Thereby, different customized tags may be needed for identifying objects even within the same class of products. This increases the overall cost of the system. Furthermore, conventional copper foil-based RFID tag antennas are prone to metal fatigue and wear, and cannot survive hostile environments where antennas could be deformed by external forces and failures occur. Therefore, it is essential to understand the interaction between the antenna and the material in the vicinity of the tag, and design general purpose RFID tag antennas possessing excellent electrical performance as well as robust mechanical structure. A particularly challenging application addressed here is designing passive RFID tag antennas for automotive tires. Tires are composed of multiple layers of rubber with different dielectric properties and thicknesses. Furthermore, metallic plies are embedded in the sidewalls and steel belts lie beneath the tread to enforce mechanical integrity. To complicate matters even more, a typical tire experiences a 10% stretching during the construction process. This dissertation focuses on intuitively understanding the interaction between the antenna and the material in the

  17. A new mapping function in table-mounted eye tracker (United States)

    Tong, Qinqin; Hua, Xiao; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng


    Eye tracker is a new apparatus of human-computer interaction, which has caught much attention in recent years. Eye tracking technology is to obtain the current subject's "visual attention (gaze)" direction by using mechanical, electronic, optical, image processing and other means of detection. While the mapping function is one of the key technology of the image processing, and is also the determination of the accuracy of the whole eye tracker system. In this paper, we present a new mapping model based on the relationship among the eyes, the camera and the screen that the eye gazed. Firstly, according to the geometrical relationship among the eyes, the camera and the screen, the framework of mapping function between the pupil center and the screen coordinate is constructed. Secondly, in order to simplify the vectors inversion of the mapping function, the coordinate of the eyes, the camera and screen was modeled by the coaxial model systems. In order to verify the mapping function, corresponding experiment was implemented. It is also compared with the traditional quadratic polynomial function. And the results show that our approach can improve the accuracy of the determination of the gazing point. Comparing with other methods, this mapping function is simple and valid.

  18. The effects of nonlinearity on the output frequency response of a passive engine mount (United States)

    Peng, Z. K.; Lang, Z. Q.


    In this paper, the new concept of output frequency-response function (OFRF) that was derived recently by the authors from the Volterra-series theory of nonlinear systems is briefly introduced. An effective algorithm is proposed to determine the monomials in the OFRF-based representation of the output frequency response of nonlinear systems. The results are then used to analyze the output frequency response of a passive engine mount. Important conclusions regarding the effects of system nonlinearity on the output frequency-response behaviors of the engine mount are reached via theoretical analysis and verified by simulation studies. These conclusions are of significant importance for the analysis and design of vibration isolators such as engine mounts in practice.

  19. Weather and Death on Mount Everest: Is there a link between Storms and Human Physiology? (United States)

    Moore, K.; Semple, J.


    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk factor, it has not been extensively studied. Through the use of observations made at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7986m, and other datasets, we show that high impact weather events on Mount Everest, including the May 1996 storm in which 8 climbers perished, are often associated with continental-scale intrusions of stratospheric air into the upper-troposphere. The variability in wind speeds associated with these intrusions triggered convective activity that resulted in the high impact weather. In addition, the validation of existing meteorological data allows for useful insights into the possibility of forecasting these high impact weather events and their physiological impacts thereby mitigating deaths that occur on the exposed upper slopes of Mount Everest.

  20. Life on Mount Obstacle: Disease of existence as condition and possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Kenneth; Jespersen, Ejgil

    will analyze various kinds of human meaning that can be found on Mount Obstacle, departing from two key positions: First, Camus (1967) used The Myth of Sisyphus to describe how the experience of obstacles is a human condition. In cases of disability this condition is of course more evident, but the task...... is still to create meaning from this absurd condition. Sisyphus is to Camus an ’absurd hero’ because he is aware of and acknowledges the challenge that he is condemned to. This means that the struggle to overcome the necessary obstacle can become a meaningful pursuit, wherefore Camus concluded: ”The...... be illustrated by Suits’ (2005) classical treatise on game playing. By choosing to climb Mount Obstacle the activity of climbing becomes an end in itself, which opens for experiencing the intrinsic value related to voluntarily attempting to overcome the unnecessary obstacle. In both cases life on Mount Obstacle...

  1. Investigation of heat transfer on surface mount packages for different chip materials (United States)

    Ramdzan, N.; Aziz, M. H. B. A.; Ong, N. R.; Alcain, J. B.; Sauli, Z.


    The allocation and design placement of devices consisting of thermal sensitive units and poor thermal design can affect the device performance and damage the device in the worst case scenario. This study investigates the effect of thermal performance on the surface mount package corresponding to difference chip material. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to assess the thermal effect on the electronic package. All the simulations are conducted under an identical simulation environment. The heat is transferred from the chip through the mount package to the surroundings by conduction. Besides that, thermal conduction mechanism happens among the components and thermal convection occurs on the air-exposed surface. The temperature of surface mount package was analyzed. The simulation result indicates that the chip material of titanium beta 21s as chip material shows the highest temperature of 48.04°C. While, magnesium as chip material shows the lowest temperature about 43.61°C.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of Semi-active Hydraulic Engine Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiande


    Full Text Available A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried out to compare with the simulation results, and verify the accuracy of the model. Then the dynamic characteristics-dynamic stiffness and damping angle were analysed by simulation and test. This paper provides theoretical support for the development and optimization of the semi-active hydraulic engine mount.

  3. Quality investigation of surface mount technology using phase-shifting digital holography (United States)

    Boonsri, Chantira; Buranasiri, Prathan


    Applying of a phase-shifting digital holography combined with compressive sensing to inspect the soldering quality of surface mount technology (SMT) which is a method for producing electronic circuits. In SMT, the components are mounted and connected with each other directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). By reconstructing the multidimensional images from a few samples of SMT, the results are solved by an optimization problem. In this paper, two problems have been concerned. The first one is to examine the devices and the soldering quality of connections between them, which are in micro-scaled. The second is to observe the effect of heat treatment of soldering material and devices on the surface mount board.

  4. [Research and development of a vehicle-mounted drinking water installation and its purification effect]. (United States)

    Gao, Junhong; Wan, Hong; Kong, Wei; Yue, Hong


    To provide a suitable vehicle-mounted installation to solve the problem of drinking water in the wild. The vehicle-mounted drinking water installation, made up of pre-treatment unit, purification unit, box and VECU, was used to storage, transport and purify water in the wild. The effect of purification was detected by assembling the installation in the wild and observing the change of water turbidity, TDS, the number of total bacteria and coliform bacteria before and after the treatment of water sources. The wild water sources, such as river water, rainwater, well water and spring water could be purified, and the quality of the treated water could meet the requirement of Drinking Water Quality Standard of CJ94-2005. The vehicle-mounted drinking water installation is suitable for purifying water sources in the wild for drinking use.

  5. Uncertainty of power curve measurement with a two-beam nacelle-mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael Stephen; Friis Pedersen, Troels


    Nacelle lidars are attractive for offshore measurements since they can provide measurements of the free wind speed in front of the turbine rotor without erecting a met mast, which significantly reduces the cost of the measurements. Nacelle-mounted pulsed lidars with two lines of sight (LOS) have...... already been demonstrated to be suitable for use in power performance measurements. To be considered as a professional tool, however, power curve measurements performed using these instruments require traceable calibrated measurements and the quantification of the wind speed measurement uncertainty. Here...... lies between 1 and 2% for the wind speed range between cut-in and rated wind speed. Finally, the lidar was mounted on the nacelle of a wind turbine in order to perform a power curve measurement. The wind speed was simultaneously measured with a mast-top mounted cup anemometer placed two rotor diameters...

  6. The Mount Sinai (New York) Visiting Doctors Program: meeting the needs of the urban homebound population. (United States)

    Ornstein, Katherine; Hernandez, Cameron R; DeCherrie, Linda V; Soriano, Theresa A


    The Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors program, a joint program of Mount Sinai Medical Center's Departments of Medicine and Geriatrics, is a large multidisciplinary teaching, research, and clinical care initiative serving homebound adults in Manhattan since 1995. Caring for more than 1,000 patients annually, the physicians of Visiting Doctors make more than 6,000 urgent and routine visits each year, making it the largest program of its kind in the country. Services include 24-hour physician availability, palliative care, social work case management, collaboration with nursing agencies, and in-home specialty consultation. The program serves many individuals who have previously received inadequate and inconsistent medical care. Patients are referred by social service agencies, localphysicians, and hospitals and are primarily frail older individuals with complex needs. Funded by Mount Sinai and private support, the program serves as a major teaching site for medical nursing, and social work trainees interested in home-based primary care.

  7. Detection and monitoring of flexural cracks in reinforced concrete beams using mounted smart aggregate transducers (United States)

    Taghavipour, S.; Kharkovsky, S.; Kang, W.-H.; Samali, B.; Mirza, O.


    Previous studies have successfully demonstrated the capability and reliability of the use of Smart Aggregate (SA) transducers to monitor reinforced concrete (RC) structures. However, they mainly focused on the applications of embedded SAs to new structural members, while no major attention was paid to the monitoring of existing RC members using externally mounted SAs. In this paper, a mounted SA-based approach is proposed for a real-time health monitoring of existing RC beams. The proposed approach is verified through monitoring of RC beams under flexural loading, on each of which SA transducers are mounted as an actuator and sensors. The experimental results show that the proposed SA-based approach effectively evaluates the cracking status of RC beams in terms of the peak of power spectral density and damage indexes obtained at multiple sensor locations. It is also shown that the proposed sensor system can also capture a precautionary signal for major cracking.

  8. The Eruption of Mount Kelud and It’s Impacts in Blitar 1919-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulin Nihayatul


    Full Text Available This study is meant to deal with the aftermaths of Mount Kelud Eruption from 1919 to 1922 in the region of Blitar, which is focused on the effects of Mount Kelud eruption on the economy and its impacts for the three years following the eruption. The aftermaths of Mount Kelud eruption of 1919 had caused many of the residents lose their livelihood, families and damages to the plantations in the region of Blitar. The damages affecting the plantations made the local economy in the region of Blitar drop. This economic slump certainly impeded the development progress in the Gemeente of Blitar, a Gemeente had been formed in the region of Blitar shortly before that. The extensive environmental devastation, inside the gemeente and the outer parts of the regency’s regions forced the regional government of Blitar Regency to allocate aids funds to handle the casualties, make the repairs and constructions of the facilities in the region of Blitar.

  9. Experimental Optimization of Passive Cooling of a Heat Source Array Flush-Mounted on a Vertical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Baudoin


    Full Text Available Heat sources, such as power electronics for offshore power, could be cooled passively—mainly by conduction and natural convection. The obvious advantage of this strategy is its high reliability. However, it must be implemented in an efficient manner (i.e., the area needs to be kept low to limit the construction costs. In this study, the placement of multiple heat sources mounted on a vertical plate was studied experimentally for optimization purposes. We chose a regular distribution, as this is likely to be the preferred choice in the construction process. We found that optimal spacing can be determined for a targeted source density by tuning the vertical and horizontal spacing between the heat sources. The optimal aspect ratio was estimated to be around two.

  10. Hydrometeor-enhanced tephra sedimentation: Constraints from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Durant, A.J.; Rose, William I.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Carey, Steven; Volentik, A.C.M.


    Uncertainty remains on the origin of distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent tephra fall deposits. In this study the link between ash aggregation and the formation of distal mass deposition maxima is investigated through reanalysis of tephra fallout from the Mount St. Helens 18 May 1980 (MSH80) eruption. In addition, we collate all the data needed to model distal ash sedimentation from the MSH80 eruption cloud. Four particle size subpopulations were present in distal fallout with modes at 2.2 ??, 4.2 ??, 5.9 ??, and 8.3 ??. Settling rates of the coarsest subpopulation closely matched predicted single-particle terminal fall velocities. Sedimentation of particles <100 ??m was greatly enhanced, predominantly through aggregation of a particle subpopulation with modal diameter 5.9 ?? 0.2 ?? (19 ?? 3 ??m). Mammatus on the MSH80 cloud provided a mechanism to transport very fine ash particles, with predicted atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks, from the upper troposphere to the surface in a matter of hours. In this mechanism, ash particles initiate ice hydrometeor formation high in the troposphere. Subsequently, the volcanic cloud rapidly subsides as mammatus develop from increased particle loading and cloud base sublimation. Rapid fallout occurs as the cloud passes through the melting level in a process analogous to snowflake aggregation. Aggregates sediment en masse and form the distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent volcanic ash fall deposits. This work provides a data resource that will facilitate tephra sedimentation modeling and allow model intercomparisons. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. 2014 Mount Ontake eruption: characteristics of the phreatic eruption as inferred from aerial observations (United States)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Maeno, Fukashi; Nakada, Setsuya


    The sudden eruption of Mount Ontake on September 27, 2014, led to a tragedy that caused more than 60 fatalities including missing persons. In order to mitigate the potential risks posed by similar volcano-related disasters, it is vital to have a clear understanding of the activity status and progression of eruptions. Because the erupted material was largely disturbed while access was strictly prohibited for a month, we analyzed the aerial photographs taken on September 28. The results showed that there were three large vents in the bottom of the Jigokudani valley on September 28. The vent in the center was considered to have been the main vent involved in the eruption, and the vents on either side were considered to have been formed by non-explosive processes. The pyroclastic flows extended approximately 2.5 km along the valley at an average speed of 32 km/h. The absence of burned or fallen trees in this area indicated that the temperatures and destructive forces associated with the pyroclastic flow were both low. The distribution of ballistics was categorized into four zones based on the number of impact craters per unit area, and the furthest impact crater was located 950 m from the vents. Based on ballistic models, the maximum initial velocity of the ejecta was estimated to be 111 m/s. Just after the beginning of the eruption, very few ballistic ejecta had arrived at the summit, even though the eruption plume had risen above the summit, which suggested that a large amount of ballistic ejecta was expelled from the volcano several tens-of-seconds after the beginning of the eruption. This initial period was characterized by the escape of a vapor phase from the vents, which then caused the explosive eruption phase that generated large amounts of ballistic ejecta via sudden decompression of a hydrothermal reservoir.

  12. Automated detection of submerged navigational obstructions in freshwater impoundments with hull mounted sidescan sonar (United States)

    Morris, Phillip A.

    The prevalence of low-cost side scanning sonar systems mounted on small recreational vessels has created improved opportunities to identify and map submerged navigational hazards in freshwater impoundments. However, these economical sensors also present unique challenges for automated techniques. This research explores related literature in automated sonar imagery processing and mapping technology, proposes and implements a framework derived from these sources, and evaluates the approach with video collected from a recreational grade sonar system. Image analysis techniques including optical character recognition and an unsupervised computer automated detection (CAD) algorithm are employed to extract the transducer GPS coordinates and slant range distance of objects protruding from the lake bottom. The retrieved information is formatted for inclusion into a spatial mapping model. Specific attributes of the sonar sensors are modeled such that probability profiles may be projected onto a three dimensional gridded map. These profiles are computed from multiple points of view as sonar traces crisscross or come near each other. As lake levels fluctuate over time so do the elevation points of view. With each sonar record, the probability of a hazard existing at certain elevations at the respective grid points is updated with Bayesian mechanics. As reinforcing data is collected, the confidence of the map improves. Given a lake's current elevation and a vessel draft, a final generated map can identify areas of the lake that have a high probability of containing hazards that threaten navigation. The approach is implemented in C/C++ utilizing OpenCV, Tesseract OCR, and QGIS open source software and evaluated in a designated test area at Lake Lavon, Collin County, Texas.

  13. KOH mount as an aid in the management of infectious keratitis at secondary eye care centre. (United States)

    Rathi, Varsha M; Thakur, Monica; Sharma, Savitri; Khanna, Rohit; Garg, Prashant


    To report the clinical outcome of infectious keratitis managed after doing 10% KOH mount of corneal smears and reporting done by an ophthalmologist in the secondary eye care centre in South India. 103 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis were studied. Inclusion criteria were presence of corneal infiltrate on slit lamp biomicroscopy. An ophthalmologist carried out microbiological evaluation of 10% KOH mount of corneal scrapings. No cultures were done at secondary centres. Antifungal therapy with 5% Natamycin was initiated when 10% KOH mount was positive for fungal filaments. Else, the patients were started on combined topical ciprofloxacin (0.3%) and fortified cefazolin (5%). 41/103 (39.8%) smears were positive for fungus and 62 (60.2%) were negative. 89 out of 103 patients (86.40%) healed with scarring at an average of 2.95±1.58 weeks. Healing was noted in 39/41 (95.12%) of patients at an average of 3.06±1.19 weeks in patients with KOH smear positive keratitis. 80.64% (50/62) healed with scarring at an average period of 2.86±1.86 weeks in KOH mount negative keratitis. Initial smear examination of KOH mount by an ophthalmologist helped in diagnosis of infectious keratitis caused by fungi and its management and 95.12% of KOH positive patients healed with scarring. Reading of KOH mount by an ophthalmologist helped in initiation of specific therapy with improved clinical outcome. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firmansyah, Rizky, E-mail: [Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: [Global Geophysical Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Kristianto, E-mail: [Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Geological Agency, Bandung, 40122 (Indonesia)


    Historical records that before the 17{sup th} century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4{sup th}, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28{sup th}, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.

  15. New Academic Partnerships in Global Health: Innovations at Mount Sinai School of Medicine (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Ripp, Jonathan; Murphy, Ramon J. C.; Claudio, Luz; Jao, Jennifer; Hexom, Braden; Bloom, Harrison G.; Shirazian, Taraneh; Elahi, Ebby; Koplan, Jeffrey P.


    Global health has become an increasingly important focus of education, research, and clinical service in North American universities and academic health centers. Today there are at least 49 academically based global health programs in the United States and Canada, as compared with only one in 1999. A new academic society, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, was established in 2008 and has grown significantly. This sharp expansion reflects convergence of 3 factors: (1) rapidly growing student and faculty interest in global health; (2) growing realization–powerfully catalyzed by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic, the emergence of other new infections, climate change, and globalization–that health problems are interconnected, cross national borders, and are global in nature; and (3) rapid expansion in resources for global health. This article examines the evolution of the concept of global health and describes the driving forces that have accelerated interest in the field. It traces the development of global health programs in academic health centers in the United States. It presents a blueprint for a new school-wide global health program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The mission of that program, Mount Sinai Global Health, is to enhance global health as an academic field of study within the Mount Sinai community and to improve the health of people around the world. Mount Sinai Global Health is uniting and building synergies among strong, existing global health programs within Mount Sinai; it is training the next generation of physicians and health scientists to be leaders in global health; it is making novel discoveries that translate into blueprints for improving health worldwide; and it builds on Mount Sinai’s long and proud tradition of providing medical and surgical care in places where need is great and resources few. PMID:21598272

  16. The chemical and radiative effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption (United States)

    Kinneson, Douglas E.; Grant, Keith E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.


    To clarify the mechanisms leading to effects on stratospheric ozone, time-dependent stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II (SAGE II) and cryogenic limb array elaton spectrometer (CLAES) aerosol optical extinction data and SAGE II surface area density are used as parameters in a two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged chemical radiative transport model. The model was integrated with time from before the eruption through December 1993. The modeled impact on global ozone results from increased rates of heterogeneous reactions on sulfate aerosols and from the increased radiative heating and scattering caused by these aerosols. When the aerosol heating is allowed to modify the temperature distribution, the maximum change calculated in equatorial column ozone is -1.6%. The calculated equatorial temperature change and peak local ozone change in October 1991 are +6K and -4%, respectively. When aerosol heating perturbs the circulation in the model, the maximum change in equatorial column ozone is -6%. Increased heterogeneous processing on sulfate aerosols is calculated to have changed equatorial column ozone in late 1991 by -1.5%. Global column ozone in the model in 1992 and 1993 changed by -2.8% and -2.4%, respectively. The relationship of ozone-controlling processes in the lower stratosphere is altered as well; HO(x) becomes the most important catalytic cycle, followed by ClO(x) and NO(x). This is driven by significant changes in trace gas concentrations. In October 1991, lower stratospheric, equatorial NO(x) decreased by 40%, ClO(x) increased by 60%, and HO(x) increased by 25%. When the effect of heterogeneous chemical processing on sulfate aerosols is combined with aerosol heating, modifying either circulation or temperature, dramatically different ozone fingerprints with time and latitude are predicted. Model-derived changes in the equatorial region in column ozone best represented the observed data when perturbed circulation was combined with heterogeneous

  17. Research on Positioning Algorithm of Forklift-mounted RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang


    Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.

  18. Beamforming with a circular array of microphones mounted on a rigid sphere (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn; Fernandez Grande, Efren


    Beamforming with uniform circular microphone arrays can be used for localizing sound sources over 360. Typically, the array microphones are suspended in free space or they are mounted on a solid cylinder. However, the cylinder is often considered to be infinitely long because the scattering problem...... has no exact solution for a finite cylinder. Alternatively one can use a solid sphere. This investigation compares the performance of a circular array mounded on a rigid sphere with that of such an array in free space and mounted on an infinite cylinder, using computer simulations. The examined...

  19. Interactive Multi-Resolution Display Using a Projector Mounted Mobile Robot in Intelligent Space


    Jeong-Eom Lee; Jiyoung Park; Gon-Soo Kim; Joo-Ho Lee; Myoung-Hee Kim


    In this paper, we propose a novel interactive multi‐resolution display system. The proposed system is based on a projector‐mounted mobile robot in an Intelligent Space. The Intelligent Space can calculate the location of the region of interest (ROI) by recognizing the user’s pointing gesture. The steerable projector mounted on the mobile robot can improve the brightness and resolution of the ROI of a large image projected by a stationary projector installed in the Intelligent Space. In the pr...

  20. Design of illumination systems for vision-assisted placement of surface-mount components (United States)

    Cheraghi, S. H.; Lehtihet, E. A.; Egbelu, Pius J.


    One of the major parts of any vision system design is the development of effective illumination techniques. For high accuracy applications one can not afford to ignore an obvious source of error, namely a poor lighting system. In electronic manufacturing, accurate placement of fine pitch surface-mount components (SMCs) requires the integration of a vision system with the placement system. This paper describes the design of very effective lighting techniques for a vision-assisted system to place surface-mount components. The lighting systems provide consistent images of SMCs and pads with high contrast.

  1. Recent advances in head-mounted light field displays for virtual and augmented reality (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Hua, Hong


    Head-mounted light field displays render a true 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. They are capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and addressing the very well-known vergence-accommodation mismatch problem in conventional virtual and augmented reality displays. In this talk, I will focus on reviewing recent advancements of head-mounted light field displays for VR and AR applications. I will demonstrate examples of HMD systems developed in my group.

  2. Mounting and Alignment of Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Optics (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Kester, Thomas; Ramsey, Brian; Smithers, Martin


    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for astronomy. The optics are full-cylinder mirror shells fabricated using electroformed-nickel replication off super-polished mandrels. For space-based applications where weight is at a premium, very-thin-walled, light-weight mirrors are required. Such shells have been fabricated at MSFC with greater than 15 arcsec resolution. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center to meet this challenge.

  3. Living with a volcano in your backyard: an educator's guide with emphasis on Mount Rainier (United States)

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Doherty, Anne; Dixon, Cheryl; Faust, Lisa M.


    Today’s residents, as well as residents of centuries past, consider Mount Rainier “the spiritual and cultural icon of the Pacific Northwest.” As a backdrop for many of the State’s residents, Mount Rainier offers beauty, solace, inspiration, and challenge. The mountain sets the daily mood for thousands of people who gaze at and respect it. There is no mistaking this object of admiration when people smile and remark that, “the mountain is out!”

  4. Use cases and usability challenges for head-mounted displays in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentler T.


    Full Text Available In the healthcare domain, head-mounted displays (HMDs with augmented reality (AR modalities have been reconsidered for application as a result of commercially available products and the needs for using computers in mobile context. Within a user-centered design approach, interviews were conducted with physicians, nursing staff and members of emergency medical services. Additionally practitioners were involved in evaluating two different head-mounted displays. Based on these measures, use cases and usability considerations according to interaction design and information visualization were derived and are described in this contribution.

  5. Selecting appropriate dynamic model for elastomeric engine mounts to approximate experimental FRF data of them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahani K.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the capabilities of different dynamic analytical models to approximate experimentally measured FRFs of elastomeric engine mounts of a passenger car are investigated. Artificial neural networks is used in identifying the dynamic characteristics of each model. Impact hammer test is implemented to extract measured FRFs and harmonic analysis is used to get the counterpart response of the models. Here linear and orthotropic material properties are considered for elastomeric media. The frequency response functions of updated models are compared with experimentally detected ones and advantages and limitations of each model to simulate the real dynamic behaviour of elastomeric engine mounts are discussed

  6. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)


    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  7. Information Pollution, a Mounting Threat: Internet a Major Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita, Ramesh


    Full Text Available The present discourse lasts around, information pollution, causes and concerns of information pollution, internet as a major causality and how it affects the decision making ability of an individual. As, information producers in the process to not to lose the readership of their content, and to cater the information requirements of both the electronic and the print readers, reproduce almost the whole of the printed information in digital form as well. Abundant literature is also equally produced in electronic format only, thereon, sharing this information on hundreds of social networking sites, like, Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, Flicker, Digg, LinkedIn, etc. without attributions to original authors, have created almost a mess of this whole information produced and disseminated. Accordingly, the study discusses about the sources of information pollution, the aspects of unstructured information along with plagiarism. Towards the end of the paper stress has been laid on information literacy, as how it can prove handy in addressing the issue with some measures, which can help in regulating the behaviour of information producers.

  8. Miniature proportional control valve with top-mounted piezo bimorph actuator with millisecond response time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    In this paper we demonstrate the realization of a micro control valve with a top-mounted piezoelectric bimorph actuator, to obtain a high-bandwidth proportional control valve for gases in the range of several grams per hour. Dynamic fluidic and mechanical characterization shows that the valve is

  9. A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse; Konradsen, Flemming


    In the light of substantial improvements to the quality and availability of virtual reality (VR) hardware seen since 2013, this review seeks to update our knowledge about the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) in education and training. Following a comprehensive search 21 documents reporting...

  10. Head mounted device for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Krüger, Norbert


    This paper presents a fully calibrated extended geometric approach for gaze estimation in three dimensions (3D). The methodology is based on a geometric approach utilising a fully calibrated binocular setup constructed as a head-mounted system. The approach is based on utilisation of two ordinary...

  11. Apparatus and method for mounting photovoltaic power generating systems on buildings (United States)

    Russell, Miles Clayton [Lincoln, MA


    Rectangular PV modules (6) are mounted on a building roof (4) by mounting stands that are distributed in rows and columns. Each stand comprises a base plate (10) that rests on the building roof (4) and first and second brackets (12, 14) of different height attached to opposite ends of the base plate (10). Each bracket (12, 14) has dual members for supporting two different PV modules (6), and each PV module (6) has a mounting pin (84) adjacent to each of its four corners. Each module (6) is supported by attachment of two of its mounting pins (84) to different first brackets (12), whereby the modules (6) and their supporting stands are able to resist uplift forces resulting from high velocity winds without the base plates (10) being physically attached to the supporting roof structure (4). Preferably the second brackets (14) have a telescoping construction that permits their effective height to vary from less than to substantially the same as that of the first brackets (12).

  12. The genus Ivalia Jacoby 1887 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) of the mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia (United States)

    The following new species of Ivalia Jacoby 1887 are described from the mount Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia): I. besar, I. biasa, I. fulvomaculata, I. haruka, I. marginata, I. minutissima, I. nigrofasciata, I. pseudostriolata, I. rubrorbiculata, I. striolata. Chabria kinabalensis Bryant 1938 is transferr...

  13. Radio/Antenna Mounting System for Wireless Networking under Row-Crop Agriculture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Fisher


    Full Text Available Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-collection procedures, power management, and communication protocols, little information related to physical deployment issues has been reported. To achieve acceptable wireless transmission capability, the radio/antenna must be positioned properly relative to the ground surface or crop canopy to minimize degradation of the radio signal, usually requiring the mounting of the radio/antenna above the canopy. This results in the presence of obstacles to normal agricultural equipment traffic and production operations and potential damage to the wireless monitoring system. A simple and rugged radio/antenna mounting system was designed which could be subjected to encounters with agricultural equipment without suffering physical damage. The mounting system was deployed and tested, and operated successfully following repeated encounters with various agricultural machines and implements. The radio/antenna mount is simple and inexpensive to fabricate using locally available components.

  14. The Utilisation of Tractor-Mounted Primary Tillage Implements in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was primarily aimed at determining the utilization of tractor-mounted primary tillage implements in Swaziland using 14 case study forms in the Malkerns Valley. Being descriptive in nature, the study employed scheduled personal interviews and questionnaires that were developed, pre-tested and administered by ...

  15. 76 FR 2370 - Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... reservoir would be joined with the lower reservoir by approximately 7,600 feet of conduit. Maximum hydraulic...

  16. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF (United States)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size, and cost.

  17. Alignment-insensitive coupling for PLC-based surface mount photonics


    Vernooy, David W.; Paslaski, Joel S.; Blauvelt, Henry A.; Lee, Robert B.; Vahala, Kerry J.


    A flip-chip waveguide coupler with an order of magnitude greater alignment tolerance than competing approaches is presented for the first time. Experimental data for an "optical jumper" agree with simple design considerations. Application to a planar lightwave circuit-based surface mount photonics platform is outlined.

  18. Digital bedrock geologic map of the Mount Holly and Ludlow quadrangles, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG94-229A Walsh, G.J., Ratcliffe, N.M., Dudley, J.B., and Merrifield, T., 1994,�Digital bedrock geologic map of the Mount Holly and Ludlow...

  19. Aluminum heat sink enables power transistors to be mounted integrally with printed circuit board (United States)

    Seaward, R. C.


    Power transistor is provided with an integral flat plate aluminum heat sink which mounts directly on a printed circuit board containing associated circuitry. Standoff spacers are used to attach the heat sink to the printed circuit board containing the remainder of the circuitry.

  20. 3.5 m travelling-wave cavity with one coupler mounted

    CERN Multimedia


    Two of these cavities were mounted in a 800 MHz system for stabilizing a high intensity proton beam in the SPS (Annual Report 1979 p.70 and Fig. 2). Hansuli Preis and Ernest Ullrich Haebel stand on the left, Claude Ruivet on the right.

  1. Power supply sharing in the Apollo telescope mount electrical power system (United States)

    Lanier, R., Jr.; Kapustka, R.


    A modular dc power supply power sharing technique was developed for the Apollo telescope mount electrical power sytem on Skylab. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques used are reviewed and compared. The new technique design is discussed, and results of its implementation in the power system are reviewed.

  2. A Decision Analysis Framework for Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alternatives for Fighter Aircraft (United States)


    flown on F-16, AV-8B, Tornado 1990s TopSight/TopNight Thales Avionics Fielded on Mirage and Rafale 1990s Joint Helmet Mounted Cuing System (JHMCS...reliability, a decreasing categorical value function can be used since there is no intermediate gradation between location types (Figure 27). 84 Figure

  3. Composition of under-shrubs species in mount salak national park, west java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Larashati


    Full Text Available Forest in Mount Salak area has a very important existence, so that in the year of 2003 was announced offi cially as a conservation area and became a part of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (TNGHS. As one of the conservation area in Indonesia, Mount Salak forest has so many natural resources which support the living prosperity of the people, especially The West Java citizen. But in the use of the natural resources people have never been appreciating the conservation concepts then causing the forest degradation rapidly and terribly saddening. In order to explore the vegetation in the conservation area left, then the ecology analysis was done by making research plots in a hectare area. Data collecting was done on the systematically-located 1 meter square-size sub-plots. Those plots were located in a relatively-good natural forest. Data analysis result stated Athyrium dilalatum, Stenochlaena palustris, Calamus javensis, Curculigo latifolia and Strobilanthes blumei were the species which dominated Mount Salak National Park in the altitude of 1.267 meter above sea level.

  4. Plant succession on the Mount St. Helens debris-avalanche deposit. (United States)

    Virginia H. Dale; Daniel R. Campbell; Wendy M. Adams; Charles M. Crisafulli; Virginia I. Dains; Peter M. Frenzen; Robert F. Holland


    Debris avalanches occasionally occur with the partial collapse of a volcano, and their ecological impacts have been studied worldwide. Examples include Mt. Taranaki in New Zealand (Clarkson 1990), Ksudach in Russia (Grishin et al. 19961, the Ontake volcano in Japan (Nakashizuka et al. 1993), and Mount Katmai in the state of Alaska in the United States (Griggs 1918a,b,...

  5. Soil and air temperatures for different habitats in Mount Rainier National Park. (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Mark. Klopsch


    This paper reports air and soil temperature data from 10 sites in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State for 2- to 5-year periods. Data provided are monthly summaries for day and night mean air temperatures, mean minimum and maximum air temperatures, absolute minimum and maximum air temperatures, range of air temperatures, mean soil temperature, and absolute...

  6. Vortex propagation around a wall-mounted obstacle in pulsatile flow (United States)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    Wall-mounted obstacles are prevalent in nature and engineering applications. Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. Despite their prevalence, studies of wall-mounted obstacles have been restricted to steady (constant velocity) freestream flow. In biological and geophysical applications, pulsatile flow is much more common, yet effects of pulsatility on the wake of a wall-mounted obstacle remain to be extensively studied. This study aims to characterize the complex physics produced in this unsteady, separated flow. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel with a set of rotating vanes, which produce the pulsatile inflow waveform. Instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) results acquired around a hemispherical obstacle are presented and compared. A mechanism based on self-induced vortex propagation, analogous to that in vortex rings, is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of coherent structures. Predictions of the propagation velocity based on analytical expressions for vortex rings in a viscous fluid are compared to the experimentally measured propagation velocity. Effects of the unsteady boundary layer on the observed physics are explored. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  7. Characterizing Magmatic Activity at Mount Baker, Washington With Inversion of Slope Distance Data. (United States)

    Hodge, B. E.; Crider, J. G.


    Surface deformation studies at active volcanoes are used to detect changes to magmatic source regions beneath the volcano. At Mount Baker, Washington, continued elevated gas (CO2 and H2S) and heat flux from fumaroles in Sherman Crater indicate the presence of a degassing magma reservoir. We assess if surface deformation has occurred on Mount Baker during the last quarter century by collecting a modern geodetic data set to compare with previous slope distance measurements acquired in 1981 and 1983 with EDM. Campaign GPS surveys in 2006 and 2007 provide slope distance measurements of all 19 trilateration lines on Mount Baker. These surveys determined that slope distances have predominantly shortened around the edifice at rates of less than 2 mm/yr. The greatest slope length change detected (HDLY-RSVT) is -17 ± 4 ppm on the northern flank of the volcano. We fit a strain model to the weighted slope change data using a nonlinear least-squares regression to characterize a two dimensional surface strain tensor. These results indicate contractional strain centered near the crater with and aerial dilation rate of less than 0.5 microstrain/yr. We also use these data to invert source parameters for a spherical magma source at depth to provide estimates of net volume and mass change of the magma reservoir. The inversion results are analyzed in conjunction with microgravity and gas flux data to better understand the current magmatic quiescence at Mount Baker.

  8. Investigating mechanisms of edifice deflation, 1981-2007, at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, United States (United States)

    Hodge, Brendan E.; Crider, Juliet G.


    At Mount Baker, elevated gas and heat fluxes from fumaroles in Sherman Crater indicate the presence of a degassing magma reservoir. Campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in 2006 and 2007 provide slope distance measurements of 19 trilateration lines and provide baseline positions for future GPS study on Mount Baker. Comparison of slope distance measurements acquired in 1981 and 1983 with electronic distance meters (EDM) indicates that significant surface deformation has occurred on Mount Baker during the past quarter century. Slope distances have predominantly shortened around the edifice at rates <2 mm/yr. The greatest slope length change detected is -17 ± 4 ppm on the northern flank of the volcano. A uniform surface strain rate model fit to the weighted slope change data shows contractional strain, with an areal dilation rate of -420 ± 140 nanostrain/yr. The observed strain rate is an order of magnitude greater than that expected from tectonic sources. Elastic dislocation models are used to invert for the location and strength of a point source at depth. The optimal model predicts a volume change of -11 × 106 m3, located 1500 m east-northeast of the summit, at a depth of ˜5.8 km. The model can account for most of the deformation detected, suggesting that the magmatic and hydrothermal system at Mount Baker has depressurized since 1981, from the combined result of densification and devolatilization.

  9. Stratified Flow in a Room with Displacement Ventilation and Wall-Mounted Air Terminal devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The stratified flow in the room is analyzed, and the influence of stratification and the influence of room dimensions on the velocity level and on the length scale are proved. The velocity level in the occupied zone can be d...

  10. Displacement and Force Control of a Quarter Car Using a Mixed Mode MR Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang


    Full Text Available In hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV, vibration in dual-mode pump/motor units should be isolated from the chassis. A mixed mode magnetorheological (MR fluid mount was adopted to isolate this vibration and was evaluated in a quarter car model. The MR fluid mount was designed to be able to operate in flow mode and squeeze mode independently and simultaneously. For HHVs, it is desirable to control force and displacement transmissibility. These simulation results presented a basis for designing an effective algorithm to control both the displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility. Moreover, a hierarchical controller for minimizing the two requirements for transmissibility was also constructed. At last, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to closely reproduce the effect of the hierarchical controller. The experiments were set up to facilitate the hardware-in-the-loop evaluation of the mount. Results from the experiments showed that the mixed mode MR fluid mount was able to achieve desired dynamic stiffness profile to minimize the dual-transmissibility criterion.

  11. 75 FR 71668 - Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine (United States)


    ... uranium mine at the Roca Honda claims. The purpose of the EIS is to evaluate the environmental impacts of... Forest Service Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: Roca Honda...

  12. The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, Narcissa; Krol, Maarten; van Noije, Twan; van Weele, Michiel; Williams, Jason E.; Sager, Philippe Le; Niemeier, Ulrike; Thomason, Larry; Röckmann, Thomas


    The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 injected a large amount of SO2 into the stratosphere, which formed sulfate aerosols. Increased scattering and absorption of UV radiation by the enhanced stratospheric SO2 and aerosols decreased the amount of UV radiation reaching the troposphere, causing

  13. The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bândə, Narcisa; Krol, Maarten; Noije, Van Twan; Weele, Van Michiel; Williams, Jason E.; Sager, Philippe Le; Niemeier, Ulrike; Thomason, Larry; Röckmann, Thomas


    The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 injected a large amount of SO2 into the stratosphere, which formed sulfate aerosols. Increased scattering and absorption of UV radiation by the enhanced stratospheric SO2 and aerosols decreased the amount of UV radiation reaching the

  14. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.


    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (design, construction, and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna to detect individually PIT-tagged benthic aquatic organisms (mussels). We evaluated the effects of tag orientation on detection distances in water with a 32-mm half-duplex PIT tag. Detection distances up to 50 cm from the antenna coils were obtained, but detection distance was dependent on tag orientation. We also evaluated detection distance of PIT tags beneath the sediment to simulate detection of burrowing mussels with 23- and 32-mm tags. In sand substrate, the maximum detection distance varied from 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm (vertical tag orientation) to 24.7 cm and 39.4 cm (45° tag orientation) for the 23- and 32-mm PIT tags, respectively. Our results suggest a 1.4-m total detection width for tagged mussels on the substrate surface by the boat-mounted antenna system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  15. Evolution of Crater Glacier, Mount St. Helens, Washington, September 2006-November 2009 (United States)

    Walder, Joseph S.; Schilling, Steven P.; Sherrod, David R.; Vallance, James W.


    Lava-dome emplacement through a glacier was observed for the first time during the 2004-08 eruption of Mount St. Helens and documented using photography, photogrammetry, and geodetic measurements. Previously published reports present such documentation through September 2006; this report extends that documentation until November 2009.

  16. Optical mount modifications for increased articulation at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (United States)

    Clark, James H., III; Walton, Joshua P.; Penado, F. Ernesto; Smith, Denver


    Reconfigurations of the original optical mounts are required to facilitate the expanding capabilities and diverse science programs at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. The mounts of current interest are tangent-arm gimbaled mounts located in vacuum chambers, remotely controlled, and precisely aligned through a narrow range of motion. In order to achieve the desired large changes in pathway reflections, the articulated range of the mount was increased from 4 to 45 degrees in elevation and from 4 to 90 degrees in azimuth. This increase was achieved on the elevation axis by fashioning and attaching a worm gear device, and a direct-drive type mechanism was used on the azimuth axis. The original alignment resolution and stability were preserved by retaining the high precision tangent-arm actuators. In this paper, we present the design modifications that achieved the form, fit, and function required for remote-controlled reconfiguration and alignment. The mechanical modifications, modes of operation, test results, and reconfigurations are described in detail.

  17. Volcanic Ash from Mount Mazama (Crater Lake) and from Glacier Peak. (United States)

    Powers, H A; Wilcox, R E


    New petrographic and chemical data indicate that the great Mount Mazama eruption at Crater Lake, Oregon, about 6600 years ago was the source of most ash which has been called "Glacier Peak" and of some ash called "Galata." Glacier Peak volcano in Washington was itself the source of an older ash deposit, perhaps very late glacial or early postglacial in age.

  18. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac


    Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements...

  19. Diagnosis of vaginal discharge by wet mount microscopy: a simple and underrated method. (United States)

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Bergauer, Florian


    Vaginal discharge is highly variable in quality and quantity among different individuals, and even in the same individual during different periods of life. Vaginal discharge is most commonly caused by infection with sexually transmitted organisms or increased colonization by different facultative pathogenic microorganisms (i.e., Gardnerella vaginalis). Noninfectious causes of vaginal discharge are quite rare (10% noninfectious as compared to 90% infectious causes). Most common in women with a vaginal infection is bacterial vaginosis (40%-50% of cases), followed by vulvovaginal candidosis (20%-25%), and then trichomoniasis (15%-20%). If infection is suspected as the primary cause, a sample of the vaginal discharge should be taken and examined microscopically. When evaluating vaginal secretions by phase-contrast wet mount microscopy, knowledge of what is normal versus abnormal is very important. Knowledge of the sensitivity and specificity of wet mount microscopy in different clinical settings is also important. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to evaluate lifetime changes in vaginal secretions, characterize the physiological and pathological appearance of vaginal discharge, assess the clinical practicality and usefulness of wet mount microscopy and use wet mount microscopy to diagnose bacterial vaginosis and other common vaginal infections.

  20. Walking speed estimation using a shank-mounted inertial measurement unit. (United States)

    Li, Q; Young, M; Naing, V; Donelan, J M


    We studied the feasibility of estimating walking speed using a shank-mounted inertial measurement unit. Our approach took advantage of the inverted pendulum-like behavior of the stance leg during walking to identify a new method for dividing up walking into individual stride cycles and estimating the initial conditions for the direct integration of the accelerometer and gyroscope signals. To test its accuracy, we compared speed estimates to known values during walking overground and on a treadmill. The speed estimation method worked well across treadmill speeds and slopes yielding a root mean square speed estimation error of only 7%. It also worked well during overground walking with a 4% error in the estimated travel distance. This accuracy is comparable to that achieved from foot-mounted sensors, providing an alternative in sensor positioning for walking speed estimation. Shank mounted sensors may be of great benefit for estimating speed in walking with abnormal foot motion and for the embedded control of knee-mounted devices such as prostheses and energy harvesters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The gravity anomaly of Mount Amiata; different approaches for understanding anomaly source distribution (United States)

    Girolami, C.; Barchi, M. R.; Heyde, I.; Pauselli, C.; Vetere, F.; Cannata, A.


    In this work, the gravity anomaly signal beneath Mount Amiata and its surroundings have been analysed to reconstruct the subsurface setting. In particular, the work focuses on the investigation of the geological bodies responsible for the Bouguer gravity minimum observed in this area.

  2. Embedded-LES and experiment of turbulent boundary layer flow around a floor-mounted cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.

    An Embedded LES approach is used to numerically simulate fluctuating surface pressures on a floor-mounted cube in a turbulent boundary layer flow and compared to wind tunnel experiments. The computation were performed with the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at cube height of Reh = 1...

  3. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks. (United States)


    ... tests required in the applicable specification or § 180.407(g)(1)(iv). (v) Any modification that changes information displayed on the specification plate requires the installation of a supplemental specification... mounting of specification cargo tanks. 180.413 Section 180.413 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  4. Origins of the McClellan cavalry saddle used by SADF mounted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origins of the McClellan cavalry saddle used by SADF mounted units in the south west Africa campaign and elsewhere. N Steele. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African ...

  5. The Use of Whole-Mount "in Situ" Hybridization to Illustrate Gene Expression Regulation (United States)

    Llamusí, Beatriz; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Paricio, Nuria; Artero, Rubén


    "In situ" hybridization is a widely used technique for studying gene expression. Here, we describe two experiments addressed to postgraduate genetics students in which the effect of transcription factors on gene expression is analyzed in "Drosophila embryos of different genotypes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In one of the…

  6. The source of infrasound associated with long-period events at mount St. Helens (United States)

    Matoza, R.S.; Garces, M.A.; Chouet, B.A.; D'Auria, L.; Hedlin, M.A.H.; De Groot-Hedlin, C.; Waite, G.P.


    During the early stages of the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens eruption, the source process that produced a sustained sequence of repetitive long-period (LP) seismic events also produced impulsive broadband infrasonic signals in the atmosphere. To assess whether the signals could be generated simply by seismic-acoustic coupling from the shallow LP events, we perform finite difference simulation of the seismo-acoustic wavefield using a single numerical scheme for the elastic ground and atmosphere. The effects of topography, velocity structure, wind, and source configuration are considered. The simulations show that a shallow source buried in a homogeneous elastic solid produces a complex wave train in the atmosphere consisting of P/SV and Rayleigh wave energy converted locally along the propagation path, and acoustic energy originating from , the source epicenter. Although the horizontal acoustic velocity of the latter is consistent with our data, the modeled amplitude ratios of pressure to vertical seismic velocity are too low in comparison with observations, and the characteristic differences in seismic and acoustic waveforms and spectra cannot be reproduced from a common point source. The observations therefore require a more complex source process in which the infrasonic signals are a record of only the broadband pressure excitation mechanism of the seismic LP events. The observations and numerical results can be explained by a model involving the repeated rapid pressure loss from a hydrothermal crack by venting into a shallow layer of loosely consolidated, highly permeable material. Heating by magmatic activity causes pressure to rise, periodically reaching the pressure threshold for rupture of the "valve" sealing the crack. Sudden opening of the valve generates the broadband infrasonic signal and simultaneously triggers the collapse of the crack, initiating resonance of the remaining fluid. Subtle waveform and amplitude variability of the infrasonic signals as

  7. Controls on long-term low explosivity at andesitic arc volcanoes: Insights from Mount Hood, Oregon (United States)

    Koleszar, Alison M.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Wallace, Paul J.; Scott, William E.


    The factors that control the explosivity of silicic volcanoes are critical for hazard assessment, but are often poorly constrained for specific volcanic systems. Mount Hood, Oregon, is a somewhat atypical arc volcano in that it is characterized by a lack of large explosive eruptions over the entire lifetime of the current edifice (~ 500,000 years). Erupted Mount Hood lavas are also compositionally homogeneous, with ~ 95% having SiO2 contents between 58 and 66 wt.%. The last three eruptive periods in particular have produced compositionally homogeneous andesite-dacite lava domes and flows. In this paper we report major element and volatile (H2O, CO2, Cl, S, F) contents of melt inclusions and selected phenocrysts from these three most recent eruptive phases, and use these and other data to consider possible origins for the low explosivity of Mount Hood. Measured volatile concentrations of melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole from pumice indicate that the volatile contents of Mount Hood magmas are comparable to those in more explosive silicic arc volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens, Mount Mazama, and others, suggesting that the lack of explosive activity is unlikely to result solely from low intrinsic volatile concentrations or from substantial degassing prior to magma ascent and eruption. We instead argue that an important control over explosivity is the increased temperature and decreased magma viscosity that results from mafic recharge and magma mixing prior to eruption, similar to a model recently proposed by Ruprecht and Bachmann (2010). Erupted Mount Hood magmas show extensive evidence for mixing between magmas of broadly basaltic and dacitic-rhyolitic compositions, and mineral zoning studies show that mixing occurred immediately prior to eruption. Amphibole chemistry and thermobarometry also reveal the presence of multiple amphibole populations and indicate that the mixed andesites and dacites are at least 100 °C hotter than the high-SiO2

  8. Solar, Install, Mount, Production, Labor, Equipment Balance of Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Al-Haddad, Tristan [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Valdes, Francisco [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caravati, Kevin [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodman, Joseph [Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The GTRI led project team in partnership with the DOE, universities, and numerous industry leaders, have advanced the mission of the DOE EERE, the Solar Energy Technologies Program, and the SunShot Initiative by accelerating the research, development, and demonstration of solar PV technologies that provide Extreme Balance of Systems Cost Reductions (BOS-X). The research produced 132 design concepts, resulting in 19 invention disclosures, five patent applications, four 90% pre-commercial designs, and three licensed technologies. Technology practice rights were obtained by an industry partner, and a new solar commercial start-up company was launched in Atlanta as a result of this project. Innovations in residential, commercial, and utility scale balance of systems technologies were realized through an unprecedented multi-disciplinary university/industry partnership with over 50 students and 24 faculty members that produced 18 technical publications, a PhD thesis, and two commercially deployed operating prototypes. The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the multidisciplinary systems based approach executed by the project team was realized through 1) a comprehensive evaluation of industry, regulatory, and public stakeholder requirements; 2) numerous industry/student/faculty engagements in design studios, technical conferences, and at solar PV installation sites; 3) time and motion studies with domain experts that provided technical data and costs for each phase and component of the solar PV installation processes; 4) extensive wind tunnel and systems engineering modeling; and 5) design, construction, and demonstration of the selected technologies in the field at high profile sites in Atlanta. The SIMPLE BOS project has benefitted the public in the following ways: • Workforce development: The launch of a start-up company to commercialize the DOE funded SIMPLE BoS designs has directly created 9 new jobs in the State of Georgia. As of November 2014, the

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Underestimation of Prostate Cancer Geometry: Use of Patient Specific Molds to Correlate Images with Whole Mount Pathology. (United States)

    Priester, Alan; Natarajan, Shyam; Khoshnoodi, Pooria; Margolis, Daniel J; Raman, Steven S; Reiter, Robert E; Huang, Jiaoti; Grundfest, Warren; Marks, Leonard S


    We evaluated the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in determining the size and shape of localized prostate cancer. The subjects were 114 men who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy with patient specific mold processing of the specimen from 2013 to 2015. T2-weighted images were used to contour the prostate capsule and cancer suspicious regions of interest. The contours were used to design and print 3-dimensional custom molds, which permitted alignment of excised prostates with magnetic resonance imaging scans. Tumors were reconstructed in 3 dimensions from digitized whole mount sections. Tumors were then matched with regions of interest and the relative geometries were compared. Of the 222 tumors evident on whole mount sections 118 had been identified on magnetic resonance imaging. For the 118 regions of interest mean volume was 0.8 cc and the longest 3-dimensional diameter was 17 mm. However, for matched pathological tumors, of which most were Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater, mean volume was 2.5 cc and the longest 3-dimensional diameter was 28 mm. The median tumor had a 13.5 mm maximal extent beyond the magnetic resonance imaging contour and 80% of cancer volume from matched tumors was outside region of interest boundaries. Size estimation was most accurate in the axial plane and least accurate along the base-apex axis. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently underestimates the size and extent of prostate tumors. Prostate cancer foci had an average diameter 11 mm longer and a volume 3 times greater than T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging segmentations. These results may have important implications for the assessment and treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mount control system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (United States)

    Antolini, Elisa; Tosti, Gino; Tanci, Claudio; Bagaglia, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Cascone, Enrico; Gambini, Giorgio; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Pareschi, Giovanni; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpietro; Manfrin, Cristiana; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Di Michele, Daniele; Grigolon, Carlo; Guarise, Paolo


    The ASTRI SST-2M telescope is an end-to-end prototype proposed for the Small Size class of Telescopes (SST) of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype is installed in Italy at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna (Sicily) and it was inaugurated in September 2014. This paper presents the software and hardware architecture and development of the system dedicated to the control of the mount, health, safety and monitoring systems of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype. The mount control system installed on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype makes use of standard and widely deployed industrial hardware and software. State of the art of the control and automation industries was selected in order to fulfill the mount related functional and safety requirements with assembly compactness, high reliability, and reduced maintenance. The software package was implemented with the Beckhoff TwinCAT version 3 environment for the software Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), while the control electronics have been chosen in order to maximize the homogeneity and the real time performance of the system. The integration with the high level controller (Telescope Control System) has been carried out by choosing the open platform communications Unified Architecture (UA) protocol, supporting rich data model while offering compatibility with the PLC platform. In this contribution we show how the ASTRI approach for the design and implementation of the mount control system has made the ASTRI SST-2M prototype a standalone intelligent machine, able to fulfill requirements and easy to be integrated in an array configuration such as the future ASTRI mini-array proposed to be installed at the southern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

  11. Design, analysis, and testing of kinematic mount for astronomical observation instrument used in space camera (United States)

    An, Mingxin; Zhang, Lihao; Xu, Shuyan; Dong, Jihong


    A statically determinate kinematic mount structure is designed for an astronomical observation instrument. The basic principle of the proposed kinematic mount is introduced in detail, including the design principle, its structure, and its degrees of freedom. The compliance equations for the single-axis right circle flexure hinge are deduced, and mathematical models of the compliances of the bipod in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are established. Based on the index requirements, the range of one design parameter (the hinge groove depth, R) for the kinematic mount is determined. Parametric design is performed, with the entire structure being the design object and the first three eigenfrequencies as the design objective; the final design parameter for the kinematic mount is 1.9 mm. The first three eigenfrequencies of the final structure are 36.49 Hz, 38.65 Hz, and 72.41 Hz, which meet the frequency requirements. The Z-direction deformation and the bipod compliances in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are analyzed through simulations and experiments. The results show that (1) the Z-direction deformation of the bipod meets the displacement requirement; (2) the deviations between the finite element results and the compliance equation Cx results, and between the finite element results and the compliance equation Cz results are 8.8% and 3.92%, respectively; (3) the deviation between the experimental results and the compliance equation Cz results is 10.3%. It is concluded that the bipod compliance equations in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are valid, and that the kinematic mount thus meets the design requirements.

  12. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response. (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G


    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  13. Design, analysis, and testing of kinematic mount for astronomical observation instrument used in space camera. (United States)

    An, Mingxin; Zhang, Lihao; Xu, Shuyan; Dong, Jihong


    A statically determinate kinematic mount structure is designed for an astronomical observation instrument. The basic principle of the proposed kinematic mount is introduced in detail, including the design principle, its structure, and its degrees of freedom. The compliance equations for the single-axis right circle flexure hinge are deduced, and mathematical models of the compliances of the bipod in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are established. Based on the index requirements, the range of one design parameter (the hinge groove depth, R) for the kinematic mount is determined. Parametric design is performed, with the entire structure being the design object and the first three eigenfrequencies as the design objective; the final design parameter for the kinematic mount is 1.9 mm. The first three eigenfrequencies of the final structure are 36.49 Hz, 38.65 Hz, and 72.41 Hz, which meet the frequency requirements. The Z-direction deformation and the bipod compliances in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are analyzed through simulations and experiments. The results show that (1) the Z-direction deformation of the bipod meets the displacement requirement; (2) the deviations between the finite element results and the compliance equation Cx results, and between the finite element results and the compliance equation Cz results are 8.8% and 3.92%, respectively; (3) the deviation between the experimental results and the compliance equation Cz results is 10.3%. It is concluded that the bipod compliance equations in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are valid, and that the kinematic mount thus meets the design requirements.

  14. 77 FR 62256 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mount Hope Project... (United States)


    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mount Hope Project, Eureka..., Nevada has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Mount Hope Project and by this... . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay...

  15. Analysis of the Dynamics and Control of a Two Degree of Freedom Robotic Manipulator Mounted on a Moving Base. (United States)


    terence between the Lwo ,*’-,,i:- t5 on che or-ner ri triti, t.:1e motion of the manipulator mounted on the back of a truck would cause the truck itself... TAO DEGREE OF 2-f FREEDOM ROBOTIC MRNIPULATOR MOUNTED ON R MOVING BASE (U) RMY MILITARY PERSONNEL CENTER ALEXRNDRIA VA UNCLASSIFIED R LYNCH 18 OCT 85 F

  16. Comparison of modified Chicago sky blue stain and potassium hydroxide mount for the diagnosis of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Sheng, Ping; Yang, Yan-Ping; Li, Wen; Huang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Jie-Di; Fan, Yi-Ming


    The diagnostic value of modified Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain and potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount for superficial mycoses was compared using fungal culture as gold standard. The sensitivity and screening time of the CSB stain were superior to the KOH mount. The CBS stain is simple, quick and reliable for diagnosing superficial mycoses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. An experiment on rider stability while mounting : comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Platteel, S. & Lovegrove, G.R.


    Pedelecs, popular among elderly cyclists, are associated with a higher injury risk than conventional bicycles. About 17% of these injuries are due to falls while (dis)mounting. Using instrumented bicycles, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to the stability of self-chosen mounting

  18. A modified gold chloride technique for optimal impregnation of nerves within corneal whole mounts and dura of the albino rat. (United States)

    Silverberg, K R; Ogilvy, C S; Borges, L F


    Ranvier's method of staining tissue whole mounts with gold chloride to visualize nerve fibers was modified by lengthening the incubation time in gold chloride and reducing the time in acidulated water. These simple modifications of an old technique give consistent impregnation of nerve fibers with light background staining in whole mounts of cornea and dura.

  19. A Novel Approach to Surgical Instructions for Scrub Nurses by Using See-Through-Type Head-Mounted Display. (United States)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Sasaki, Asami; Sato, Chikage; Yamazaki, Mutsuko; Takayasu, Junya; Tanaka, Naofumi; Okabayashi, Norie; Hirano, Hiromi; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori


    In order to facilitate assists in surgical procedure, it is important for scrub nurses to understand the operation procedure and to share the operation status with attending surgeons. The potential utility of head-mounted display as a new imaging monitor has been proposed in the medical field. This study prospectively evaluated the usefulness of see-through-type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses. From January to March 2014, scrub nurses who attended gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy wore the monocular see-through-type head-mounted display (AiRScouter; Brother Industries Ltd, Nagoya, Japan) displaying the instruction of the operation procedure through a crystal panel in front of the eye. Following the operation, the participants completed an anonymous questionnaire, which evaluated the image quality of the head-mounted display, the helpfulness of the head-mounted display to understand the operation procedure, and adverse effects caused by the head-mounted display. Fifteen nurses were eligible for the analysis. The intraoperative use of the head-mounted display could help scrub nurses to understand the surgical procedure and to hand out the instruments for the operation with no major head-mounted-display wear-related adverse event. This novel approach to support scrub nurses will help facilitate technical and nontechnical skills during surgery.

  20. Using PVFORM, a systems performance model, to determine optimum mounting configurations for flat-plate photovoltaic modules (United States)

    Menicucci, D. F.

    The performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system is affected by the particular mounting configuration selected. But the optimal configuration for various potential designs is unknown because too few PV systems have been fielded. Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is currently conducting a controlled field experiment in which four of the most commonly used module mounting configurations are being compared. The data from the experiment are used to verify the accuracy of PVFORM, a new PV performance model. The model is then used to simulate the performance of PV modules mounted in different configurations in eight sites throughtout the U.S. The module mounting configurations, the experimental methods used, the specialized statistical techniques used in the analysis and the final results of the effort are described. The module mounting configurations are rank ordered at each site according to their energy production performane and each is briefly discussed in terms of its advantages or disadvantages in various applications.

  1. Interactive Multi-Resolution Display Using a Projector Mounted Mobile Robot in Intelligent Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Eom Lee


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel interactive multi-resolution display system. The proposed system is based on a projector-mounted mobile robot in an Intelligent Space. The Intelligent Space can calculate the location of the region of interest (ROI by recognizing the user's pointing gesture. The steerable projector mounted on the mobile robot can improve the brightness and resolution of the ROI of a large image projected by a stationary projector installed in the Intelligent Space. In the proposed system, the user is not required to hold any apparatuses for interacting with the display. Additionally, the proposed system is easy to use because it is designed with the natural and intuitive hand movement of user in mind. In the experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  2. Mounting of a group of Chinese scrolls from the Camilo Pessanha collection: an alternative solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J. L. Lourenço


    Full Text Available It is presented an alternative mounting solution that was developed after the treatment of a group of twelve Chinese scrolls of paintings and calligraphy. These art works are part of the Camilo Pessanha (1867 – 1926 collection that belongs to the Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro, and are currently on loan to the Museu do Oriente in Lisbon. The mounting of these scrolls was part of a project that was managed by the Fundação Oriente, and was supervised and carried out at the paper conservation and restoration department of the Instituto dos Museus e da Conservação. Issues pertaining to exhibition, environmental factors, handling and storage of oriental scrolls are discussed.

  3. Digital-signal-processor-based inspection of populated surface-mount technology printed circuit boards (United States)

    Hartley, David A.; Hobson, Clifford A.; Lilley, Francis


    The inspection of surface-mount technology printed circuit boards is an increasing problem due to the fine pitch technology that is beginning to be used. Human visual inspection is unsuitable for this technology necessitating the use of computer-based inspection systems. Correlation has been used by the authors to detect solder bridges and misaligned leads on surface mount components. This operation is too slow on a general purpose computer requiring over seven seconds to inspect each component lead. A digital signal processor based multiprocessor system has been designed to provide the required computational power. Using optimization techniques and restructuring the data to be correlated enables each processor in the system to inspect 424 leads per second.

  4. 2-Port Modeling Technique for Surface-Mount Passive Components Using Partial Inductance Concept (United States)

    Yamanaga, Koh; Sato, Takashi; Masu, Kazuya

    Electrical modeling for surface-mount passive components is proposed. In order to accurately capture parasitic inductance, the proposed 2-port model accounts for surrounding ground layer configurations of the print circuit board (PCB) on which the component is mounted. Our model retains conventional modeling paradigm in which component suppliers provide their customers with simulation models characterized independently of the customers' PCB. We also present necessary corrections that compensate magnetic coupling between the separated models. Impedance and its anti-resonant frequency of two power distribution networks are experimentally analyzed being non-separated modeling as the reference. The proposed model achieved very good match with the reference result reducing 7-34% error of the conventional model to about 2%.

  5. Evaluation of ejection safety for the joint helmet-mounted cueing system (United States)

    Barnaba, James M.; Kirk, William K.


    Aircrew safety is paramount in the design of a helmet-mounted display (HMD). For the tactical aircrew, ensuring a successful ejection presents significant design challenges. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) Integrated Product Team (IPT) has been evaluating Vision Systems International's HMD design for aircrew protection in this environment. The JHMCS IPT has developed a set of test objectives in concert with acquisition reform to demonstrate ejection compatibility of the JHMCS. This testing series will be discussed, and will include windblast, ejection tower, and sled and in-flight ejection testing, findings and design impacts. JHMCS performance parameters evaluated include structural integrity, facial and head protection, neck tensile loads, ejection seat and crew equipment compatibility, and mechanical functionality. The design environment for the JHMCS currently is both small and large, male and female aircrew withstanding a successful 450-knot ejection in any of four current USAF & USN tactical aircraft platforms.

  6. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Mount Sago, West Sumatra: Diversity and Flower Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rusman


    Full Text Available Diversity of butterfly depends on the availability of food plant and habitat quality. The aims of this study were to assess diversity and flower preference of butterflies in Mount Sago, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Observations were performed by scan sampling method in four types of habitats, i.e. secondary forests, pine forests, rubber forests, and agricultural areas. Our results showed that at least 184 species of butterflies and 56 species of nectar plants have been identified in Mount Sago. Nymphalid butterfly, Neptis hylas, was the most dominant species of butterflies. Two species, i.e. Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were found as the protected butterflies. Diversity of butterfly in secondary forests was highest, whereas the lowest diversity was found in pine forest. Papilionid butterflies were found frequently feeding on tube blossoms, nymphalid butterflies on head blossoms, and lycaenid butterflies on flag blossom. Our results also showed that habitat change impacts composition and diversity of butterfly.

  7. Commentary: Less is better: lessons from the New York University-Mount Sinai merger. (United States)

    Grossman, Robert I; Berne, Robert


    Elsewhere in this issue, Kastor details the merger and demerger of New York University (NYU) and Mount Sinai hospitals and medical schools. Academic medical center mergers are difficult endeavors to execute under optimal circumstances. The failure of the NYU-Mount Sinai merger was inevitable on the basis of preexisting cultural distinctions, lack of substantial faculty and staff support, and the inability to generate significant early accomplishments that were meaningful to the respective constituencies. Economies of scale and improved academic performance are challenging for merged medical centers to achieve in the short term--caveat emptor. The authors of this commentary discuss, from the NYU perspective, key lessons learned and offer insights about how certain difficulties could have been addressed.

  8. [Influence of staining and mounting methods on Cryptomeria japonica and Cupressaceae pollen counts]. (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Nakayama, H


    The staining and mounting method for measuring air-borne pollen differs at each institute resulting in discrepancies. We examined influence of staining and mounting methods on pollen counts of Cryptomeria japonica and Cupressaceae. Two Durham type pollen collection instruments, stored at the same place and holding slides coated with white vaseline, were exposed to the air for 24 hours. Pollen was counted using Calberla staining (C method) or gentiana-violet-glycerin jelly staining (G method). Results showed: 1) C method showed more variety than G method for measuring the pollen counts from the beginning to the end of the pollen season; 2) a significant coincidence was observed between counts measured by C and G methods (p pollen counts and that pollen count reports should include the collection and staining methods.

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of old G-banded and mounted chromosome preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, A M; Pandis, N; Bomme, L


    An improved method for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigation of old, previously G-banded, mounted chromosome preparations with chromosome specific painting probes and centromere-specific probes is described. Before hybridization, the slides are incubated in xylene until the cove......An improved method for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigation of old, previously G-banded, mounted chromosome preparations with chromosome specific painting probes and centromere-specific probes is described. Before hybridization, the slides are incubated in xylene until......, that the amount of added probe is increased approximately 2.5 times, and that the amplification of signals is performed twice. The applicability of the method, which allows double painting with two differently labeled probes using two differently fluorescing colors, was tested on 11 cases involving different...

  10. Improved computer simulation of the TCAS 3 circular array mounted on an aircraft (United States)

    Rojas, R. G.; Chen, Y. C.; Burnside, Walter D.


    The Traffic advisory and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is being developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist aircraft pilots in mid-air collision avoidance. This report concentrates on the computer simulation of the enchanced TCAS 2 systems mounted on a Boeing 727. First, the moment method is used to obtain an accurate model for the enhanced TCAS 2 antenna array. Then, the OSU Aircraft Code is used to generate theoretical radiation patterns of this model mounted on a simulated Boeing 727 model. Scattering error curves obtained from these patterns can be used to evaluate the performance of this system in determining the angular position of another aircraft with respect to the TCAS-equipped aircraft. Finally, the tracking of another aircraft is simulated when the TCAS-equipped aircraft follows a prescribed escape curve. In short, the computer models developed in this report have generality, completeness and yield reasonable results.

  11. A simple method for validation and verification of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Frøslev, Tobias G


    We have implemented a simple, inexpensive, and fast procedure for validation and verification of the performance of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers (ALHs) as necessary for laboratories accredited under ISO 17025. A six- or seven-step serial dilution of OrangeG was prepared in quadru......We have implemented a simple, inexpensive, and fast procedure for validation and verification of the performance of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers (ALHs) as necessary for laboratories accredited under ISO 17025. A six- or seven-step serial dilution of OrangeG was prepared...... are freely available. In conclusion, we have set up a simple, inexpensive, and fast solution for the continuous validation of ALHs used for accredited work according to the ISO 17025 standard. The method is easy to use for aqueous solutions but requires a spectrophotometer that can read microtiter plates....

  12. Large-eddy simulation of the flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted on an erodible bed (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy comprises an important source of clean and renewable energy. The beds of natural waterways are usually erodible. The hydrokinetic turbines affect the sediment transport, which, on the other hand, also influences the performance of hydrokinetic turbines. A powerful computational framework for simulating marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine arrays mounted in complex river bathymetry with sediment transport has been developed and validated by our group. In this work we apply this method to simulate the turbulent flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted in an open channel with erodible bed. Preliminary results show qualitatively good agreement with the experiment. Detailed comparison with measurements and analysis of the simulation results will be presented in the conference. This work was supported by the University of Minnesota Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment IREE (grant no RO-0004-12). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  13. Inventory of orchids in Mount Tinombala Natural Reserve, Tolitoli Regency, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to inventory the flora of Sulawesi, especially orchids in the Mount Tinombala Natural Reserve and to collect the plant materials for planting as a collection plants in Bali Botanical Garden. The method used in this research was explorative method at the place with altitude more than 700 m above sea level. The result of the research was 50 collection number of orchids which was consist of 72 specimens, 19 families and 24 species found in the Mount Tinombala Natural Reserve, Tolitoli Regency, Central Sulawesi. Two numbers of them that unidentified yet called as a genus dubious. Dendrobium and Eria were the genus that dominant in the natural reserve and one species that predicted as a new collection for the Bali Botanic Garden was Macodes petola Lindl.

  14. Gas turbine structural mounting arrangement between combustion gas duct annular chamber and turbine vane carrier (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Charron, Richard C.; Morrison, Jay A.


    A gas turbine engine ducting arrangement (10), including: an annular chamber (14) configured to receive a plurality of discrete flows of combustion gases originating in respective can combustors and to deliver the discrete flows to a turbine inlet annulus, wherein the annular chamber includes an inner diameter (52) and an outer diameter (60); an outer diameter mounting arrangement (34) configured to permit relative radial movement and to prevent relative axial and circumferential movement between the outer diameter and a turbine vane carrier (20); and an inner diameter mounting arrangement (36) including a bracket (64) secured to the turbine vane carrier, wherein the bracket is configured to permit the inner diameter to move radially with the outer diameter and prevent axial deflection of the inner diameter with respect to the outer diameter.

  15. Sample Preparation and Mounting of Drosophila Embryos for Multiview Light Sheet Microscopy. (United States)

    Schmied, Christopher; Tomancak, Pavel


    Light sheet fluorescent microscopy (LSFM), and in particular its most widespread flavor Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM), promises to provide unprecedented insights into developmental dynamics of entire living systems. By combining minimal photo-damage with high imaging speed and sample mounting tailored toward the needs of the specimen, it enables in toto imaging of embryogenesis with high spatial and temporal resolution. Drosophila embryos are particularly well suited for SPIM imaging because the volume of the embryo does not change from the single cell embryo to the hatching larva. SPIM microscopes can therefore image Drosophila embryos embedded in rigid media, such as agarose, from multiple angles every few minutes from the blastoderm stage until hatching. Here, we describe sample mounting strategies to achieve such a recording. We also provide detailed protocols to realize multiview, long-term, time-lapse recording of Drosophila embryos expressing fluorescent markers on the commercially available Zeiss Lightsheet Z.1 microscope and the OpenSPIM.

  16. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data (United States)

    Langran, Kenneth J.


    The Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption offers an opportunity to study vegetation recovery rates and patterns in a perturbed ecosystem. The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. It was observed that during maximum daytime solar heating, surface temperatures of vegetated areas are cooler than surrounding nonvegetated areas, and that surface temperature varies with percent vegetation cover. A method of measuring the relationship between effective radiant temperature (ERT) and percent vegetation cover in the thermal infrared (8 to 12 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated.

  17. Shoe-mounted vibration energy harvester of PZT piezoelectric thin films on metal foils (United States)

    Nishi, T.; Ito, T.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.


    This paper describes shoe-mounted piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs). The PVEHs were fabricated from Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) thin films which were directly deposited onto Pt/Ti-coated stainless steel foil by rf-magnetron sputtering. We experimentally and theoretically evaluated impulse responses of the PVEHs by applying a simple impulse input on the energy harvesters, typical damped free vibration behaviour was clearly observed, and the output signal was in good agreement with the theoretical value. We measured the output power by applying the impulse input with an optimal load resistance of 33.9 kΩ. The maximum output power was approximately 20 μW, which correspond with the calculated value based on theoretical equation. From these results, the theoretical equation we derived might be helpful for design purposes of the shoe-mounted PVEHs.

  18. Institutional profile: translational pharmacogenomics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (United States)

    Scott, Stuart A; Owusu Obeng, Aniwaa; Botton, Mariana R; Yang, Yao; Scott, Erick R; Ellis, Stephen B; Wallsten, Richard; Kaszemacher, Tom; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Rong; Nicoletti, Paola; Naik, Hetanshi; Kenny, Eimear E; Vega, Aida; Waite, Eva; Diaz, George A; Dudley, Joel; Halperin, Jonathan L; Edelmann, Lisa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Peter, Inga; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Sklar, Pamela; Cho, Judy H; Desnick, Robert J; Schadt, Eric E


    For almost 50 years, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has continually invested in genetics and genomics, facilitating a healthy ecosystem that provides widespread support for the ongoing programs in translational pharmacogenomics. These programs can be broadly cataloged into discovery, education, clinical implementation and testing, which are collaboratively accomplished by multiple departments, institutes, laboratories, companies and colleagues. Focus areas have included drug response association studies and allele discovery, multiethnic pharmacogenomics, personalized genotyping and survey-based education programs, pre-emptive clinical testing implementation and novel assay development. This overview summarizes the current state of translational pharmacogenomics at Mount Sinai, including a future outlook on the forthcoming expansions in overall support, research and clinical programs, genomic technology infrastructure and the participating faculty.

  19. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb this...... this flow and, in particular, certain dimensions and positions of the obstacles cause a downward deflection of the jets into the occupied zone resulting in reduced thermal comfort for the inhabitants.......The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...

  20. Autonomous Head-mounted Electrophysiology Systems for Freely-Behaving Primates


    Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin; Shenoy, Krishna V.


    Recent technological advances have led to new lightweight battery-operated systems for electrophysiology. Such systems are head mounted, run for days without experimenter intervention, and can record and stimulate from single or multiple electrodes implanted in a freely-behaving primates. Here we discuss existing systems, studies that use them, and how they can augment traditional, physically restrained, “in-rig” electrophysiology. With existing technical capabilities these systems can acquir...