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Sample records for epitaxial caruo3 films

  1. Effect of microstructure on the electronic transport properties of epitaxial CaRuO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daptary, Gopi Nath; Sow, Chanchal; Sarkar, Suman; Chiniwar, Santosh; Kumar, P. S. Anil; Sil, Anomitra; Bid, Aveek

    2017-04-01

    We have carried out extensive comparative studies of the structural and transport properties of CaRuO3 thin films grown under various oxygen pressure. We find that the preferred orientation and surface roughness of the films are strongly affected by the oxygen partial pressure during growth. This in turn affects the electrical and magnetic properties of the films. Films grown under high oxygen pressure have the least surface roughness and show transport characteristics of a good metal down to the lowest temperature measured. On the other hand, films grown under low oxygen pressures have high degree of surface roughness and show signatures of ferromagnetism. We could verify that the low frequency resistance fluctuations (noise) in these films arise due to thermally activated fluctuations of local defects and that the defect density matches with the level of disorder seen in the films through structural characterizations.

  2. Epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  3. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  4. Hot-Dipped Metal Films as Epitaxial Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multistep process forms semiconductor devices on macrocrystalline films of cadmium or zinc. Solar-cell fabrication processes use hot-dipped macrocrystalline films on low-cost sheet-metal base as substrates for epitaxy. Epitaxial layers formed by variety of methods of alternative sequence paths. Solar cells made economically by forming desired surface substance directly on metal film by chemical reactions.

  5. Ultrathin epitaxial cobalt films formed under graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoyunova, M. V.; Grebenyuk, G. S.; Smirnov, D. A.; Pronin, I. I.

    2017-10-01

    The intercalation of cobalt under a graphene monolayer grown on a Ni(111) single crystal film is studied. The experiments are conducted in ultrahigh vacuum. Samples are characterized in situ by low energy electron diffraction, high-energy-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation, and magnetic linear dichroism in photoemission of Co 3 p electrons. New data are obtained on the evolution of the atomic and electronic structure and magnetic properties of the system with increasing thickness of the intercalated cobalt layer in the range up to 2 nm. It is shown that a pseudomorphic epitaxial film of Co(111) having magnetization perpendicular to the surface is formed under the grapheme layer during intercalation in an anomalously wide range of thicknesses.

  6. Epitaxial ferrite films with negative differential resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpasyuk, V.K.; Kartashev, V.S.; Lebedev, A.V.; Orlov, G.N.; Pimonov, P.Ya.; Shchepetkin, A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Epitaxial films based on nickel ferrite, grown by the method of chemical gas-transport reactions on magnesium oxide substrates, are distinguished by the nonuniformity of the composition over the thickness and the S-shaped current-voltage characteristic. The surface layers are enriched with iron and exhibit electronic conductivity, while near the substrate the films are characterized by an elevated magnesium and nickel concentration and should exhibit hole conductivity. The S-shaped current-voltage characteristic for measurement in air could be linked with the jump-like change in the valence state and chemical bonds of ions or with the appearance of double injection currents between layers with different types of conductivity.

  7. Epitaxial oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition: Retrospect and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    component oxide films. Highly stoichiometric, nearly single crystal-like materials in the form of films can be made by PLD. Oxides which are synthesized at high oxygen pressure can be made into films at low oxygen partial pressure. Epitaxial thin films ...

  8. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  9. Magnetoimpedance spectroscopy of epitaxial multiferroic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rainer; Ventura, Jofre; Langenberg, Eric; Nemes, Norbert M.; Munuera, Carmen; Varela, Manuel; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Leon, Carlos; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2012-07-01

    The detection of true magnetocapacitance (MC) as a manifestation of magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) in multiferroic materials is a nontrivial task, because pure magnetoresistance (MR) of an extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner-type dielectric relaxation can lead to changes in capacitance [G. Catalan, Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2177543 88, 102902 (2006)]. In order to clarify such difficulties involved with dielectric spectroscopy on multiferroic materials, we have simulated the dielectric permittivity ɛ' of two dielectric relaxations in terms of a series of one intrinsic film-type and one extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner-type relaxation. Such a series of two relaxations was represented in the frequency- (f-) and temperature- (T-) dependent notations ɛ' vs f and ɛ' vs T by a circuit model consisting in a series of two ideal resistor-capacitor (RC) elements. Such simulations enabled rationalizing experimental f-, T-, and magnetic field- (H-) dependent dielectric spectroscopy data from multiferroic epitaxial thin films of BiMnO3 (BMO) and BiFeO3 (BFO) grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3. Concomitantly, the deconvolution of intrinsic film and extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner relaxations in BMO and BFO films was achieved by fitting f-dependent dielectric data to an adequate equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the H-dependent data in the form of determining the H-dependent values of the equivalent circuit resistors and capacitors then yielded the deconvoluted MC and MR values for the separated intrinsic dielectric relaxations in BMO and BFO thin films. Substantial intrinsic MR effects up to 65% in BMO films below the magnetic transition (TC≈100 K) and perceptible intrinsic MEC up to -1.5% near TC were identified unambiguously.

  10. Growth of strontium ruthenate films by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Marshall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the growth of epitaxial Sr2RuO4 films using a hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach in which a volatile precursor containing RuO4 is used to supply ruthenium and oxygen. The use of the precursor overcomes a number of issues encountered in traditional molecular beam epitaxy that uses elemental metal sources. Phase-pure, epitaxial thin films of Sr2RuO4 are obtained. At high substrate temperatures, growth proceeds in a layer-by-layer mode with intensity oscillations observed in reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Films are of high structural quality, as documented by x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The method should be suitable for the growth of other complex oxides containing ruthenium, opening up opportunities to investigate thin films that host rich exotic ground states.

  11. Strain-induced properties of epitaxial VOx thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rata, AD; Hibma, T

    We have grown VOx thin films on different substrates in order to investigate the influence of epitaxial strain on the transport properties. We found that the electric conductivity is much larger for films grown under compressive strain on SrTiO3 substrates, as compared to bulk material and VOx films

  12. Reorientation of magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial cobalt ferrite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Williams, C.M.; Nguyen, L.T.; Lodder, J.C.; Coleman, A.; Corcoran, H.; Johnson, A.; Chang, P.; Abhishek Kumar, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Morgan, W.

    2007-01-01

    Spin reorientation has been observed in CoFe2O4 thin single crystalline films epitaxially grown on (100) MgO substrate upon varying the film thickness. The critical thickness for such a spin-reorientation transition was estimated to be 300 nm. The reorientation is driven by a structural transition

  13. Characterization of anti-phase boundaries in epitaxial magnetite films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S.; Eerenstein, W.; Hibma, T

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of anti-phase domain boundaries (APBs) in epitaxial Fe3O4 films has a strong influence on the resistivity, magnetic and magneto-resistance properties of these films. It is therefore important to understand the configuration and magnetic coupling across the boundary. We have studied

  14. Epitaxial oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition: Retrospect and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Among the large number of processes to fabricate thin films of materials, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has emerged as a ... It is important to recognize that highly stoichiometric, nearly single crystal like epitaxial film is aimed for in the PLD .... This new class of Josephson junctions is attractive for novel phase devices.

  15. van der Waals epitaxy of Ge films on mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, A. J.; Xiang, Y.; Rauch, E.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2017-11-01

    To date, many materials have been successfully grown on substrates through van der Waals epitaxy without adhering to the constraint of lattice matching as is required for traditional chemical epitaxy. However, for elemental semiconductors such as Ge, this has been challenging and therefore it has not been achieved thus far. In this paper, we report the observation of Ge epitaxially grown on mica at a narrow substrate temperature range around 425 °C. Despite the large lattice mismatch (23%) and the lack of high in-plane symmetry in the mica surface, an epitaxial Ge film with [111] out-of-plane orientation is observed. Crystallinity and electrical properties degrade upon deviation from the ideal growth temperature, as shown by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall effect measurements. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals that there exist multiple rotational domains in the epitaxial Ge film with dominant in-plane orientations between Ge [" separators="|1 ¯10 ] and mica[100] of (20 n )°, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A superlattice area mismatch model was used to account for the likelihood of the in-plane orientation formation and was found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed dominant orientations. Our observation of Ge epitaxy with one out-of-plane growth direction through van der Waals forces is a step toward the growth of single crystal Ge films without the constraint in the lattice and symmetry matches with the substrates.

  16. Epitaxial CuInSe2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and migration enhanced epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrafi, K.; Ribeiro-Andrade, R.; Nicoara, N.; Cerqueira, M. F.; Gonzalez Debs, M.; Limborço, H.; Salomé, P. M. P.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Briones, F.; Garcia, J. M.; Sadewasser, S.

    2017-10-01

    While CuInSe2 chalcopyrite materials are mainly used in their polycrystalline form to prepare thin film solar cells, epitaxial layers have been used for the characterization of defects. Typically, epitaxial layers are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here we present epitaxial layers grown by migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) and compare the materials quality to MBE grown layers. CuInSe2 layers were grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by co-evaporation of Cu, In, and Se using substrate temperatures of 450 °C, 530 °C, and 620 °C. The layers were characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). HR-XRD and HR-TEM show a better crystalline quality of the MEE grown layers, and Raman scattering measurements confirm single phase CuInSe2. AFM shows the previously observed faceting of the (0 0 1) surface into {1 1 2} facets with trenches formed along the [1 1 0] direction. The surface of MEE-grown samples appears smoother compared to MBE-grown samples, a similar trend is observed with increasing growth temperature.

  17. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2017-05-10

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  19. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  20. Chiral habit selection on nanostructured epitaxial quartz films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Picas, Laura; Sanchez, Clément; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the crystallization of enantiomorphically pure systems can be relevant to diverse fields such as the study of the origins of life or the purification of racemates. Here we report on polycrystalline epitaxial thin films of quartz on Si substrates displaying two distinct types of chiral habits that never coexist in the same film. We combine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis and computer-assisted crystallographic calculations to make a detailed study of these habits of quartz. By estimating the surface energies of the observed crystallites we argue that the films are enantiomorphically pure and we briefly outline a possible mechanism to explain the habit and chiral selection in this system.

  1. Extrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Mn4N films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X.; Ren, L. Z.; Zhou, W. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in ferrimagnetic Mn4N epitaxial films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated. The longitudinal conductivity σx x is within the superclean regime, indicating Mn4N is a highly conducting material. We further demonstrate that the AHE signal in 40-nm-thick films is mainly due to the extrinsic contributions based on the analysis fitted by ρAH=a 'ρxx 0+b ρxx2 and σA H∝σx x . Our study not only provide a strategy for further theoretical work on antiperovskite manganese nitrides but also shed promising light on utilizing their extrinsic AHE to fabricate spintronic devices.

  2. Growth and characterization of Hg1–xCdxTe epitaxial films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Growth of Hg1–xCdxTe epitaxial films by a new technique called asymmetric vapour phase epitaxy. (ASVPE) has been carried out on CdTe and CZT substrates. The critical problems faced in normal vapour phase epitaxy technique like poor surface morphology, composition gradient and dislocation multiplication.

  3. Epitaxial Growth and Band Structure of Te Film on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochun; Guan, Jiaqi; Lin, Zijian; Liu, Bing; Xing, Shuya; Wang, Weihua; Guo, Jiandong

    2017-08-09

    Tellurium (Te) films with monolayer and few-layer thickness are obtained by molecular beam epitaxy on a graphene/6H-SiC(0001) substrate and investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We reveal that the Te films are composed of parallel-arranged helical Te chains flat-lying on the graphene surface, exposing the (1 × 1) facet of (101̅0) of the bulk crystal. The band gap of Te films increases monotonically with decreasing thickness, reaching the near-infrared band for the monolayer Te. An explicit band bending at the edge between the monolayer Te and graphene substrate is visualized. With the thickness controlled in the atomic scale, Te films show potential applications of electronics and optoelectronics.

  4. Epitaxial thin films for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullager, D.; Alisafaee, H.; Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Recent progress in the area of hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) has sparked interest in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) that behave as plasmonic media in the near-IR and at optical frequencies for imaging and sensing applications. It has been shown that by depositing alternating layers of negative-epsilon/positive-epsilon materials, a medium can be created with unusual index values such as near zero. HMMs support high-k waves corresponding to a diverging photonic density of states (PDOS), the quantity determining phenomena such as spontaneous and thermal emission. Also, modeling such structures allows evanescent fields containing sub-wavelength information to be coupled to propagating radiation. We investigate the optical, electronic, and physical properties of radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial (RF-MBE) growth of alternating layers of ZnO and TCO of uniform thickness for HMM applications. Preliminary work creating HMMs with ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) has shown a negative real part of the permittivity at near-IR whose modulus is proportional to the number density of Al dopant. However, increasing the Al content of the AZO increases the transmission losses to unacceptable levels for device applications at industry standard wavelengths. A TCO with conductivity and physical structure superior to that of AZO is gallium-doped ZnO (GZO). Uniformly grown GZO has been demonstrated to possess improved crystal quality over AZO due to the higher diffusivity of Al in the ZnO. AZO and GZO HMM structures grown by RF-MBE are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, four-point probing, deeplevel transient spectroscopy (DLTS), ellipsometry, visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED).

  5. Graphene Substrate for van der Waals Epitaxy of Layer-Structured Bismuth Antimony Telluride Thermoelectric Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Ohta, Hiromichi; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sung Wng

    2017-02-01

    Graphene as a substrate for the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D layered materials is utilized for the epitaxial growth of a layer-structured thermoelectric film. Van der Waals epitaxial Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 film on graphene synthesized via a simple and scalable fabrication method exhibits good crystallinity and high thermoelectric transport properties comparable to single crystals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Epitaxial growth of solution deposited Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobel, OF; Du, [No Value; Hibma, T; von Lampe, [No Value; Steiner, U

    The epitaxial growth of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) high temperature superconducting thin films was studied. The films were solution-deposited from a polymer-containing precursor onto SrTiO3 (001) substrates. Bi2212 formed an epitaxial phase with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal and an in-lane

  7. Single-domain epitaxial silicene on diboride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurence, A., E-mail: antoine@jaist.ac.jp; Friedlein, R.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamada-Takamura, Y. [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Gill, T. G. [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, UCL, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Sadowski, J. T. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Copel, M.; Tromp, R. M. [IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Hirjibehedin, C. F. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, UCL, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-11

    Epitaxial silicene, which forms spontaneously on ZrB{sub 2}(0001) thin films grown on Si(111) wafers, has a periodic stripe domain structure. By adsorbing additional Si atoms on this surface, we find that the domain boundaries vanish, and a single-domain silicene sheet can be prepared without altering its buckled honeycomb structure. The amount of Si required to induce this change suggests that the domain boundaries are made of a local distortion of the silicene honeycomb lattice. The realization of a single domain sheet with structural and electronic properties close to those of the original striped state demonstrates the high structural flexibility of silicene.

  8. Spin Filtering in Epitaxial Spinel Films with Nanoscale Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2017-05-08

    The coexistence of ferromagnetic metallic phase and antiferromagnetic insulating phase in nanoscaled inhomogeneous perovskite oxides accounts for the colossal magnetoresistance. Although the model of spin-polarized electron transport across antiphase boundaries has been commonly employed to account for large magnetoresistance (MR) in ferrites, the magnetic anomalies, the two magnetic phases and enhanced molecular moment, are still unresolved. We observed a sizable MR in epitaxial spinel films (NiCo2O4-δ) that is much larger than that commonly observed in spinel ferrites. Detailed analysis reveals that this MR can be attributed to phase separation, in which the perfect ferrimagnetic metallic phase and ferrimagnetic insulating phase coexist. The magnetic insulating phase plays an important role in spin filtering in these phase separated spinel oxides, leading to a sizable MR effect. A spin filtering model based on Zeeman effect and direct tunneling is developed to account for MR of the phase separated films.

  9. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.

  10. Chemically stabilized epitaxial wurtzite-BN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, Badri; Singh, Rajendra; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Sharma, Ankit; Sreedhara, M. B.; Sahu, Rajib; Bhat, Usha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Datta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    We report on the chemically stabilized epitaxial w-BN thin film grown on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition under slow kinetic condition. Traces of no other allotropes such as cubic (c) or hexagonal (h) BN phases are present. Sapphire substrate plays a significant role in stabilizing the metastable w-BN from h-BN target under unusual PLD growth condition involving low temperature and pressure and is explained based on density functional theory calculation. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the w-BN film are 37 & 339 GPa, respectively measured by indentation along direction. The results are extremely promising in advancing the microelectronic and mechanical tooling industry.

  11. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa P. Ginley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the majority of TI films and bulk crystals exhibit significant bulk conductivity, which obscures these states. In addition, many TI films have a high defect density. This review will discuss progress in reducing the bulk conductivity while increasing the crystal quality. We will describe in detail how growth parameters, substrate choice, and growth technique influence the resulting TI film properties for binary and ternary TIs. We then give an overview of progress in the growth of TI heterostructures. We close by discussing the bright future for TI film growth by MBE.

  12. Transformation behaviour of freestanding epitaxial Ni–Mn–Ga films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeduru, S.R., E-mail: srinivasa.yeduru@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IMT, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Backen, A.; Fähler, S.; Schultz, L. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Kohl, M., E-mail: manfred.kohl@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IMT, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► The complex martensite microstructure of free-standing epitaxial Ni–Mn–Ga films. ► A two-stage transformation in the temperature range between 40 °C and 160 °C. ► Temperature dependent mechanical properties of free-standing Ni–Mn–Ga films. ► With increasing temperature, the twinning stress decreases due to thermal activation of twin boundaries. ► Large superplastic strain increases from about 10% at 110 °C to 14% at RT. -- Abstract: We analyze the transformation behaviour of a 2 μm thick epitaxial Ni–Mn–Ga film by combining temperature dependent measurements of magnetization, electrical resistance, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile stress–strain characteristics. While the magnetization measurements hint for a simple austenite–martensite transformation below the Curie temperature at about 90 °C, resistivity measurements reveal a two-stage transformation in the temperature regimes (I) of 40–80 °C and (II) of 140–160 °C. XRD and pseudoplastic behaviour prove the presence of martensite well above the Curie point. The combination of four independent methods suggests that the transformation at (II) may originate from a weakly first order transformation followed by an intermartensitic transformation at (I). This interpretation is in line with the large superplastic strain observed for the tensile direction parallel to the [1 0 0] direction of the Ni–Mn–Ga unit cell. The strain increases from about 10% at 110 °C to 14% at room temperature suggesting an increase in tetragonal distortion.

  13. Method of fabricating low-dislocation-density epitaxially-grown films with textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T

    2015-01-13

    A method for forming a surface-textured single-crystal film layer by growing the film atop a layer of microparticles on a substrate and subsequently selectively etching away the microparticles to release the surface-textured single-crystal film layer from the substrate. This method is applicable to a very wide variety of substrates and films. In some embodiments, the film is an epitaxial film that has been grown in crystallographic alignment with respect to a crystalline substrate.

  14. Development of Epitaxial GaN Films for RF Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop epitaxial GaN films with threading dislocation density less than 10^6 cm^-2. We propose an innovative approach...

  15. Vapor phase epitaxial liftoff of GaAs and silicon single crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Kao, C.P.; Pike, G.A.; Slone, J.A.; Yablonovitch, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1594 (United States)

    1999-06-10

    Among the technologies for integrating GaAs devices with Si VLSI chips, epitaxial liftoff (ELO) is conspicuous for maintaining the quality of the single crystal epitaxial GaAs films. Traditionally, ELO is implemented in aqueous HF solution. It would be cleaner and simpler if ELO could be implemented in a vapor process. In this article, we will present the potential improvements in the ELO process by using a vapor phase etch to undercut thin films

  16. Characterization of silicon carbide epitaxial films by differential reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shturbin, Anatoly V.; Titkov, Ilya E.; Panevin, Vadim Y.; Vorobjev, Leonid E.; Witman, Renata F.

    2000-01-01

    We are presenting a simple non-destructive method for characterizing SiC samples (Lely-crystals, CREE-substrates, and epitaxial films). With our method we observed ultraviolet differential reflection spectra of SiC samples and compared with pure Lely-crystal to estimate their structural quality. Our optical differential method is based on the experimental fact that doping of a crystal leads to appreciable changes of the optical fundamental absorption spectrum, which we interpreted as a uniform broadening and a shift of differential spectra. The broadening of absorption peaks can be caused not only by doping, but also by any defects of the crystal lattice (neutral impurities, clusters, micro-pipes and others), that destroy its periodicity. The shifts of these peaks inform us about the free carrier concentration. The experiment has shown we can detect minimum free carriers concentration up to nmin equals (ND-NA) equals 6 (DOT) 1015 cm-3. Besides we can detect minimal frequency of impacts with lattice defects as vmin equals 3 (DOT) 1012 s-1. Converting to charged centers concentration it equals (ND + NA) equals 5 (DOT) 1016 cm-3. Considering the small depth of light probe (less than 0.1 micrometers ) and delicacy of thin films, our contactless method is mostly applicable for its testing.

  17. GaSb film growth by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cruz, M.L.; Martinez-Juarez, J.; Lopez-Salazar, P. [CIDS-ICUAP, BUAP, Av. 14 Sur y San Claudio, C.U. Edif.103C, Col. Sn Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Diaz, G.J. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. Sn. Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-04-15

    Doped GaSb (Gallium Antimonide) films on p-GaSb substrates have been obtained by means of a low-cost and fast-growth method: the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. The growth temperature was 400 C, and the growth time was varied between1 and 5 min. Characterization of the films was performed by means of high resolution X-ray Diffraction, low temperature-photoluminescence and current-voltage curve measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms a zincblende-type crystal structure with a high-thin peak centred at 30.36 . The PL spectra at 27 K allowed to confirm the band-gap energy to be 0.8 eV and the I-V curves presented a PN junction behavior which corresponds to the obtained structured. Metal contacts of Au-Zn and Au-Ge were placed to perform electrical characterization (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. van der Waals epitaxial ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Chen, Zhizhong; Wang, Yiping; Lu, Zonghuan; Shi, Jian; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Graphene template has long been promoted as a promising host to support van der Waals flexible electronics. However, van der Waals epitaxial growth of conventional semiconductors in planar thin film form on transferred graphene sheets is challenging because the nucleation rate of film species on graphene is significantly low due to the passive surface of graphene. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxy of zinc-blende ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene supported by an amorphous glass substrate. Given the amorphous nature and no obvious remote epitaxy effect of the glass substrate, this study clearly proves the van der Waals epitaxy of a 3D semiconductor thin film on graphene. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals the existence of two ZnTe epitaxial orientational domains on graphene, a strong X-ray intensity observed from the ZnTe [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2] ǁ graphene [10] orientation domain, and a weaker intensity from the ZnTe [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2] ǁ graphene [11] orientation domain. Furthermore, this study systematically investigates the optoelectronic properties of this epitaxial ZnTe film on graphene using temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fabrication and characterization of a ZnTe-graphene photodetector. The research suggests an effective approach towards graphene-templated flexible electronics.

  19. Deposition of hetero-epitaxial In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taga, N.; Maekawa, M. [Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Research Center; Shigesato, Y.; Yasui, I. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science; Haynes, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

    1996-05-01

    Highly oriented thin film In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was heteroepitaxially grown on optically polished (100) plane of single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of X-ray rocking-curve showed 0.08{degree} for In{sub 2}O{sub 3} 200 nm thick layers indicating that excellent uniformity orientation compared with the heteroepitaxially-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} epitaxially deposited by the conventional methods such as electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation or sputtering method. The minimum yield ({chi}{sub min}) of the MBE grown in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was also extremely small value 3.1%, implying the very high crystallinity.

  20. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kushvaha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001 substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 108 cm−2 at 750 °C than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 109 cm−2 at 730 °C. A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  1. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushvaha, S. S., E-mail: kushvahas@nplindia.org; Pal, P.; Shukla, A. K.; Joshi, Amish G.; Gupta, Govind; Kumar, M.; Singh, S.; Gupta, Bipin K.; Haranath, D. [CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)

    2014-02-15

    We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} at 750 °C) than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} at 730 °C). A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  2. Antiperovskite Sr3 PbO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Debakanta; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Hidenori

    Several antiperovskite compounds have recently been predicted to host bulk three dimensional Dirac dispersion as well as surface states protected by crystal symmetry. Here, we present fabrication of cubic antiperovskite Sr3PbO films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 by molecular beam epitaxy. Fabricated films were capped with polymer without breaking vacuum to facilitate ex-situ transport characterization. All of the films showed metallic temperature dependence. The Hall effect measurement suggests that the carrier type is hole, whose density is around 5 ×1019 cm-3. Details of magnetotransport at low temperature is also described.

  3. Selective-Area Micropatterning of Liquid-Phase Epitaxy-Grown Iron Garnet Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyuk; Cho, Jae-kyeong; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Hironaga; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2004-07-01

    We investigated selective-area micropatterning of iron garnet film grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). This method of producing a flat-surface structure overcomes the disadvantages of geometrical grooves, which are formed by wet or dry etching, with a limited resolution due to underetching and nonplanar structure. Moreover, patterned iron garnet films grown by selective-area LPE have better single-crystal properties than films grown by selective-area sputter epitaxy deposition. Thus, this method offers new possibilities for the fabrication of integrated magnetooptic light switch arrays, magnetic waveguides and other magnetooptic devices.

  4. Epitaxial thin film growth and properties of unconventional oxide superconductors. Cuprates and cobaltates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krockenberger, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductors has strongly driven the development of suited thin film fabrication methods of complex oxides. One way is the adaptation of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for the growth of oxide materials. Another approach is the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which has the advantage of good stoichiometry transfer from target to the substrate. Both techniques are used within this thesis. Epitaxial thin films of new materials are of course needed for future applications. In addition, the controlled synthesis of thin film matter which can be formed far away from thermal equilibrium allows for the investigation of fundamental physical materials properties. (orig.)

  5. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  6. Epitaxial growth and characterization of CuGa2O4 films by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongling; Chen, Zhengwei; Wu, Zhenping; Cui, Wei; Huang, Yuanqi; Tang, Weihua

    2017-11-01

    Ga2O3 with a wide bandgap of ˜ 4.9 eV can crystalize in five crystalline phases. Among those phases, the most stable monoclinic β-Ga2O3 has been studied most, however, it is hard to find materials lattice matching with β-Ga2O3 to grown epitaxial thin films for optoelectronic applications. In this work, CuGa2O4 bulk were prepared by solid state reaction as target, and the films were deposited on sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) at different substrate temperatures. The influences of substrate temperature on structural and optical properties have been systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope and UV-vis absorption spectra. High quality cubic structure and [111] oriented CuGa2O4 film can be obtained at substrate temperature of 750 °C. It's also demonstrated that the CuGa2O4 film has a bandgap of ˜ 4.4 eV and a best crystal quality at 750 °C, suggesting that CuGa2O4 film is a promising candidate for applications in ultraviolet optoelectronic devices.

  7. Epitaxial growth and characterization of CuGa2O4 films by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ga2O3 with a wide bandgap of ∼ 4.9 eV can crystalize in five crystalline phases. Among those phases, the most stable monoclinic β-Ga2O3 has been studied most, however, it is hard to find materials lattice matching with β-Ga2O3 to grown epitaxial thin films for optoelectronic applications. In this work, CuGa2O4 bulk were prepared by solid state reaction as target, and the films were deposited on sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE at different substrate temperatures. The influences of substrate temperature on structural and optical properties have been systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope and UV-vis absorption spectra. High quality cubic structure and [111] oriented CuGa2O4 film can be obtained at substrate temperature of 750 °C. It’s also demonstrated that the CuGa2O4 film has a bandgap of ∼ 4.4 eV and a best crystal quality at 750 °C, suggesting that CuGa2O4 film is a promising candidate for applications in ultraviolet optoelectronic devices.

  8. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiMnO3 films by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Ke, X.; Misra, R.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Xu, X. S.; Mei, Z. G.; Heeg, T.; Roeckerath, M.; Schubert, J.; Liu, Z. K.; Musfeldt, J. L.; Schiffer, P.; Schlom, D. G.

    2010-06-01

    We have developed the means to grow BiMnO3 thin films with unparalleled structural perfection by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and determined its band gap. Film growth occurs in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. Within this growth window bounded by oxygen pressure and substrate temperature at a fixed bismuth overpressure, single-phase films of the metastable perovskite BiMnO3 may be grown by epitaxial stabilization. X-ray diffraction reveals phase-pure and epitaxial films with ω rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 11 arc sec (0.003°). Optical absorption measurements reveal that BiMnO3 has a direct band gap of 1.1±0.1 eV.

  9. Thin-film GaAs epitaxial life-off solar cells for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, J.J.; Mulder, P.; Bauhuis, G.J.; Larsen, P.K.; Oomen, G.; Bongers, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work the space compatibility of thin-film GaAs solar cells is studied. These cells are separated from their GaAs substrate by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique and mounted behind a CMG cover glass which at the same time serves as a stable carrier for the thin film cells. In the

  10. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PZT films and devices on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the integration of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films into piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based on silicon is studied. In these structures, all epitaxial oxide layers (thin film/electrode/buffer-layer(s)) were deposited by pulsed laser

  11. Epitaxial antiperovskite superconducting CuNNi3 thin films synthesized by chemical solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhenzhen; Tang, Xianwu; Shao, Dingfu; Lei, Hechang; Yang, Jie; Song, Wenhai; Luo, Hongmei; Zhu, Xuebin; Sun, Yuping

    2014-10-28

    Epitaxial antiperovskite superconducting CuNNi3 thin films have been grown by chemical solution deposition. The film is a type II superconductor and shows a Tc of 3.2 K with a transition of 0.13 K. The Hc2(0) and ξ0 are estimated to be 8.1 kOe and 201 Å, respectively.

  12. X-ray study of chromium oxide films epitaxially grown on MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, XS; Hak, S; Rogojami, OC; Hibma, T

    2004-01-01

    Chromium oxide films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO (001) substrates were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. The absence of random oriented peaks in the theta-2theta spectra indicated that the thin films were a single phase. Reciprocal space

  13. Non-volatile voltage control of magnetization and magnetic domain walls in magnetostrictive epitaxial thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, D. E.; Cavill, S. A.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Wadley, P.; McGee, F.; Staddon, C. R.; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate reproducible voltage induced non-volatile switching of the magnetization in an epitaxial thin Fe81Ga19 film. Switching is induced at room temperature and without the aid of an external magnetic field. This is achieved by the modification of the magnetic anisotropy by mechanical strain induced by a piezoelectric transducer attached to the layer. Epitaxial Fe81Ga19 is shown to possess the favourable combination of cubic magnetic anisotropy and large magnetostriction necessary to ...

  14. The origin of local strain in highly epitaxial oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunrui; Liu, Ming; Chen, Chonglin; Lin, Yuan; Li, Yanrong; Horwitz, J S; Jiang, Jiechao; Meletis, E I; Zhang, Qingyu

    2013-10-31

    The ability to control the microstructures and physical properties of hetero-epitaxial functional oxide thin films and artificial structures is a long-sought goal in functional materials research. Normally, only the lattice misfit between the film and the substrate is considered to govern the physical properties of the epitaxial films. In fact, the mismatch of film unit cell arrangement and the Surface-Step-Terrace (SST) dimension of the substrate, named as "SST residual matching", is another key factor that significantly influence the properties of the epitaxial film. The nature of strong local strain induced from both lattice mismatch and the SST residual matching on ferroelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and ferromagnetic (La,Ca)MnO3 thin films are systematically investigated and it is demonstrated that this combined effect has a dramatic impact on the physical properties of highly epitaxial oxide thin films. A giant anomalous magnetoresistance effect (~10(10)) was achieved from the as-designed vicinal surfaces.

  15. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO; Stradins, Paul [Golden, CO; Teplin, Charles [Boulder, CO; Branz, Howard M [Boulder, CO

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of domain-wall propagation in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, J Y; Yang, S M; Kim, T H; Lee, H N; Yoon, J-G; Park, S; Jo, Y; Jung, M H; Noh, T W

    2009-01-30

    We investigated the ferroelectric domain-wall propagation in epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film over a wide temperature range (3-300 K). We measured the domain-wall velocity under various electric fields and found that the velocity data is strongly nonlinear with electric fields, especially at low temperature. We found that, as one of surface growth issues, our domain-wall velocity data from ferroelectric epitaxial film could be classified into the creep, depinning, and flow regimes due to competition between disorder and elasticity. The measured values of velocity and dynamical exponents indicate that the ferroelectric domain walls in the epitaxial films are fractal and pinned by a disorder-induced local field.

  17. A comparative study of transport properties in polycrystalline and epitaxial chromium nitride films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, X. F.

    2013-01-08

    Polycrystalline CrNx films on Si(100) and glass substrates and epitaxial CrNx films on MgO(100) substrates were fabricated by reactive sputtering with different nitrogen gas flow rates (fN2). With the increase of fN2, a lattice phase transformation from metallic Cr2N to semiconducting CrN appears in both polycrystalline and epitaxial CrNx films. At fN2= 100 sccm, the low-temperature conductance mechanism is dominated by both Mott and Efros-Shklovskii variable-range hopping in either polycrystalline or epitaxial CrN films. In all of the polycrystalline and epitaxial films, only the polycrystalline CrNx films fabricated at fN2 = 30 and 50 sccm exhibit a discontinuity in ρ(T) curves at 260-280 K, indicating that both the N-vacancy concentration and grain boundaries play important roles in the metal-insulator transition. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  19. High quality atomically thin PtSe2 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingzhe; Wang, Eryin; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Guangqi; Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Kenan; Yao, Wei; Lu, Nianpeng; Yang, Shuzhen; Wu, Shilong; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Wu, Yang; Yu, Pu; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun

    2017-12-01

    Atomically thin PtSe2 films have attracted extensive research interests for potential applications in high-speed electronics, spintronics and photodetectors. Obtaining high quality thin films with large size and controlled thickness is critical. Here we report the first successful epitaxial growth of high quality PtSe2 films by molecular beam epitaxy. Atomically thin films from 1 ML to 22 ML have been grown and characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Moreover, a systematic thickness dependent study of the electronic structure is revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and helical spin texture is revealed by spin-ARPES. Our work provides new opportunities for growing large size single crystalline films to investigate the physical properties and potential applications of PtSe2.

  20. The in-plane anisotropic magnetic damping of ultrathin epitaxial Co2FeAl film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Qiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The in-plane orientation-dependent effective damping of ultrathin Co2FeAl film epitaxially grown on GaAs(001 substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE has been investigated by employing the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE measurements. It is found that the interface-induced uniaxial anisotropy is favorable for precession response and the anisotropy of precession frequency is mainly determined by this uniaxial anisotropy, while the magnetic relaxation time and damping factor exhibit the fourfold anisotropy at high-field regime. The field-independent anisotropic damping factor obtained at high fields indicates that the effective damping shows an intrinsic fourfold anisotropy for the epitaxial Co2FeAl thin films.

  1. Dislocation propagation in GaN films formed by epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai; Sunakawa; Kimura; Usui

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the relationship between surface morphological evolution and dislocation propagation in GaN films formed by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) in hydride vapour phase epitaxy. The SEM observations revealed that step and terrace structures were formed on (0001) surfaces of the films both in the earlier and the later stages of growth, suggesting the occurrence of step-flow growth during ELO. Bending dislocations with laterally propagated segments were frequently observed in the ELO films and their morphology led to a reduction in threading dislocation density in the film surface regions. Systematic TEM observations were performed to reveal the detailed structure of the bending dislocations. Comparison between the SEM and the TEM results showed that the lateral propagation of the dislocation was closely related to the appearance of the [1101) facets. A mechanism for dislocation propagation is discussed that explains the observed dislocation structure and surface step morphology.

  2. Carrier dynamics and gain spectra at room-temperature in epitaxial ZNO thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Wong, K. S.

    1999-01-01

    Carrier dynamics of epitaxial ZnO thin film was investigated using a frequency up-conversion tehcnique. At lower carrier densities, the decay time of free exciton recombination was measured to be 24 ps. Rapid decay times of a few picoseconds were observed at higher carrier densities, which show a...

  3. Electric field effect on epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, K.; Joosse, K.; Boguslavskij, Yu.M.; Boguslavskij, Y.M.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    By applying a strong electric field perpendicular to the surface of an ultrathin, highly uniform epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7¿x film, the critical current was depressed and enhanced over 20% at temperatures close to Tc, and 5% at lower temperatures. Careful analysis of the electric field dependent I-V

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of InSb1−xBix thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Saha Roy, Ivy

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth for InSb1−xBix thin films on (100) GaAs substrates is reported. Successful Bi incorporation for 2% is achieved, and up to 70% of the incorporated Bi atoms are at substitutional sites. The effects of growth parameters on Bi incorporation and surface morphology...

  5. Hydrothermal epitaxial growth of ZnO films on sapphire substrates presenting epitaxial ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-Guang, E-mail: houguang@isu.edu.tw; Wang, Chi-Wei; Tu, Zhi-Fan

    2014-03-01

    This article describes our investigation of the hydrothermal epitaxial growth of c-plane ZnO films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates presenting ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers. We obtained (111) ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial layers on a-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates readily through solid phase epitaxy. Although the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers grew epitaxially with a (111) out-of-plane orientation and comprised two coexisting equivalent azimuthal variants with relative 180° in-plane rotation, the ZnO epitaxial films grown upon them exhibited a c-plane orientation with unitary in-plane epitaxial orientation of <11{sup ¯}00>{sub ZnO}∥<11{sup ¯}0>{sub ZnAl{sub 2O{sub 4}}} on the two different ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} variants. Taking the coincidence of the site lattices between the (0001) plane of ZnO and the (111) plane of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} into account, a reduction in lattice misfit was achieved through a 30° rotation between the lattices of the ZnO and the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. We used X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to obtain detailed microstructural views of the hydrothermally grown ZnO epitaxial films on the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers. - Highlights: • The c-plane ZnO films were epitaxially grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates presenting ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} buffer layers. • We obtained (111) ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial layers on a-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates through solid phase epitaxy. • The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layers comprised two equivalent azimuthal variants with relative 180° in-plane rotation. • The c-plane ZnO epitaxial films grown on ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layers with an in-plane relationship of <11{sup ¯}00>{sub ZnO}∥<11{sup ¯}0>{sub ZnAl{sub 2O{sub 4}}}.

  6. Probing the bulk ionic conductivity by thin film hetero-epitaxial engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pergolesi, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Highly textured thin films with small grain boundary regions can be used as model systems to directly measure the bulk conductivity of oxygen ion conducting oxides. Ionic conducting thin films and epitaxial heterostructures are also widely used to probe the effect of strain on the oxygen ion migration in oxide materials. For the purpose of these investigations a good lattice matching between the film and the substrate is required to promote the ordered film growth. Moreover, the substrate should be a good electrical insulator at high temperature to allow a reliable electrical characterization of the deposited film. Here we report the fabrication of an epitaxial heterostructure made with a double buffer layer of BaZrO3 and SrTiO3 grown on MgO substrates that fulfills both requirements. Based on such template platform, highly ordered (001) epitaxially oriented thin films of 15% Sm-doped CeO2 and 8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 are grown. Bulk conductivities as well as activation energies are measured for both materials, confirming the success of the approach. The reported insulating template platform promises potential application also for the electrical characterization of other novel electrolyte materials that still need a thorough understanding of their ionic conductivity.

  7. Electronic control of interface ferromagnetic order and exchange-bias in paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic epitaxial bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Parul; Das, Tanmay; Rana, Rakesh; Parmar, Jayesh B; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Rana, Dhanvir Singh

    2015-02-21

    The hetero-epitaxially engineered magnetic phases, formed due to entanglement of the spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom, at the atomically sharp interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures are indispensable for devising multifunctional devices. In the quest for novel and superior spintronics functionalities, we have explored the interface magnetism in the epitaxial bilayer of atypical magnetic and electronic states, i.e., of paramagnetic metallic and antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulating phases. In this framework, we observe an unusually strong ferromagnetic order and large exchange-bias fields generated at the interface of the bilayers of metallic CaRuO3 and AFM insulating manganite. The magnetic moment of the interface ferromagnetic order increases linearly with increasing thickness (7-90 nm) of the metallic CaRuO3 layer. This linear scaling signifying an electronic (non-magnetic) control of the interface magnetism and a non-monotonic dependence of the exchange-bias on metallic layers evolve as novel spintronics attributes in atypical bilayers.

  8. Sharp chemical interface in epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálvez, S. [SpLine, Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 200, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Rubio-Zuazo, J., E-mail: rubio@esrf.fr; Salas-Colera, E.; Muñoz-Noval, A.; Castro, G. R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 200, F-38043 Grenoble (France); ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Chemically sharp interface was obtained on single phase single oriented Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (001) thin film (7 nm) grown on NiO (001) substrate using oxygen assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Refinement of the atomic structure, stoichiometry, and oxygen vacancies were determined by soft and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and synchrotron based X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. Our results demonstrate an epitaxial growth of the magnetite layer, perfect iron stoichiometry, absence of oxygen vacancies, and the existence of an intermixing free interface. Consistent magnetic and electrical characterizations are also shown.

  9. Lutetium-doped EuO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, A.; Heeg, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A. [Zentrum fuer elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Shai, D. E.; Monkman, E. J.; Harter, J. W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Hollaender, B.; Schubert, J. [Peter Gruenberg Institute, PGI 9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Shen, K. M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schlom, D. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2012-05-28

    The effect of lutetium doping on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of epitaxial EuO thin films grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy is experimentally investigated. The behavior of Lu-doped EuO is contrasted with doping by lanthanum and gadolinium. All three dopants are found to behave similarly despite differences in electronic configuration and ionic size. Andreev reflection measurements on Lu-doped EuO reveal a spin-polarization of 96% in the conduction band, despite non-magnetic carriers introduced by 5% lutetium doping.

  10. Epitaxial thin films of heavy-Fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibauchi, T.; Shishido, H.; Yasu, K.; Mizukami, Y.; Terashima, T.; Matsuda, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Experimental studies of heavy-Fermion superconductors have been mainly concentrated in measurements using bulk crystals so far. Thin film fabrication process is a key to open new approaches to study fundamental physics, such as phase-sensitive measurements of order parameter using Josephson junctions, and controlling dimensionality of heavy Fermions by superlattices. Despite several attempts using different techniques and various substrates [1-3], epitaxial growth of Ce-based heavy-Fermion superconductors has been a challenging issue. Here we report on the first successful growth of epitaxial thin films of heavy-Fermion superconductor CeCoIn5. By the combination of a ultra-high vacuum deposition technique using molecular beam epitaxy and the choice of proper substrate material with very good lattice matching with CeCoIn5, we are able to fabricate epitaxial films whose transport properties reproduce the characteristic features of the bulk CeCoIn5, including a sharp superconducting transition at 2.3 K. [1] O.,. Soroka et al., J.,hys.: Condens.,atter 19, 056006 (2007). [2] M. Izaki et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 122507 (2007). [3] A.,. Zaitsev et al., Physica C 469, 52 (2009).

  11. Tunable band gap in epitaxial ferroelectric Ho(Mn,Ga)O{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daesu; Noh, Tae Won, E-mail: twnoh@snu.ac.kr [Center for Correlated Electron Systems, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Seok [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-09

    Ferroelectrics have recently attracted attention as a new class of materials for use in optical and photovoltaic devices. We studied the electronic properties in epitaxially stabilized ferroelectric hexagonal Ho(Mn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.33, 0.67, and 1) thin films. Our films exhibited systematic changes in electronic structures, such as bandgap and optical transitions, according to the Ga concentration. In particular, the bandgap increased systematically from 1.4 to 3.2 eV, including the visible light region, with increasing Ga concentration from x = 0 to 1. These systematic changes, attributed to lattice parameter variations in epitaxial Ho(Mn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})O{sub 3} films, should prove useful for the design of optoelectronic devices based on ferroelectrics.

  12. Diamagnetism to ferromagnetism in Sr-substituted epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Punugupati, Sandhyarani; Prater, John T.; Narayan, Jagdish

    2016-04-01

    We report on the ferromagnetic-like behavior in otherwise diamagnetic BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films upon doping with non-magnetic element Sr having the composition Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (BST). The epitaxial integration of BST (˜800 nm) thick films on Si (100) substrate was achieved using MgO (40 nm) and TiN (20 nm) as buffer layers to prepare BST/MgO/TiN/Si (100) heterostructure by pulsed laser deposition. The c-axis oriented and cube-on-cube epitaxial BST is formed on Si (100) as evidenced by the in-plane and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction. All the deposited films are relaxed through domain matching epitaxy paradigm as observed from X-ray diffraction pattern and A1TO3 mode (at 521.27 cm-1) of Raman spectra. As-deposited BST thin films reveal ferromagnetic-like properties, which persist up to 400 K. The magnetization decreases two-fold upon oxygen annealing. In contrast, as-deposited un-doped BTO films show diamagnetism. Electron spin resonance measurements reveal no evidence of external magnetic impurities. XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra show significant changes influenced by Sr doping in BTO. The ferromagnetic-like behavior in BST could be due to the trapped electron donors from oxygen vacancies resulting from Sr-doping.

  13. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-12-21

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr(2+) act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth.

  14. Tuning piezoelectric properties through epitaxy of La2Ti2O7 and related thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Hong, Seungbum; Bowden, Mark E.; Varga, Tamas; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Spurgeon, Steven R.; Comes, Ryan B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.

    2018-02-14

    Current piezoelectric sensors and actuators are limited to operating temperatures less than ~200°C due to the low Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. High temperature piezoelectric materials such as La2Ti2O7 (LTO) would facilitate the development of high-temperature sensors if the piezoelectric coupling coefficient could be maximized. We have deposited epitaxial LTO films on SrTiO3(001), SrTiO3(110), and rutile TiO2(110) substrates by pulsed laser deposition, and show that the crystalline orientation of the LTO film, and thus its piezoelectric coupling direction, can be controlled by epitaxial matching to the substrate. The structure and phase purity of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. To characterize the piezoelectric properties, piezoresponse force microscopy was used to measure the in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric coupling in the films. We find that the strength of the out-of-plane piezoelectric coupling can be increased when the piezoelectric crystalline direction is rotated partially out-of-plane via epitaxy. The strongest out-of-plane coupling is observed for LTO/STO(001). Deposition on TiO2(110) results in epitaxial La2/3TiO3, an orthorhombic perovskite of interest as a microwave dielectric material. La2/3TiO3 can be difficult to stabilize in bulk form, and epitaxial deposition has not been previously reported. These results confirm that control of the crystalline orientation of LTO-based materials can increase the out-of-plane strength of its piezoelectric coupling, which can be exploited in piezoelectric devices.

  15. Ordering of defects induced by epitaxy in LaCoO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Virat; Biskup, Neven; Wong, Franklin; Arenholz, Elke; Varela, Maria; Suzuki, Yuri

    2012-02-01

    In the bulk, LaCoO3 (LCO) undergoes a spin state transition from a diamagnet to a paramagnet with increasing temperature. Recent studies of epitaxial LCO thin films have resulted in the stabilization of a higher spin state and ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures. Here, we explore the effects of epitaxy on the electronic structure of LCO films with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We find differences in XAS spectra in coherently strained thinner films compared to the thicker partially relaxed films which may be due to differences in Co valence and bonding. STEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy of thinner LCO films reveal ordered defect planes that appear to be associated with a change in the O and Co bonding environments. In films on LaAlO3 strained in compression periodic planes occur parallel to the substrate-film interface, while films on SrTiO3 strained in tension have perpendicular defect planes. Correlation with magnetic data suggests that defect rich regions may exhibit greater ferromagnetism.

  16. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yamada, Keisuke; Onozuka, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shigematsu, Kei [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    Oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO{sub 3} films using CaH{sub 2}. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO{sub 2}H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H{sup −}-V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO{sub 2}H film was reversible to SrVO{sub 3} by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V{sup 3+} valence state in the SrVO{sub 2}H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  17. Vibrational properties of epitaxial Bi4Te3 films as studied by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bi4Te3, as one of the phases of the binary Bi–Te system, shares many similarities with Bi2Te3, which is known as a topological insulator and thermoelectric material. We report the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of 50 nm Bi4Te3 films on Si substrates prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. Raman spectra of Bi4Te3 films completely resolve the six predicted Raman-active phonon modes for the first time. Structural features and Raman tensors of Bi4Te3 films are introduced. According to the wavenumbers and assignments of the six eigenpeaks in the Raman spectra of Bi4Te3 films, it is found that the Raman-active phonon oscillations in Bi4Te3 films exhibit the vibrational properties of those in both Bi and Bi2Te3 films.

  18. Synthesis of LiCoO2 epitaxial thin films using a sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taeri; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Ozawa, Tadashi C.; Takada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial LiCoO2 films are synthesized using a sol-gel method. The precursors are aqueous solutions of acetates or nitrates of Li and Co with polyvinylpyrrolidone as a thickener. The LiCoO2 films prepared from the solutions by spin coating are epitaxially grown on sapphire (0001) substrates with c-axis orientation and in-plane alignment of LiCoO2 [ 1 1 bar 0 ] ‖sapphire [100]. A two-step heat treatment of the spin-coated films consisting of preheating on a hotplate at the crystallization temperature followed by a high-temperature treatment notably promotes the c-axis orientation. In addition, the crystal orientation is controllable on different planes of the SrTiO3 substrates; the LiCoO2 films are grown with epitaxial relationships of LiCoO2 (001)‖SrTiO3 (111), LiCoO2 (018)‖SrTiO3 (110), and LiCoO2 (104)‖SrTiO3 (100).

  19. Thermal stability of MBE-grown epitaxial MoSe2 and WSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young Jun; Choy, Byoung Ki; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Kim, Minu

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention, because of its unique optical properties and band structures depending on the layer thicknesses. However, MBE growth of epitaxial films demands information about thermal stability of stoichiometry and related electronic structure for high temperature range. We grow epitaxial MoSe2 and WSe2 ultrathin films by using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We characterize stoichiometry of films grown at various growth temperature by using various methods, XPS, EDX, and TOF-MEIS. We further test high temperature stability of electronic structure for those films by utilizing in-situ ellipsometry attached to UHV chamber. We discuss threshold temperatures up to 700~1000oC, at which electronic phases changes from semiconductor to metal due to selenium deficiency. This information can be useful for potential application of TMDs for fabrication of Van der Waals multilayers and related devices. This research was supported by Nano.Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning. (2009-0082580), NRF-2014R1A1A1002868.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of Bismuth-Cerium composite iron garnet epitaxial films for magneto optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Sekhar, M.; Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1151, Richmond Street, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    The Bi{sub x}Ce{sub 3-x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x = 0.8) epitaxial films of high quality were grown by means of pulsed laser deposition on paramagnetic substrates of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet. We study the modifications of substitutions in the parent garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} that produces a higher magneto-optical response at communication wavelengths. These films displayed a strong in plane textures which are treated in argon as well as reduced atmosphere conditions. The elemental constituents of these films were confirmed by energy dispersive-X ray analysis, elastic recoil detection system, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The transmittance spectra were measured and found these films exhibit good transmittance values. The transmittance-spectra were fitted with the theoretical model and the optical constants such as refractive index and absorption edge were evaluated. The highest (negative) Faraday rotation was found for these films treated in the environment of Ar + H{sub 2}. A density matrix theory has been developed for the Faraday rotation and a good agreement between the theory and experiment is found. These epitaxial garnet films can be used in a wide range of frequencies from visible to infrared spectra making them ideal for many magneto optical applications. Therefore, these films may overcome many issues in fabricating all optical isolators which is the viable solution for integrated photonics.

  1. Tuning piezoelectric properties through epitaxy of La2Ti2O7and related thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C; Hong, Seungbum; Bowden, Mark E; Varga, Tamas; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Spurgeon, Steven R; Comes, Ryan B; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H

    2018-02-14

    Current piezoelectric sensors and actuators are limited to operating temperatures less than ~200 °C due to the low Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. Strengthening the piezoelectric coupling of high-temperature piezoelectric materials, such as La 2 Ti 2 O 7 (LTO), would allow sensors to operate across a broad temperature range. The crystalline orientation and piezoelectric coupling direction of LTO thin films can be controlled by epitaxial matching to SrTiO 3 (001), SrTiO 3 (110), and rutile TiO 2 (110) substrates via pulsed laser deposition. The structure and phase purity of the films are investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Piezoresponse force microscopy is used to measure the in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric coupling in the films. The strength of the out-of-plane piezoelectric coupling can be increased when the piezoelectric direction is rotated partially out-of-plane via epitaxy. The strongest out-of-plane coupling is observed for LTO/STO(001). Deposition on TiO 2 (110) results in epitaxial La 2/3 TiO 3 , an orthorhombic perovskite of interest as a microwave dielectric material and an ion conductor. La 2/3 TiO 3 can be difficult to stabilize in bulk form, and epitaxial stabilization on TiO 2 (110) is a promising route to realize La 2/3 TiO 3 for both fundamental studies and device applications. Overall, these results confirm that control of the crystalline orientation of epitaxial LTO-based materials can govern the resulting functional properties.

  2. In situ XPS analysis of various iron oxide films grown by NO2-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, T.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Sawatzky, G.A.; Voogt, F.C.; Hibma, T.; Okada, K.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a systematic analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core- and valence-level spectra of clean and well-characterized iron oxide films, i.e., a-Fe2O3, y-Fe2O3, Fe3- dO4, and Fe3O4. All iron oxide films were prepared epitaxially by NO2-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on

  3. Catalytic Activity Enhancement for Oxygen Reduction on Epitaxial Perovskite Thin Films for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    la O', Gerardo Jose

    2010-06-22

    Figure Presented The active ingredient: La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC) epitaxial thin films are prepared on (001 )-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals with a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) buffer layer (see picture). The LSC epitaxial films exhibit better oxygen reduction kinetics than bulk LSC. The enhanced activity is attributed in part to higher oxygen nonstoichiometry. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KCaA, Weinheim.

  4. Extrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Mn{sub 4}N films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X., E-mail: wushx3@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ren, L. Z.; Zhou, W. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W., E-mail: stslsw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-01-19

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated. The longitudinal conductivity σ{sub xx} is within the superclean regime, indicating Mn{sub 4}N is a highly conducting material. We further demonstrate that the AHE signal in 40-nm-thick films is mainly due to the extrinsic contributions based on the analysis fitted by ρ{sub AH}=a′ρ{sub xx0}+bρ{sub xx}{sup 2} and σ{sub AH}∝σ{sub xx}. Our study not only provide a strategy for further theoretical work on antiperovskite manganese nitrides but also shed promising light on utilizing their extrinsic AHE to fabricate spintronic devices.

  5. Thin film GaAs solar cells on glass substrates by epitaxial liftoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, X.Y.; Goertemiller, M.; Boroditsky, M.; Ragan, R.; Yablonovitch, E. [Electrical Engineering Dept., University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1594 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this work, we describe the fabrication and operating characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs thin film solar cells processed by the epitaxial liftoff (ELO) technique. This technique allows the transfer of these cells onto glass substrates. The performance of the lifted-off solar cell is demonstrated by means of electrical measurements under both dark and illuminated conditions. We have also optimized the light trapping conditions in this direct-gap material. The results show that good solar absorption is possible in active layers as thin as 0.32 {mu}m. In such a thin solar cell, the open circuit voltage would be enhanced. We believe that the combination of an epitaxial liftoff thin GaAs film, and nano-texturing can lead to record breaking performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Angular dependence of magnetization reversal in epitaxial chromium telluride thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Tanmoy, E-mail: pramanik.tanmoy@utexas.edu; Roy, Anupam, E-mail: anupam@austin.utexas.edu; Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Movva, Hema C.P.; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}Te{sub 3} has been investigated. • Presence of a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution is observed. • Magnetization reversal is explained quantitatively using a 1D defect model. • Relative roles of nucleation and pinning in magnetization reversal are discussed. • Domain structures and switching process are visualized by micromagnetic simulation. - Abstract: We investigate magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal mechanism in chromium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report existence of strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these thin films, along with a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution. The angular variation of the switching field observed from the magnetoresistance measurement is explained quantitatively using a one-dimensional defect model. The model reveals the relative roles of nucleation and pinning in the magnetization reversal, depending on the applied field orientation. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to visualize the domain structure and switching process.

  7. Scintillation properties of Sc-, Pr-, and Ce-doped LuAG epitaxial garnet films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, P.; Kucera, M.; Mares, J. A.; Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Hanus, M.; Onderisinova, Z.; Cechak, T.

    2011-03-01

    Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) films were grown from the BaO-B2O3-BaF2 flux on LuAG and YAG substrates using the liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE). They were doped with Pr3+, Sc3+, and eventually still with Ce3+ ions. Photoelectron yield, its time dependence, and energy resolution were measured under α-particle excitation. A sample of the Czochralski-grown bulk LuAG:Pr single crystal was measured as a reference. The best performing epitaxial films had low Sc3+ concentration and appeared comparable or superior to the Czochralski-grown crystal in terms of photoelectron yield and relative intensity of the fast component of scintillation response. High concentration of Sc3+ ions results in slowdown of response and lower photoelectron yield. Some samples with lower photoelectron yield than that of the Czochralski-grown crystal did exhibit better energy resolution.

  8. Growth of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Safari, A.; Pfeffer, R. L.

    1992-10-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary have been grown on MgO (100) and Y1Ba2Cu3Ox (YBCO) coated MgO substrates. Substrate temperature and oxygen pressure were varied to achieve ferroelectric films with a perovskite structure. Films grown on MgO had the perovskite structure with an epitaxial relationship with the MgO substrate. On the other hand, films grown on the YBCO/MgO substrate had an oriented structure to the surface normal with a misorientation in the plane parallel to the surface. The measured dielectric constant and loss tangent at 1 kHz were 670 and 0.05, respectively. The remnant polarization and coercive field were 42 μC/cm2 and 53 kV/cm. A large internal bias field (12 kV/cm) was observed in the as-deposited state of the undoped PZT films.

  9. Possible spin gapless semiconductor type behaviour in CoFeMnSi epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Varun K.; Rani, Jyoti; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Tomy, C. V.

    2017-10-01

    Spin-gapless semiconductors with their unique band structure have recently attracted much attention due to their interesting transport properties that can be utilized in spintronics applications. We have deposited the thin films of a quaternary spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeMnSi Heusler alloy on MgO (001) substrates using a pulsed laser deposition system. These films show epitaxial growth along the (001) direction and display a uniform and smooth crystalline surface. The magnetic properties reveal that the film is ferromagnetically soft along the in-plane direction and its Curie temperature is well above 400 K. The electrical conductivity of the film is low and exhibits a nearly temperature independent semiconducting behaviour. The estimated temperature coefficient of resistivity for the film is -7 × 10-10 Ω m/K, which is comparable to the values reported for spin-gapless semiconductors.

  10. Structure and giant inverse magnetocaloric effect of epitaxial Ni-Co-Mn-Al films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, N.; Kucza, D.; Yildirim, O.; Yuzuak, E.; Dincer, I.; Behler, A.; Weise, B.; Helmich, L.; Boehnke, A.; Klimova, S.; Waske, A.; Elerman, Y.; Hütten, A.

    2015-05-01

    The structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of epitaxial Ni-Co-Mn-Al thin films with different compositions have been studied. The films were deposited on MgO(001) substrates by co-sputtering on heated substrates. All films show a martensitic transformation, where the transformation temperatures are strongly dependent on the composition. The structure of the martensite phase is shown to be 14 M . The metamagnetic martensitic transformation occurs from strongly ferromagnetic austenite to weakly magnetic martensite. The structural properties of the films were investigated by atomic force microscopy and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties were analyzed using temperature dependent and isothermal magnetization measurements. We find that Ni41Co10.4Mn34.8Al13.8 films show giant inverse magnetocaloric effects with magnetic entropy change of 17.5 J kg-1K-1 for μ0Δ H =5 T.

  11. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  12. Suppression of vacancy defects in epitaxial La-doped SrTiO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeble, D. J.; Kanda, G. [Carnegie Laboratory of Physics, SUPA, School of Engineering, Physics, and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Jalan, B.; Stemmer, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Ravelli, L.; Egger, W. [Universitaet Bundeswehr Muenchen, D-85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2011-12-05

    Variable energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of high-mobility La-doped SrTiO{sub 3} grown by molecular beam epitaxy found that the films contained sufficiently low concentrations of Sr vacancies and vacancy cluster defects to allow the observation of positron annihilation events from the perfect lattice. This enabled the concentrations of charged cation vacancies to be estimated, and these were found to be at least an order of magnitude below the La-dopant concentrations.

  13. PANIC: a 3D dislocation dynamics model for climb and glide in epitaxial films and heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wai Yuen; Humphreys, Colin J.; Moram, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents PANIC, a 3D discrete mesoscale dislocation dynamics model which includes a fully quantitative treatment of both dislocation climb and dislocation glide, including climb driven by both osmotic and mechanical stresses and climb enabled by both bulk and pipe diffusion, including full elastic anisotropy for materials with hexagonal symmetry. Efficient calculations can be performed for epitaxial thin films, multilayers and device structures with free surfaces, including those w...

  14. Structural defects and epitaxial rotation of C-60 and C-70(111) films on GeS(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernaerts, D.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Amelinckx, S.

    1996-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy study of epitaxial C60 and C70 films grown on a GeS (001) surface is presented. The relationship between the orientation of the substrate and the films and structural defects in the films, such as grain boundaries, unknown in bulk C60 and C70 crystals, are studied....... Small misalignments of the overlayers with respect to the orientation of the substrate, so-called epitaxial rotations, exist mainly in C70 films, but also sporadically in the C60 overlayers. A simple symmetry model, previously used to predict the rotation of hexagonal overlayers on hexagonal substrates...

  15. Surface symmetry-breaking and strain effects on orbital occupancy in transition metal perovskite epitaxial films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, D; Herranz, G; Barla, A; Pellegrin, E; Bondino, F; Magnano, E; Sánchez, F; Fontcuberta, J

    2012-01-01

    The electron occupancy of 3d-orbitals determines the properties of transition metal oxides. This can be achieved, for example, through thin-film heterostructure engineering of ABO(3) oxides, enabling emerging properties at interfaces. Interestingly, epitaxial strain may break the degeneracy of 3d-e(g) and t(2g) orbitals, thus favoring a particular orbital filling with consequences for functional properties. Here we disclose the effects of symmetry breaking at free surfaces of ABO(3) perovskite epitaxial films and show that it can be combined with substrate-induced epitaxial strain to tailor at will the electron occupancy of in-plane and out-of-plane surface electronic orbitals. We use X-ray linear dichroism to monitor the relative contributions of surface, strain and atomic terminations to the occupancy of 3z(2)-r(2) and x(2)-y(2) orbitals in La(2/3)Sr(1/3)MnO(3) films. These findings open the possibility of an active tuning of surface electronic and magnetic properties as well as chemical properties (catalytic reactivity, wettability and so on).

  16. Epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co thin films on PMN-PT substrates for multicaloric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, B., E-mail: b.schleicher@ifw-dresden.de; Niemann, R.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute for Solid State Physics, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Diestel, A.; Hühne, R. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    Multicaloric stacks consisting of a magnetocaloric film on a piezoelectric substrate promise improved caloric properties as the transition temperature can be controlled by both magnetic and electric fields. We present epitaxially grown magnetocaloric Ni-Mn-Ga-Co thin films on ferroelectric Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.72}Ti{sub 0.28}O{sub 3} substrates. Structure and microstructure of two samples, being in the austenitic and martensitic state at room temperature, are investigated by X-ray diffraction in two- and four-circle geometry and by atomic force microscopy. In addition, high temperature magnetometry was performed on the latter sample. The combination of these methods allows separating the influence of epitaxial growth and martensitic transformation. A preferential alignment of twin boundaries is observed already in the as-deposited state, which indicates the presence of prestress, without applying an electric field to the substrate. A temperature-magnetic field phase diagram is presented, which demonstrates the inverse magnetocaloric effect of the epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co film.

  17. Solid-phase epitaxial film growth and optical properties of a ferroelectric oxide, Sr2Nb2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Yukio; Zhang, Yu-Qiao; Chen, Chunlin; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-10-01

    High-quality epitaxial films of a ferroelectric oxide Sr2Nb2O7 were successfully fabricated by solid phase epitaxy (SPE) on (110) LaAlO3 single crystal substrates. In the SPE method, amorphous Sr-Nb-O films are first deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature and then annealed in vacuum at elevated temperatures, resulting in the crystallization of Sr2Nb2O7 with highly ordered atomic arrangement and an atomically flat surface. The refractive index of the resultant film was 2.1, indicating that the dielectric permittivity of the film was in between 20 and 80, which corresponds well with that of single crystal Sr2Nb2O7, demonstrating the effectiveness of the SPE method for the fabrication of high-quality epitaxial films of Sr2Nb2O7.

  18. Surface morphologies and quality of thick liquid phase epitaxial garnet films for magneto-optic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiya, Taketoshi

    1983-06-01

    Surface morphologies of thick Gd : YIG garnet films grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) are found to be classified into three types: "mirror", "striation" and "swirl". "Mirror" appears when films are grown at low temperature or when the film thickness is small. "Striation", which takes over the striation of the substrates, appears when the growth temperature or film thickness is medium. "Swirl" appears when the growth temperature is high or the film thickness is large. When "swirl" takes place, flux is included into the thick films. A mechanism for the morphological change with increase in film thickness is shown. An increase in half-width of the X-ray rocking curve with an increase in film thickness is found for the {111} films. This can be attributed to the generation of {110} and {211} facets which have larger lattice constants than the {111} and to crystallinity degradation due to flux inclusion. The {110} or the slightly misoriented {110} substrate is recommended to be employed so as to obtain inclusion-free thick films.

  19. Irradiation induced improvement in crystallinity of epitaxially grown Ag thin films on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahiro, Katsumi; Nagata, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Sadae [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1997-03-01

    We report the improvement in crystallinity of epitaxially grown Ag films on Si(100) substrates with ion irradiation. The irradiation of 0.5 MeV Si ions to 2x10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at 200degC, for example, reduces the channeling minimum yield from 60% to 6% at Ag surface. The improvement originates from the decrease of mosaic spread in the Ag thin film. In our experiments, ion energy, ion species and irradiation temperature have been varied. The better crystallinity is obtained as the higher concentration of defect is generated. The mechanism involved in the irradiation induced improvement is discussed. (author)

  20. Epitaxial ferromagnetic oxide thin films on silicon with atomically sharp interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coux, P. de [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bachelet, R.; Fontcuberta, J.; Sánchez, F., E-mail: fsanchez@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Warot-Fonrose, B. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain and Dep. de Física, Univ. Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lupina, L.; Niu, G.; Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2014-07-07

    A bottleneck in the integration of functional oxides with silicon, either directly grown or using a buffer, is the usual formation of an amorphous interfacial layer. Here, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films can be grown epitaxially on Si(111) using a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer, and remarkably the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) interface is stable and remains atomically sharp. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films present high crystal quality and high saturation magnetization.

  1. Effect of domain structure on dielectric nonlinearity in epitaxial BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, J. F.; Folkman, C. M.; Baek, S. H.; Brennecka, G. L.; George, M. C.; Carroll, J. F.; Eom, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Rayleigh analysis has been used to investigate dielectric nonlinearity in epitaxial (001)-oriented BiFeO3 films with engineered domain structures from single- to four-variant and stripe domain samples with 71° and 109° domain walls. Single-domain variant films display minimal irreversible contributions, whereas the ratio of irreversible to reversible contributions increases by approximately one order of magnitude as the number of variants increases to two- and four-variants, respectively. These measurements indicate that the density of domain walls and degree of domain wall complexity influence the number and strength of domain wall pinning sites.

  2. Eu-Doped GaN Films Grown by Phase Shift Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Mingyu; Steckl, Andrew J.

    2010-12-01

    Phase shift epitaxy (PSE) is a dynamic thin film growth technique wherein constituent fluxes are pulsed with an adjustable phase shift. PSE enables the introduction of dopants during the optimum segment of the growth cycle. Eu-doped GaN films were grown with Ga and Eu shutters periodically opened and closed (with varying phase shift) while keeping N flux constant, so that the Ga and Eu coverage on surface during each cycle varies in a controlled way. The Eu concentration and photoluminescence (PL) efficiency are strongly influenced by the PSE parameters. Eu ions doped during high Ga coverage exhibit strong PL efficiency.

  3. Robust Zero-Field Skyrmion Formation in FeGe Epitaxial Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J C; Meng, K Y; Brangham, J T; Wang, H L; Esser, B D; McComb, D W; Yang, F Y

    2017-01-13

    B20 phase magnetic materials have been of significant interest because they enable magnetic Skyrmions. One major effort in this emerging field is the stabilization of Skyrmions at room temperature and zero magnetic field. We grow phase-pure, high crystalline quality FeGe epitaxial films on Si(111). Hall effect measurements reveal a strong topological Hall effect after subtracting the ordinary and anomalous Hall effects, demonstrating the formation of high density Skyrmions in FeGe films between 5 and 275 K. In particular, a substantial topological Hall effect was observed at a zero magnetic field, showing a robust Skyrmion phase without the need of an external magnetic field.

  4. Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks: An indentation study on epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, S.; Kraft, O.; Arslan, H. K.; Gliemann, H.; Weidler, P. G.; Wöll, C.

    2012-09-01

    We have determined the hardness and Young's modulus of a highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) using a standard nanoindentation technique. Despite the very low density of these films, 1.22 g cm-3, Young's modulus reaches values of almost 10 GPa for HKUST-1, demonstrating that this porous coordination polymer is substantially stiffer than normal polymers. This progress in characterizing mechanical properties of MOFs has been made possible by the use of high quality, oriented thin films grown using liquid phase epitaxy on modified Au substrates.

  5. Thickness dependent exchange bias in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Behler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A thickness dependent exchange bias in the low temperature martensitic state of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films is found. The effect can be retained down to very small thicknesses. For a Ni50Mn32Sn18 thin film, which does not undergo a martensitic transformation, no exchange bias is observed. Our results suggest that a significant interplay between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions, which is the origin for exchange bias, is only present in the martensite. The finding is supported by ab initio calculations showing that the antiferromagnetic order is stabilized in the phase.

  6. Laser energy tuning of carrier effective mass and thermopower in epitaxial oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2012-04-18

    The effect of the laser fluence on high temperature thermoelectric properties of the La doped SrTiO3 (SLTO) thin films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 〈100〉 substrates by pulsed laser deposition is clarified. It is shown that oxygen vacancies that influence the effective mass of carriers in SLTO films can be tuned by varying the laser energy. The highest power factor of 0.433 W K−1 m−1 has been achieved at 636 K for a filmdeposited using the highest laser fluence of 7 J cm−2 pulse−1.

  7. Thickness dependent exchange bias in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, Anna [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, Niclas; Auge, Alexander; Hütten, Andreas [Department of Physics, Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Dutta, Biswanath; Hickel, Tilmann [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Waske, Anja [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    A thickness dependent exchange bias in the low temperature martensitic state of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films is found. The effect can be retained down to very small thicknesses. For a Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 32}Sn{sub 18} thin film, which does not undergo a martensitic transformation, no exchange bias is observed. Our results suggest that a significant interplay between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions, which is the origin for exchange bias, is only present in the martensite. The finding is supported by ab initio calculations showing that the antiferromagnetic order is stabilized in the phase.

  8. Thickness dependent exchange bias in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Anna; Teichert, Niclas; Dutta, Biswanath; Waske, Anja; Hickel, Tilmann; Auge, Alexander; Hütten, Andreas; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    A thickness dependent exchange bias in the low temperature martensitic state of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films is found. The effect can be retained down to very small thicknesses. For a Ni50Mn32Sn18 thin film, which does not undergo a martensitic transformation, no exchange bias is observed. Our results suggest that a significant interplay between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions, which is the origin for exchange bias, is only present in the martensite. The finding is supported by ab initio calculations showing that the antiferromagnetic order is stabilized in the phase.

  9. The growth of thin film epitaxial oxide-metal heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    1998-01-01

    films with lowest IR emissivity are those made from the purest targets despite their having comparable roughnesses to films from lower purity targets. The lowest emissivity achieved was in the range of 1.64% to 1.72% measured at 3.8 mu m for 1.5 to 1.8 mu m thick films. Modifications to standard idealized Drude theory have been made which, in a phenomenological way, take account of imperfections in the sputtered Al film, oxidation state and roughness. in electric properties of the Nb film and the reduction in crystalline quality of the MgO layer. The reduction of transition temperature to the superconducting state, Tc, and the similarly systematic increase in the Nb lattice parameter were observed consistent with oxygen content data reported in the literature, as the Nb became heavily oxidized. Examination of the surface of clean and oxidized Nb by atomic force microscopy, and deposition of MgO in UHV onto a previously oxidized Nb surface, suggested that the decrease in crystalline quality of the MgO can be a...

  10. Pulsed laser ablation growth and doping of epitaxial compound semiconductor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Rouleau, C.M.; Geohegan, D.B.; Budai, J.D.; Poker, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Puretzky, A.A. [Inst. of Spectroscopy, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Strauss, M.A.; Pedraza, A.J.; Park, J.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has several characteristics that are potentially attractive for the growth and doping of chemically complex compound semiconductors including (1) stoichiometric (congruent) transfer of composition from target to film, (2) the use of reactive gases to control film composition and/or doping via energetic-beam-induced reactions, and (3) low-temperature nonequilibrium phase formation in the laser-generated plasma ``plume.`` However, the electrical properties of compound semiconductors are far more sensitive to low concentrations of defects than are the oxide metals/ceramics for which PLA has been so successful. Only recently have doped epitaxial compound semiconductor films been grown by PLA. Fundamental studies are being carried out to relate film electrical and microstructural properties to the energy distribution of ablated species, to the temporal evolution of the ablation pulse in ambient gases, and to beam assisted surface and/or gas-phase reactions. In this paper the authors describe results of ex situ Hall effect, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering measurements that are being used in combination with in situ RHEED and time-resolved ion probe measurements to evaluate PLA for growth of doped epitaxial compound semiconductor films and heterostructures. Examples are presented and results analyzed for doped II-VI, I-III-VI, and column-III nitride materials grown recently in this and other laboratories.

  11. Single orientation graphene synthesized on iridium thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangwal Pandey, A., E-mail: arti.pandey@desy.de; Grånäs, E.; Shayduk, R.; Noei, H.; Vonk, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Krausert, K.; Franz, D.; Müller, P.; Keller, T. F.; Stierle, A., E-mail: andreas.stierle@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universität Hamburg, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-08-21

    Heteroepitaxial iridium thin films were deposited on (0001) sapphire substrates by means of molecular beam epitaxy, and subsequently, one monolayer of graphene was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The influence of the growth parameters on the quality of the Ir films, as well as of graphene, was investigated systematically by means of low energy electron diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Our study reveals (111) oriented iridium films with high crystalline quality and extremely low surface roughness, on which the formation of large-area epitaxial graphene is achieved. The presence of defects, like dislocations, twins, and 30° rotated domains in the iridium films is also discussed. The coverage of graphene was found to be influenced by the presence of 30° rotated domains in the Ir films. Low iridium deposition rates suppress these rotated domains and an almost complete coverage of graphene was obtained. This synthesis route yields inexpensive, air-stable, and large-area graphene with a well-defined orientation, making it accessible to a wider community of researchers for numerous experiments or applications, including those which use destructive analysis techniques or irreversible processes. Moreover, this approach can be used to tune the structural quality of graphene, allowing a systematic study of the influence of defects in various processes like intercalation below graphene.

  12. Influence of metallic surface states on electron affinity of epitaxial AlN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna, Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha [Advanced Materials and Devices Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org [Advanced Materials and Devices Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2017-06-15

    The present article investigates surface metallic states induced alteration in the electron affinity of epitaxial AlN films. AlN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system with (30% and 16%) and without metallic aluminium on the surface were probed via photoemission spectroscopic measurements. An in-depth analysis exploring the influence of metallic aluminium and native oxide on the electronic structure of the films is performed. It was observed that the metallic states pinned the Fermi Level (FL) near valence band edge and lead to the reduction of electron affinity (EA). These metallic states initiated charge transfer and induced changes in surface and interface dipoles strength. Therefore, the EA of the films varied between 0.6–1.0 eV due to the variation in contribution of metallic states and native oxide. However, the surface barrier height (SBH) increased (4.2–3.5 eV) adversely due to the availability of donor-like surface states in metallic aluminium rich films.

  13. Domain structure and magnetotransport in epitaxial colossal magnetoresistance thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuri; Wu, Yan; Yu, Jun; Rüdiger, Ulrich; Kent, Andrew D.; Nath, Tapan K.; Eom, Chang-Beom

    2000-01-01

    Our studies of compressively strained La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO7 (LSMO) thin films reveal the importance of domain structure and strain effects in the magnetization reversal and magnetotransport. Normal and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction indicate that the compressive strain on these LSMO thin films on (100) LaAlO3 is not completely relaxed up to thicknesses on the order of 1000 Å. The effect of the compressive strain is evident in the shape of the magnetization loops and the magnetotransport measu...

  14. Strain Control of Oxygen Vacancies in Epitaxial Strontium Cobaltite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, Jonathan R.; Mitra, Chandrima; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Meyer, Tricia L.; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Freeland, John W.; Eres, Gyula; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-03-08

    The ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 degrees C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by approximate to 30%, resulting in a tunable oxygen defi cient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.

  15. Simultaneous epitaxial growth of anatase and rutile TiO 2 thin films by RF helicon magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae; Jin, Ping; Kaneko, Kenji; Terai, Asuka; Nabatova-Gabain, Nataliya

    2003-06-01

    Epitaxial films of TiO 2 with rutile structure on sapphire and anatase structure on SrTiO 3 were simultaneously grown by RF helicon magnetron sputtering of a TiO 2 target in Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction using θ-2 θ scan and pole figure plots confirmed the epitaxial relationship, which were rutile (1 0 1)∥sapphire (1 1 0), (0 1 0) f∥(0 0 1) s, and anatase (0 0 1)∥SrTiO 3(0 0 1), (1 0 0) f∥(1 0 0) s, where suffix f and s stand for the film and substrate, respectively. Moreover, observation by transmission electron microscopy identified the epitaxial film growth of single crystalline anatase and rutile structure with slight lattice distortion compared with bulk. The lattice constants of a and b, which were calculated from electron diffraction spots and lattice image in TEM of the films were contracted while that of c being expanded. According to the results of spectroscopic ellipsometry, the films show very high refractive indices ( n) at the designated wavelength range in comparison with the past reports on TiO 2 thin films. Although there are no bulk references in the anatase case, the values n of the rutile film are comparable to the bulk in the data-book. Such high refractive indices of the films indicate the compact texture of the epitaxial films fabricated by helicon sputtering.

  16. Surface and interface of epitaxial CdTe film on CdS buffered van der Waals mica substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-B.; Seewald, L.; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Wang, Y.; Zhang, L. H.; Kisslinger, K.; Xie, Weiyu; Shi, J.; Bhat, I.; Zhang, Shengbai; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2017-08-01

    Single crystal CdTe films are desirable for optoelectronic device applications. An important strategy of creating films with high crystallinity is through epitaxial growth on a proper single crystal substrate. We report the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial CdTe films on the CdS/mica substrate. The epitaxial CdS film was grown on a mica surface by thermal evaporation. Due to the weak van der Waals forces, epitaxy is achieved despite the very large interface lattice mismatch between CdS and mica (∼21-55%). The surface morphology of mica, CdS and CdTe were quantified by atomic force microscopy. The near surface structures, orientations and texture of CdTe and CdS films were characterized by the unique reflection high-energy electron diffraction surface pole figure technique. The interfaces of CdTe and CdS films and mica were characterized by X-ray pole figure technique and transmission electron microscopy. The out-of-plane and in-plane epitaxy of the heteroepitaxial films stack are determined to be CdTe(111)//CdS(0001)//mica(001) and [ 1 bar2 1 bar]CdTe//[1 bar100]CdS//[010]mica, respectively. The measured photoluminescence (PL), time resolved PL, photoresponse, and Hall mobility of the CdTe/CdS/mica indicate quality films. The use of van der Waals surface to grow epitaxial CdTe/CdS films offers an alternative strategy towards infrared imaging and solar cell applications.

  17. Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Kim, H. J.; Hul'ko, O.; Xie, Y. H.; Sahni, S.; Bandaru, P.; Yablonovitch, E.

    2004-07-01

    Ge thin films are grown on Si(001) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy at 370 °C. The low-temperature epitaxial growth is compatible with the back-end thermal budget of current generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which is restricted to less than 450 °C. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that single-crystal Ge thin films with smooth surfaces could be achieved below 450 °C. Double-axis x-ray θ/2θ scans also show that the epitaxial Ge films are almost fully strain-relaxed. As expected, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows a network of dislocations at the interface. Hydrogen and oxide desorption techniques are proved to be necessary for improving the quality of the Ge films, which is reflected in improved minority carrier diffusion lengths and exceptionally low leakage currents.

  18. Effect of epitaxial strain and lattice mismatch on magnetic and transport behaviors in metamagnetic FeRh thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We grew 80 nm FeRh films on different single crystals with various lattice constants. FeRh films on SrTiO3 (STO and MgO substrates exhibit an epitaxial growth of 45° in-plane structure rotation. In contrast, FeRh on LaAlO3 (LAO displays a mixed epitaxial growth of both 45° in-plane structure rotation and cube-on-cube relationships. Due to the different epitaxial growth strains and lattice mismatch values, the critical temperature for the magnetic phase transition of FeRh can be changed between 405 and 360 K. In addition, the external magnetic field can shift this critical temperature to low temperature in different rates for FeRh films grown on different substrates. The magnetoresistance appears a maximum value at different temperatures between 320 and 380 K for FeRh films grown on different substrates.

  19. Effect of epitaxial strain and lattice mismatch on magnetic and transport behaviors in metamagnetic FeRh thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Shang, Tian; Yang, Huali; Wang, Baomin; Tang, Jin; Li, Run-Wei

    2017-05-01

    We grew 80 nm FeRh films on different single crystals with various lattice constants. FeRh films on SrTiO3 (STO) and MgO substrates exhibit an epitaxial growth of 45° in-plane structure rotation. In contrast, FeRh on LaAlO3 (LAO) displays a mixed epitaxial growth of both 45° in-plane structure rotation and cube-on-cube relationships. Due to the different epitaxial growth strains and lattice mismatch values, the critical temperature for the magnetic phase transition of FeRh can be changed between 405 and 360 K. In addition, the external magnetic field can shift this critical temperature to low temperature in different rates for FeRh films grown on different substrates. The magnetoresistance appears a maximum value at different temperatures between 320 and 380 K for FeRh films grown on different substrates.

  20. The liquid phase epitaxy method for the construction of oriented ZIF-8 thin films with controlled growth on functionalized surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2013-01-01

    Highly-oriented ZIF-8 thin films with controllable thickness were grown on an -OH-functionalized Au substrate using the liquid phase epitaxy method at room temperature, as evidenced by SEM and PXRD. The adsorption-desorption properties of the resulting ZIF-8 thin film were investigated for various VOCs using the QCM technique. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  1. Epitaxial growth of Bi ultra-thin films on GaAs by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abuin, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada IQFR(CSIC)-UCM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Mascaraque, A., E-mail: arantzazu.mascaraque@fis.ucm.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada IQFR(CSIC)-UCM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gonzalez-Barrio, M.A. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada IQFR(CSIC)-UCM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Perez, L. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrodeposition of Bi films on GaAs substrates with different orientations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultra thin films - 50 nm - are continuous and smooth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi always grows with (0 1 L) orientations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial growth onto As terminated surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed model based on structural and chemical considerations. - Abstract: We report on the growth of thin bismuth films on GaAs substrates with different orientations by means of electrochemical deposition. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the films are continuous and exhibit low roughness when they are grown under the appropriate overpotential. {omega}-2{theta} X-ray diffraction scans only show reflections that can be indexed as (0 1 L), meaning that Bi grows onto GaAs only in combinations of the (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) orientations. The matching between the GaAs substrate and the Bi layer has been studied by asymmetric X-ray scans, finding that Bi grows epitaxially on GaAs(1 1 0) and GaAs(1 1 1)B, both As-terminated surfaces. We explain these results by structural and chemical considerations.

  2. Suppression of creep-regime dynamics in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y J; Jeon, B C; Yang, S M; Hwang, I; Cho, M R; Sando, D; Lee, S R; Yoon, J-G; Noh, T W

    2015-05-27

    Switching dynamics of ferroelectric materials are governed by the response of domain walls to applied electric field. In epitaxial ferroelectric films, thermally-activated 'creep' motion plays a significant role in domain wall dynamics, and accordingly, detailed understanding of the system's switching properties requires that this creep motion be taken into account. Despite this importance, few studies have investigated creep motion in ferroelectric films under ac-driven force. Here, we explore ac hysteretic dynamics in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films, through ferroelectric hysteresis measurements, and stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. We reveal that identically-fabricated BiFeO3 films on SrRuO3 or La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 bottom electrodes exhibit markedly different switching behaviour, with BiFeO3/SrRuO3 presenting essentially creep-free dynamics. This unprecedented result arises from the distinctive spatial inhomogeneities of the internal fields, these being influenced by the bottom electrode's surface morphology. Our findings further highlight the importance of controlling interface and defect characteristics, to engineer ferroelectric devices with optimised performance.

  3. Defect formation and carrier doping in epitaxial films of the infinite layer compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, R.; Pennycook, S.J.; Chisholm, M.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The correlation between defect formation and carrier doping in epitaxial films of the infinite layer compound SrCuO{sub 2} has been studied via molecular beam epitaxy controlled layer-by-layer growth experiments, chemically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electrical transport measurements, and post-growth oxidation-reduction annealing. Based on the complementary information provided by these experiments, it is concluded that the carrier doping is dominated by the formation of an electron-doped, Sr and O deficient matrix under mildly oxidizing growth conditions. Hole-doping is induced by extended defects containing excess Sr atoms and may lead to superconductivity after high-temperature oxidation.

  4. Acceptor states in heteroepitaxial CdHgTe films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynbaev, K. D.; Shilyaev, A. V., E-mail: mynkad@mail.ioffe.ru; Bazhenov, N. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Izhnin, A. I.; Izhnin, I. I. [R& D Institute for Materials SRC Carat (Ukraine); Mikhailov, N. N.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    The photoluminescence method is used to study acceptor states in CdHgTe heteroepitaxial films (HEFs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. A comparison of the photoluminescence spectra of HEFs grown on GaAs substrates (CdHgTe/GaAs) with the spectra of CdHgTe/Si HEFs demonstrates that acceptor states with energy depths of about 18 and 27 meV are specific to CdHgTe/GaAs HEFs. The possible nature of these states and its relation to the HEF synthesis conditions and, in particular, to the vacancy doping occurring under conditions of a mercury deficiency during the course of epitaxy and postgrowth processing are discussed.

  5. Epitaxial growth of delafossite CuFeO2 thin films by pulse laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. Z.; Liu, J.; Wang, X. Z.; Yan, B. W.; Li, H.; Liu, J.–M.

    2012-07-01

    CuFeO2 (CFO) is a delafossite-type compound and is a well known p-type semiconductor. Epitaxial CuFeO2 thin films were prepared on Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The deposition, performed at 500 °C and 10 Pa leads to epitaxial phase with extremely low roughness and high density. The oxygen pressure modulates the band energy properties of Cu 2p, Fe 3p and O1s. The results show that the low deposition oxygen pressure contributes to the chemistry ingredient and magnetization properties. Furthermore, spin-glass behavior is identified and weak-ferromagnetization property is found at a low temperature about ∼5 K.

  6. Epitaxial growth of delafossite CuFeO{sub 2} thin films by pulse laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.Z. [School of Physics, Huangshi Institute of Technology, Huangshi 435003 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, J. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, X.Z [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435000 (China); Yan, B.W.; Li, H. [School of Physics, Huangshi Institute of Technology, Huangshi 435003 (China); Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-07-01

    CuFeO{sub 2} (CFO) is a delafossite-type compound and is a well known p-type semiconductor. Epitaxial CuFeO{sub 2} thin films were prepared on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The deposition, performed at 500 Degree-Sign C and 10 Pa leads to epitaxial phase with extremely low roughness and high density. The oxygen pressure modulates the band energy properties of Cu 2p, Fe 3p and O1s. The results show that the low deposition oxygen pressure contributes to the chemistry ingredient and magnetization properties. Furthermore, spin-glass behavior is identified and weak-ferromagnetization property is found at a low temperature about {approx}5 K.

  7. Epitaxially grown BaM hexaferrite films having uniaxial axis in the film plane for self-biased devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Meng, Siqin; Song, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yao; Yue, Zhenxing; Harris, Vincent G

    2017-03-09

    Barium hexaferrite (BaM) films with in-plane c-axis orientation are promising and technically important materials for self-biased magnetic microwave devices. In this work, highly oriented BaM films with different thickness and an in-plane easy axis (c-axis) of magnetization were grown on a-plane single-crystal sapphire substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering. A procedure involving seed layers, layer-by-layer annealing was adopted to reduce the substrate-induced strains and allow for the growth of thick (~3.44 μm) films. The epitaxial growth of the BaM film on sapphire was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with dislocations being observed at the film-substrate interface. The orientation was also verified by X-ray diffraction and more notably, polarized Raman scattering. The magnetic properties and ferromagnetic resonant frequencies were experimentally characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometry and a frequency-swept ferromagnetic resonant flip-chip technique, respectively. The micron-thick BaM films exhibited a large remanence ratio of 0.92 along in-plane easy axis and a small one of 0.09 for the in-plane hard axis loop measurement. The FMR frequency was 50.3 GHz at zero field and reached 57.9 GHz under a magnetic field of 3 kOe, indicating that the epitaxial BaM films with strong self-biased behaviors have good electromagnetic properties in millimeter-wave range.

  8. Magnetic structural effect (MSE in epitaxial films of cerium oxide and lanthanum zirconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kh. Chibirova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the critical current density in the second generation high-temperature superconducting wires (2G HTS is the major challenge for researchers and manufacturers of 2G HTS wires all over the world. We proposed a new approach to increase the number of percolation paths for supercurrent, i.e. increasing the number of low angle grain boundaries (<5° in the epitaxial superconducting YBCO layer by magnetic structural processing (MSP of buffer layers. New experimental results have been presented on the application of MSP for improving the structure and increasing the texture sharpness of buffer in electrical conducting element of 2G HTS wire. The influence of MCO on the structural and textural properties has been investigated in a buffer consisting of epitaxial films of cerium oxide CeO2 and lanthanum zirconate La2Zr2O7 in the CeO2/4La2Zr2O7 architecture. The influence of the magnetic processing of the epitaxial La2Zr2O7 buffer film on the shape of grains has been found. An atomic force microscopical study has shown that after magnetic processing the shape of grains improved significantly. A multilayer CeO2/4La2Zr2O7 buffer each layer of which was processed in a magnetic field has a high degree of orientation: only one diffraction peak with (200 indexes is observed in the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray settings of the (200 diffraction peak indicate a well developed epitaxial structure of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 layers. The texture of the buffer is by more than 2° sharper than that of the Ni–5 at% W substrate.

  9. AC-photoconductivity measurement of C60 epitaxial film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgami, T.; Shimada, Y.; Kubota, H.; Tanaka, H.; Matsuzaki, S.; Nagata, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.

    1997-08-01

    Band gap structure of C60 film coated by Au electrode is reported according to the AC-photoconductivity spectra. Applying bias voltage through the Au electrodes has verified Schottky barrier height of about 2 V. The spectra of the phase indicate that band gap has 1.85 eV at 300 K. With decreasing temperature, the magnitude of the gap expands to 1.91 eV at around 250 K corresponding to the structure change of C60 crystal. (orig.). 7 refs.

  10. Epitaxial stabilization of ultra thin films of electron doped manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middey, S., E-mail: smiddey@uark.edu; Kareev, M.; Meyers, D.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Tripathi, S.; Chakhalian, J. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Yazici, D.; Maple, M. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Ryan, P. J.; Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Ultra-thin films of the electron doped manganite La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} were grown in a layer-by-layer growth mode on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates by pulsed laser interval deposition. High structural quality and surface morphology were confirmed by a combination of synchrotron based x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions. In addition, the electron doping signature was corroborated by Hall effect measurements. All grown films show a ferromagnetic ground state as revealed by both dc magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements and remain insulating contrary to earlier reports of a metal-insulator transition. Our results hint at the possibility of electron-hole asymmetry in the colossal magnetoresistive manganite phase diagram akin to the high-T{sub c} cuprates.

  11. Epitaxial growth of Fe-based superconductor thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Sven; Haenisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard [Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Fe-based superconductors (FBS), discovered in 2008, are not only interesting for possible applications due to their large upper critical fields and low anisotropies, but also for basic understanding of unconventional superconductivity. With their properties, they constitute a link between the classic low-T{sub c} superconductors (low anisotropies, low thermal fluctuations, s-wave type symmetry) and the oxocuprates (T{sub c} up to 55 K, large H{sub c2}, unconventional pairing). Their multi-band nature reminds of MgB{sub 2}. We prepare thin films of FBS in the so called 122 family, namely Co- and P-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} to investigate application relevant properties, such as critical current density J{sub c}, by pulsed laser deposition using a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (λ = 355 nm). Microstructure and chemical composition will be investigated by XRD, AFM and SEM, and electrical transport using a 14 T PPMS. The results are compared to literature data on films grown at different wavelengths.

  12. Epitaxial strain induced atomic ordering in stoichiometric LaCoO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Kwon, Ji-Hwan; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Sawatzky, George A.; Hinkov, Vladimir; Kim, Miyoung; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial strain imposed in complex transition metal oxide thin films is recognized as an effective tool for identifying and controlling emergent physical phenomena. Stoichiometric LaCoO3 is particularly interesting, since the thin film form of the material exhibits a robust macroscopic ferromagnetic ordering, while the bulk form of the material is a zero spin, nonmagnetic insulator. In this work, we show that the ferromagnetic ordering observed in LaCoO3 thin films is related to a lattice modulation in the atomic scale, originating from the epitaxial strain. The possibility of oxygen vacancies have been carefully ruled out using various macroscopic and microscopic spectroscopic techniques, and an unconventional strain relaxation behavior identified by strip-like lattice modulation pattern was responsible for the non-zero spin ground state of Co3+ ions. We further note that the unconventional strain relaxation did not involve any uncontrolled misfit dislocations.

  13. Tuning of Transport and Magnetic Properties in Epitaxial LaMnO3+δ Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive strain on the transport and magnetic properties of epitaxial LaMnO3+δ thin films has been investigated. It is found that the transport and magnetic properties of the LaMnO3+δ thin films grown on the LaAlO3 substrates can be tuned by the compressive strain through varying film thickness. And the insulator-metal transition, charge/orbital ordering transition, and paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition are suppressed by the compressive strain. Consequently, the related electronic and magnetic transition temperatures decrease with an increase in the compressive strain. The present results can be explained by the strain-controlled lattice deformation and the consequent orbital occupation. It indicates that the lattice degree of freedom is crucial for understanding the transport and magnetic properties of the strongly correlated LaMnO3+δ.

  14. Light scattering by epitaxial VO{sub 2} films near the metal-insulator transition point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiy.lysenko@upr.edu; Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Figueroa, Jose; Vargas, Kevin; Cordero, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (United States); Aparicio, Joaquin [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico-Ponce, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732 (United States); Sepúlveda, Nelson [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide is reported. Hemispherical angle-resolved light scattering technique is applied for statistical analysis of the phase transition processes on mesoscale. It is shown that the thermal hysteresis strongly depends on spatial frequency of surface irregularities. The transformation of scattering indicatrix depends on sample morphology and is principally different for the thin films with higher internal elastic strain and for the thicker films where this strain is suppressed by introduction of misfit dislocations. The evolution of scattering indicatrix, fractal dimension, surface power spectral density, and surface autocorrelation function demonstrates distinctive behavior which elucidates the influence of structural defects and strain on thermal hysteresis, twinning of microcrystallites, and domain formation during the phase transition.

  15. Modeling the transport properties of epitaxially grown thermoelectric oxide thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2012-02-01

    The influence of oxygen vacancies on the transport properties of epitaxial thermoelectric (Sr,La)TiO3 thin films is determined using electrical and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Oxygen vacancy concentration was varied by ex-situ annealing in Ar and Ar/H2. All films exhibited degenerate semiconducting behavior, and electrical conductivity decreased (258–133 S cm−1) with increasing oxygen content. Similar decrease in the Seebeck coefficient is observed and attributed to a decrease in effective mass (7.8–3.2 me ), as determined by SE. Excellent agreement between transport properties deduced from SE and direct electrical measurements suggests that SE is an effective tool for studying oxide thin film thermoelectrics.

  16. Investigation of strain relaxation mechanisms and transport properties in epitaxial SmNiO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchon, F.; Boulle, A.; Guinebretière, R.; Dooryhée, E.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Girardot, C.; Pignard, S.; Kreisel, J.; Weiss, F.; Libralesso, L.; Lee, T. L.

    2008-06-01

    This article deals with strain relaxation in SmNiO3 epitaxial films deposited by chemical vapor deposition on SrTiO3 substrates. Thanks to x-ray reciprocal space mapping, we demonstrate that the strain relaxation is driven both "chemically" and "mechanically" by the formation of oxygen vacancies and misfit dislocations, respectively. Besides, a careful interpretation of the resistivity measurements allows us to highlight a correlation between the formation of oxygen vacancies, the stabilization of Ni3+, and the metal-insulator transition in the SmNiO3 films. Furthermore, using coplanar and grazing incidence diffraction, the shape of the strain gradient within the films is retrieved. This latter is calculated using a versatile scattering model involving B-spline functions. Finally, particular planar faults (Ruddlesden-Popper faults) that give rise to extended diffuse scattering on transverse scans are analyzed using a recent phenomenological model.

  17. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  18. Optical properties of aluminum nitride thin films grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering close to epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, A. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Abdallah, B. [Department of Materials Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Charrier, J. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l' informatiON (FOTON), UMR CNRS 6082, 6, rue de Kerampont CS 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Deresmes, D. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jouan, P.-Y.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel – IMN, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinère BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dogheche, E.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-05-01

    Low-temperature Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited by Direct-Current magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate. They present optical properties similar to those of epitaxially grown films. Different characterization methods such as X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to determine the structural properties of the films such as its roughness and crystallinity. Newton interferometer was used for stress measurement of the films. Non-destructive prism-coupling technique was used to determine refractive index and thickness homogeneity by a mapping on the whole sample area. Results show that AlN films grown on AlGaN layer have a high crystallinity close to epitaxial films, associated to a low intrinsic stress for low thickness. These results highlight that it is possible to grow thick sample with microstructure and optical properties close to epitaxy, even on a large surface. - Highlights: ► Aluminum Nitride sputtering technique with a low temperature growth process ► Epitaxial quality of two microns sputtered Aluminum Nitride film ► Optics as a non-destructive accurate tool for acoustic wave investigation.

  19. Uniaxial stress influence on electrical conductivity of thin epitaxial lanthanum-strontium manganite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevič, V., E-mail: wstan@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Šimkevičius, Č.; Balevičius, S.; Žurauskienė, N. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Cimmperman, P. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Abrutis, A. [Vilnius University, Dept. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius (Lithuania); Plaušinaitienė, V. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius University, Dept. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    This is a study of the influence of external uniaxial mechanical strains on the transport properties of thin epitaxial La{sub 0.83}Sr{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) films. Our measurements were carried out using standard isosceles triangle-shaped cantilever. Films which were tensed in-plane or compressed or were subjected to both tension and compression strains were grown onto SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and (001) NdGaO{sub 3} (NGO) substrates, respectively. It was found that for thin films (less than 100 nm), the uniaxial compression of such films which were initially tensed in-plane (grown onto STO substrates) produces a decrease of their resistance, whereas the compression of initially compressed films (on LAO substrates) produces an increase of the films' resistance. The same results were obtained for LSMO films grown onto (001) NGO substrates when they were compressed along the [010] and [100] directions, respectively. For thicker films (more than 100 nm), the resistance behavior after uniaxial compression was found to be identical to that produced by hydrostatic compression, namely, the resistance decreases irrespective of the substrate. These experiments also reveal an increase of resistance and a shift of metal–insulator transition temperature T{sub m} to lower temperatures corresponding to a decrease of the film thickness. The occurrence of this effect is also independent of the kind of substrate used. Thus it was concluded that the influence of film thickness on its resistance as well as on the behavior of such films while under external uniaxial compression cannot be explained fully by only the presence of residual stress in these films. A possible reason is that the inhomogeneous distribution of the mechanical stresses in the films can lead to the appearance of two conductivity phases, each having a different mechanism. The results which were obtained when these films were subjected to hydrostatic compression were also explained by this

  20. Optimized growth conditions of epitaxial SnSe films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tomoyuki; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We have grown epitaxial tin monoselenide (SnSe) films on MgO or SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at T s = 473 or 573 K, and investigated the optimized growth condition in terms of crystal orientation, crystallinity, and electrical resistivity. For the PLD procedure, a SnSe x (x = 1.0–1.6) target containing excess Se was used to compensate for the vaporization of Se. The crystal orientation and crystallinity of the SnSe films changed depending on the growth conditions, and the magnitude of the electrical resistivity ρ of the films was closely related to the crystalline nature. The SnSe film grown on the MgO substrate at T s = 573 K using the target with x = 1.4 was the most highly a-axis-oriented and highly crystalized among all of the films investigated in this study. However, the ρ of the film in the bc-plane was about one order of magnitude larger than those of the reported single crystal and the a-axis-oriented crystalline sample fabricated by spark plasma sintering. This larger ρ was suggested to result from the lattice mismatch and/or a small amount of nonstoichiometry in the film.

  1. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi{sub 2} films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, N.V., E-mail: denisov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Matetskiy, A.V.; Tupkalo, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} is layered material with advanced properties of topological superconductor. • We present a method for growing β-PdBi{sub 2} films of a desired thickness. • Method utilizes MBE growth of β-PdBi{sub 2}, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. • Electronic and superconducting properties of the films are similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi{sub 2} films from a single β-PdBi{sub 2} triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi{sub 2} films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  2. Comparative study of electron transport mechanisms in epitaxial and polycrystalline zinc nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiang; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Naoomi, E-mail: n-yamada@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487–8501 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} has been reported to have high electron mobility even in polycrystalline films. The high mobility in polycrystalline films is a striking feature as compared with group-III nitrides. However, the origins of the high mobility have not been elucidated to date. In this paper, we discuss the reason for high mobility in Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}. We grew epitaxial and polycrystalline films of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}. Electron effective mass (m*) was determined optically and found to decrease with a decrease in electron density. Using a nonparabolic conduction band model, the m* at the bottom of the conduction band was derived to be (0.08 ± 0.03)m{sub 0} (m{sub 0} denotes the free electron mass), which is comparable to that in InN. Optically determined intra-grain mobility (μ{sub opt}) in the polycrystalline films was higher than 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, resulting from the small m*. The Hall mobility (μ{sub H}) in the polycrystalline films was significantly smaller than μ{sub opt}, indicating that electron transport is impeded by scattering at the grain boundaries. Nevertheless, μ{sub H} higher than 70 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} was achievable owing to the beneficial effect of the high μ{sub opt}. As for the epitaxial films, we revealed that electron transport is hardly affected by grain boundary scattering and is governed solely by ionized impurity scattering. The findings in this study suggest that Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} is a high-mobility semiconductor with small effective mass.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial BeO thin films on sapphire and SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Thomas; Takahashi, Ryota; Lippmaa, Mikk, E-mail: mlippmaa@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2014-06-09

    Epitaxial beryllia thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}(111) substrates. Nearly relaxed epitaxial films were obtained on both substrates at growth temperatures of up to about 600 °C. Crystalline films with expanded lattice parameters were obtained even at room temperature. The maximum growth temperature was limited by a loss of beryllium from the film surface. The volatility of beryllium appeared to be caused by the slow oxidation kinetics at the film surface and the re-sputtering effect of high-energy Be and BeO species in the ablation plume. Time-of-flight plume composition analysis suggested that the target surface became Be metal rich at low oxygen pressures, reducing the growth rate of beryllia films.

  4. Epitaxial growth of LiCoO2 thin films with (001) orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Koichi; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Takada, Kazunori

    2017-11-01

    The layered structure of LiCoO2 implies anisotropic ionic conduction; however, experimental data have never demonstrated this. The anisotropy can be observed clearly in epitaxial films with controlled orientations. Our previous study had reported that LiCoO2 grows epitaxially on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (100) and (110) substrates with complete (104) and (018) orientations, respectively. On the other hand, the growth on SrTiO3 (111) substrates with (001) orientation was accompanied by the inclusion of (012)-oriented domains, although the (012) orientation is higher in the energy state than the (001). The present study reveals that lower laser energy density (fluence) and lower substrate temperature decrease the amount of inclusions; that is, the occurrence of the (012) orientation in spite of its higher energy is governed by these factors. Higher fluence leading to higher deposition rates does not provide sufficient time for the cations to be rearranged into the (001) orientation, and the higher substrate temperature increases the nucleation frequency for the (012) orientation. A micrograph of the final (001)-oriented film reveals that the LiCoO2 film grows in an island growth mode.

  5. General Top-Down Ion Exchange Process for the Growth of Epitaxial Chalcogenide Thin Films and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-12-30

    We demonstrate a versatile top-down ion exchange process, done at ambient temperature, to form epitaxial chalcogenide films and devices, with nanometer scale thickness control. To demonstrate the versatility of our process we have synthesized (1) epitaxial chalcogenide metallic and semiconducting films and (2) free-standing chalcogenide films and (3) completed in situ formation of atomically sharp heterojunctions by selective ion exchange. Epitaxial NiCo2S4 thin films prepared by our process show 115 times higher mobility than NiCo2S4 pellets (23 vs 0.2 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) prepared by previous reports. By controlling the ion exchange process time, we made free-standing epitaxial films of NiCo2S4 and transferred them onto different substrates. We also demonstrate in situ formation of atomically sharp, lateral Schottky diodes based on NiCo2O4/NiCo2S4 heterojunction, using a single ion exchange step. Additionally, we show that our approach can be easily extended to other chalcogenide semiconductors. Specifically, we used our process to prepare Cu1.8S thin films with mobility that matches single crystal Cu1.8S (25 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)), which is ca. 28 times higher than the previously reported Cu1.8S thin film mobility (0.58 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)), thus demonstrating the universal nature of our process. This is the first report in which chalcogenide thin films retain the epitaxial nature of the precursor oxide films, an approach that will be useful in many applications.

  6. Lateral epitaxial growth techniques for gallium nitride thin films on 6H-silicon carbide(0001) substrates via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Darren Brent

    Pendeo-epitaxy (PE) was developed as an alternative method to lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) for the growth of GaN films with lower dislocation densities than that of conventionally grown films. In the PE technique, GaN is grown laterally from the sidewalls of etched stripes in previously deposited GaN seed layers grown on 6H-SiC(0001). The resulting GaN structure is suspended above the substrate and thereby avoids the formation of threading dislocations that arise from the lattice mismatch between the GAN film, buffer layer and substrate. The dislocation density in the laterally grown material is reduced by approximately five orders of magnitude. Uncoalesced and coalesced PE GaN structures have been successfully grown in this research. The growth mechanism for GaN via lateral epitaxy (LE) is described using a model of interpenetrating hexagonal pyramids. In contrast to the moderate rates of lateral growth of this compound from seed stripes oriented along [112¯0], analogous growth from stripes oriented parallel to [11¯00] can have high lateral growth rates due to the competition between adjacent (101¯1) and (011¯1) facets. When appropriate growth conditions are employed, the competing facets yield to the fast growing metastable (112¯0) vertical facet. In the absence of competing facets, which occurs at the ends of the stripes, the morphology of the lateral growth reverts to the stable {11¯01} facets. The formation of voids during the coalescence of GaN grown via lateral epitaxy is a common occurrence. These voids weaken the film and make it more susceptible to cracking. The interpenetrating hexagonal pyramid model is used to describe the growth mechanism leading to the formation of voids and their elimination. Experimental observations consistent with this model are presented. A novel method for the elimination of coalescence voids using an unconventional seed stripe orientation is also presented.

  7. Oxygen-dependent epitaxial growth of Pt(001) thin films on MgO(001) by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, X.Y., E-mail: qxy2001@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang, R.X.; Li, G.Q.; Zhang, T.; Li, L.T.; Wei, M.L.; Meng, X.S. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Ji, H. [School of Energy Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Z.; Chan, C.H.; Dai, J.Y. [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The optimized oxygen ratio for high-quality epitaxial Pt (001) thin films is 15%. • Platinum oxides is formed after the oxygen ratio is more than 30%. • Epitaxial growth of Pt on MgO(001) is cube to cube with Pt(001)//MgO(001). - Abstract: The roles of oxygen gas in crystal orientation, surface morphology and electrical resistivity of Pt thin films grown on MgO(001) substrate by magnetron sputtering are studied. With a well-controlled oxygen ratio (15% oxygen) during sputtering deposition with Ar-O{sub 2} mixture ambient, (001) epitaxial growth of Pt film on MgO substrate is achieved with an epitaxial orientation relationship of (001)Pt//(001)MgO and [100]Pt//[100]MgO. Microstructural and electrical characterizations reveal that the (001) Pt thin films possess very smooth surface and good conductivity. The formation and subsequent decomposition of platinum oxides in the Pt films grown with more than 30% oxygen result in an increase of surface roughness and electrical resistivity. The high-quality Pt(001) film has large potential for integrated electronic device applications.

  8. Epitaxial growth and properties of zinc oxide thin films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    ZnO is an attractive material for promising applications in short wavelength optoelectronic devices because of its wide band gap and large exciton binding energy at room temperature (RT). This dissertation is devoted to the development of high quality, single-crystalline ZnO-based light-emitting devices on Si substrates, involving thin film synthesis by pulsed laser deposition, structure-property characterization, prototype device fabrication, strain engineering of thick films, and p-type doping with antimony (Sb). ZnO epitaxy with exceptional quality was achieved on (111) Si substrates for the advantages of inexpensive large wafers, mature device technologies, and multifunctional device integration. Epitaxial bixbyite oxides M2O3 (M=Sc, Lu, Gd) were originally employed as the buffer layer between ZnO and Si. The single-crystalline ZnO films has superior structural, electrical, and optical qualities than all previous reports of ZnO on Si, such as narrow o-rocking curves, low dislocation densities, high electron mobilities at RT, and comparable photoluminescence characteristics to those of ZnO single crystal. The epitaxial orientation relationship, intrinsic donors, microstructural defects, and residual strain of the films were investigated. Prototype n-ZnO/ M2O3/p-Si devices were constructed, and ZnO near-band-edge emission was observed in electroluminescence at RT. Strain engineering of thick films by insertion of low-temperature grown ZnO interlayers was performed to improve the cracking critical thickness to ≥2 mum. Reliable ZnO p-type doping using large-size-mismatched Sb dopant was achieved for the films grown on both (0001) Al2O 3 and (100) Si substrates, with a resistivity of 4.2-60 O cm, a Hall mobility of 0.5-7.7 cm2/V s, and a hole concentration of 3.2x1016-2.2x1017 cm-3 . The origin of p-type conductivity was elucidated from conjugated effects of oxygen-rich growth condition, adequate doping concentration, and dislocation-facilitated formation of

  9. Epitaxial growth and structure of monolayer cerium oxide films on Rh(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Hong; Yuhara, Junji

    2017-07-01

    We prepared monolayer cerium (Ce) oxide films on Rh(111) to investigate their growth and structure using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For quantitative analysis of Ce-oxide films, we used the combined techniques of XPS and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to determine the concentration of Ce and O atoms. We prepared a monolayer (ML) Ce-oxide film by annealing a metallic Ce film at 0.3 ML coverage in an oxygen atmosphere. A well-ordered Ce-oxide phase with a (4×4) unit cell was obtained. The epitaxially grown Ce-oxide film aligned along the azimuthal direction of Rh(111). The number of Ce and O atoms in the (4×4) unit cell was estimated. The STM images indicated that the two-dimensional island growth of the p(4×4) phase with p3m1 symmetry can be explained using the missing Ce atoms model. A simulated STM image of the p(4×4) structural model was in good agreement with the experimental STM image. The formation of Ce-oxide films on Rh(111) at submonolayer coverage was discussed on the basis of the results of DFT+U calculations.

  10. Anisotropic magnetoresistance across Verwey transition in charge ordered Fe3O4 epitaxial films

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiang

    2017-12-26

    The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) near the Verwey temperature (T-V) is investigated in charge ordered Fe3O4 epitaxial films. When the temperature continuously decreases below T-V, the symmetry of AMR in Fe3O4(100) film evolves from twofold to fourfold at a magnetic field of 50 kOe, where the magnetic field is parallel to the film surface, whereas AMR in Fe3O4(111) film maintains twofold symmetry. By analyzing AMR below T-V, it is found that the Verwey transition contains two steps, including a fast charge ordering process and a continuous formation process of trimeron, which is comfirmed by the temperature-dependent Raman spectra. Just below T-V, the twofold AMR in Fe3O4(100) film originates from uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The fourfold AMR at a lower temperature can be ascribed to the in-plane trimerons. By comparing the AMR in the films with two orientations, it is found that the trimeron shows a smaller resistivity in a parallel magnetic field. The field-dependent AMR results show that the trimeron-sensitive field has a minimum threshold of about 2 kOe.

  11. Zinc oxide epitaxial thin film deposited over carbon on various substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, E; Moodley, M K; Sinha Ray, S; Panigrahi, B K; Krishnan, R; Padhy, N; Nair, K G M; Tyagi, A K

    2010-09-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a promising candidate material for optical and electronic devices due to its direct wide band gap (3.37 eV) and high exciton binding energy (60 meV). For applications in various fields such as light emitting diode (LED) and laser diodes, growth of p-type ZnO is a prerequisite. ZnO is an intrinsically n-type semiconductor. In this paper we report on the synthesis of Zinc Oxide-Carbon (ZnO:C) thin films using pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). The deposition parameters were optimized to obtain high quality epitaxial ZnO films over a carbon layer. The structural and optical properties were studied by glazing index X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption (OA), and Raman spectroscopy. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEMEDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to determine the composition and surface morphology of these thin films. The GIXRD pattern of the synthesized films exhibited hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a preferred (002) orientation. PL spectroscopy results showed that the emission intensity was maximum at -380 nm at a deposition temperature of 573 K. In the Raman spectra, the E2 phonon frequency around at 438 cm(-1) is a characteristic peak of the wurtzite lattice and could be seen in all samples. Furthermore, the optical direct band gap of ZnO films was found to be in the visible region. The growth of the epitaxial layer is discussed in the light of carbon atoms from the buffer layer. Our work demonstrates that the carbon is a novel dopant in the group of doped ZnO semiconductor materials. The introduction of carbon impurities enhanced the visible emission of red-green luminescence. It is concluded that the carbon impurities promote the zinc related native defect in ZnO.

  12. Combinatorial screening of halide perovskite thin films and solar cells by mask-defined IR laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yuji; Annayev, Orazmuhammet; Toyokura, Nobuo; Takahashi, Ryota; Lippmaa, Mikk; Itaka, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Matsuki, Nobuyuki; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As an extension of combinatorial molecular layer epitaxy via ablation of perovskite oxides by a pulsed excimer laser, we have developed a laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system for parallel integration of nano-scaled thin films of organic?inorganic hybrid materials. A pulsed infrared (IR) semiconductor laser was adopted for thermal evaporation of organic halide (A-site: CH3NH3I) and inorganic halide (B-site: PbI2) powder targets to deposit repeated A/B bilayer films where the thic...

  13. Ferromagnetism in epitaxial orthorhombic YMnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Skumryev, V. [Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Cattoni, A.; Bertacco, R. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, Como 22100 (Italy); Laukhin, V. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Ferrater, C.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Varela, M. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Sanchez, F. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)], E-mail: fontcuberta@icmab.es

    2009-06-15

    Epitaxial orthorhombic YMnO{sub 3} thin films, (0 0 1) oriented, have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on (0 0 1)SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. Their crystal structure and magnetic response have been studied in detail. Although bulk o-YMnO{sub 3} is antiferromagnetic, our magnetic measurements reveal intriguing thermal hysteresis between the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled curves below the onset of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature, thus signaling a more complex magnetic structure with net ferromagnetic moments. We discuss on the possible origin of this net magnetization and we have found a correlation of the magnetic response with the strain state of the films. We propose that substrate-induced strain modifies the subtle competition of magnetic interactions and leads to a non-collinear magnetic state that can thus be tuned by strain engineering.

  14. Doping site dependent thermoelectric properties of epitaxial strontium titanate thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial strontium titanate (STO) thin films can be improved by additional B-site doping of A-site doped ABO3 type perovskite STO. The additional B-site doping of A-site doped STO results in increased electrical conductivity, but at the expense of Seebeck coefficient. However, doping on both sites of the STO lattice significantly reduces the lattice thermal conductivity of STO by adding more densely and strategically distributed phononic scattering centers that attack wider phonon spectra. The additional B-site doping limits the trade-off relationship between the electrical conductivity and total thermal conductivity of A-site doped STO, leading to an improvement in the room-temperature thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT. The 5% Pr3+ and 20% Nb5+ double-doped STO film exhibits the best ZT of 0.016 at room temperature. This journal is

  15. Extremely smooth YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ "thin" film grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Wu, Y.; Enomoto, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Koshizuka, N.

    2002-02-01

    Extremely smooth single crystal YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ "thin" films, 1-3 μm thick, have been successfully grown on YBCO-seeded MgO substrates by liquid phase epitaxy. The morphology study on the as-grown samples has revealed a step-flow growth mechanism, with each step height of about 1.1 nm, i.e. the c-axis lattice constant of YBCO. The mean surface roughness in a large 25 μm×25 μm area is ˜0.76 nm, determined by an atomic force microscope. After annealing in pure oxygen, the ˜2 μm thick films exhibit high-quality high- Tc superconductivity with zero resistance transition temperature TC0≈91 K and critical current density JC=4.74×10 4 A/cm 2 (transport measurement with 1 μV/cm criterion) at 77 K.

  16. Thermodynamic guiding principles in selective synthesis of strontium iridate Ruddlesden-Popper epitaxial films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nishio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the selective fabrication of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP type SrIrO3, Sr3Ir2O7, and Sr2IrO4 epitaxial thin films from a single SrIrO3 target using pulsed laser deposition (PLD. We identified that the growth conditions stabilizing each phase directly map onto the phase diagram expected from thermodynamic equilibria. This approach allows precise cation stoichiometry control as evidenced by the stabilization of single phase Sr3Ir2O7 for the first time, overcoming the close thermodynamic stability between neighboring RP phases. Despite the non-equilibrium nature of PLD, these results highlight the importance of thermodynamic guiding principles to strategically synthesize the targeted phase in complex oxide thin films.

  17. Reversible loading of epitaxial Y(00.1) films with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remhof, A.; Song, G.; Sutter, Ch.; Theis-Bröhl, K.; Zabel, H.

    1998-03-01

    Yttrium can be loaded with hydrogen up to high concentrations causing dramatic structural and electronic changes of the host lattice. We report on the reversibility of hydrogen loading in thin, monocrystalline Y-films grown by MBE on Nb/Al_2O3 substrates. During hydrogen loading, the Yttrium film undergoes structural transitions from the cubic dihydride to the hexagonal trihydride phase, while the structural coherence and the in-plane epitaxial relation to the Nb buffer layer is maintained. The transition from YH2 to YH3 occurs at room temperature at a hydrogen pressure of 10 mbar and is completely reversible. Reversibility is also observed for deuteration of Y. However, the kinetics is more sluggish. Although the YH2 structure is chemically stable, isotope exchange with deuterium takes place rapidly. (A. Remhof, G. Song, K. Theis-Bröhl, H. Zabel, Phys. Rev. B 56) R2897 (1997)

  18. Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hesjedal, T. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    We report on the controlled modification of relaxation parameters and magnetic moments of epitaxial Fe thin films through Dy doping. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show that an increase of Dy doping from 0.1% to 5% gives a tripling in Gilbert damping, and more importantly a strongly enhanced anisotropic damping that can be qualitatively understood through the slow-relaxing impurity model. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show a pronounced suppression of the orbital moment of the Fe with Dy doping, leading to an almost threefold drop in the orbital to spin moment ratio, m{sub l}/m{sub s}. Doping with Dy can therefore be used to control both dynamic and static properties of thin ferromagnetic films for improved performance in spintronics device applications, mediated through the antiferromagnetic interaction of the 4f and 3d states.

  19. Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the controlled modification of relaxation parameters and magnetic moments of epitaxial Fe thin films through Dy doping. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show that an increase of Dy doping from 0.1% to 5% gives a tripling in Gilbert damping, and more importantly a strongly enhanced anisotropic damping that can be qualitatively understood through the slow-relaxing impurity model. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show a pronounced suppression of the orbital moment of the Fe with Dy doping, leading to an almost threefold drop in the orbital to spin moment ratio, ml/ms. Doping with Dy can therefore be used to control both dynamic and static properties of thin ferromagnetic films for improved performance in spintronics device applications, mediated through the antiferromagnetic interaction of the 4f and 3d states.

  20. Epitaxial growth of higher transition-temperature VO2 films on AlN/Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Slusar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the epitaxial growth and the mechanism of a higher temperature insulator-to-metal-transition (IMT of vanadium dioxide (VO2 thin films synthesized on aluminum nitride (AlN/Si (111 substrates by a pulsed-laser-deposition method; the IMT temperature is TIMT ≈ 350 K. X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope data show that the epitaxial relationship of VO2 and AlN is VO2 (010 ‖ AlN (0001 with VO2 [101] ‖   AlN   [ 2 1 ̄ 1 ̄ 0 ] zone axes, which results in a substrate-induced tensile strain along the in-plane a and c axes of the insulating monoclinic VO2. This strain stabilizes the insulating phase of VO2 and raises TIMT for 10 K higher than TIMT single crystal ≈ 340 K in a bulk VO2 single crystal. Near TIMT, a resistance change of about four orders is observed in a thick film of ∼130 nm. The VO2/AlN/Si heterostructures are promising for the development of integrated IMT-Si technology, including thermal switchers, transistors, and other applications.

  1. Crystallography and Growth of Epitaxial Oxide Films for Fundamental Studies of Cathode Materials Used in Advanced Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bendersky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion battery systems, synthesized as epitaxial thin films, can provide powerful insights into their electrochemical processes. Crystallographic analysis shows that many important cathode oxides have an underlying similarity: their structures can be considered as different ordering schemes of Li and transition metal ions within a pseudo-cubic sublattice of oxygen anions arranged in a face-center cubic (FCC fashion. This oxygen sublattice is compatible with SrTiO3 and similar perovskite oxides, thus perovskites can be used as supporting substrates for growing epitaxial cathode films. The predicted epitaxial growth and crystallographic relations were experimentally verified for different oxide films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD on SrTiO3 or SrRuO3/SrTiO3 of different orientations. The results based on cross-sectional high-resolution TEM of the following films are presented in the paper: (a trigonal LiCoO2; (b orthorhombic LiMnO2; (c monoclinic Li2MnO3; (d compositionally-complex monoclinic Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2. All results demonstrated the feasibility of epitaxial growth for these materials, with the growth following the predicted cube-on-cube orientation relationship between the cubic and pseudo-cubic oxygen sublattices of a substrate and a film, respectively.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of barium iron oxide and bismuth iron oxide epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender Bennett, Charlee J.

    Much interest exists in perovskite oxide materials and the potential they have in possessing two or more functional properties. In recent years, research on developing new materials with simultaneous ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior is the key to addressing possible challenges of new storage information applications. This work examines the fundamental properties of a perovskite oxide, namely BaFeO3, and the investigation of properties of a solid solution between BaFeO3 and BiFeO3. The growth and properties of epitaxial BaFeO3 thin films in the metastable cubic perovskite phase are examined. BaFeO3 films were grown on (012) LaAlO3 and (001) SrTiO3 single crystal substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that in situ growth at temperatures between 650-850°C yields an oxygen-deficient BaFeO 2.5+x pseudo-cubic perovskite phase that is insulating and paramagnetic. Magnetization measurements on the asdeposited BaFeO3 films indicate non-ferromagnetic behavior. Annealing these films in 1 atm oxygen ambient converts the films into a pseudo-cubic BaFeO3-x phase that is ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature of 235 K. The observation of ferromagnetism with increasing oxygen content is consistent with superexchange coupling of Fe +4-O-Fe+4. The effects of anneal conditions on BaFeO3 are studied. X-ray characterization, such as reciprocal space maps, show more complex structure for as-grown BaFeO3-x epitaxial films. Epitaxial films grown at low laser energies are highly crystalline. However, they decompose after annealing. When grown at high laser energies, films exhibit complex structure which "cleans up" to a single pseudocubic or tetragonal structure upon ex situ anneal in oxygen ambient environment. Superlattices of BaFeO 3/SrTiO3 were synthesized to explore the nature of "cracking" in annealed BaFeO3, which occurs due to large change in lattice parameter. Magnetization of ex situ annealed BaFeO3-x epitaxial films were examined as a function of

  3. Tuning the magnetism of epitaxial cobalt oxide thin films by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Q. Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Shen, X.; Yang, H. W.; Zhang, H. R.; Guan, X. X.; Wang, W.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Peng, Y.; Liu, B. G.; Sun, J. R.; Yu, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    Tuning magnetic properties of perovskite thin films is a central topic of recent studies because of its fundamental significance. In this work, we demonstrated the modification of the magnetism of L a0.9C a0.1Co O3 (LCCO) thin films by introducing a stripelike superstructure in a controllable manner using electron beam irradiation (EBI) in a transmission electron microscope. The microstructure, electronic structure, strain change, and origin of magnetism of the LCCO thin films were studied in detail using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the EBI-induced unit cell volume expansion accompanies the formation of oxygen vacancies and leads to the spin state transition of Co ions. The low spin state of C o4 + ions depress the stripelike superstructure, while higher spin states of Co ions with lower valences are conductive to the formation of "dark stripes". Our work clarifies the origin of magnetism of epitaxial LCCO thin films, benefiting a comprehensive understanding of correlated physics in cobalt oxide thin films.

  4. Preparation and Optical Properties of GeBi Films by Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dainan; Liao, Yulong; Jin, Lichuan; Wen, Qi-Ye; Zhong, Zhiyong; Wen, Tianlong; Xiao, John Q.

    2017-12-01

    Ge-based alloys have drawn great interest as promising materials for their superior visible to infrared photoelectric performances. In this study, we report the preparation and optical properties of germanium-bismuth (Ge1-xBix) thin films by using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). GeBi thin films belong to the n-type conductivity semiconductors, which have been rarely reported. With the increasing Bi-doping content from 2 to 22.2%, a series of Ge1-xBix thin film samples were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. With the increase of Bi content, the mismatch of lattice constants increases, and the GeBi film shifts from direct energy band-gaps to indirect band-gaps. The moderate increase of Bi content reduces optical reflectance and promotes the transmittance of extinction coefficient in infrared wavelengths. The absorption and transmittance of GeBi films in THz band increase with the increase of Bi contents.

  5. Magnetic properties of epitaxial MnAs thin films on GaAs (001)

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y S

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic properties of two types of epitaxial MnAs films on GaAs (001) substrates in the thickness range of 20 approx 200 nm were studied. Using longitudinal a magneto-optical Kerr-effect(MOKE) apparatus at lambda=632.8 nm, we determined the Curie temperatures of the 100-nm thick films to be 54.0+-0.5 .deg. C and 63.7+-0.5 .deg. C for type A films and type B films, respectively. The observed Curie temperatures corresponded to increases of 36.8 .deg. C and 33.9 .deg. C per one percent increase in the unit cell volume for type A and B, respectively. The normalized maximum MOKE signal from the type A film exhibited a first-order-like magnetic transition while that of type B underwent a second-order-like transition. These different behaviors between types A and B stem from different residual stresses being exerted on the hexagonal phase. Utilizing a Foner-type vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature, we examined the thickness dependence of the coercive force and the saturation magnetization of the f...

  6. Magnetic properties of epitaxial MnAs thin films on GaAs (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Jin [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    The magnetic properties of two types of epitaxial MnAs films on GaAs (001) substrates in the thickness range of 20{approx}200 nm were studied. Using longitudinal a magneto-optical Kerr-effect(MOKE) apparatus at {lambda}=632.8 nm, we determined the Curie temperatures of the 100-nm thick films to be 54.0{+-}0.5 .deg. C and 63.7{+-}0.5 .deg. C for type A films and type B films, respectively. The observed Curie temperatures corresponded to increases of 36.8 .deg. C and 33.9 .deg. C per one percent increase in the unit cell volume for type A and B, respectively. The normalized maximum MOKE signal from the type A film exhibited a first-order-like magnetic transition while that of type B underwent a second-order-like transition. These different behaviors between types A and B stem from different residual stresses being exerted on the hexagonal phase. Utilizing a Foner-type vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature, we examined the thickness dependence of the coercive force and the saturation magnetization of the film. The coercive force of films thicker than 10 nm decreased as the thickness increased, which was interpreted in terms of a decreasing magneto-static energy contribution to the Bloch domain wall energy, with increasing film thickness. The saturation magnetization had a maximum at a thickness of 50 nm. this observation reflects the dependence of the saturation magnetization on the a-constant of the hexagonal phase.

  7. KTa0.65Nb0.35O3 thin films epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on metallic and oxide epitaxial electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyasfi, A.; Mouttalie, M.; Demange, V.; Gautier, B.; Grandfond, A.; Députier, S.; Ollivier, S.; Hamedi, L.'H.; Guilloux-Viry, M.

    2012-09-01

    Ferroelectric KTa0.65Nb0.35O3 (KTN) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Pt and LaNiO3 epitaxial electrodes, on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) SrTiO3 substrates. The effect of the nature of the electrode on structural and microstructural quality of KTN films was investigated. While epitaxial KTN thin films were successfully obtained on both electrodes, two orientations compete on Pt, whatever the main orientation of Pt is (1 0 0) or (1 1 0). On LaNiO3 in contrast, pure (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) oriented KTN films were achieved with a high crystalline quality illustrated by narrow ω-scans (Δω = 0.56° and Δω = 0.80° for (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) KTN, to be compared to 0.048° and 0.22° for (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) LaNiO3, respectively). Electrical measurements performed in tunneling atomic force microscopy (TUNA mode) on a KTN/Pt heterostructure showed a high asymmetry of the conduction mechanisms when a positive or a negative bias is applied on the sample. In particular leakage currents appear even at very low positive applied voltage. TUNA imaging operated at a moderate negative applied voltage of -3 V shows that some areas corresponding to grain boundaries seem to be more leaky than others.

  8. Optimization studies of HgSe thin film deposition by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkatasamy, V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the optimization of HgSe thin film deposition using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) are reported. Cyclic voltammetry was used to obtain approximate deposition potentials for each element. These potentials were then coupled...

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of InSb1-xBix thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuxin Song; Shumin Wang; Saha Roy, Ivy

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth for InSb1-xBix thin films on (100) GaAs substrates is reported. Successful Bi incorporation for 2% is achieved, and up to 70% of the incorporated Bi atoms are at substitutional sites. The effects of growth parameters on Bi incorporation and surface morphology...

  10. Epitaxial thin films of Dirac semimetal antiperovskite Cu3PdN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. X. Quintela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and study of materials showing novel topological states of matter is one of the frontiers in condensed matter physics. Among this class of materials, the nitride antiperovskite Cu3PdN has been proposed as a new three-dimensional Dirac semimetal. However, the experimental realization of Cu3PdN and the consequent study of its electronic properties have been hindered due to the difficulty of synthesizing this material. In this study, we report fabrication and both structural and transport characterization of epitaxial Cu3PdN thin films grown on (001-oriented SrTiO3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and post-annealed in NH3 atmosphere. The structural properties of the films, investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy, establish single phase Cu3PdN exhibiting cube-on-cube epitaxy (001[100]Cu3PdN||(001[100]SrTiO3. Electrical transport measurements of as-grown samples show metallic conduction with a small temperature coefficient of the resistivity of 1.5 × 10−4 K−1 and a positive Hall coefficient. Post-annealing in NH3 results in the reduction of the electrical resistivity accompanied by the Hall coefficient sign reversal. Using a combination of chemical composition analyses and ab initio band structure calculations, we discuss the interplay between nitrogen stoichiometry and magneto-transport results in the framework of the electronic band structure of Cu3PdN. Our successful growth of thin films of antiperovskite Cu3PdN opens the path to further investigate its physical properties and their dependence on dimensionality, strain engineering, and doping.

  11. Epitaxial thin films of Dirac semimetal antiperovskite Cu3PdN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, C. X.; Campbell, N.; Shao, D. F.; Irwin, J.; Harris, D. T.; Xie, L.; Anderson, T. J.; Reiser, N.; Pan, X. Q.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2017-09-01

    The growth and study of materials showing novel topological states of matter is one of the frontiers in condensed matter physics. Among this class of materials, the nitride antiperovskite Cu3PdN has been proposed as a new three-dimensional Dirac semimetal. However, the experimental realization of Cu3PdN and the consequent study of its electronic properties have been hindered due to the difficulty of synthesizing this material. In this study, we report fabrication and both structural and transport characterization of epitaxial Cu3PdN thin films grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and post-annealed in NH3 atmosphere. The structural properties of the films, investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy, establish single phase Cu3PdN exhibiting cube-on-cube epitaxy (001)[100]Cu3PdN||(001)[100]SrTiO3. Electrical transport measurements of as-grown samples show metallic conduction with a small temperature coefficient of the resistivity of 1.5 × 10-4 K-1 and a positive Hall coefficient. Post-annealing in NH3 results in the reduction of the electrical resistivity accompanied by the Hall coefficient sign reversal. Using a combination of chemical composition analyses and ab initio band structure calculations, we discuss the interplay between nitrogen stoichiometry and magneto-transport results in the framework of the electronic band structure of Cu3PdN. Our successful growth of thin films of antiperovskite Cu3PdN opens the path to further investigate its physical properties and their dependence on dimensionality, strain engineering, and doping.

  12. Support-Promoted Stabilization of the Metastable PZT Pyrochlore Phase by Epitaxial Thin Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, L'H.; Guilloux-Viry, M.; Perrin, A.; Li, Z. Z.; Raffy, H.

    2001-04-01

    Thin films of lead zirconium titanium oxide with the Zr/Ti ratio close to 52/48 have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on epitaxial (100)CeO2 buffered R-plane sapphire substrates. Instead of the expected perovskite structure, these films are pure cubic metastable pyrochlore phase. From X-ray diffraction in θ-2θ mode and θ-scans it appears than the films are fully {100} oriented with a mosaicity in the range 0.8°-0.9°. In-plane characterizations, including RHEED photographs, electron-channeling patterns, XRD ϕ-scans, and near grazing incidence XRD, are indicative of high-quality epitaxial growth, cube-on-cube, on the CeO2 sublayer. RBS analyses show that increasing the deposition temperature in the range 560-650°C does not affect the Zr/Ti ratio, while the lead content drops significantly from Pb/(Zr+Ti)=0.7 to 0.3 (a stoichiometry close to the composition of "Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)3O7"); simultaneously, the unit-cell constant decreases monotically from 10.40 to 10.15 Å. A comparison with results obtained on a variety of other substrates suggests that the driving force that imposes the growth of the pyrochlore phase at the expense of the perovskite-like one is not related to the misfit, but to the nature of the interface at the atomic scale, due to the close structural relations between fluorite and pyrochlore. This hypothesis is confirmed by the obtention of the usual perovskite variant when a (111)CeO2 sublayer is used.

  13. Electronic structure of fully epitaxial Co2TiSn thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, Markus; Schmalhorst, Jan; Wulfmeier, Hendrik; Reiss, Gunter; Arenholz, Elke; Graf, Tanja; Felser, Claudia

    2010-10-28

    In this article we report on the properties of thin films of the full Heusler compound Co{sub 2}TiSn prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering. Fully epitaxial, stoichiometric films were obtained by deposition on MgO (001) substrates at substrate temperatures above 600 C. The films are well ordered in the L2{sub 1} structure, and the Curie temperature exceeds slightly the bulk value. They show a significant, isotropic magnetoresistance and the resistivity becomes strongly anomalous in the paramagnetic state. The films are weakly ferrimagnetic, with nearly 1 {mu}{sub B} on the Co atoms, and a small antiparallel Ti moment, in agreement with theoretical expectations. From comparison of x-ray absorption spectra on the Co L{sub 3,2} edges, including circular and linear magnetic dichroism, with ab initio calculations of the x-ray absorption and circular dichroism spectra we infer that the electronic structure of Co{sub 2}TiSn has essentially non-localized character. Spectral features that have not been explained in detail before, are explained here in terms of the final state band structure.

  14. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nakamura, I.; Mori, Y.; Harada, S.; Ujihara, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe2As2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe2As2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch.

  15. Enhanced UV detection by non-polar epitaxial GaN films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Mukundan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonpolar a-GaN (11-20 epilayers were grown on r-plane (1-102 sapphire substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution x-ray diffractometer confirmed the orientation of the grown film. Effect of the Ga/N ratio on the morphology and strain of a-GaN epilayers was compared and the best condition was obtained for the nitrogen flow of 1 sccm. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology while the strain in the film was quantitatively measured using Raman spectroscopy and qualitatively analyzed by reciprocal space mapping technique. UV photo response of a-GaN film was measured after fabricating a metal-semiconductor-metal structure over the film with gold metal. The external quantum efficiency of the photodetectors fabricated in the (0002 polar and (11-20 nonpolar growth directions were compared in terms of responsivity and nonpolar GaN showed the best sensitivity at the cost of comparatively slow response time.

  16. AlN thin film grown on different substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M. S.; Zhang, J. C.; Huang, J.; Wang, J. F.; Xu, K.

    2016-02-01

    AlN thin films have been grown on GaN/sapphire templates, 6 H-SiC and sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The influence of growth conditions and substrates on the crystal qualities and growth mode has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the low pressure was favorable for high-quality AlN thin film growth around 1000 °C. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (0002) XRD of 200-nm AlN thin film grown on GaN/sapphire, 6 H-SiC and sapphire are 220, 187 and 260 arc s, respectively. While the corresponding counterparts of (10-12) are 1300, 662 and 2650 arc s, respectively. Both suggested that low dislocation density in AlN grown on 6 H-SiC. The morphology of AlN thin film on sapphire showed islands without coalescence initially, and then changed to be coalescent with atomic steps at 1200 nm. However, those for samples on 6 H-SiC and GaN/sapphire showed smooth surface with clear atomic steps at thickness of 200 nm. The result indicated different growth modes of AlN on different substrates. It was believed that the different lattice mismatchs between AlN and substrates led to the different crystal qualities and growth modes.

  17. Persistent semi-metal-like nature of epitaxial perovskite CaIrO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Jeong, Yoon Hee

    2015-05-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupled 5d transition metal based ABO3 oxides, especially iridates, allow tuning parameters in the phase diagram and may demonstrate important functionalities, for example, by means of strain effects and symmetry-breaking, because of the interplay between the Coulomb interactions and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we have epitaxially stabilized high quality thin films of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO3. Film on the best lattice-matched substrate shows semi-metal-like characteristics. Intriguingly, imposing tensile or compressive strain on the film by altering the underlying lattice-mismatched substrates still maintains semi-metallicity with minute modification of the effective correlation as tensile (compressive) strain results in tiny increases (decreases) of the electronic bandwidth. In addition, magnetoresistance remains positive with a quadratic field dependence. This persistent semi-metal-like nature of Pv-CaIrO3 thin films with minute changes in the effective correlation by strain may provide new wisdom into strong spin-orbit coupled 5d based oxide physics.

  18. Electronic structure of fully epitaxial Co2TiSn thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, Markus; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Wulfmeier, Hendrik; Reiss, Guenter [Duenne Schichten und Physik der Nanostrukturen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Arenholz, Elke [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Graf, Tanja; Felser, Claudia [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on the properties of thin films of the full Heusler compound Co2TiSn prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering. Fully epitaxial, stoichiometric films were obtained by deposition on MgO (001) substrates at substrate temperatures above 600 {sup circle} C. The films are well ordered in the L2{sub 1} structure, and the Curie temperature exceeds slightly the bulk value. They show a significant, isotropic magnetoresistance and the resistivity becomes strongly anomalous in the paramagnetic state. The films are weakly ferrimagnetic, with nearly 1 {mu}{sub B} on the Co atoms, and a small antiparallel Ti moment, in agreement with theoretical expectations. X-ray absorption spectra on the Co L{sub 3,2} edges, including circular and linear magnetic dichroism are compared with ab initio calculations of the x-ray absorption and circular dichroism spectra. We infer that the electronic structure of Co2TiSn has essentially non-localized character. Spectral features that have not been explained in detail before, are explained here in terms of the final state band structure.

  19. Growth Model of van der Waals Epitaxy of Films: A Case of AlN Films on Multilayer Graphene/SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Cao, Bing; Li, Zongyao; Cai, Demin; Zhang, Yumin; Ren, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Shi, Lin; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Ke

    2017-12-20

    "Volmer-Weber" island nucleation and step-flow growth model are the classical processes of the conventional epitaxy of films. However, a growth model of van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) of films is still not very well-documented. Here, we present an example of vdWE of AlN films on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiC by hydride vapor phase epitaxy at a high temperature of 1100 °C and reveal the orientation relationship of AlN, MLG, and SiC as (0001)[1-100] AlN ||(0001)[1-100] MLG ||(0001)[11-20] SiC , which suggests that the vdWE heterointerface is not an usual covalent bond and no excessive strain during the growth process owing to the incommensurate in-plane lattices. Remarkably, zigzag cracks are formed because of the anisotropy of strain after the films are cooled down to room temperature, indicating that the growth model of vdWE is different from that of conventional epitaxy. It is a layer-by-layer epitaxy, and a planar substrate without a miscut angle is essential for obtaining single-crystalline films. Additionally, the films can be transferred to foreign substrates by direct mechanical exfoliation without any stressor layer. An ultraviolet photosensor device illustrates an example of III-nitride heterogeneous integration application. Our work demonstrates an excellent step toward the vdWE of varieties of compound films on 2D materials for the applications of transferrable heterogeneous integration in future.

  20. Long-range ferromagnetic order in LaCoO3 -δ epitaxial films due to the interplay of epitaxial strain and oxygen vacancy ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. V.; Biskup, N.; Jenkins, C.; Arenholz, E.; Varela, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a combination of electronic structure modification and oxygen vacancy ordering can stabilize a long-range ferromagnetic ground state in epitaxial LaCoO3 thin films. Highest saturation magnetization values are found in the thin films in tension on SrTiO3 and (La ,Sr )(Al ,Ta )O3 substrates and the lowest values are found in thin films in compression on LaAlO3. Electron microscopy reveals oxygen vacancy ordering to varying degrees in all samples, although samples with the highest magnetization are the most defective. Element-specific x-ray absorption techniques reveal the presence of high spin Co2 + and Co3 + as well as low spin Co3 + in different proportions depending on the strain state. The interactions among the high spin Co ions and the oxygen vacancy superstructure are correlated with the stabilization of the long-range ferromagnetic order.

  1. How to enable bulk-like martensitic transformation in epitaxial films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Wodniok

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the influence of different substrate and buffer layer materials on the martensitic transformation in sputter deposited epitaxial shape memory Heusler alloys. For this, the magnetocaloric Heusler alloy Ni-Co-Mn-Al [N. Teichert et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 184405 (2015] is grown on MgO(001, MgAl2O4(001, and MgO(001/V substrates, which exhibit a lattice misfit to the Ni-Co-Mn-Al between −1.2% and 3.6%. By temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements it is shown that the optimum buffer layer for shape memory Heusler films is not one with minimum lattice misfit, but one with minimum Young’s modulus and moderate misfit because an elastic buffer layer can deform during the martensitic transformation of the Heusler layer. Furthermore, epitaxial strain caused by a moderate lattice misfit does not significantly change the martensitic transformation temperatures.

  2. Thin-film GaN Schottky diodes formed by epitaxial lift-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingshan; Youtsey, Chris; McCarthy, Robert; Reddy, Rekha; Allen, Noah; Guido, Louis; Xie, Jinqiao; Beam, Edward; Fay, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The performance of thin-film GaN Schottky diodes fabricated using a large-area epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process is reported in this work. Comparison of the device characteristics before and after lift-off processing reveals that the Schottky barrier height remains unchanged by the liftoff processing and is consistent with expectations based on metal-semiconductor work function differences, with a barrier height of approximately 1 eV obtained for Ni/Au contacts on n- GaN. However, the leakage current in both reverse and low-forward-bias regimes is found to improve significantly after ELO processing. Likewise, the ideality factor of the Schottky diodes also improves after ELO processing, decreasing from n = 1.12-1.18 before ELO to n = 1.04-1.10 after ELO. A possible explanation for the performance improvement obtained for Schottky diodes after substrate removal by ELO processing is the elimination of leakage paths consisting of vertical leakage along threading dislocations coupled with lateral conduction through the underlying n+ buffer layer that is removed in the ELO process. Epitaxial liftoff with GaN may enable significant improvement in device performance and economics for GaN-based electronics and optoelectronics.

  3. Epitaxial growth of CuScO2 thin films on sapphire a-plane substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Yoshiharu; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutom; Nakao, Satoru; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2005-04-01

    An epitaxial film of CuScO2, a transparent oxide semiconductor with a delafossite structure, was grown on an α -Al2O3(112¯0) substrate by a pulsed laser deposition method using a single-phase Cu2Sc2Oδ target. A two-dimensional x-ray reciprocal space mapping measurement revealed that the film was single phase with a rhombohedral crystal structure. The film showed six-fold rotational symmetry in the basal plane, indicating that the film had a twinned domain structure. The epitaxial growth of CuScO2[3R](0001) thin films on α -Al2O3(112¯0) substrates is caused by the uniaxial locked epitaxy mechanism along the ⟨1¯21¯0⟩ direction of the film, and the orientation relationships of the film with respect to the substrate were CuScO2[3R](0001)//α-Al2O3(112¯0) and CuScO2[3R][1¯21¯0]//α-Al2O3[88¯01]. The optical transmittance of the film was larger than 65% in the visible/near-infrared regions, while the energy gap for direct allowed transition was estimated as 3.7 eV. The resistivity of the film, 9.3×106Ωcm at room temperature, significantly decreased to 4.0 Ωcm after both substituting Mg2+ ions for Sc3+ and intercalating excess oxygen. The Mg-doped CuScO2+X(0001) thin film showed optical transmittance of larger than 65% in the visible region, and the Seebeck coefficient was positive, indicating a p-type conductivity.

  4. Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial ferrimagnetic anti-perovskite Mn4-xDyxN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X.; Zhou, W. Q.; Ren, L. Z.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W.

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been studied for ferrimagnetic antiperovskite Mn4-xDyxN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The introduction of Dy changes the AHE dramatically, even changes its sign, while the variations in magnetization are negligible. Two sign reversals of the AHE (negative-positive-negative) are ascribed to the variation of charge carriers as a result of Fermi surface reconstruction. We further demonstrate that the AHE current JAH is dissipationless (independent of the scattering rate), by confirming that anomalous Hall conductivity, σAH, is proportional to the carrier density n at 5 K. Our study may provide a route to further utilize antiperovskite manganese nitrides in spintronics.

  5. Detection of current induced spin polarization in epitaxial Bi2Te3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Rik; Roy, Anupam; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Rai, Amritesh; Heon Shin, Seung; Majumder, Sarmita; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-03-01

    We electrically detect charge current induced spin polarization on the surface of a molecular beam epitaxy grown Bi2Te3 thin film in a two-terminal device with a ferromagnetic MgO/Fe contact and a nonmagnetic Ti/Au contact. The two-point resistance, measured in an applied magnetic field, shows a hysteresis tracking the magnetization of Fe. A theoretical estimate is obtained for the change in resistance on reversing the magnetization direction of Fe from coupled spin-charge transport equations based on the quantum kinetic theory. The order of magnitude and the sign of the hysteresis are consistent with the spin-polarized surface state of Bi2Te3.

  6. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Spin Seebeck effect in insulating epitaxial γ−Fe2O3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Cavero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of high crystal quality epitaxial thin films of maghemite (γ−Fe2O3, a classic ferrimagnetic insulating iron oxide. Spin Seebeck effect (SSE measurements in γ−Fe2O3/Pt bilayers as a function of sample preparation conditions and temperature yield a SSE coefficient of 0.5(1 μV/K at room temperature. Dependence on temperature allows us to estimate the magnon diffusion length in maghemite to be in the range of tens of nanometers, in good agreement with that of conducting iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4, establishing the relevance of spin currents of magnonic origin in magnetic iron oxides.

  8. Carbon dioxide and water adsorption on highly epitaxial Delafossite CuFeO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, S.; Joshi, T.; Borisov, P.; Sarabia, M.; Lederman, D.; Cabrera, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal programmed desorption (TPD) of CO2 and H2O from a 200 nm thick CuFeO2 Delafossite surface was performed in a standard UHV chamber, The CuFeO2 thin film grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) over an Al2O3 (0001) substrate with controlled O2 atmosphere resulted with highly epitaxial crystal structure. The adsorption/desorption of CO2 and H2O process was also monitored with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Our results revealed that carbon dioxide interacts with CuFeO2 forming Fe carbonates compounds on its surface. Hydroxides were also formed on the surface due to water presence. Using TPD data, Arrhenius plots for CO2 and water desorption were done and activation energy for desorption was obtained. Funds FONDECyT 1130372; Thanks to P. Ferrari.

  9. Excitonic characteristics in direct wide-band-gap CuScO2 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, H.; Makino, T.; Fukumura, T.; Ohtomo, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2009-11-01

    Thin films of a delafossite compound CuScO2 were grown on spinel MgAl2O4 (111) substrates, yielding in highly crystalline and (0001)-oriented epitaxial structures. Absorption spectra at 20 K revealed a sharp exciton resonance at 3.97 eV, which persisted up to 300 K. Its direct transition band gap at 20 K and exciton binding energies were determined to be about 4.35 and 380 meV, both of which are considerably larger than those of ZnO. In view of its capability of naturally layered structure and p-type doping, this compound will be interesting for exciton physics as well as implementation of heterostructured devices.

  10. Evaluation of microindentation properties of epitaxial 3C–SiC/Si thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geetha, D. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Sophia, P. Joice [UIST, St. Paul the Apostle, Ohrid 6000 (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Arivuoli, D. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2016-06-01

    The microhardness characteristics of 3C–SiC/Si films grown by vapor phase epitaxy were investigated using Vickers and Knoop indenters. The observed hardness behavior at lower load range is being attributed to indentation size effect while the substrate hardness effect is found to be prominent at higher loads. The related mechanical properties such as fracture toughness, brittleness index, and yield stress were also evaluated. In order to study the nature and behavior of the surface topography during the deformation process for the applied load, detailed atomic force microscopy images were obtained around the indented regions of the samples. It revealed that the indents formed at higher loads showed fracture characteristics with a pattern of radial cracks propagating from the indent corners.

  11. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  12. Ferroelastic twin structures in epitaxial WO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Shinhee; Woo, Chang-Su; Lee, Jin Hong; Chu, Kanghyun [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Yeop; Choi, Si-Young [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Sharma, Pankaj; Seidel, Jan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Song, Jong Hyun [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Yoon [Graduate School of EEWS, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); KAIST Institute for the NanoCentury, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Chan-Ho, E-mail: chyang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); KAIST Institute for the NanoCentury, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-21

    Tungsten trioxide is a binary oxide that has potential applications in electrochromic windows, gas sensors, photo-catalysts, and superconductivity. Here, we analyze the crystal structure of atomically flat epitaxial layers on YAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrates and perform nanoscale investigations of the ferroelastic twins revealing a hierarchical structure at multiple length scales. We have found that the finest stripe ferroelastic twin walls along pseudocubic 〈100〉 axes are associated with cooperative mosaic rotations of the monoclinic films and the larger stripe domains along pseudocubic 〈110〉 axes are created to reduce the misfit strain through a commensurate matching of an effective in-plane lattice parameter between film and substrate. The typical widths of the two fine and larger stripe domains increase with film thickness following a power law with scaling exponents of ∼0.6 and ∼0.4, respectively. We have also found that the twin structure can be readily influenced by illumination with an electron beam or a tip-based mechanical compression.

  13. Epitaxial NiWO4 films on Ni(110): Experimental and theoretical study of surface stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudin, N.; Pomp, S.; Blatnik, M.; Resel, R.; Vorokhta, M.; Goniakowski, J.; Noguera, C.; Netzer, F. P.; Surnev, S.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the application potential of nickel tungstate (NiWO4) in heterogeneous catalysis, humidity and gas sensing, etc, its surfaces have essentially remained unexplored. In this work, NiWO4 nanoparticles and films with the wolframite structure have been grown via a solid-state reaction of (WO3)3 clusters and a NiO(100) film on a Ni(110) crystal surface and characterized by a variety of experimental techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. NiWO4 grows initially as three-dimensional (3D) crystalline nanoparticles displaying mainly two crystalline facets vicinal to the (100) surface, which merge with increasing the (WO3)3 coverage into a quasi-continuous epitaxial film. The DFT results provide an account of the energetics of NiWO4 low index surfaces and highlight the role of faceting in the stabilization of extended polar (100) terraces. These combined experimental and theoretical results show that interaction with a metal substrate and vertical confinement may stabilize oxide nano-objects with high energy facets, able to enhance their reactivity.

  14. Enhancement of transport critical current density of epitaxial Nb film by lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H.; Harada, N.; Kanayama, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Yamasaki, H.; Hamajima, T.

    2005-12-01

    The critical current density, JC, of a superconductor is controlled by the pinning interaction between the flux line lattice and pinning centers. Artificial flux pinning centers are necessary for high- TC superconductors, because JC decreases markedly when a magnetic field of a few Tesla is applied at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Here, we discuss the effects of groove-shaped artificial pinning centers introduced by microlithography. Superconducting Nb film was deposited epitaxially on Al 2O 3(1 1 0 2) substrates and grooves with a period of 4-μm were introduced. The micro-fabricated film had about 2-fold greater transport JC = 4.1 × 10 9 A/m 2 as compared with the value of JC = 2.1 × 10 9 A/m 2 of the standard film at 4.2 K, 0.1 T. This JC enhancement was observed over a wide temperature range of 4.2-9.0 K.

  15. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  16. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  17. Depth resolved lattice-charge coupling in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Min [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Kwak, Jeong Hun [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea; Jo, Ji Young [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea; Lee, Hyeon Jun [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea; Jeong, Hu Young [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST); Kim, Yunseok [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Lee, Sung Su [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea; Lee, Su Yong [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Korea; Noh, Do Young [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea; Kwon, Oowong [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Borisevich, Albina Y. [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    For epitaxial films, a critical thickness (tc) can create a phenomenological interface between a strained bottom layer and a relaxed top layer. Here, we present an experimental report of how the tc in BiFeO3 thin films acts as a boundary to determine the crystalline phase, ferroelectricity, and piezoelectricity in 60 nm thick BiFeO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrate. We found larger Fe cation displacement of the relaxed layer than that of strained layer. In the time-resolved X-ray microdiffraction analyses, the piezoelectric response of the BiFeO3 film was resolved into a strained layer with an extremely low piezoelectric coefficient of 2.4 pm/V and a relaxed layer with a piezoelectric coefficient of 32 pm/V. The difference in the Fe displacements between the strained and relaxed layers is in good agreement with the differences in the piezoelectric coefficient due to the electromechanical coupling.

  18. Semimetallic transport properties of epitaxially stabilized perovskite CaIrO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Daigorou, E-mail: dhirai@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuno, Jobu [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Takagi, Hidenori [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Max-Plank-Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

    2015-07-06

    We report on the synthesis and transport properties of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO{sub 3} thin films. The Pv phase of CaIrO{sub 3} was stabilized by epitaxial growth on SrTiO{sub 3}, (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7}, and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates with strong tensile, weak tensile, and compressive strains, respectively. The resistivity of these films showed a poorly metallic behavior. The Hall resistivity exhibited a sign change as a function of temperature and a nonlinear magnetic-field dependence, which clearly indicated the coexistence of electrons and holes and hence supported that Pv CaIrO{sub 3} films are semimetallic. The observed robustness of the semimetallic ground state against tensile and compressive strains is consistent with the presence of symmetry-protected Dirac points (nodes) around the Fermi level that prohibits the system from becoming a band insulator.

  19. Evolution of Insulator-Metal Phase Transitions in Epitaxial Tungsten Oxide Films during Electrolyte-Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihaya, Shinichi; Uchida, Masaki; Kozuka, Yusuke; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Masashi; Nishihaya, S; Uchida, M; Kozuka, Y; Iwasa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Iwasa, Y; Kawasaki, M

    2016-08-31

    An interface between an oxide and an electrolyte gives rise to various processes as exemplified by electrostatic charge accumulation/depletion and electrochemical reactions such as intercalation/decalation under electric field. Here we directly compare typical device operations of those in electric double layer transistor geometry by adopting A-site vacant perovskite WO3 epitaxial thin films as a channel material and two different electrolytes as gating agent. In situ measurements of X-ray diffraction and channel resistance performed during the gating revealed that in both the cases WO3 thin film reaches a new metallic state through multiple phase transitions, accompanied by the change in out-of-plane lattice constant. Electrons are electrostatically accumulated from the interface side with an ionic liquid, while alkaline metal ions are more uniformly intercalated into the film with a polymer electrolyte. We systematically demonstrate this difference in the electrostatic and electrochemical processes, by comparing doped carrier density, lattice deformation behavior, and time constant of the phase transitions.

  20. Epitaxial stabilization of -Fe2O3 (00l) thin films on SrTiO3 (111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gich, Marti [Universitat de Barcelona; Gazquez, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Roig, Anna [Universitat de Barcelona; Fontcuberta, Josep [Universitat de Barcelona; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Skumryev, Vassil [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona; Varela, Manuel [Universitat de Barcelona

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of the metastable and elusive -Fe2O3 have been epitaxially stabilized on SrTiO3 (111) substrates. The -Fe2O3 films present a (001) orientation perpendicular to the substrate and three in-plane domains measuring a few nanometers and showing atomically sharp interfaces. We argue that this domain structure, rather than the epitaxial-strain, plays an essential role in stabilizing the -Fe2O3 by minimizing the energy of (100) surfaces. The -Fe2O3 films show a large in-plane coercivity 8 kOe which combined with the magnetoelectric character claimed for this oxide may lead to novel applications in spintronics.

  1. Thermal generation of spin current in epitaxial CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Er-Jia, E-mail: ejguophysics@gmail.com, E-mail: klaeui@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Herklotz, Andreas [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Kehlberger, Andreas; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Kläui, Mathias, E-mail: ejguophysics@gmail.com, E-mail: klaeui@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-11

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in high-quality epitaxial CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) thin films. The thermally excited spin currents in the CFO films are electrically detected in adjacent Pt layers due to the inverse spin Hall effect. The LSSE signal exhibits a linear increase with increasing temperature gradient, yielding a LSSE coefficient of ∼100 nV/K at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the LSSE is investigated from room temperature down to 30 K, showing a significant reduction at low temperatures, revealing that the total amount of thermally generated magnons decreases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spin Seebeck effect is an effective tool to study the magnetic anisotropy induced by epitaxial strain, especially in ultrathin films with low magnetic moments.

  2. Structure and optical band gaps of (Ba,Sr)SnO{sub 3} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Timo; Raghavan, Santosh; Ahadi, Kaveh; Kim, Honggyu; Stemmer, Susanne, E-mail: stemmer@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Epitaxial growth of (Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x})SnO{sub 3} films with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 using molecular beam epitaxy is reported. It is shown that SrSnO{sub 3} films can be grown coherently strained on closely lattice and symmetry matched PrScO{sub 3} substrates. The evolution of the optical band gap as a function of composition is determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The direct band gap monotonously decreases with x from to 4.46 eV (x = 0) to 3.36 eV (x = 1). A large Burnstein-Moss shift is observed with La-doping of BaSnO{sub 3} films. The shift corresponds approximately to the increase in Fermi level and is consistent with the low conduction band mass.

  3. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  4. Microwave-assisted hydrothermally grown epitaxial ZnO films on MgAl2O4 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Laura-Lynn; Le, Hong Quang; Goh, Gregory K. L.

    2012-05-01

    In this report, epitaxial ZnO films were grown on MgAl2O4 single crystal substrates using Microwave Assisted Hydrothermal (MAH) method with microwave radiation heating (2.45 GHz) at 90 °C in a short time (within 15 min). Scanning electron microscopy confirms that these films possess smooth surface morphology with fully coalesced grains. In addition, photoluminescence (PL) measurements exhibit strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature, indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices. The PL properties were improved by a thermal annealing process without generating structural defects. Hall measurements after thermal treatment show the carrier concentration to be of the order of 1019 cm-3 which is comparable to those grown by conventional solution methods. The MAH method will offer a rapid route to synthesize epitaxial ZnO films with good optical and electrical properties for various applications.

  5. Insight into the epitaxial encapsulation of Pd catalysts in an oriented metalloporphyrin network thin film for tandem catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, M Ismail; Li, De-Jing; Gu, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-14

    A palladium catalyst (Pd-Cs) encapsulated metalloporphyrin network PIZA-1 thin film with bifunctional properties has been developed through a modified epitaxial layer-by-layer encapsulation approach. Combining the oxidation activity of Pd-Cs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acidic sites in the PIZA-1 thin film, this bifunctional catalyst of the Pd-Cs@PIZA-1 thin film exhibits a good catalytic activity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. Furthermore, the surface components can be controlled by ending the top layer with different precursors in the thin film preparation procedures. The catalytic performances of these thin films with different surface composites were studied under the same conditions, which showed different reaction conversions. The result revealed that the surface component can influence the catalytic performance of the thin films. This epitaxial encapsulation offers a good understanding of the tandem catalysis for thin film materials and provides useful guidance to develop new thin film materials with catalytic properties.

  6. Epitaxial Growth of Full-Heusler Alloy Co2MnSi Thin Films on MgO-Buffered MgO Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kijima, H; Ishikawa, T.; Marukame, T.; Koyama, H; Matsuda, K; Uemura, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full-Heusler alloy Co₂MnSi (CMS) thin films were epitaxially grown on MgO-buffered MgO substrates through magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited at room temperature and subsequently annealed in situ at 600℃. X-ray pole figure measurements of the annealed films showed 111 peaks with fourfold symmetry, providing direct evidence that these films were epitaxial and crystallized in the L2₁ structure. The annealed films had sufficiently flat surface morphologies with root-mean-squa...

  7. Reactively sputtered epitaxial γ′-Fe4N films: Surface morphology, microstructure, magnetic and electrical transport properties

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo

    2013-10-01

    Epitaxial γ′-Fe4N films with (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations have been fabricated by reactive sputtering; these films were characterized by X-ray θ-2θ and φ scans, pole figures and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film surface is very smooth as the film is less than 58 nm thick. The films exhibit soft ferromagnetism, and the saturation magnetization decreases with an increase in temperature, following Bloch\\'s spin wave theory. The films also exhibit a metallic conductance mechanism. Below 30 K, magnetoresistance (MR) is positive and increases linearly with the applied field in the high-field range. In the low-field range, MR increases abruptly. Above 30 K, MR is negative, and its value increases linearly with the applied field.

  8. Influence of layer thickness on the structure and the magnetic properties of Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films were prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers hetero-epitaxially grown on MgO(111){sub B1} single-crystal substrates at room temperature by ultra-high vacuum RF magnetron sputtering. In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction shows that the in-plane lattice spacing of Co on Pd layer gradually decreases with increasing the Co layer thickness, whereas that of Pd on Co layer remains unchanged during the Pd layer formation. The CoPd alloy phase formation is observed around the Co/Pd interface. The atomic mixing is enhanced for thinner Co and Pd layers in multilayer structure. With decreasing the Co and the Pd layer thicknesses and increasing the repetition number of Co/Pd multilayer film, stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed. The relationships between the film structure and the magnetic properties are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial Co/Pd multilayer films are prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice strain in Co layer and CoPd-alloy formation are noted around the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property dependence on layer thickness is reported.

  9. In situ RHEED analysis of epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on Si (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, W.F. [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Beijing (China); China University of Petroleum, Laboratory of Optic Sensing and Detecting Technology, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Beijing (China); Ni, H. [China University of Petroleum, Laboratory of Optic Sensing and Detecting Technology, Beijing (China); Lu, H.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2013-02-15

    Epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were successfully grown on Si (001) substrates using a two-step approach by laser molecular-beam epitaxy. At the first step, a {proportional_to}0.8 nm thin layer was deposited at the temperature of 200 {sup circle} C as the buffer layer. Then the substrate temperature was increased to 650 {sup circle} C and in situ annealing for 5 min, and a second Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer with a desired thickness was deposited. The whole growth process is monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). In situ RHEED analysis of the growing film has revealed that the first Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer deposition and in situ annealing are the critical processes for the epitaxial growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a monoclinic phase characterized by X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image showed all the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers have a little bending because of the stress. In addition, a 5-6 nm amorphous interfacial layer between the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film and Si substrate is due to the in situ high temperature annealing for a long time. The successful Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si epitaxial growth predicted a possibility to develop the new functional microelectronics devices. (orig.)

  10. High energy storage responses in all-oxide epitaxial relaxor ferroelectric thin films with the coexistence of relaxor and antiferroelectric-like behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Chi T.Q.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Vu, H.T.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Vu, Hung N.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PLZT) thin films have been epitaxially grown via pulsed laser deposition on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 single crystal with different orientations. The high recoverable energy-storage density and energy-storage efficiency in the epitaxial PLZT thin films are

  11. Growth and Properties of molecular beam epitaxially grown ferromagnetic Fe-doped TiO2 rutile films on TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Droubay, Timothy C.; Lea, Alan S.; Wang, Chong M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Chambers, Scott A.; Sears, R.; Taylor, B.; Sinkovic, Boris

    2004-05-03

    We have grown epitaxial Fe-doped TiO₂ rutile films on rutile TiO₂(110) substrates, and have explored the resulting compositional, structural, morphological and magnetic properties. Clusters of mixed TiO₂ rutile and Fe₃O₄ form on the surface of a continuous rutile epitaxial film during growth. Room temperature ferromagnetism is observed, and is associated with the formation of secondary phase Fe₃O₄ rather than a true diluted magnetic oxide semiconductor.

  12. Significant enhancement of the strength-to-resistivity ratio by using nanotwins in epitaxial Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronningh, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderoglu, Osman [TEXAS A& M; Zhang, X [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanotwinned Cu films, with an average twin spacing ranging from 7 to 16 nm, exhibit a high ratio of strength-to-electrical resisitivity, -400 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}. The hardness of these Cu films approaches 2.8 GPa, and their electrical resistivities are comparable to that of oxygen-free high-conductivity Cu. Compared to high-angle grain boundaries, coherent twin interfaces possess inherently high resistance to the transmission of single dislocations, and yet an order of magnitude lower electron scattering coefficient, determined to be 1.5-5 x 10{sup -7} {mu}{Omega}cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analytical studies as well as experimental results show that, in polycrystalline Cu, grain refinement leads to a maximum of the strength-to-resistivity ratio, -250 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}, when grain size is comparable to the mean-free path of electrons. However, in twinned Cu, such a ratio increases continuously with decreasing twin spacing down to a few nanometers. Hence nanoscale growth twins are more effective to achieve a higher strength-to-resistivity ratio than high-angle grain boundaries.

  13. Growth and magnetic property of antiperovskite manganese nitride films doped with Cu by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengmei; Ren, Lizhu; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yunjia; Yang, Mei; Wu, Shuxiang; Li, Shuwei

    2014-04-01

    Manganese nitrides thin films on MgO (100) substrates with and without Cu-doping have been fabricated by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Antiperovskite compounds Mn3.6Cu0.4N have been grown in the case of Cu-doping, and the pure Mn3N2 single crystal has been obtained without Cu-doping. The Mn3.6Cu0.4N exhibits ferrimagnetism, and the magnetization of Mn3.6Cu0.4N increases upon the temperature decreasing from 300 K to 5 K, similar to Mn4N. The exchange bias (EB) effects emerge in the Mn3.6Cu0.4N films. The EB behavior is originated from the interfaces between ferrimagnetic Mn3.6Cu0.4N and antiferromagnetic metal Mn, which is verified to be formed by the data of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The present results not only provide a strategy for producing functional antiperovskite manganese nitrides, but also shed promising light on fabricating the exchange bias part of spintronic devices.

  14. Growth and magnetic property of antiperovskite manganese nitride films doped with Cu by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fengmei, E-mail: yufengmei401@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Automation College, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225 (China); Ren, Lizhu; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yunjia; Yang, Mei; Wu, Shuxiang; Li, Shuwei, E-mail: stslsw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2014-04-07

    Manganese nitrides thin films on MgO (100) substrates with and without Cu-doping have been fabricated by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N have been grown in the case of Cu-doping, and the pure Mn{sub 3}N{sub 2} single crystal has been obtained without Cu-doping. The Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N exhibits ferrimagnetism, and the magnetization of Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N increases upon the temperature decreasing from 300 K to 5 K, similar to Mn{sub 4}N. The exchange bias (EB) effects emerge in the Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N films. The EB behavior is originated from the interfaces between ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N and antiferromagnetic metal Mn, which is verified to be formed by the data of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The present results not only provide a strategy for producing functional antiperovskite manganese nitrides, but also shed promising light on fabricating the exchange bias part of spintronic devices.

  15. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties of Cr-Co-Ga Heusler alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wuwei, E-mail: wfeng@cugb.edu.cn; Wang, Weihua [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Chenglong [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Van Quang, Nguyen; Cho, Sunglae, E-mail: slcho@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Dung, Dang Duc [Department of General Physics, School of Engineering Physics, Ha Noi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2015-11-15

    We have re-investigated growth and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2}CoGa films using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Phase separation and precipitate formation were observed experimentally again in agreement with observation of multiple phases separation in sputtered Cr{sub 2}CoGa films by M. Meinert et al. However, significant phase separation could be suppressed by proper control of growth conditions. We showed that Cr{sub 2}CoGa Heusler phase, rather than Co{sub 2}CrGa phase, constitutes the majority of the sample grown on GaAs(001) at 450 {sup o}C. The measured small spin moment of Cr{sub 2}CoGa is in agreement with predicted HM-FCF nature; however, its Curie temperature is not as high as expected from the theoretical prediction probably due to the off-stoichiometry of Cr{sub 2}CoGa and the existence of the disorders and phase separation.

  16. Conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of III-nitride thin films by molecular beam and metalorganic vapor phase techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthicum, Kevin James

    Reactive gas-source molecular beam epitaxy was employed for the growth of monocrystalline GaN(0001) thin films. On-surface cracking of ammonia at 800°C was the method of choice for obtaining reactive nitrogen-containing species and growth rates of 2500A/hr were achieved. Pendeo-epitaxy, a general form of selective lateral growth, was developed for the organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN and AlGaN thin films on GaN/AlN/6H-SiC(0001) substrates. In this technique, selective lateral growth was forced to initiate from the (1120) sidewalls of etched GaN seed forms by incorporating a silicon nitride seed mask atop the forms and employing the SiC substrate as a pseudo-mask. Coalescence over and between the seed forms was achieved. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that all vertically threading defects stemming from the GaN/AlN and AlN/SiC interfaces were contained within the seed forms and that a substantial reduction in the dislocation density of the laterally grown GaN was achieved. To achieve pendeo-epitaxial growth of monocrystalline GaN films on Si(111) substrates, a series of additional process steps was required, including the formation of a SiC chemical/reaction barrier. Single-crystal beta-SiC(111) thin films were obtained via carburization of the near-surface regions of vicinal Si(111). The thickness of the converted layers was approximately 5nm. Thick (500nm), epitaxial 3C-SiC layers grown via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition were also used in tandem with the carburized silicon substrates. Monocrystalline AlN(0001) layers were grown on the SiC/Si substrates at 1100°C via MOVPE. Single-crystal wurtzitic GaN(0001) seed layers were grown on the AlN(0001) layers. The FWHM of the GaN(0002) x-ray diffraction and the photoluminescence band-edge emission peaks were 1443 arcsec and 19 meV, respectively. Pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN on GaN/AlN/3C-SiC/Si(111) raised stripes was achieved. Crystallographic tilting of 0.2°(720 arcsec

  17. Epitaxial growth of Sc-doped ZnO films on Si by sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchika; Sehrawat, Kiran; Wakahara, Akihiro; Mehra, R. M.

    2009-03-01

    The epitaxial growth of doped ZnO films is of great technological importance. Present paper reports a detailed investigation of Sc-doped ZnO films grown on (1 0 0) silicon p-type substrates. The films were deposited by sol-gel technique using zinc acetate dihydrate as precursor, 2-methoxyethanol as solvent and monoethanolamine (MEA) as a stabilizer. Scandium was introduced as dopant in the solution by taking 0.5 wt% of scandium nitrate hexahydrate. The effect of annealing on structural and photoluminescence properties of nano-textured Sc-doped films was investigated in the temperature range of 300-550 °C. Structural investigations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray diffraction study revealed that highly c-axis oriented films with full-width half maximum of 0.21° are obtained at an annealing temperature of 400 °C. The SEM images of ZnO:Sc films have revealed that coalescence of ZnO grains occurs due to annealing. Ostwald ripening was found to be the dominant mass transport mechanism in the coalescence process. A surface roughness of 4.7 nm and packing density of 0.93 were observed for the films annealed at 400 °C. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements of ZnO:Sc films annealed at 400 °C showed ultraviolet peak at about (382 nm) with FWHM of 141 meV, which are comparable to those found in high-quality ZnO films. The films annealed below or above 400 °C exhibited green emission as well. The presence of green emission has been correlated with the structural changes due to annealing. Reflection high energy electron diffraction pattern confirmed the nearly epitaxial growth of the films. Ruchika Sharma, P. K. Shishodia, A. Wakahara and R. M. Mehra, Materials Science-Poland 27 (2009) Ist issue.

  18. Influence of anisotropic strain relaxation on the magnetoresistance properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 (110) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofin, R. G. S.; Wu, Han-Chun; Ramos, R.; Arora, S. K.; Shvets, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    We studied Fe3O4 (110) films grown epitaxially on MgO (110) substrates using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The films with thickness of 30-200 nm showed anisotropic in-plane partial strain relaxation. Magneto resistance (MR) measurements with current and magnetic field along ⟨001⟩ direction showed higher MR compared to ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ direction. Maximum value of MR was measured at Verwey transition temperature for both directions. We explain the observed anisotropy in the MR on the basis of the effects of anisotropic misfit strain, and the difference between the density of antiferromagnetically coupled antiphase boundaries formed along ⟨001⟩ and ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ crystallographic directions, suggesting the dependence of spin polarisation on the anisotropic strain relaxation along the said crystallographic directions.

  19. Tailoring Lattice Strain and Ferroelectric Polarization of Epitaxial BaTiO3Thin Films on Si(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jike; Fina, Ignasi; Solanas, Raul; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2018-01-11

    Ferroelectric BaTiO 3 films with large polarization have been integrated with Si(001) by pulsed laser deposition. High quality c-oriented epitaxial films are obtained in a substrate temperature range of about 300 °C wide. The deposition temperature critically affects the growth kinetics and thermodynamics balance, resulting on a high impact in the strain of the BaTiO 3 polar axis, which can exceed 2% in films thicker than 100 nm. The ferroelectric polarization scales with the strain and therefore deposition temperature can be used as an efficient tool to tailor ferroelectric polarization. The developed strategy overcomes the main limitations of the conventional strain engineering methodologies based on substrate selection: it can be applied to films on specific substrates including Si(001) and perovskites, and it is not restricted to ultrathin films.

  20. Reduced leakage in epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} films following oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Deepti [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Upadhyay, Sanjay K.; Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Jariwala, C.; Raole, P. M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-06-07

    Epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition method. The prepared films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, ferroelectric loop tracer, and leakage current measurements before and after oxygen plasma treatment. The leakage current of the films, a crucial parameter in device applications, is observed to be reduced by two orders of magnitude with oxygen plasma treatment at room temperature. P-E hysteresis loops were observed in oxygen plasma treated BFO films. The observed results indicate the usefulness of oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment (RF 13.56 MHz), which is an effective and low temperature processing technique, in such lossy ferroelectric thin films.

  1. Te Monolayer-Driven Spontaneous van der Waals Epitaxy of Two-dimensional Pnictogen Chalcogenide Film on Sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Ohta, Hiromichi; Kim, Sung Wng

    2017-10-11

    Demands on high-quality layer structured two-dimensional (2D) thin films such as pnictogen chalcogenides and transition metal dichalcogenides are growing due to the findings of exotic physical properties and potentials for device applications. However, the difficulties in controlling epitaxial growth and the unclear understanding of van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) for a 2D chalcogenide film on a three-dimensional (3D) substrate have been major obstacles for the further advances of 2D materials. Here, we exploit the spontaneous vdWE of a high-quality 2D chalcogenide (Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ) film by the chalcogen-driven surface reconstruction of a conventional 3D sapphire substrate. It is verified that the in situ formation of a pseudomorphic Te atomic monolayer on the surface of sapphire, which results in a dangling bond-free surface, allows the spontaneous vdWE of 2D chalcogenide film. Since this route uses the natural surface reconstruction of sapphire with chalcogen under vacuum condition, it can be scalable and easily utilized for the developments of various 2D chalcogenide vdWE films through conventional thin-film fabrication technologies.

  2. Orientation-dependent properties of epitaxially strained perovskite oxide thin films: Insights from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angsten, Thomas; Martin, Lane W.; Asta, Mark

    2017-05-01

    The structural properties, energetics, and polarizations of perovskite-based thin-film oxide systems are computed as a function of biaxial strain state and epitaxial orientation, employing an automated computational workflow based on density functional theory. A total of 14 compositions are considered, of the form AB O3, with A = Ba, K, Na, Pb, and Sr and B = Hf, Sn, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, and V site cations chosen to yield tolerance factors with values ranging between 0.95 and 1.1. Three biaxial strain states corresponding to epitaxial growth of (100)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented films are considered, with misfit strains ranging between -4 % to 4%. Results are presented for the series of perovskite-derived phases, and their corresponding symmetries, which are energetically favorable as a function of misfit strain, along with their corresponding equilibrium atomic positions, lattice parameters, and electric polarizations. The results demonstrate robust trends of in-plane polarization enhancement under tensile strain for all epitaxial orientations, and out-of-plane polarization enhancement with compression for the (100)- and (110)-oriented films. Strains corresponding to the (111)-growth orientation lead to a wider variety of out-of-plane polarization behavior, with BaTiO3 showing anomalous diminishing polarization with compression. Epitaxial orientation is shown to have a strong effect on the nature of strain-induced phase transitions, with (100)-oriented systems tending to have smooth, second-order transitions and (110)- and (111)-oriented systems more commonly exhibiting first-order transitions. The significance of this effect for device applications is discussed, and a number of systems are identified as potentially interesting for ferroelectric thin-film applications based on energetic stability and polarization behavior. Analysis of polarization behavior across different orientations reveals distinct groups into which compositions can be organized, some of which have

  3. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    this respect the quality of many of the doped EuO samples used in the past bulk studies. The focus of this thesis is on the preparation and the properties of high-quality single-crystalline EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. The so-called Eu-distillation-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been employed to achieve full control of the stoichiometry. The films have been epitaxially grown on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) (001) substrates. By a systematic variation of the oxygen deposition rates, we have been able to observe sustained oscillations in the intensity of the reflection high-electron energy diffraction (RHEED) pattern during growth. We thus have demonstrated that layer-by-layer growth has been achieved for the first time. We also have confirmed that YSZ indeed supplies oxygen during the initial stages of growth, yet the EuO stoichiometry can still be well maintained. In the case of Gd-doped EuO films, the presence of Gd even helps to stabilize the layer-by-layer growth mode. It is important to achieve this growth mode, since it enables the preparation of films with very smooth and at surfaces. This in turn facilitates the capping of the films with a thin Al overlayer in order to protect the films against degradation under ambient conditions. More important, the smoothness of the lm will enable the preparation of high quality device structures. By using ex-situ soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Eu and Gd M{sub 4,5} edges, we have confirmed that the films are completely free from Eu{sup 3+} contaminants, and we were able to determine reliably the actual Gd concentration. This actual Gd concentration could in fact significantly deviate from the nominal Gd/Eu evaporation ratio. From magnetization and susceptibility measurements, we found the Curie temperature to increase smoothly as a function of doping from 69 K up to a maximum of 125 K, all with a saturation moment of 7 {mu}B. A threshold behavior was not observed for Gd concentrations

  4. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Shimin [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Shunming [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ye, Jiandong [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing University Institute of Optoelectronics at Yangzhou, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  5. TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} epitaxial films: Irreversibility, 2-D pinning, and critical currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettinger, J.D.; Miller, D.J.; Gray, K.E.; Kim, D.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); DeLuca, J.; Karas, P.; Tkaczyk, J.E. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States); Eddy, M. [Superconductor Technologies, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Post-annealed epitaxial thin films of TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (Tl-1212) have been fabricated using sputtered precursors. Values of the transport critical current (J{sub c}) for Tl-1212 epitaxial thin films in magnetic fields up to 7 tesla and at temperatures ranging from 25 to 77K are reported. These values are compared with those for Tl-2212 epitaxial films, Tl-2212 polycrystalline films, and Tl-1223 polycrystalline duck films. This comparison explicitly demonstrates the roles of grain boundaries and anisotropy in limiting the transport J{sub c}. Analysis also supports the existence of a universal pinning defect in every highly anisotropic high-temperature superconductor, with a lower bound on the size of the defect being approximately 12{Angstrom} in diameter.

  6. Strain in epitaxial high-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chen, Weiguang [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Dai, Xianqi [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Jia, Jinfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xie, Maohai, E-mail: mhxie@hku.hk [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • High-index, off c-axis, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. • A retarded strain relaxation process in such high-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is observed, enabling experimentally probe strain effect on topological insulators. • It has been shown by calculation that the Dirac electrons participate in chemical bonding at the heterointerface. - Abstract: High-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) film has been grown on In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-buffered GaAs(001), in which a much retarded strain relaxation dynamics is recorded. The slow strain-relaxation process of in epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) can be attributed to the layered structure of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystal, where the epifilm grown along [221] is like a pile of weakly-coupled quintuple layer slabs stacked side-by-side on substrate. Finally, we reveal strong chemical bonding at the interface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by plotting differential charge contour calculated by first-principle method. This study points to the feasibility of achieving strained TIs for manipulating the properties of topological systems.

  7. Epitaxial growth of superconducting MgB2 thin films with a Mg buffer layer at 110 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Nakagami, Takatoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ishida, Takekazu

    2017-07-01

    Since the discovery of MgB2, its application to superconducting electronics has been limited by the absent of proper microfabrication techniques. In this study, we grew crystalline MgB2 thin films using molecular beam epitaxy at a low substrate temperature of 110 °C under ultra-high vacuum of about 10-6 Pa. MgB2 thin films were deposited with an epitaxial Mg buffer layer on c-plane 4H-SiC or sapphire substrates. In spite of the low growth temperature, superior crystallinity and surface flatness were confirmed by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements. Moreover, we successfully confirmed the occurrence of a sharp superconducting transition at 27 K. The present growth temperature was lower than any in prior reports on superconducting MgB2 thin films, and is lower than the applicable temperature of an organic-based lift-off resist. Our new MgB2 thin film growth process is promising for the development of an alternative nanofabrication technique for MgB2 thin films by means of a standard lift-off process with an organic resist.

  8. Investigation of the structural defects in GaN thin films grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.-H.; Lim, S.-J.; Cho, M.-S.; Cho, N.-H.; Chung, S.-J.; Sohn, C.-S.

    2003-02-01

    GaN thin films were prepared on {0001} planes of sapphire substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) techniques. The crystall orgaphic relation between the film and the substrate as well as the structural features of the defects in the film were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Epitaxial relationship was observed in the GaN/sapphire heterostructure prepared in this investigation; (0001) GaN//(0001) sapphire;[ {01bar 10} ] GaN//[ {bar 12bar 10} ] sapphire. Dislocations of Burgers vectorbar b = {1/3} [ {2bar 1bar 10} ] were observed in the film; the propagation behavior of the dislocations exhibits a slip system{ {10bar 10} }< {2bar 1bar 10} rangle is operative in the film. Inversion domain boundary (IDB) facets lying parallel to{ {01bar 10} } and{ {bar 12bar 10} } planes were observed; the type of anti-site bonds (Ga-Ga, N-N) is altemate along these IDB planes, keeping the simple stoichiometry of the compound.

  9. Stabilisation of late transition metal and noble metal films in hexagonal and body centred tetragonal phases by epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueger, E.

    2005-08-26

    In this work ultrathin metallic films with a crystal phase different to their natural bulk structure were produced by hetero-epitaxial growth on metallic substrates. A further aim of this work was to understand the initiation, growth and stability of crystal phase modifications of these films. there exist cases where the films turn beyond the pseudomorphic-growth to a crystal phase different from their natural bulk structure. The present work presents and discusses such a case in addition to the general phenomenon of pseudomorphic-growth. In particular it is shown that metals whose natural phase is face centred cubic (fcc) can be grown in body centred tetragonal (bct) or hexagonal close packed (hcp) phases in the form of thin films on (001) surfaces of appropriate substrates. The growth behavior, electron diffraction analysis, appearance conditions, geometric fit considerations, examples and a discussion of the phase stability of non-covered films and superlattices is given reviewing all epitaxial-systems whose diffraction pattern can be explained by the hexagonal or pseudomorphic bct phase. (orig.)

  10. Growth of epitaxial Pt thin films on (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} by rf magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahsay, A. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polo, M.C., E-mail: mcpolo@ub.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ferrater, C.; Ventura, J. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rebled, J.M. [Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia IN 2UB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Varela, M. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The growth of platinum thin film by rf magnetron sputtering on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrates for oxide based devices was investigated. Platinum films grown at temperatures higher than 750 °C were epitaxial ([1 0 0]Pt(0 0 1)//[1 0 0]STO(0 0 1)), whereas at lower temperatures Pt(1 1 1) films were obtained. The surface morphology of the Pt films showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature as was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). At elevated temperatures there is a three-dimensional (3D) growth of rectangular atomically flat islands with deep boundaries between them. On the other hand, at low deposition temperatures, a two-dimensional (2D) layered growth was observed. The transition from 2D to 3D growth modes was observed that occurs for temperatures around 450 °C. The obtained epitaxial thin films also formed an atomically sharp interface with the SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrate as confirmed by HRTEM.

  11. High-Resolution Structural and Electronic Properties of Epitaxial Topological Crystalline Insulator Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Omur; Zhou, Chao; Zou, Ke; Simon, Georg; Albright, Stephen; Mandal, Subhasish; Morales-Acosta, Mayra; Zhu, Xiaodong; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick; Ahn, Charles; Schwarz, Udo; Altman, Eric

    Revealing the local electronic properties of surfaces and their link to structural properties is an important problem for topological crystalline insulators (TCI) in which metallic surface states are protected by crystal symmetry. The microstructure and electronic properties of TCI SnTe film surfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy were characterized using scanning probe microscopy. These results reveal the influence of various defects on the electronic properties: tilt boundaries leading to dislocation arrays that serve as periodic nucleation sites for pit growth; screw dislocations, and point defects. These features have varying length scale and display variations in the electronic structure of the surface, which are mapped with scanning tunneling microscopy images as standing waves superimposed on atomic scale images of the surface topography that consequently shape the wave patterns. Since the growth process results in symmetry breaking defects that patterns the topological states, we propose that the scanning probe tip can pattern the surface and electronic structure and enable the fabrication of topological devices on the SnTe surface. Financial support from the National Science Foundation through the Yale Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (Grant No. MRSEC DMR-1119826) and FAME.

  12. Controllable Photovoltaic Effect of Microarray Derived from Epitaxial Tetragonal BiFeO3Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengxing; Li, Peilian; Wan, Jian-Guo; Huang, Zhifeng; Tian, Guo; Pan, Danfeng; Fan, Zhen; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2017-08-16

    Recently, the ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize a controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we prepared well-ordered microarrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO 3 (T-BFO) films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by a conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination. By choosing a suitable buffer electrode layer and controlling the ferroelectric polarization in the T-BFO layer, we realized the manipulation of the photovoltaic process. Moreover, based on the analysis of the band structure, we revealed the mechanism of manipulating the photovoltaic process and attributed it to the competition between two key factors, i.e., the internal electric field caused by energy band alignments at interfaces and the depolarization field induced by the ferroelectric polarization in T-BFO. This work is very meaningful for deeply understanding the photovoltaic process of BiFeO 3 -based devices at the microscale and provides us a feasible avenue for developing data storage or logic switching microdevices based on the FePV effect.

  13. Magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of epitaxial SmFe{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, C de la; Arnaudas, J I; Ciria, M; Del Moral, A [Departamento de Magnetismo de Solidos and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de Aragon and Universidad de Zaragoza, 50071, Zaragoza (Spain); Dufour, C; Dumesnil, K, E-mail: cesar@unizar.e [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et de Science des Materiaux, Universite Henry Poincare, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 (France)

    2010-02-03

    We report on magnetic and magnetoelastic measurements for a 5000 A (110) SmFe{sub 2} thin film, which was successfully analyzed by means of a point charge model for describing the effect of the epitaxial growth in this kind of system. Some of the main conclusions of the Moessbauer and magnetoelastic results and the new magnetization results up to 5 T allow us to get a full description of the crystal electric field, exchange, and magnetoelastic behavior in this compound. So, new single-ion parameters are obtained for the crystal field interaction of samarium ions, A{sub 4}(r{sup 4}) = +755 K/ion and A{sub 6}(r{sup 6}) = -180 K/ion, and new single-ion magnetoelastic coupling B{sup gamma}{sup ,2}approx =-200 MPa and B{sup epsilon}{sup ,2}approx =800 MPa, which represent the tetragonal and the in-plane shear deformations, respectively. Moreover, the new thermal behavior of the samarium magnetic moment, the exchange coupling parameter, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the iron sublattice are obtained too. From these, the softening of the spin reorientation transition with respect to the bulk case could be accounted for.

  14. Metrology of Epitaxial Thin Films and Periodic Nanostructures using High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medikonda, Manasa

    The continued scaling of device size to achieve higher performance and/or lower power operation at lower cost is driving research and development into new, 3D transistor structures such as the FinFET. This research and development effort is highlighting the need for new, advanced measurement capability that is highly accurate, reliable, rapid, and nondestructive. Periodic arrays of fin structures enable process monitoring at each level of fabrication and the maintenance of overall device yield. High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR XRD) has been shown to provide unique capability of characterizing blanket thin films and structural parameters of periodic arrays of fins fabricated in single crystal materials. Application of HR XRD techniques to characterize fin structures with critical dimensions of 1x-2x nm has been very limited. The main objective of my research is to develop and apply HR XRD techniques that analyze critical parameters such as the lithographic pitch, pitch walking, sidewall slope, and fin top width in arrays of advanced fin structures. This research also investigates the stress state of initially pseudomorphic epilayers at the top of the fin, and identification of defects. The results for non-patterned epitaxial fully strained SiGe and GeSn alloys are presented and the methods of detecting periodicity, strain state and shape of arrays of lithographically patterned silicon and silicon-germanium fins are demonstrated using synchrotron source and laboratory x-ray diffractometers.

  15. Ultraviolet photodetectors based on aluminum gallium nitride films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Mira

    2000-10-01

    GaN-AlN alloys are an important class of materials for ultraviolet photodetectors. The focus of this work was to develop photoconducting and photovoltaic detectors based on AlxGa1-xN films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. GaN photoconducting detectors were fabricated and characterized. Mobility-lifetime products of the films were determined from measurement of photoconductive gain. They varied from 10-2cm2/V to 10 -7cm2/V as resistivity changed from 10 2W-cm to 107W-cm. Spectral response showed a sharp transition at 365nm and three orders of magnitude visible light rejection. Semi-insulating films exhibited fast response time of 20ns. Dynamic range was linear over five orders of magnitude. Low frequency noise spectra were dominated by l/f noise in the 0--100Hz range and by generation-recombination noise in the 100Hz--10KHz range. A trap at DE = 0.32eV was identified from the temperature dependence of the noise spectrum. The noise equivalent power was determined to be 3 x 10-14W/Hz 1/2 at 10KHz for the semi-insulating detectors. Solar-blind UV photoconductive detectors were fabricated using Al xGa1-xN films with Al mole fraction x = 0--0.45. Detectors fabricated on films with Al mole fraction x = 0.45, corresponding to true solar-blind detection, exhibited mobility-lifetime products of 10 -5cm2/V, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of GaN films of comparable resistivity. These films also exhibited the highest degree of long range atomic ordering. The enhanced photoconductive gain is accounted for by a model, which considers band offsets between the ordered and random domains in the partially ordered alloys, causing spatial separation of photo-carriers and consequently, long recombination lifetimes. Schottky barrier photovoltaic detectors (n-GaN/Ni-Pt), with a mesa-etched vertical geometry, were fabricated. These photodiodes exhibit a responsivity of 0.18A/W at 325nm and NEP of 1.3 x 10-9W/Hz 1/2 at 1KHz. Doping concentrations and barrier heights were

  16. Low-relaxation spin waves in laser-molecular-beam epitaxy grown nanosized yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsev, L. V., E-mail: l-lutsev@mail.ru; Korovin, A. M.; Bursian, V. E.; Gastev, S. V.; Fedorov, V. V.; Suturin, S. M.; Sokolov, N. S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-02

    Synthesis of nanosized yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YIG) films followed by the study of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin wave propagation in these films is reported. The YIG films were grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. It has been shown that spin waves propagating in YIG deposited at 700 °C have low damping. At the frequency of 3.29 GHz, the spin-wave damping parameter is less than 3.6 × 10{sup −5}. Magnetic inhomogeneities of the YIG films give the main contribution to the FMR linewidth. The contribution of the relaxation processes to the FMR linewidth is as low as 1.2%.

  17. Strain-mediated magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial LuxFe3-xO4 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Jin, C.; Zheng, D. X.; Bai, H. L.

    2015-10-01

    Strain mediated structure, magnetic, and transport properties of spinel ferrites were investigated by growing epitaxial LuxFe3-xO4 (LFO, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.26 ) films on SrTiO3 and MgO substrates with in-plane compressive and tensile strains, respectively. The lattice parameter of LFO films decreases on SrTiO3 substrates, while increases on MgO substrates with the increasing Lu content. The LFO films on SrTiO3 substrates exhibit larger saturation magnetization and smaller exchange bias and coercive field. Phase shift of anisotropic magnetoresistance is also observed in the LFO films on SrTiO3 substrates. In addition, the nonmagnetic Lu3+ ions in spinel ferrites enhance the spin canting, which further increases the exchange bias and coercive field and strengthens the four-fold symmetry of anisotropic magnetoresistance and the two-fold symmetry of planar Hall effect.

  18. Giant Faraday rotation in Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe5O12 epitaxial garnet films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, M; Singh, Mahi R; Basu, Shantanu; Pinnepalli, Sai

    2012-04-23

    Thin films of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) with x = 0.7 and 0.8 compositions were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition. We investigated the effects of processing parameters used to fabricate these films by measuring various physical properties such as X-ray diffraction, transmittance, magnetization and Faraday rotation. In this study, we propose a phase diagram which provides a suitable window for the deposition of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) epitaxial films. We have also observed a giant Faraday rotation of 1-1.10 degree/µm in our optimized films. The measured Faraday rotation value is 1.6 and 50 times larger than that of CeYIG and YIG respectively. A theoretical model has been proposed for Faraday rotation based on density matrix method and an excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  19. Anomalous misfit strain relaxation in ultrathin YBa2Cu3O7 - delta epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, K.; Terauchi, H.; Terashima, T.; Bando, Y.; Iijima, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Hirata, K.; Hayashi, K.; Nakagawa, I.; Tomii, Y.

    1991-03-01

    Ultrathin YBa2Cu3O7-δ epitaxial films were successfully grown in situ on (001) SrTiO3 and MgO substrates by means of ozone-incorporating activated reactive evaporation. The x-ray-diffraction study was carefully examined to determine the structural properties of the grown films. Excellent crystallinity with no interfacial disorders was revealed by the appearance of the Laue oscillations. It was found that in a well lattice-matched YBa2Cu3O7-δ/SrTiO3 system, the crystallinity was deteriorated due to defect introduction at the critical layer thickness hc ( ˜ 130 Å). Interestingly, also in a poorly lattice-matched YBa2Cu3O7-δ/MgO system, excellent crystallinity was revealed even at above hc ( < 24 Å). This implies that an anomalous misfit relaxation process exists in the YBa2Cu3O7-δ/MgO system. In such a system, no crystal imperfection of the MgO substrate caused by defect introduction was elucidated by the grazing incidence x-ray scattering, which indicated that the MgO substrate did not contribute to the anomalous misfit relaxation. The anomalous growth manner was also found in YBa2Cu3O7-δ/MgO according to surface morphology investigations. Below 40 Å( ≳ hc), island nucleation growth was found. Above 40 Å, it was observed that an atomically smooth surface was obtained and the crystallinity was simultaneously improved. It is suggested that YBa2Cu3O7-δ possesses an anomalous misfit relaxation mechanism, and that especially in the growth on MgO, it couples with the characteristic growth behavior at the initial stage.

  20. Origin of the photoinduced current of strongly correlated YMnO3 ferroelectric epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kohei; Zhang, Lejun; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ashida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the photoinduced carrier generation and the carrier emission resulting in a photoinduced current using strongly correlated YMnO3 ferroelectric thin films. The unipolar material YMnO3 is suitable for studying the effect of the ferroelectric polarization on the photoinduced current. A clear relationship between the direction of the polarization and the photoinduced current was recognized using (0001)YMnO3 epitaxial films. The current switching corresponding to the polarization switching is also observed under white light illumination. To study the origin of the photoinduced current that originated from the photoinduced carrier generation, the light energy dependence of the photoinduced current was investigated. A small peak at 1.75 eV and a broad peak at around 2.5 eV are observed at room temperature. The peak at 1.75 eV corresponds to the optical absorption at 1.7 eV generated by the electron transition between the Mn 3d (xy,x2 - y2) (e2g state)/O 2p hybridized band and upper Mn 3d (3z 2 - r 2) (a1g state) orbital. The broad peak of the photoinduced current corresponds to the broad photoluminescence excitation spectrum at around 2.5 eV, which is never observed in absorption measurement but reported as the hidden optical channel. The origin of the photoinduced current of YMnO3 is discussed in relation to the carrier generation and the emission processes.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 - x films prepared by thermal plasma flash evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kei; Takamura, Yuzuru; Yamaguchi, Norio; Terashima, Kazuo; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    1997-02-01

    The surface morphology of epitaxial YBa2Cuoverflow="scroll">3O7-x films prepared by thermal plasma flash evaporation was extensively investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Under epitaxial film growth conditions with the deposition rate up to 0.42 μm/min, two-dimensional nucleus growth and spiral growth were observed. The main deposition species in this process was found to be the cluster ranging from 0.3 to 9 nm and the size of the cluster influenced the growth mode strongly. Theoretical analysis based on the two-dimensional critical radius revealed that smaller clusters became weakly bonded nuclei resulting in spiral growth and larger clusters became stable nuclei resulting in two-dimensional nucleus growth, which we named two-dimensional cluster nucleus growth. The clusters generated in the plasma boundary layer undoubtedly involve sufficient energy necessary for crystallization and show quite different characteristics from those of the clusters generated in vacuum by adiabatic expansion process. Hence, this process must be named "hot cluster epitaxy.''

  2. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  3. Characterization of PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Anuj; Alexe, Marin; Ishwarrao Birajdar, Balaji; Vrejoiu, Ionela; Hesse, Dietrich [Max-Planck-Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Epitaxial PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (100) (PST) thin films of thickness 70 nm were deposited on vicinal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) (100) substrates with a layer of SrRuO{sub 3} (SRO) as a bottom electrode by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 823K. Their crystal orientation, topography and microstructure were analysed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The films deposited at temperature higher than 823K showed the presence of pyrochlore phase whereas films grown at 823K were perovskites. The in-plane and out-of-plane epitaxial relationships were studied by {phi} and {theta}-2{theta} scans respectively. AFM revealed a smooth surface with RMS of 1.1nm. Superstructure reflections obtained in the TEM diffraction patterns of the films confirm cation ordering. The films were characterized by using polarization vs electric field (P-E) and switching current vs voltage (I-V) measurements. Polarization of the epitaxial films at zero electric field was 2{mu}C/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Cation ordering with post annealing of the films is still under investigation. This work describes the preparation and characterization of epitaxial films of PST (100) for the first time and indicates PST as a potential candidate for infra-red image sensor applications.

  4. Magneto-transport and thermoelectric properties of epitaxial FeSb{sub 2} thin film on MgO substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, Anh Tuan; Rhim, S. H., E-mail: sonny@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Yooleemi; Nguyen, Van Quang; Cho, Sunglae, E-mail: slcho@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-19

    We report magneto-transport and thermoelectric properties of FeSb{sub 2} thin film epitaxially grown on the MgO substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The film exhibits compressive strain of 1.74% owing to large lattice mismatch, whose physical consequences are nontrivial. Magnetic phase has been changed from diamagnetic in bulk, as evidenced by anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and negative magneto-resistance (MR). The FeSb{sub 2} film is semiconducting without any metallic transition unlike the bulk counterpart. In particular, hysteresis in MR with distinct feature of AHE is evident with coercive field of 500 and 110 Oe for T = 20 and 50 K, respectively. Furthermore, from the Seebeck coefficients and temperature dependence of the resistivity, it is evident that the film is semiconducting with small band gap: 3.76 meV for T < 40 K and 13.48 meV for T > 40 K, respectively, where maximum thermoelectric power factor of 12 μV/cm·K at T = 50 K.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy of germanium nanoclusters and indium gallium nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an important method of growth of thin crystalline films. In this thesis, I study MBE of Ge on Si(100) substrates and InGaN on silicon and sapphire substrates. Formation and evolution of three-dimensional Ge/Si(100) islands of diameters between 10 to 150 nm are first investigated. Three types of Ge clusters are identified ex situ by atomic force microscopy. These are (i) pyramidal islands with four {105} facets, (ii) dome-type islands with steeper facets of {113}, and (iii) very large and strain relaxed "superdome" islands of {112}, {125} and {215} facets. The island size, shape, and spatial distributions are examined as functions of major growth parameters such as substrate temperature, Ge beam flux, and time of annealing. The growth of Ge on Si(100) is divided into different regimes according to the total coverage. In the low and moderate coverage (10 monolayers) regime, formation of pyramidal islands is a kinetically favored process. These pyramids can evolve into larger dome type islands by several kinetic pathways including coarsening and coalescence. By appropriate low temperature annealing, an ensemble of pyramids can reach a local equilibrium state where the islands can have a narrow size distribution and a locally ordered spatial distribution. This can be useful for growth of self-assembled quantum dot devices. At higher coverages, very large superdome-type islands could form and grow at the expense of the nearby small pyramids and domes. However, the superdome island formation can also be suppressed by using high Ge beam fluxes. The mechanisms of the evolution of the Ge islands and the transition of one type of islands to another type of islands in each growth regime are discussed. After I obtain an overall understanding of the growth and evolution of Ge nanoclusters on flat Si(100) surfaces, lateral alignment of Ge/Si(100) islands is explored using pre-patterned Si(100) substrates as the growth templates. The patterns are

  6. Growth mechanism and electronic properties of epitaxial In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ch. Y.; Kirste, L.; Roehlig, C. C.; Koehler, K.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Morales, F. M.; Manuel, J. M.; Garcia, R. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz 11510 (Spain)

    2011-11-01

    In this work, we report on the epitaxial growth of high-quality cubic indium oxide thick films on c-plane sapphire substrates using a two-step growth process. The epitaxial relationship of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated. The (222) plane spacing and lattice parameter of a most strain-relaxed high-quality In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film have been determined to be 292.58 pm and 1013.53 pm, respectively. The electronic properties in dependence of the film thickness are interpreted using a three-region model. The density at the surface and interface totals (3.3{+-}1.5)x10{sup 13}cm{sup -2}, while the background electron density in the bulk was determined to be (2.4{+-}0.5)x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}. Furthermore, post treatments such as irradiation via ultraviolet light and ozone oxidation have been found to influence only the surface layer, while the bulk electronic properties remain unchanged.

  7. Hybrid liquid phase epitaxy processes for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursumovic, A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Tomov, R I [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Huehne, R [Institut fuer Festkoerper-und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); MacManus-Driscoll, J L [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Evetts, J E [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    A number of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) related growth methods have been investigated. These hybrid-LPE processes enable high rate 'liquid assisted' growth of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films without the many disadvantages of classical LPE. Growth occurs by diffusive transport of Y through a thin liquid flux layer. This layer may be pre-deposited onto the substrate by various means including vacuum and non-vacuum techniques, or deposited at the growth temperature. The composition of the liquid layer is maintained during film growth by feeding YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, or the separate components, either from the vapour or by a powder route. Growth rates up to 10 nm s{sup -1} have been demonstrated. Deposition of c-axis oriented epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} is reported on both seeded and non-seeded substrates; the process is tolerant of a high substrate mismatch. Films 1-2 {mu}m thick with T{sub c} {approx} 90K and a critical current density J{sub c}> 2 MA cm{sup -2} have been grown on a range of single crystal substrates as well as on buffered textured metallic tapes. The mechanism of nucleation and growth from a thin liquid layer is described within the general theoretical framework of crystal growth. Particular features of the growth are the short time constant for equilibration of transients in the deposition conditions, the wide range of relative supersaturation spanned by the process, and dominance of interface kinetic effects compared to volume diffusion in the liquid flux.

  8. Charge ordering in reactive sputtered (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) oriented epitaxial Fe3O4 films

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo

    2013-06-01

    Epitaxial Fe3O4 films with (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations fabricated by reactive sputtering present simultaneous magnetic and electrical transitions at 120 and 124 K, respectively. The symmetry decreases from face-centered cubic to monoclinic structure across the Verwey transition. Extra spots with different brightness at different positions appear in selected-area diffraction patterns at 95 K. The extra spots come from the charge ordering of outer-layer electrons of Fe atoms, and should be related to the charge ordering of octahedral B-site Fe atoms. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. δ-Doping of oxygen vacancies dictated by thermodynamics in epitaxial SrTiO3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Homoepitaxial SrTiO3(110 film is grown by molecular beam epitaxy in ultra-high vacuum with oxygen diffusing from substrate as the only oxidant. The resulted oxygen vacancies (VOs are found to be spatially confined within few subsurface layers only, forming a quasi-two-dimensional doped region with a tunable high concentration. Such a δ-function distribution of VOs is essentially determined by the thermodynamics associated with the surface reconstruction, and facilitated by the relatively high growth temperature. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to tune VOs distribution at the atomic scale by controlling the lattice structure of oxide surfaces.

  10. Characterization of stacking faults with emission wavelengths of over 500 nm formed in 4H-SiC epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.; Hayashi, S.; Naijo, T.; Momose, K.; Osawa, H.; Senzaki, J.; Kojima, K.; Kato, T.; Okumura, H.

    2017-10-01

    Three types of unidentified stacking faults with emission wavelengths of over 500 nm were confirmed in 4H-SiC epitaxial films and characterized using grazing incident X-ray topography, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements revealed that the SFs had emissions at around 550, 530, and 520 nm. Characterization indicated that the SFs included one Frank partial dislocation and several Shockley partial dislocations, although the determined stacking sequences of the SFs mainly consisted of the basic units of the 3C-structure. It was clarified that the SFs originated from narrow SFs with the same stacking sequence in the substrates.

  11. Magnetically induced martensite transition in freestanding epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg; Thomas, M.; Niemann, R.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), 152513/1-152513/3 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : epitaxial growth * Ni-Mn-Ga alloys * magnetic epitaxial layers * magnetic transitions * martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152513/1

  12. Metalorganic chemical vapor growth and characterizations of epitaxial magnesium zinc oxide films on R-aluminum oxide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Sriram

    Wide energy bandgap semiconductor materials are of considerable interest for their use in short-wavelength light emitting diodes and lasers. ZnO has a direct energy bandgap of ˜3.3eV at room temperature. Its direct energy bandgap can be extended to ˜4.0eV by alloying it with MgO to form Mg xZn1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33). Such materials are essential for the fabrication of ZnO/MgxZn1-xO heterostructures for energy band engineering. In this work, MgxZn1-x O thin films are epitaxially grown on (011¯2) R-Al2O 3 (sapphire) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A thin ZnO buffer layer of the order of 50A is found to be critical for the growth of single crystal MgxZn1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) films with a wurtzite-type structure. For Mg mole fractions of x > 0.5, the MgxZn1-xO films grow epitaxially with a cubic rocksalt-type structure. The epitaxial relationship between the wurtzite-type MgxZn1-xO films and the R-Al 2O3 substrates is determined to be (112¯0) Mgx Zn1-xO||(011¯2) Al2O3, and [0001] MgxZn1-xO||[01¯11] Al 2O3. The films appear to be dense and have a smooth surface morphology. The x-ray Deltapi(112¯0) rocking curve and Delta2θ(112¯0) full-width half maximum for Mg0.18Zn0.82O film are measured to be 0.275° and 0.175°, respectively, indicating a strong mosaicity and built in strain in the films. In-plane reflections show the lower lattice mismatch along the c-axis of the MgxZn1-xO films on R-Al2O3. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the Mg0.3Zn0.7O/R-Al2O3 interface indicates the region in the film near the interface is crystalline though strained, and the film starts to relax farther away from the interface. The compressive in-plane residual strain in the MgxZn1-x O film, due to Mg incorporation, was calculated using moire fringes near the interface to be on the order of -0.36%. The energy bandgap of MgxZn1-xO films as a function of Mg composition is deduced using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer at room temperature

  13. Zinc sulfide and terbium-doped zinc sulfide films grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, S J; Nam, K S

    1998-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and terbium-doped ZnS (ZnS:Tb) thin films were grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). In the present work, ZnCl sub 2 , H sub 2 S, and tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandionato) terbium (Tb(tmhd) sub 3) were used as the precursors. The dependence of crystallinity and Cl content of ZnS films was investigated on the growth temperature. ZnS and ZnS:Tb films grown at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 .deg. C showed a hexagonal-2H crystalline structure. The crystallinity of ZnS film was greatly enhanced as the temperature increased. At growth temperatures higher than 450.deg.C, the films showed preferred orientation with mainly (002) diffraction peak. The Cl content decreased from approximately 9 to 1 at.% with the increase in growth temperature from 400 to 500 .deg. C. The segregation of Cl near the surface region and the incorporation of O from Tb(tmhd) sub 3 during ALE process were also observed using Auger electron spectroscopy. The ALE-grown ZnS and ZnS:Tb films re...

  14. Magnetic anisotropy and chemical long-range order in epitaxial ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 films

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, M; Köhler, J; Poinsot, R; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C; Tonnerre, J M; Berar, J F; Bucher, E

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of CrPt sub 3 were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on both Al sub 2 O sub 3 (0 0 0 1) and MgO(0 0 1) substrates, either directly by co-deposition of Cr and Pt at high temperatures or after in situ annealing of superlattices [Cr(2 A)/Pt(7 A)]. In situ RHEED observations and X-ray diffraction measurements have allowed us to check the single-crystal quality of CrPt sub 3 films and to determine the degree of L1 sub 2 -type long-range order (LRO). In films co-deposited between 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C a nearly perfect LRO has been observed. As in bulk alloys, such ordering yields a ferrimagnetic order, while the disordered films are non-magnetic. In contrast with the ferromagnetic L1 sub 2 -type ordered CoPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films, the ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with quality factors, K sub u /K sub d , as large as 5 and large coercivities around 450 kA/m. Such anisotropy could be related to the arrangement of Cr atoms, which owing to their large mag...

  15. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2016-07-14

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2•xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2•xH2O, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Thereby paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  16. Advanced Fabrication Method for the Preparation of MOF Thin Films: Liquid-Phase Epitaxy Approach Meets Spin Coating Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-08-10

    Here, we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2·xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2·xH2O, HKUST-1, and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel, and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Therefore, paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  17. Structural and magnetic anisotropy in the epitaxial FeV2O4 (110) spinel thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolan; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Kehan; Liu, Na; Sun, Gaofeng; Zhang, Liuwan

    2015-11-01

    The epitaxial 200-nm-thick FeV2O4(110) films on (110)-oriented SrTiO3, LaAlO3 and MgAl2O4 substrates were fabricated for the first time by pulsed laser deposition, and the structural, magnetic, and magnetoresistance anisotropy were investigated systematically. All the films are monoclinic, whereas its bulk is cubic. Compared to FeV2O4 single crystals, films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4 are strongly compressively strained in [001] direction, while slightly tensily strained along normal [110] and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] directions. In contrast, films on LaAlO3 are only slightly distorted from cubic. The magnetic hard axis is in direction, while the easier axis is along normal [110] direction for films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4, and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] direction for films on LaAlO3. Magnetoresistance anisotropy follows the magnetization. The magnetic anisotropy is dominated by the magnetocrystalline energy, and tuned by the magneto-elastic coupling.

  18. Vibrational properties of epitaxial Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} films as studied by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hao; Pan, Wenwu; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Song, Yuxin, E-mail: songyuxin@mail.sim.ac.cn, E-mail: shumin@chalmers.se; Gong, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Lu, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Shumin, E-mail: songyuxin@mail.sim.ac.cn, E-mail: shumin@chalmers.se [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3}, as one of the phases of the binary Bi–Te system, shares many similarities with Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, which is known as a topological insulator and thermoelectric material. We report the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of 50 nm Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} films on Si substrates prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. Raman spectra of Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} films completely resolve the six predicted Raman-active phonon modes for the first time. Structural features and Raman tensors of Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} films are introduced. According to the wavenumbers and assignments of the six eigenpeaks in the Raman spectra of Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} films, it is found that the Raman-active phonon oscillations in Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} films exhibit the vibrational properties of those in both Bi and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films.

  19. Growth, structure, surface topography and magnetic properties of GdMnO3 multiferroic epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovskii Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial GdMnO3 thin films were grown in various regimes on (001 NdGaO3 and (001 SrTiO3 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray analysis revealed that the films grown at a substrate temperature of 650-900 °C are single phase (GdMnO3 with orthorhombic Pbnm structure. Films grown on NdGaO3 substrates at lower temperature (750 °C reveal two orientations, i.e. GdMnO3(001||NdGaO3(001 and GdMnO3(110||NdGaO3(001. These results are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Films grown on SrTiO3 substrates have two orientations, i.e. GdMnO3(001||SrTiO3(001 and GdMnO3(110||SrTiO3(001, in the whole temperature range in which the phase exists. Using atomic force microscopy the correlation between the topography of the films and their crystallographic structure was studied. The magnetic properties of the films differ from those of bulk samples and revealed spin-glass behavior.

  20. Orientation control and domain structure analysis of {100}-oriented epitaxial ferroelectric orthorhombic HfO{sub 2}-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Kiliha [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Shimizu, Takao [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Sakata, Osami [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahisa; Nakamura, Shogo; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Uchida, Hiroshi [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Funakubo, Hiroshi, E-mail: funakubo.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-04-07

    Orientation control of {100}-oriented epitaxial orthorhombic 0.07YO{sub 1.5}-0.93HfO{sub 2} films grown by pulsed laser deposition was investigated. To achieve in-plane lattice matching, indium tin oxide (ITO) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were selected as underlying layers. We obtained (100)- and (001)/(010)-oriented films on ITO and YSZ, respectively. Ferroelastic domain formation was confirmed for both films by X-ray diffraction using the superlattice diffraction that appeared only for the orthorhombic symmetry. The formation of ferroelastic domains is believed to be induced by the tetragonal–orthorhombic phase transition upon cooling the films after deposition. The present results demonstrate that the orientation of HfO{sub 2}-based ferroelectric films can be controlled in the same manner as that of ferroelectric films composed of conventional perovskite-type material such as Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} and BiFeO{sub 3}.

  1. Orientation-dependent physical properties of layered perovskite La1.3Sr1.7Mn2O7 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Wei; Guo, Bing; Chen, Chang-Le; Luo, Bing-Cheng; Dong, Xiang-Lei; Jin, Ke-Xin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the resistivity and magnetization of orientation-engineered layered perovskite La1.3Sr1.7Mn2O7 epitaxial thin films have been investigated. Epitaxial thin films were deposited on single-crystalline LaAlO3 (LAO) (001), (110) and (111) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that only the (100)-oriented thin film performs insulator behavior, whereas the (110) and (111)-oriented thin films exhibit obvious metal-insulator transition at 70 K and between 85 and 120 K, respectively. Moreover, the same spin freezing temperature and different spin-glass-like transition temperatures have been observed in various oriented films. The observed experimental results were discussed according to the electron-transport mechanism and spin dynamics.

  2. Epitaxial growth of znO nanowires over the ZnO thin films deposited on the Si and sapphire substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Lee, You Jin; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Won Guen; Bae, Young Je; Yoon, Suk Hoon; Han, Gi Bo; Ryu, Si Ok; Lee, Tae Jin

    2008-09-01

    Epitaxial growth of ZnO nanowires was carried out using a modified thermal evaporation method with inexpensive experimental setup. ZnO nanowires were synthesized using ZnO thin films. The ZnO thin films were deposited as a buffer layer on silicon and sapphire using an impinging flow reactor (IFR). The IFR system is a modified version of a chemical bath deposition (CBD). Films can be created at low temperature, without any metallic catalysts. The properties of Zinc Oxide films are dependant upon the type of substrate used. The same deposition process with a different substrates yields two films with different properties. The most critical effect on growth of ZnO nanowires were dependent the properties of the buffer layer deposited on the substrate. It was not the type of substrate used. A cost-efficient method for epitaxial growth of single crystal ZnO nanowires is proposed in this work.

  3. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of strain-relieved epitaxial lead-free KNN-LT-LS ferroelectric thin films on SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2008-05-01

    We report the growth of single-phase (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 thin films on SrRuO3 coated ⟨001⟩ oriented SrTiO3 substrates by using pulsed laser deposition. Films grown at 600°C under low laser fluence exhibit a ⟨001⟩ textured columnar grained nanostructure, which coalesce with increasing deposition temperature, leading to a uniform fully epitaxial highly stoichiometric film at 750°C. However, films deposited at lower temperatures exhibit compositional fluctuations as verified by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial films of 400-600nm thickness have a room temperature relative permittivity of ˜750 and a loss tangent of ˜6% at 1kHz. The room temperature remnant polarization of the films is 4μC /cm2, while the saturation polarization is 7.1μC/cm2 at 24kV/cm and the coercive field is ˜7.3kV/cm. The results indicate that approximately 50% of the bulk permittivity and 20% of bulk spontaneous polarization can be retained in submicron epitaxial KNN-LT-LS thin film, respectively. The conductivity of the films remains to be a challenge as evidenced by the high loss tangent, leakage currents, and broad hysteresis loops.

  4. On the Novel Biaxial Strain Relaxation Mechanism in Epitaxial Composition Graded La1−xSrxMnO3 Thin Film Synthesized by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel method to fabricate composition gradient, epitaxial La1−xSrxMnO3 thin films with the objective to alleviate biaxial film strain. In this work, epitaxial, composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3, and pure LaMnO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films were deposited by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and epitaxy of all films were first studied by symmetric θ–2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD and low angle XRD experiments. Detailed microstructural characterization across the film thickness was conducted by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Four compositional gradient domains were observed in the La1−xSrxMnO3 film ranging from LaMnO3 rich to La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 at the surface. A continuous reduction in the lattice parameter was observed accompanied by a significant reduction in the out-of-plane strain in the film. Fabrication of the composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3 thin film was found to be a powerful method to relieve biaxial strain under critical thickness. Besides, the coexistence of domains with a composition variance is opening up various new possibilities of designing new nanoscale structures with unusual cross coupled properties.

  5. Native defects affecting the Li atom distribution tune the optical emission of ZnO:Li epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R.; Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.

    2014-02-01

    It is found that the oxygen vacancy (VO) defect concentration affecting the separation between individual species in LiZn-Lii complex influences the optical emission property of Li0.06Zn0.94O epitaxial thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The film grown under low oxygen partial pressure (n-type conductivity)/higher partial pressure (resistive-type) has broad emission at ˜2.99 eV/˜2.1 eV and a narrower emission at 3.63 eV/3.56 eV, respectively. First principle based mBJLDA electronic structure calculation suggests that the emission at 2.99 eV is due to the LiZn-Lii pair complex and the emission at 2.1 eV is when the component species are away from each other.

  6. Antimony segregation and n-type doping in Si/Si(111) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurasov, D. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Schmagin, V. B.; Yunin, P. A.; Novikov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The temperature dependence of antimony segregation in Si/Si(111) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy was investigated experimentally. The obtained results were found to be qualitatively similar to the previously reported data for Si(001) case, but rather significant quantitative differences were observed. It was obtained that segregation ratio, which is defined as surface-to-bulk impurity concentration ratio, varies by nearly 5 orders of magnitude in the relatively narrow temperature interval of 500-675 °C for Si(111). This finding allowed to disseminate the previously proposed technique of selective doping of Si(001) to the Si(111) case. Using this technique selectively n-type doped Si films were fabricated which have abrupt boundaries of the antimony concentration profiles. A profile abruptness as low as 1.5 nm/decade was obtained.

  7. Flat epitaxial ferromagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films on buffered Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Coux, P. de [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Warot-Fonrose, B. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Skumryev, V. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain, and Dep. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanchez, F., E-mail: fsanchez@icmab.es [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-30

    Ferromagnetic films of spinel CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been grown epitaxially on Si(001) using CeO{sub 2}/YSZ double buffer layers. The heterostructures were built in a single process by pulsed laser deposition with real-time control by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. YSZ and CeO{sub 2} grow cube-on-cube on Si(001) and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} grows with (111) out-of-plane orientation, presenting four in-plane crystal domains. The interface with the buffer layers is smooth and the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface is atomically flat, with roughness below 0.3 nm. The films are ferromagnetic with saturation magnetization around 300 emu/cm{sup 3}. The properties signal that CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a good candidate for monolithic devices based on ferromagnetic insulating spinels.

  8. Epitaxial growth of wide-band-gap ZnGa2O4 films by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Takayoshi; Niwa, Mifuyu; Mukai, Akira; Nagami, Tomohito; Suyama, Toshihisa; Ohtomo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    ZnGa2O4 films were grown on (100) MgAl2O4 substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition. A growth window for obtaining single spinel phase was revealed by systematic variations of precursor Zn/Ga ratio and growth temperature, where the cation stoichiometry was maintained through sublimation of excess Zn species before crystalized into ZnO. The epitaxial relationship to the substrate was identified to be cube on cube with no rotation domain. The optical properties of the fully relaxed film were characterized by using cathodoluminescence (CL) and absorption spectroscopies. A large Stokes shift was found between the CL peak energy (3.4 eV) and fundamental absorption edge (4.6 eV), reflecting typical property of Ga-based wide-band-gap oxide semiconductors.

  9. Room temperature Ultraviolet B emission from InAlGaN films synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W., E-mail: wei.kong@duke.edu; Jiao, W. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Brown, A. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Roberts, A. T. [Charles Bowden Laboratory, Army Aviation and Missile RD& E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Fournelle, J. [Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Losurdo, M. [CNR-NANOTEC, Istituto di Nanotecnologia, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy); Everitt, H. O. [Charles Bowden Laboratory, Army Aviation and Missile RD& E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Thin films of the wide bandgap quaternary semiconductor In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−x−y)}N with low In (x = 0.01–0.05) and high Al composition (y = 0.40–0.49) were synthesized on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution X-ray diffraction was used to correlate the strain accommodation of the films to composition. Room temperature ultraviolet B (280 nm–320 nm) photoluminescence intensity increased with increasing In composition, while the Stokes shift remained relatively constant. The data suggest a competition between radiative and non-radiative recombination occurs for carriers, respectively, localized at centers produced by In incorporation and at dislocations produced by strain relaxation.

  10. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in chromium nitride thin films grown by rf nitrogen plasma molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khan; Disseler, Steven M.; Ratcliff, William D.; Borchers, Julie A.; Ponce-Pérez, Rodrigo; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Foley, Andrew; Richard, Andrea; Ingram, David C.; Smith, Arthur R.

    2017-09-01

    A magnetostructural phase transition is investigated in single-crystal chromium nitride (CrN) thin films grown by rf plasma molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(001) substrates. While still within the vacuum environment following molecular beam epitaxy growth, in situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, and in situ variable low-temperature reflection high-energy electron diffraction are applied, revealing an atomically smooth and metallic CrN(001) surface, and an in-plane structural transition from 1 ×1 (primitive CrN unit cell) to √{2 }×√{2 }-R 45∘ with a transition temperature of (278 ±3 ) K, respectively. Ex situ temperature-dependent measurements using neutron diffraction are also performed, looking at the structural peaks and likewise revealing a first-order structural transition along the [111] out-of-plane direction, with transition temperatures of (268 ± 3) K. Turning to the magnetic peaks, neutron diffraction confirms a clear magnetic transition from paramagnetic at room temperature to antiferromagnetic at low temperatures with a sharp, first-order phase transition and a Néel temperature of (270 ±2 ) K or (280 ±2 ) K for two different films. In addition to the experimental measurements of structural and magnetic ordering, we also discuss results from first-principles theoretical calculations which explore various possible magnetostructural models.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of c-axis epitaxial and polycrystalline Sr sub 3 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 6 O sub 2 sub 1 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S T; Sun, H P; Pan Xiao Qing; Tan, W S; Liu, Z G; Ming, N B

    2003-01-01

    c-axis epitaxial and polycrystalline Sr sub 3 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 6 O sub 2 sub 1 (SBTi) thin films were fabricated on (001)SrTiO sub 3 (STO) single-crystal substrates and Pt/Ti sub 2 /SiO sub 2 /Si substrates respectively, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structures of the films were systematically characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), including theta-2 theta-scans, rocking curve scans and phi-scans, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The epitaxial orientation relation of the SBTi films on STO is established by selected-area electron diffraction and XRD phi-scans to be (001)SBTi || (001)STO, [11-bar 0]SBTi || [010]STO. Cross-sectional high-resolution TEM studies on the epitaxial SBTi film revealed that SBTi is a single-phase material. A special kind of irrational atomic shift along the [001] direction was observed and is discussed in detail. By using an evanescent microwave probe (EMP), the room-temperature dielectric constant of the epitaxial SBTi film was measured to be 21...

  12. Anisotropic strain relaxation in (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2005-05-01

    We have studied the evolution of anisotropic epitaxial strains in ⟨110⟩-oriented (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 paraelectric (m3m) thin films grown on orthorhombic (mm2) ⟨100⟩-oriented NdGaO3 by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry. All the six independent components of the three-dimensional strain tensor were measured in films with 25-1200-nm thickness, from which the principal stresses and strains were obtained. Pole figure analysis indicated that the epitaxial relations are [001]m3m‖[001]mm2 and [1¯10]m3m‖[010]mm2 in the plane of the film, and [110]m3m‖[100]mm2 along the growth direction. The dislocation system responsible for strain relief along [001] has been determined to be ∣b ∣(001)=3/4∣b∣. Strain relief along the [1¯10] direction, on the other hand, has been determined to be due to a coupled mechanism given by ∣b∣(1¯10)=∣b∣ and ∣b∣(1¯10)=√3 /4∣b∣. Critical thicknesses, as determined from nonlinear regression using the Matthews-Blakeslee equation, for misfit dislocation formation along [001] and [1¯10] direction were found to be 5 and 7 nm, respectively. The residual strain energy density was calculated as ˜2.9×106J/m3 at 25 nm, which was found to relax an order of magnitude by 200 nm. At 200 nm, the linear dislocation density along [001] and [1¯10] are ˜6.5×105 and ˜6×105cm-1, respectively. For films thicker than 600 nm, additional strain relief occurred through surface undulations, indicating that this secondary strain-relief mechanism is a volume effect that sets in upon cooling from the growth temperature.

  13. A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douissard, P.A.; Martin, T.; Chevalier, V.; Rack, A. [European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); Cecilia, A.; Baumbach, T.; Rack, A. [Karlsruhe Inst Technol ANKA, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Couchaud, M. [CEA LETI, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Dupre, K. [FEE GmbH, D-55743 Idar Oberstein, (Germany); Kuhbacher, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat and Energie, D-14109 Berlin, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of high-resolution pixel detectors for hard X-rays is nowadays one of the major criteria which drives the feasibility of imaging experiments and in general the performance of an experimental station for synchrotron-based microtomography and radiography. Here the luminescent screen used for the indirect detection is focused on in order to increase the detective quantum efficiency a novel scintillator based on doped Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (LSO), epitaxially grown as thin film via the liquid phase epitaxy technique. It is shown that, by using adapted growth and doping parameters as well as a dedicated substrate, the scintillation behaviour of a LSO-based thin crystal together with the high stopping power of the material allows for high-performance indirect X-ray detection. In detail, the conversion efficiency, the radioluminescence spectra, the optical absorption spectra under UV/visible-light and the afterglow are investigated. A set-up to study the effect of the thin-film scintillator's temperature on its conversion efficiency is described as well it delivers knowledge which is important when working with higher photon flux densities and the corresponding high heat load on the material. Additionally, X-ray imaging systems based on different diffraction-limited visible-light optics and CCD cameras using among others LSO-based thin film are compared. Finally, the performance of the LSO thin film is illustrated by imaging a honey bee leg, demonstrating the value of efficient high-resolution computed tomography for life sciences. (authors)

  14. Epitaxial growth of 2 inch diameter homogeneous AlN single-crystalline films by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Wenliang; Liu, Zuolian; Li, Guoqiang

    2013-03-01

    2 inch diameter homogeneous AlN films are epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). By optimizing laser rastering and PLD growth conditions, the 2 inch diameter single-crystalline AlN films exhibit excellent thickness uniformity with root-mean-square (RMS) inhomogeneity less than 4.5% and very smooth surface with RMS roughness less than 1.53 nm. There is a maximum of 1.5 nm thick interfacial layer, if there is any, existing between the as-grown AlN and the pre-nitrided sapphire substrate, and the as-grown AlN films are almost fully relaxed only with a 0.26% in-plane compressive strain. The achievement of high-quality large-scale AlN films with uniform thickness and atomically abrupt interface is of great interest for the commercial development of AlN-based devices, particularly acoustic filters where abrupt heterointerfaces with substrates and flat surfaces for AlN films are highly desired.

  15. Damage evolution of ion irradiated defected-fluorite La 2 Zr 2 O 7 epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gigax, Jonathan G.; Shao, Lin; Bowden, Mark E.; Varga, Tamas; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Spurgeon, Steven R.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.

    2017-05-01

    Pyrochlore-structure oxides, A2B2O7, may exhibit remarkable radiation tolerance due to the ease with which they can accommodate disorder by transitioning to a defected fluorite structure. The mechanism of defect formation was explored by evaluating the radiation damage behavior of high quality epitaxial La2Zr2O7 thin films with the defected fluorite structure, irradiated with 1 MeV Zr+ at doses up to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). The level of film damage was evaluated as a function of dose by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channeling geometry (RBS/c) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). At lower doses, the surface of the La2Zr2O7 film amorphized, and the amorphous fraction as a function of dose fit well to a stimulated amorphization model. As the dose increased, the surface amorphization slowed, and amorphization appeared at the interface. Even at a dose of 10 dpa, the core of the film remained crystalline, despite the prediction of amorphization from the model. To inform future ab initio simulations of La2Zr2O7, the bandgap of a thick La2Zr2O7 film was measured to be indirect at 4.96 eV, with a direct transition at 5.60 eV.

  16. Epitaxial Growth of MOF Thin Film for Modifying the Dielectric Layer in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shan-Ci; Fu, Wen-Qiang; Zheng, Qingdong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films are important in the application of sensors and devices. However, the application of MOF thin films in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is still a challenge to date. Here, we first use the MOF thin film prepared by a liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) approach (also called SURMOFs) to modify the SiO 2 dielectric layer in the OFETs. After the semiconductive polymer of PTB7-Th (poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]) was coated on MOF/SiO 2 and two electrodes on the semiconducting film were deposited sequentially, MOF-based OFETs were fabricated successfully. By controlling the LPE cycles of SURMOF HKUST-1 (also named Cu 3 (BTC) 2 , BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), the performance of the HKUST-1/SiO 2 -based OFETs showed high charge mobility and low threshold voltage. This first report on the application of MOF thin film in OFETs will offer an effective approach for designing a new kind of materials for the OFET application.

  17. Study of electronic structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler Alloy Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, S. [Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324007 (India); Dalela, S., E-mail: sdphysics@rediffmail.com [Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324007 (India); Sharma, S.S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer (India); Liu, E.K.; Wang, W.H.; Wu, G.H. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kumar, M. [Department of Physics, Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur-302017 (India); Garg, K.B. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2016-07-25

    This work reports the magnetic and electronic characterization of plane magnetized buried Heusler Co{sub 2}FeAl nano thin films of different thickness by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. . The spectra on both Fe- and Co L{sub 2,3} edges show a pronounced magnetic dichroic signal in remanence, corresponding to a ferromagnetically-aligned moments on Fe and Co atoms conditioning the peculiar characteristics of the Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler compound (a half-metallic ferromagnet). The detailed knowledge of the related magnetic and electronic properties of these samples over a wide range of thickness of films are indispensable for achieving a higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, and thus for spintronics device applications. - Highlights: • Electronic structure and Magnetic Properties of Epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler Films. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). • Fe- and Co L{sub 2,3} edges show a pronounced magnetic dichroic signal in remanence. • Calculated Orbital, Spin and total magnetic moments of Fe and Co for 30 nm Co{sub 2}FeAl thin film. • The total magnetic moment of Fe at L{sub 2,3} edges increases with the thickness of the Co2FeAl films.

  18. Avoiding polar catastrophe in the growth of polarly orientated nickel perovskite thin films by reactive oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H. F.; Liu, Z. T.; Fan, C. C.; Xiang, P.; Zhang, K. L.; Li, M. Y.; Liu, J. S. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yao, Q. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Department of Physics, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, D. W., E-mail: dwshen@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Superconducting Eletronics (CENSE), Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS-Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-08-15

    By means of the state-of-the-art reactive oxide molecular beam epitaxy, we synthesized (001)- and (111)-orientated polar LaNiO{sub 3} thin films. In order to avoid the interfacial reconstructions induced by polar catastrophe, screening metallic Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} and iso-polarity LaAlO{sub 3} substrates were chosen to achieve high-quality (001)-orientated films in a layer-by-layer growth mode. For largely polar (111)-orientated films, we showed that iso-polarity LaAlO{sub 3} (111) substrate was more suitable than Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, ex situ high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize these films. Our results show that special attentions need to be paid to grow high-quality oxide films with polar orientations, which can prompt the explorations of all-oxide electronics and artificial interfacial engineering to pursue intriguing emergent physics like proposed interfacial superconductivity and topological phases in LaNiO{sub 3} based superlattices.

  19. Epitaxial growth of homogeneous single-crystalline AlN films on single-crystalline Cu (1 1 1) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Liu, Zuolian; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Qian, Huirong; Gao, Fangliang; Yang, Hui; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-03-01

    The homogeneous and crack free single-crystalline AlN thin films have been epitaxially grown on single-crystalline Cu (1 1 1) substrates with an in-plane alignment of AlN [11-20]//Cu [1-10] by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology with an integrated laser rastering program. The as-grown AlN films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), polarized light microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals the excellent thickness uniformity of as-grown AlN films on the Cu (1 1 1) substrates with a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity less than 2.6%. AFM and FESEM measurements indicate that very smooth and flat surface AlN films are obtained with a surface RMS roughness of 2.3 nm. The X-ray reflectivity image illustrates that there is a maximum of 1.2 nm thick interfacial layer existing between the as-grown AlN and Cu (1 1 1) substrates and is confirmed by HRTEM measurement, and reciprocal space mapping shows that almost fully relaxed AlN films are achieved only with a compressive strain of 0.48% within ∼321 nm thick films. This work demonstrates a possibility to obtain homogeneous and crack free single-crystalline AlN films on metallic substrates by PLD with optimized laser rastering program, and brings up a broad prospect for the application of acoustic filters that require abrupt hetero-interfaces between the AlN films and the metallic electrodes.

  20. Large area lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of gallium nitride (GaN) thin films on silicon substrates and their characterization. Annual report, 1 March 1998--28 February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.F.; Carlson, E.P.; Gehrke, T.; Linthicum, K.; Smith, T.P.

    1999-03-01

    Gallium nitride films have been grown on 6H-SiC substrates employing a new form of selective lateral epitaxy, namely pendeo-epitaxy. This technique forces regrowth to start exclusively on sidewalls of GaN seed structures. Both discrete pendeo-epitaxial microstructures and coalesced single crystal layers of GaN have been achieved. Analysis by SEM and TEM are used to evaluate the morphology of the resulting GaN films. Process routes leading to GaN pendeo- epitaxial growth using silicon substrates have also been achieved and the preliminary results are discussed.

  1. Substrate effects on the structure and optical properties of epitaxial PbTiO{sub 3} thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, C.M.; Li, Z.; Bai, G.R.; You, H.; Guo, D.; Chang, H.L.M.

    1994-04-01

    Epitaxial PbTiO{sub 3} films were prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on MgO(001), SrTiO{sub 3}(001) and LaAlO{sub 3}(001) surfaces. Four-circle X-ray diffraction and optical waveguiding experiments were performed to characterize the deposited films. The films on all three substrates were single-crystal; however, the domain structure of the films was strongly dependent on the substrate material. Films on MgO and LaAIO{sub 3} substrates showed a large amount of 90{degrees} domain structures, whereas, the degree of twinning was greatly suppressed for films on SrTiO{sub 3}. The refractive indices and optical birefringence of the films were measured as a function of wavelength using the film-prism coupling method. The authors found that for films on LaAIO{sub 3}(001), the ordinary index and for films on MgO(001) both the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices were higher than those of bulk single-crystal PbTiO{sub 3}. For films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001), the ordinary refractive index was very close to that of single crystal PbTiO{sub 3}. They correlate the increased refractive index and the reduced birefringence to the degree of epitaxial strain and twinning in the samples, respectively.

  2. Local polarization switching in epitaxial thin films of ferroelectric (Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Kitanaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the local polarization switching behaviors of epitaxial (Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3 (BNT thin films obtained by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD. Using ozone gas as a deposition atmosphere of PLD, epitaxial growth of BNT films was achieved on SrRuO3/SrTiO3(1 0 0 electrode substrates. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM revealed that BNT grains in the films have a single-domain structure without domain walls. These domain structures and the local polarization switching measured by PFM indicate that the oxidizing atmosphere of ozone gas is considered to suppress the generation of bismuth and oxygen vacancies in the deposited BNT layers. We propose that the PLD method using ozone is effective in obtaining high-quality single-phase BNT films with a less concentration of lattice vacancies.

  3. Formation of HgSe thin films using electrochemical atomic Layer epitaxy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of HgSe using electrochemical atomic-layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) is reported. EC-ALE is the electrochemical analog of ALE, where electrochemical surface-limited reactions referred to as underpotential deposits, generally result...

  4. Unveiling the Mechanism for the Split Hysteresis Loop in Epitaxial Co2Fe1-xMnxAl Full-Heusler Alloy Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tao, X D; Wang, H L; Miao, B F; Sun, L; You, B; Wu, D; Zhang, W; Oepen, H P; Zhao, J H; Ding, H F

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing epitaxial Co2Fe1-xMnxAl full-Heusler alloy films on GaAs (001), we address the controversy over the analysis for the split hysteresis loop which is commonly found in systems consisting of both uniaxial and fourfold anisotropies...

  5. Luminescent and scintillation properties of CsI:Tl films grown by the liquid phase epitaxy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorenko, Yu. [Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials (LOM), Electronics Department of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 107 Gen. Tarnawskogo Str., 70017 Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Voznyak, T.; Turchak, R. [Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials (LOM), Electronics Department of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 107 Gen. Tarnawskogo Str., 70017 Lviv (Ukraine); Fedorov, A. [Institute for Scintillation Materials of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenina Ave., 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Wiesniewski, K.; Grinberg, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics of Gdansk University, 57 Wita Stwoza, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    CsI:Tl films have been crystallized by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method from CsI:Tl (0.3 mol.%) crystalline salt onto CsI substrates. The luminescent and scintillation properties of CsI:Tl films are systematically compared with the corresponding properties of CsI:Tl (0.3 and 0.03%) crystals grown from the melt. The luminescence of CsI:Tl films and CsI:Tl (0.03%) crystals in the bands peaked at 2.52 and 2.22 eV is related to the radiative relaxation from the weak-off and strong-off configurations of excitons localized around Tl{sup +} ions, respectively. Apart from single Tl{sup +} centers, in highly doped CsI:Tl (0.3%) crystals creation of Tl{sup +} dimer centers occurs. These centers form the additional emission bands peaked at 2.42 and 1.98 eV related to the weak-off and strong-off configurations of excitons localized around Tl{sup +} dimer centers. We found that the dominant mechanism of excitation of the strong-off luminescence of localized excitons in CsI:Tl films and crystals is the charge-transfer transition between I{sup -} anions and Tl{sup +} ions in single and dimer centers. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Robert, E-mail: bobsinc@stanford.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, Sang Chul, E-mail: sclee99@stanford.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Shi, Yezhou; Chueh, William C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    We have applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. There are few observable defects apart from the expected mismatch interfacial dislocations and so the films would be expected to have good potential for applications. Under high electron beam dose rate (above about 6000 e{sup -}/Å{sup 2}s) domains of an ordered structure appear and these are interpreted as being created by oxygen vacancy ordering. The ordered structure does not appear at lower lose rates (ca. 2600 e{sup -}/Å{sup 2}s) and can be removed by imaging under 1 mbar oxygen gas in an environmental TEM. EELS confirms that there is both oxygen deficiency and the associated increase in Ce{sup 3+} versus Ce{sup 4+} cations in the ordered domains. In situ high resolution TEM recordings show the formation of the ordered domains as well as atomic migration along the ceria thin film (001) surface. - Highlights: • The local structure and chemistry of ceria can be studied by TEM combined with EELS. • At lower electron, there are no observable changes in the ceria thin films. • At higher dose rates, an ordered phase is created due to oxygen vacancy ordering. • In situ HRTEM shows the oxygen vacancy ordering and the movement of surface atoms.

  7. Persistent semi-metal-like nature of epitaxial perovskite CaIrO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Jeong, Yoon Hee, E-mail: yhj@postech.ac.kr [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-21

    Strong spin-orbit coupled 5d transition metal based ABO{sub 3} oxides, especially iridates, allow tuning parameters in the phase diagram and may demonstrate important functionalities, for example, by means of strain effects and symmetry-breaking, because of the interplay between the Coulomb interactions and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we have epitaxially stabilized high quality thin films of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO{sub 3}. Film on the best lattice-matched substrate shows semi-metal-like characteristics. Intriguingly, imposing tensile or compressive strain on the film by altering the underlying lattice-mismatched substrates still maintains semi-metallicity with minute modification of the effective correlation as tensile (compressive) strain results in tiny increases (decreases) of the electronic bandwidth. In addition, magnetoresistance remains positive with a quadratic field dependence. This persistent semi-metal-like nature of Pv-CaIrO{sub 3} thin films with minute changes in the effective correlation by strain may provide new wisdom into strong spin-orbit coupled 5d based oxide physics.

  8. Brookite TiO2 thin film epitaxially grown on (110) YSZ substrate by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dai-Hong; Kim, Won-Sik; Kim, Sungtae; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2014-08-13

    Epitaxial brookite TiO2 (B-TiO2) film was deposited on (110) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, and its structural, optical, and gas sensing properties were investigated. As-deposited TiO2 film was a pure brookite and (120) oriented. The determined in-plane orientation relationships were [21̅0]B-TiO2//[1̅10]YSZ and [001]B-TiO2 //[001]YSZ. The B-TiO2 film showed ∼70% transmittance and the optical band gap energy was 3.29 eV. The B-TiO2 film-based gas sensor responded to H2 gas even at room temperature and the highest magnitude of the gas response was determined to be ∼150 toward 1000 ppm of H2/air at 150 °C. In addition, B-TiO2 sensor showed a high selectivity for H2 against CO, EtOH, and NH3.

  9. P-type ZnO thin films prepared by plasma molecular beam epitaxy using radical NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.W.; Lu, Y.M.; Shen, D.Z.; Liu, Y.C.; Yan, J.F.; Li, B.H.; Zhang, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.; Fan, X.W. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Shan, C.X. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-05-01

    N-doped p-type ZnO thin films were grown by plasma molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE) on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) using radical NO as oxygen source and nitrogen dopant. The reproducible ZnO thin films have maximum net hole concentration (N{sub A}-N{sub D}) of 1.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and minimum resistivity of 9.36 {omega} cm. The influence of N incorporation on the quality of the ZnO thin films was studied using X-ray diffraction and absorption spectra. The photoluminescence spectra at 77 K of p-type ZnO thin films are dominated by the emission from donor-acceptor pair recombination. The formation mechanism of p-type ZnO is explained by the optical emission spectra of radical N{sub 2} and radical NO. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. High Crystallinity CuScO2 Delafossite Films Exhibiting Ultraviolet Photoluminescence Grown by Vapor-Liquid-Solid Tri-phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yuya; Makino, Takayuki; Hiraga, Hiroki; Chen, Chunlin; Tsukimoto, Susumu; Ueno, Kazunori; Kozuka, Yusuke; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    We have grown direct wide-bandgap CuScO2 thin films on MgAl2O4(111) substrates by tri-phase epitaxy employing molten Bi-O flux on the growth surface. The full width at half maximum of (0006) rocking curve is as narrow as 0.005 degrees, an order of magnitude narrower than those grown by conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Transmission electron microscopy confirms the scarcity of defect structures or precipitates, which are of high density in PLD films. The films exhibit sharp near-bandedge photoluminescence at 3.3 eV, which is absent in PLD films.

  11. Microstructure of epitaxial thin films of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni{sub 2}MnGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, Tobias

    2011-12-09

    This work is concerned with the preparation and detailed characterization of epitaxial thin films of the Heusler compound Ni{sub 2}MnGa. This multiferroic compound is of both technological and scientific interest due to the outstanding magnetic shape memory (MSM) behavior. Huge magnetic-field-induced strains up to 10 % have been observed for single crystals close to a Ni{sub 2}MnGa composition. The effect is based on a redistribution of crystallographic twin variants of tetragonal or orthorhombic symmetry. Under the driving force of the external magnetic field twin boundaries can move through the crystal, which largely affects the macroscopic shape. The unique combination of large reversible strain, high switching frequency and high work output makes the alloy a promising actuator material. Since the MSM effect results from an intrinsic mechanism, MSM devices possess great potential for implementation in microsystems, e.g. microfluidics. So far significant strains, in response to an external magnetic field, have been observed for bulk single crystals and foams solely. In order to take advantage of the effect in applications concepts for miniaturization are needed. The rather direct approach, based on epitaxial thin films, is explored in the course of this work. This involves sample preparation under optimized deposition parameters and fabrication of freestanding single-crystalline films. Different methods to achieve freestanding microstructures such as bridges and cantilevers are presented. The complex crystal structure is extensively studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Thus, the different crystallographic twin variants that are of great importance for the MSM effect are identified. In combination with microscopy the twinning architecture for films of different crystallographic orientation is clarified. Intrinsic blocking effects in samples of (100) orientation are explained on basis of the variant configuration. In contrast, a promising twinning microstructure

  12. Control of conductivity type in undoped ZnO thin films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Du, G. T.; Yang, S. R.; Li, Z. T.; Zhao, B. J.; Yang, X. T.; Yang, T. P.; Zhang, Y. T.; Liu, D. L.

    2004-06-01

    The properties of the ZnO thin films prepared by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy under various oxygen partial pressures were thoroughly studied. It was found that the conduction type in undoped ZnO epilayers could be controlled by adjusting the family VI precursor, oxygen partial pressure during growth. The films were characteristic of n-type conductivity under oxygen partial pressure lower than 45 Pa. With the increase of oxygen content, the crystallinity of the ZnO thin films was degraded to polycrystalline with additional (10-12) orientation and the intrinsic p-type ZnO was produced as the oxygen partial pressure was larger than 55 Pa. The hole concentration and mobility could reach to 1.59×1016 cm-3 and 9.23 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the resistivity was 42.7 Ω cm. The near-band-edge emission and the deep level emission in photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature were influenced strongly by the oxygen partial pressure. Temperature-dependent PL spectra in n-type ZnO films showed a dominant neutral-donor bound exciton emission, while p-ZnO was dominated by neutral-acceptor bound exciton emission. Both peaks increased in intensity with the decrease of the temperature and shifted to the short-wavelength side. The band that originated from zinc vacancies emerged at a temperature lower than 155 K only in the p-type films. The origin of intrinsic p-type conductivity in ZnO thin films might be related to zinc vacancy.

  13. Temperature dependence of exciton peak energies in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pässler, R.; Griebl, E.; Riepl, H.; Lautner, G.; Bauer, S.; Preis, H.; Gebhardt, W.; Buda, B.; As, D. J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.; Papagelis, K.; Ves, S.

    1999-10-01

    High-quality ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe epitaxial films were grown on (001)-GaAs-substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The 1s-exciton peak energy positions have been determined by absorption measurements from 2 K up to about room temperature. For ZnS and ZnSe additional high-temperature 1s-exciton energy data were obtained by reflectance measurements performed from 300 up to about 550 K. These complete E1s(T) data sets are fitted using a recently developed analytical model. The high-temperature slopes of the individual E1s(T) curves and the effective phonon temperatures of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe are found to scale almost linearly with the corresponding zero-temperature energy gaps and the Debye temperatures, respectively. Various ad hoc formulas of Varshni type, which have been invoked in recent articles for numerical simulations of restricted E1s(T) data sets for cubic ZnS, are discussed.

  14. Measuring the dielectric and optical response of millimeter-scale amorphous and hexagonal boron nitride films grown on epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosi, Albert F.; Hill, Heather M.; Glavin, Nicholas R.; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J.; Yang, Yanfei; Boosalis, Alexander G.; Hu, Jiuning; Rice, Anthony; Allerman, Andrew A.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Hacker, Christina A.; Elmquist, Randolph E.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Newell, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Monolayer epitaxial graphene (EG), grown on the Si face of SiC, is an advantageous material for a variety of electronic and optical applications. EG forms as a single crystal over millimeter-scale areas and consequently, the large scale single crystal can be utilized as a template for growth of other materials. In this work, we present the use of EG as a template to form millimeter-scale amorphous and hexagonal boron nitride (a-BN and h-BN) films. The a-BN is formed with pulsed laser deposition and the h-BN is grown with triethylboron (TEB) and NH3 precursors, making it the first metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of this growth type performed on epitaxial graphene. A variety of optical and non-optical characterization methods are used to determine the optical absorption and dielectric functions of the EG, a-BN, and h-BN within the energy range of 1 eV–8.5 eV. Furthermore, we report the first ellipsometric observation of high-energy resonant excitons in EG from the 4H polytype of SiC and an analysis on the interactions within the EG and h-BN heterostructure.

  15. SnO2 epitaxial films with varying thickness on c-sapphire: Structure evolution and optical band gap modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Xu, Maji; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Qingfeng; Lu, Yinmei; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Ming; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; He, Yunbin

    2017-11-01

    A series of a-plane SnO2 films with thickness between 2.5 nm and 1436 nm were grown epitaxially on c-sapphire by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to allow a detailed probe into the structure evolution and optical band gap modulation of SnO2 with growing thickness. All films exhibit excellent out-of-plane ordering (lowest (200) rocking-curve half width ∼0.01°) with an orientation of SnO2(100) || Al2O3(0001), while three equivalent domains that are rotated by 120° with one another coexist in-plane with SnO2[010] || Al2O3 [11-20]. Initially the SnO2(100) film assumes a two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode with atomically smooth surface (minimum root-mean-square roughness of 0.183 nm), and endures compressive strain along both c and a axes as well as mild tensile strain along the b-axis. With increasing thickness, transition from the 2D to 3D island growth mode takes place, leading to formation of various defects to allow relief of the stress and thus relaxation of the film towards bulk SnO2. More interestingly, with increasing thickness from nm to μm, the SnO2 films present a non-monotonic V-shaped variation in the optical band gap energy. While the band gap of SnO2 films thinner than 6.1 nm increases rapidly with decreasing film thickness due to the quantum size effect, the band gap of thicker SnO2 films broadens almost linearly with increasing film thickness up to 374 nm, as a result of the strain effect. The present work sheds light on future design of SnO2 films with desired band gap for particular applications by thickness control and strain engineering.

  16. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-An Chen; Cheng-Huang Kuo; Li-Chuan Chang; Ji-Pu Wu

    2014-01-01

    GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2) and (1 0 2) peaks decreased from 485 ar...

  17. X-ray diffraction peak profiles from threading dislocations in GaN epitaxial films

    OpenAIRE

    Kaganer, V M; Brandt, O.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K. H.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the lineshape of x-ray diffraction profiles of GaN epitaxial layers with large densities of randomly distributed threading dislocations. The peaks are Gaussian only in the central, most intense part of the peak, while the tails obey a power law. The $q^{-3}$ decay typical for random dislocations is observed in double-crystal rocking curves. The entire profile is well fitted by a restricted random dislocation distribution. The densities of both edge and screw threading dislocations ...

  18. The growth and the electrical properties of epitaxial CrSi sub 2 films prepared on Si(111) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K H; Lee, J J; Choi, C K; Lee, J Y; Lee, Y P

    1998-01-01

    About a 290-A-thick CrSi sub 2 film was epitaxially grown on a Si(111) substrate by Cr deposition on a Si(111)-7x7 substrate at approx 450 .deg. C followed by in suit annealing at approx 1000 .deg . C for 10 min. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the CrSi sub 2 (001) plane grew parallel to the Si(111) plane with a CrSi sub 2 llSi matching face relationship. CrSi sub 2 is a p-type degenerate semiconductor. The electrical resistivity at room temperature was approx 5 x approx 10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA cm, and the energy band gap deduced from the temperature dependence of resistivity was approx 0.3 eV.

  19. Strong magnetorefractive effect in epitaxial La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovský, D.; Herranz, G.; Caicedo, J. M.; Infante, I. C.; Sánchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2010-05-01

    We report here on the magneto-optical characterization of epitaxial La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3 thin films. We observe that the magnetic field dependence of the magneto-optical signal measured in transverse Kerr geometry can be decomposed into even and odd contributions which evolve differently with the temperature. We demonstrate that whereas the odd component is proportional to the magnetization, the even contribution is related to the magnetorefractive effect, which is caused by the changes of the refractive index and optical conductivity with the magnetic field. This phenomenon, previously reported only at infrared wavelengths in some spin valves and granular systems, is shown here to be very relevant at visible frequencies for the colossal magnetoresistance manganites, thus allowing simultaneous optical characterization of the magnetic and magnetotransport properties. We argue that these characteristics result from inherent transport properties of these strongly correlated ferromagnetic oxides.

  20. VO2 Thermochromic Films on Quartz Glass Substrate Grown by RF-Plasma-Assisted Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE. The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature (TMIT deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry. This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO2-based smart windows.

  1. Effect of band filling on anomalous Hall conductivity and magneto-crystalline anisotropy in NiFe epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anomalous Hall effect (AHE and magneto-crystalline anisotropy (MCA are investigated in epitaxial NixFe1−x thin films grown on MgO (001 substrates. The scattering independent term b of anomalous Hall conductivity shows obvious correlation with cubic magneto-crystalline anisotropy K1. When nickel content x decreasing, both b and K1 vary continuously from negative to positive, changing sign at about x = 0.85. Ab initio calculations indicate NixFe1−x has more abundant band structures than pure Ni due to the tuning of valence electrons (band fillings, resulting in the increased b and K1. This remarkable correlation between b and K1 can be attributed to the effect of band filling near the Fermi surface.

  2. Magnetic surface domain imaging of uncapped epitaxial FeRh(001 thin films across the temperature-induced metamagnetic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface magnetic domain structure of uncapped epitaxial FeRh/MgO(001 thin films was imaged by in-situ scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA at various temperatures between 122 and 450 K. This temperature range covers the temperature-driven antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in the body of the films that was observed in-situ by means of the more depth-sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect. The SEMPA images confirm that the interfacial ferromagnetism coexisting with the antiferromagnetic phase inside the film is an intrinsic property of the FeRh(001 surface. Furthermore, the SEMPA data display a reduction of the in-plane magnetization occuring well above the phase transition temperature which, thus, is not related to the volume expansion at the phase transition. This observation is interpreted as a spin reorientation of the surface magnetization for which we propose a possible mechanism based on temperature-dependent tetragonal distortion due to different thermal expansion coefficients of MgO and FeRh.

  3. Magnetic and spin-dependent transport properties of reactive sputtered epitaxial Ti 1-xCr xN films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaofei

    2012-05-01

    Reactive-sputtered epitaxial Ti 1-xCr xN films are ferromagnetic in the range of 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 due to the Cr-N-Cr double-exchange interaction below the Curie temperature (T C). The T C first increases, then decreases as x increases, and a maximum of 120 K appears at x = 0.47. All of the films are metallic with a transition near T C. A resistivity minimum ρ min is observed below 60 K in the films with 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 due to the effects of the weak localization and electron-electron interaction. The negative magnetoresistance (MR) is caused by the double-exchange interaction below T C and the weak localization can also contribute to MR below T min where ρ min appears. The x-dependent electron carrier densities reveal that the ferromagnetism is not from the carrier-mediated mechanism. The anomalous Hall resistivity follows the relation of ρxyA∝ρxx2, which is from the side-jump mechanism. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth of NaCl on thin epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100) studied by SPA-LEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the growth of NaCl on thin (100)-oriented films of KCl by spot profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The underlying question of this investigation was how the system accommodates to the misfit of - 10% between the NaCl and KCl lattices. The KCl films (3 atomic layers thick) were epitaxially grown on a Ag(100) single crystal. We studied the heteroepitaxial growth of NaCl on KCl at 300 K and at 500 K, respectively. At 300 K, the first NaCl monolayer (ML) grows pseudomorphically on the KCl film. From the second layer onward, the NaCl lattice relaxes. The NaCl multilayers roughen, and a small rotational disorder (± 4°) of the NaCl domains is observed. The roughening results from the formation of multilayer islands of limited lateral size due to the misfit to the pseudomorphic first NaCl layer. At a growth temperature of 500 K, no pseudomorphic NaCl layer forms, instead relaxed multilayer island growth of NaCl is observed from the first layer onward. Similarly to the growth at 300 K, we find NaCl multilayer islands of limited lateral size. For both temperatures, we explain this growth behavior by the misfit that makes the adsorption sites at the island edges of the first relaxed NaCl layer less favorable for larger islands, promoting nucleation of multilayer islands.

  5. Magnetic surface domain imaging of uncapped epitaxial FeRh(001) thin films across the temperature-induced metamagnetic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianzhong; Matthes, Frank; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface magnetic domain structure of uncapped epitaxial FeRh/MgO(001) thin films was imaged by in-situ scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) at various temperatures between 122 and 450 K. This temperature range covers the temperature-driven antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in the body of the films that was observed in-situ by means of the more depth-sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect. The SEMPA images confirm that the interfacial ferromagnetism coexisting with the antiferromagnetic phase inside the film is an intrinsic property of the FeRh(001) surface. Furthermore, the SEMPA data display a reduction of the in-plane magnetization occuring well above the phase transition temperature which, thus, is not related to the volume expansion at the phase transition. This observation is interpreted as a spin reorientation of the surface magnetization for which we propose a possible mechanism based on temperature-dependent tetragonal distortion due to different thermal expansion coefficients of MgO and FeRh.

  6. Hydrogen absorption in epitaxial Nb-films. A STM-study; Wasserstoffabsorption in epitaktischen Niobschichten. Eine STM-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerthemann, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this work the phase transition of the system Niobium Hydrogen in thin films was investigated. The epitaxial Niobium films were fabricated using ion sputtering on sapphire substrates. The changes due to the hydrogen loading were observed with the scanning tunnel microscope (STM). With this method it is possible to detect the changes in the nanometer scale. With help of theoretical models it was possible to establish volume changes through the measured surface data. This is possible due to the linear relationship between hydrogen concentration and volume expansion. Comparisons between experimental data and calculations, which were done using the 'finite element method', allows to establish that the hydride precipitates are of cylindrical form. Thereafter the time continuously measurements of nuclei formation and precipitations growth was investigated. The growth is described through a 'Johnson-Mehl-Avrami' kinetic. Whereas coherent precipitations at first stage were observed, afterwards at higher Hydrogen concentration these transformed to incoherent. This coherent - incoherent transition occur at precipitation sizes which shows a film thickness dependency. (orig.)

  7. Tuning of thermally induced first-order semiconductor-to-metal transition in pulsed laser deposited VO2 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Makhes K.; Pradhan, Dhiren K.; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium oxide (VO2) thin films have drawn significant research and development interest in recent years because of their intriguing physical origin and wide range of functionalities useful for many potential applications, including infrared imaging, smart windows, and energy and information technologies. However, the growth of highly epitaxial films of VO2, with a sharp and distinct controllable transition, has remained a challenge. Here, we report the structural and electronic properties of high quality and reproducible epitaxial thin films of VO2, grown on c-axis oriented sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition at different deposition pressures and temperatures, followed by various annealing schedules. Our results demonstrate that the annealing of epitaxial VO2 films significantly enhances the Semiconductor to Metal Transition (SMT) to that of bulk VO2 transition. The effect of oxygen partial pressure during the growth of VO2 films creates a significant modulation of the SMT from around room temperature to as high as the theoretical value of 68 °C. We obtained a bulk order transition ≥104 while reducing the transition temperature close to 60 °C, which is comparatively less than the theoretical value of 68 °C, demonstrating a clear and drastic improvement in the SMT switching characteristics. The results reported here will open the door to fundamental studies of VO2, along with tuning of the transition temperatures for potential applications for multifunctional devices.

  8. Upconversion photoluminescence of epitaxial Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang, E-mail: zhangy_acd@hotmail.com [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kämpfe, Thomas [Institut für Angewandte Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bai, Gongxun [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Mietschke, Michael; Yuan, Feifei; Zopf, Michael [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Abel, Stefan [IBM Research GmbH, Saümerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Eng, Lukas M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hühne, Ruben [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Fompeyrine, Jean [IBM Research GmbH, Saümerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Ding, Fei, E-mail: f.ding@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer strasse 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-05-31

    Thin films of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT:Yb/Er) have been epitaxially grown on the SrTiO{sub 3} buffered Si wafer by pulsed laser deposition. Strong upconversion photoluminescence was observed in the PZT:Yb/Er thin film. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, polar domains in the PZT:Yb/Er film can be reversibly switched with a phase change of 180°. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop shape with a well-saturated response was observed. The epitaxially grown lanthanide-doped PZT on silicon opens up a promising route to the integration of luminescent functional oxides on the silicon platform. - Highlights: • Epitaxial growth of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films on SrTiO{sub 3} buffered silicon • Upconversion emissions were obtained from the lanthanide ion doped thin films. • Saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed. • Polar domains were switched by PFM with a phase change of 180°.

  9. Realization of Cu-Doped p-Type ZnO Thin Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, Mohammad; Bashar, Sunayna B; Morshed, Muhammad M; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-04-29

    Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films, and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54 × 10(18) cm(-3), a low resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm, and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films, and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and absorption spectroscopies are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO.

  10. Epitaxial growth of solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-delta films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobel, OF; Du, [No Value; Hibma, T; von Lampe, [No Value; Zygalsky, F; Steiner, U

    2004-01-01

    The solution deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-delta (Y123) high temperature superconducting thin films was studied. The films were prepared from a polymer-containing precursor onto SrTiO3 ( 001) and LaAlO3 ( 001) substrates and mineralized at high temperatures. The process depended on details of the film

  11. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, R., E-mail: romain.cariou@polytechnique.edu [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); III-V lab a joint laboratory between Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs France, Thales Research and Technology and CEA-LETI, route de Nozay, 91460, Marcoussis, France. (France); Ruggeri, R. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); CNR-IMM, strada VIII n°5, zona industriale, 95121, Catania (Italy); Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Mannino, Giovanni [CNR-IMM, strada VIII n°5, zona industriale, 95121, Catania (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  12. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100 substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cariou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100 c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100 c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD values as low as 106 cm−2 are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  13. Epitaxy physical principles and technical implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Marian A; Sitter, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Epitaxy provides readers with a comprehensive treatment of the modern models and modifications of epitaxy, together with the relevant experimental and technological framework. This advanced textbook describes all important aspects of the epitaxial growth processes of solid films on crystalline substrates, including a section on heteroepitaxy. It covers and discusses in details the most important epitaxial growth techniques, which are currently widely used in basic research as well as in manufacturing processes of devices, namely solid-phase epitaxy, liquid-phase epitaxy, vapor-phase epitaxy, including metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and molecular-beam epitaxy. Epitaxy’s coverage of science and texhnology thin-film is intended to fill the need for a comprehensive reference and text examining the variety of problems related to the physical foundations and technical implementation of epitaxial crystallization. It is intended for undergraduate students, PhD students, research scientists, lecturers and practic...

  14. Preparation of Si sub 1 sub - sub x sub - sub y Ge sub x C sub y semiconductor films on Si by ion implantation and solid phase epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Xue Qin; Zhen Cong Mian; Zhang Jing; Yang Yi; Guo Yong

    2002-01-01

    Si sub 1 sub - sub x sub - sub y Ge sub x C sub y ternary alloy semiconductor films were prepared on Si(100) substrates by C ion implanting SiGe films and subsequent solid phase epitaxy (SPE). Two-step annealing technique was employed in the SPE processing. The properties of the alloy films were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. It is shown that C atoms are located at substitutional sites and the incorporation of C relieves the compressive strain in the SiGe layer

  15. Large anisotropy in colossal magnetoresistance of charge orbital ordered epitaxial Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Sun, J.R.; Zhao, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the structure and magnetotransport properties of Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (SCMO) films epitaxially grown on (011)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates, which exhibited clear charge/orbital ordering transition. A significant anisotropy of ~1000 in the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect was observed...... in the films with a thickness between 50 and 80 nm, which was distinctly different from the basically isotropic CMR effect in bulk SCMO. The large anisotropy in the CMR can be ascribed to the intrinsic asymmetric strain in the film, which plays an important role in tuning the spin–orbit coupling in manganite...

  16. Strain Influence on the Oxygen Electrocatalysis of the (100)-Oriented Epitaxial La 2 NiO 4+δ Thin Films at Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Dongkyu

    2013-09-19

    Ruddlesden-Popper materials such as La2NiO4+δ (LNO) have high activities for surface oxygen exchange kinetics promising for solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Here we report the synthesis of the (100)tetragonal-oriented epitaxial LNO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The surface oxygen exchange kinetics determined from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were found to increase with decreasing film thickness from 390 to 14 nm. No significant change of the surface chemistry with different film thicknesses was observed using ex situ auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Increasing volumetric strains in the LNO films at elevated temperatures determined from in situ high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) were correlated with increasing surface exchange kinetics and decreasing film thickness. Volumetric strains may alter the formation energy of interstitial oxygen and influence on the surface oxygen exchange kinetics of the LNO films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Misfit strain dependence of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of clamped (001) epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Dekkers, Matthijn; Houwman, Evert; Steenwelle, Ruud; Wan, Xin; Roelofs, Andreas; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Rijnders, Guus

    2011-12-01

    A study on the effects of the residual strain in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is presented. Epitaxial (001)-oriented PZT thin film capacitors are sandwiched between SrRuO3 electrodes. The thin film stacks are grown on different substrate-buffer-layer combinations by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive or tensile strain caused by the difference in thermal expansion of the PZT film and substrate influences the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. All the PZT stacks show ferroelectric and piezoelectric behavior that is consistent with the theoretical model for strained thin films in the ferroelectric r-phase. We conclude that clamped (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films strained by the substrate always show rotation of the polarization vector.

  18. Epitaxial growth and optical transitions of cubic GaN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, D.; Hankeln, M.; As, D. J.; Lischka, K.; Litz, T.; Waag, A.; Buhrow, T.; Henneberger, F.

    1996-09-01

    Single-phase cubic GaN layers are grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. The temperature dependence of the surface reconstruction is elaborated. The structural stability of the cubic growth in dependence of the growth stoichiometry is studied by RHEED measurements and numerical simulations of the experimental RHEED patterns. Growth oscillations on cubic GaN are recorded at higher substrate temperatures and nearly stoichiometric adatom coverage. Photoluminescence reveals the dominant optical transitions of cubic GaN and, by applying an external magnetic field, their characteristic g factors are determined.

  19. An insight into the epitaxial nanostructures of NiO and CeO{sub 2} thin film dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Nigro, Raffaella, E-mail: raffaella.lonigro@imm.cnr.it [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – (IMM-CNR), Strada VIII 5, 95121 Catania (Italy); Fisichella, Gabriele [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – (IMM-CNR), Strada VIII 5, 95121 Catania (Italy); Battiato, Sergio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, and INSTM udr Catania, viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Greco, Giuseppe; Fiorenza, Patrick; Roccaforte, Fabrizio [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – (IMM-CNR), Strada VIII 5, 95121 Catania (Italy); Malandrino, Graziella [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, and INSTM udr Catania, viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Nickel oxide and cerium oxide thin films have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Thin and epitaxial layers have been already obtained at low temperature (500 °C). Despite the two oxides possess the same crystal structure (face cubic centered compounds), different structural relationships have been observed with respect to the substrate. In particular, nickel oxide films were epitaxially grown along the <111> direction, while cerium oxide thin films showed <111> and <100> preferential orientations. These structural relationships have been justified by geometric and/or kinetics factors. In both cases, the epitaxial growth has been obtained at low temperature by the implementation of two second generation metal precursors, namely the nickel 2-thenoyl-trifluoroacetonate adduct with the tetramethylethylendiamine and cerium 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetlyacetonate adduct with bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether. Electrical characterization demonstrated that these films can be very promising as gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN transistors technology. In fact, the two oxide films showed really interesting electric properties such as dielectric constants (ε{sub NiO} = 11.7 and ε{sub CeO2} = 26) close to the bulk values. Finally, it is noteworthy that among the widely used physical deposition methods, in this paper a chemical based deposition technique has been addressed for the epitaxial growth at low temperature of oxide thin films to be implemented in microelectronics applications. - Highlights: • NiO and CeO{sub 2} films were grown as gate dielectric on GaN microelectronics devices. • <111>Epitaxial NiO growth was obtained at low temperature by MOCVD on GaN. • Oriented <111> and <100> CeO{sub 2} films were grown at low temperature by MOCVD on GaN. • Different orientations were explained by geometrical factors and theoretical models. • NiO and CeO{sub 2} electrical properties shown promising gate dielectric behaviours.

  20. Study of the optical absorption and photoluminescence in (Pb,Gd)3(Al,Ga)5O12: Ce epitaxial films grown from Pb-containing melt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil’ev, D. A.; Spassky, D. A.; Omelkov, S. I.; Vasil’eva, N. V.; Khakhalin, A. V.; Plotnichenko, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of cerium-activated (Pb,Gd)3(Al,Ga)5O12 epitaxial films are studied. The films are grown on single-crystal (111)-oriented Gd3Ga5O12 substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy from supercooled PbO – B2O3 melt solutions at different concentrations of gadolinium, cerium, and aluminium oxides in the charge. The photoluminescence band of Ce3+ ions is shown to peak at 532 nm. The highest cathodoluminescence yield of about 51500 photons MeV‑1 at a decay time of the slow component of 61.0 ns (light yield fraction 68%) is found for the Pb0.01Ce0.03Gd2.96Al3.14Ga1.86O12 film, grown from melt solution with gadolinium oxide, cerium oxide, and aluminium oxide concentrations of 0.4, 0.2, and 4.5 mol % in the charge, respectively. Epitaxial films with these spectroscopic characteristics are promising for application in scintillation screens.

  1. Atom probe tomography study on Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} hetero-epitaxial film on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji, E-mail: ejkamiyama@aol.com [Technology, GlobalWafers Japan Corp. Ltd., 6-861-5 Higashiko, Seiro, Niigata 957-0197 (Japan); Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan); Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan); Terasawa, Kengo; Yamaha, Takashi; Nakatsuka, Osamu [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Izunome, Koji; Kashima, Kazuhiko [Technology, GlobalWafers Japan Corp. Ltd., 6-861-5 Higashiko, Seiro, Niigata 957-0197 (Japan); Uchida, Hiroshi [Physical Analysis Technology Center, Toshiba Nanoanalysis Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the incorporation of C atoms into a ternary alloy Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} epitaxial film on Ge substrates on a sub-nanometer scale by using atom probe tomography. Periodic atom distributions from individual (111) atomic planes were observed both in the Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} film and at the Ge substrates. Sn/C atoms had non-uniform distributions in the film. They also demonstrated a clear positive correlation in their distributions. Substitutional C atoms were only incorporated into the film when an Sn atom beam was applied onto the substrates under film growth conditions. - Highlights: • Incorporation of C atoms into epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} film was studied. • Individual (111) atomic planes were observed by atom probe tomography. • Sn/C atoms had non-uniform distributions in the film. • Clear positive correlation in Sn/C atoms distributions was obtained.

  2. Preparation of epitaxial YBa 2Cu 3O 7- y films on CeO 2-buffered yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates by fluorine-free metalorganic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Iwao; Sohma, Mitsugu; Kondo, Wakichi; Kamiya, Kunio; Kumagai, Toshiya; Manabe, Takaaki

    2007-07-01

    Epitaxial YBa 2Cu 3O 7- y (YBCO) films of 120-550 nm thickness have been prepared by fluorine-free metalorganic deposition using a metal acetylacetonate-based coating solution on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates with an evaporated CeO 2 buffer layer. The YBCO films were highly (0 0 1)-oriented by X-ray diffraction θ-2 θ scanning and ϕ scanning. The YBCO films 120-400 nm in thickness demonstrated high critical current densities ( Jc) with an average in excess of 3 MA/cm 2 at 77 K using an inductive method. In particular, a 210-nm-thick film showed a Jc of 4.5 MA/cm 2. These excellent properties are attributed to the high crystallinity, small in-plane fluctuation due to high epitaxy and to the microstructure free from grain boundaries in the YBCO films. Further increase of film thickness increased the fraction of irregularities, i.e., precipitates and micropores, in the film surfaces, resulting in lower Jc values.

  3. Atomic-scale epitaxial aluminum film on GaAs substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yen-Ting; Lo, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Chu-Chun; Chen, Peng-Yu; Wu, Jenq-Shinn; Liang, Chi-Te; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2017-07-01

    Atomic-scale metal films exhibit intriguing size-dependent film stability, electrical conductivity, superconductivity, and chemical reactivity. With advancing methods for preparing ultra-thin and atomically smooth metal films, clear evidences of the quantum size effect have been experimentally collected in the past two decades. However, with the problems of small-area fabrication, film oxidation in air, and highly-sensitive interfaces between the metal, substrate, and capping layer, the uses of the quantized metallic films for further ex-situ investigations and applications have been seriously limited. To this end, we develop a large-area fabrication method for continuous atomic-scale aluminum film. The self-limited oxidation of aluminum protects and quantizes the metallic film and enables ex-situ characterizations and device processing in air. Structure analysis and electrical measurements on the prepared films imply the quantum size effect in the atomic-scale aluminum film. Our work opens the way for further physics studies and device applications using the quantized electronic states in metals.

  4. Atomic-scale epitaxial aluminum film on GaAs substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic-scale metal films exhibit intriguing size-dependent film stability, electrical conductivity, superconductivity, and chemical reactivity. With advancing methods for preparing ultra-thin and atomically smooth metal films, clear evidences of the quantum size effect have been experimentally collected in the past two decades. However, with the problems of small-area fabrication, film oxidation in air, and highly-sensitive interfaces between the metal, substrate, and capping layer, the uses of the quantized metallic films for further ex-situ investigations and applications have been seriously limited. To this end, we develop a large-area fabrication method for continuous atomic-scale aluminum film. The self-limited oxidation of aluminum protects and quantizes the metallic film and enables ex-situ characterizations and device processing in air. Structure analysis and electrical measurements on the prepared films imply the quantum size effect in the atomic-scale aluminum film. Our work opens the way for further physics studies and device applications using the quantized electronic states in metals.

  5. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niizeki, Tomohiko, E-mail: t-niizeki@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kikkawa, Takashi [Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Uchida, Ken-ichi, E-mail: kuchida@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Oka, Mineto; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, Eiji [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO), an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110) exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H) dependence of the LSSE voltage (V{sub LSSE}) in the Pt/CFO(110) sample with H ∥ [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H∥[11{sup -}0] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of V{sub LSSE} has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (ΔT), giving the relatively large V{sub LSSE} /ΔT of about 3 μV/K for CFO(110) which was kept even at zero external field.

  6. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Niizeki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO, an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110 exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H dependence of the LSSE voltage (VLSSE in the Pt/CFO(110 sample with H ∥ [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H ∥ [ 1 1 ̄ 0 ] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of VLSSE has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (ΔT, giving the relatively large VLSSE /ΔT of about 3 μV/K for CFO(110 which was kept even at zero external field.

  7. Antisite disorder induced spin glass and exchange bias effect in Nd2NiMnO6 epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Chauhan, Samta; Chandra, Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    We report the observation of the exchange bias effect and spin glass behaviour at low temperature in a ferromagnetic Nd2NiMnO6 epitaxial thin film. Along with the ferromagnetic transition at ˜194 K, an additional transition is observed at lower temperature (˜55 K) as seen from M-T curves of the sample. A shift in the ac susceptibility peak with frequency has been observed at low temperature, which is a signature of a glassy phase within the sample. The detailed investigation of the memory effect and time dependent magnetic relaxation measurements reveals the presence of a spin glass phase in the Nd2NiMnO6 thin film. The exchange bias effect observed at low temperature in the sample has been associated with an antisite disorder induced spin glass phase, which results in a ferromagnetic/spin glass interface at low temperature. The exchange bias behaviour has been further confirmed by performing cooling field and temperature dependence of exchange bias along with training effect measurements.

  8. Interplay of uniaxial and cubic anisotropy in epitaxial Fe thin films on MgO (001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijani Mallik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Fe thin films were grown on annealed MgO(001 substrates at oblique incidence by DC magnetron sputtering. Due to the oblique growth configuration, uniaxial anisotropy was found to be superimposed on the expected four-fold cubic anisotropy. A detailed study of in-plane magnetic hysteresis for Fe on MgO thin films has been performed by Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE magnetometer. Both single step and double step loops have been observed depending on the angle between the applied field and easy axis i.e. along ⟨100⟩ direction. Domain images during magnetization reversal were captured by Kerr microscope. Domain images clearly evidence two successive and separate 90° domain wall (DW nucleation and motion along cubic easy cum uniaxial easy axis and cubic easy cum uniaxial hard axis, respectively. However, along cubic hard axis two 180° domain wall motion dominate the magnetization reversal process. In spite of having four-fold anisotropy it is essential to explain magnetization reversal mechanism in 0°< ϕ < 90° span as uniaxial anisotropy plays a major role in this system. Also it is shown that substrate rotation can suppress the effect of uniaxial anisotropy superimposed on four-fold anisotropy.

  9. Surface analysis of topmost layer of epitaxial layered oxide thin film: Application to delafossite oxide for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Adachi, Hideaki; Miyata, Nobuhiro; Hinogami, Reiko; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2018-02-01

    Delafossite oxides (ABO2) have a layered structure with alternating layers of A and B elements, the topmost layer of which appears to determine their performance, such as the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity. In this study, we investigated the topmost layer of single-domain (0 0 1)-oriented AgCoO2 epitaxial thin film for potential use as an OER catalyst. The thin film was confirmed to possess OER activity at a level comparable to the catalyst in powder form. Atomic scattering spectroscopy revealed the topmost layer to be composed of CoO6 octahedra. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the oxidation of Co at the surface did not change under different potentials, which suggests that there is no valence fluctuation of Co in the stable CoO6 octahedral structure. However, the oxidation number of Co at the surface was lower than that in the bulk. Our density functional theoretical calculations also showed the Co atoms at the surface to have a slightly higher electron occupancy than those in the bulk, and suggests that the unoccupied t2g states of Co at the surface have an influence on OER activity.

  10. Reduction of threading dislocations in ZnO/(0001) sapphire film heterostructure by epitaxial lateral overgrowth of nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuekui; Cherns, David; Doherty, Rachel P.; Warren, James L.; Heard, Peter J.

    2008-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study threading dislocations (TDs) in epitaxial ZnO films on (0001) sapphire substrates produced by a two-step method. First, ZnO was deposited by pulsed laser deposition. It was found that the sample consisted of a continuous buffer layer with a high density, 7×1010/cm2, of TDs, with c-aligned nanorods on its top. The nanorods revealed few, if any, TDs. A further layer of ZnO was then grown under conditions favoring nanorod growth, using either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or a hydrothermal method. In both cases the nanorods grew laterally and eventually coalesced to form a continuous overgrowth. The nanorods remained mostly free of dislocations until coalescence. New grain boundary dislocations were generated where nanorods coalesced, but many of these dislocations migrated laterally and interacted with other dislocations to form closed loops. The TD density at the top of the continuous film was thereby reduced to 1×109/cm2 and 7×109/cm2 in the cases of hydrothermal and CVD treatments, respectively. The mechanism of growth and the means by which TDs are reduced are explained.

  11. Magnetic properties of single-crystal {110} iron films grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, G. A.; Rado, G. T.; Krebs, J. J.

    1982-03-01

    Single-crystal {110} Fe films, grown for the first time by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs, have been studied by a variety of techniques in order to determine the dependence of the magnetic properties upon film thickness L and quality, and an overview of these results is presented. The dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) field upon its orientation in the (11¯0) plane was measured at 16.4 GHz and shows that the magnetically easy axis is [110] for L<50 Å and [001] for L≳150 Å. A theory of FMR which incorporates magnetocrystalline surface anisotropy is outlined. It successfully interprets the thickness dependence of the FMR data in the ultrathin (L≲50 Å) regime and shows them to be surface dominated. FMR data at 9.2 GHz, which contain both aligned and nonaligned resonance branches, are presented as a function L. In addition, the dependence of the branches on frequency f for 8 GHz

  12. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of epitaxial magnetite ultrathin film on MgO(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. Q.; Xu, Y. B., E-mail: yongbing.xu@york.ac.uk, E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn [York-Nanjing International Center for Spintronics (YNICS), School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Song, M. Y.; Lin, J. G. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Maltby, N. J.; Li, S. P. [Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Bencok, P.; Steadman, Paul; Dobrynin, Alexey [Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Zhang, R., E-mail: yongbing.xu@york.ac.uk, E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn [York-Nanjing International Center for Spintronics (YNICS), School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-07

    The spin and orbital magnetic moments of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial ultrathin film synthesized by plasma assisted simultaneous oxidization on MgO(100) have been studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The ultrathin film retains a rather large total magnetic moment, i.e., (2.73 ± 0.15) μ{sub B}/f.u., which is ∼70% of that for the bulk-like Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. A significant unquenched orbital moment up to 0.54 ± 0.05 μ{sub B}/f.u. was observed, which could come from the symmetry breaking at the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO interface. Such sizable orbital moment will add capacities to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based spintronics devices in the magnetization reversal by the electric field.

  13. KTa{sub 0.65}Nb{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} thin films epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on metallic and oxide epitaxial electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyasfi, A.; Mouttalie, M. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 CNRS/Universite de Rennes 1/UEB, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 avenue du general Leclerc CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Compatibilite Electromagnetique, Maintenance Industrielle et Nanostructures (LCEMINAS), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Route d' Imouzzer B.P. 2202 Fes 30000 (Morocco); Demange, V. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 CNRS/Universite de Rennes 1/UEB, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 avenue du general Leclerc CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Gautier, B.; Grandfond, A. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon/INSA, 7 Avenue Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Deputier, S.; Ollivier, S. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 CNRS/Universite de Rennes 1/UEB, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 avenue du general Leclerc CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Hamedi, L' H. [Laboratoire de Compatibilite Electromagnetique, Maintenance Industrielle et Nanostructures (LCEMINAS), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Route d' Imouzzer B.P. 2202 Fes 30000 (Morocco); Guilloux-Viry, M., E-mail: maryline.guilloux-viry@univ-rennes1.fr [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 CNRS/Universite de Rennes 1/UEB, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 avenue du general Leclerc CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferroelectric KTa{sub 0.65}Nb{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KTa{sub 0.65}Nb{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Pt and LaNiO{sub 3} epitaxial electrodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of oxide vs. metal electrode on ferroelectric's structural properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM/TUNA mode investigation of KTa{sub 0.65}Nb{sub 0.35}O{sub 3}/Pt heterostructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetry of the conduction mechanisms (positive vs. negative applied voltage). - Abstract: Ferroelectric KTa{sub 0.65}Nb{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} (KTN) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Pt and LaNiO{sub 3} epitaxial electrodes, on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The effect of the nature of the electrode on structural and microstructural quality of KTN films was investigated. While epitaxial KTN thin films were successfully obtained on both electrodes, two orientations compete on Pt, whatever the main orientation of Pt is (1 0 0) or (1 1 0). On LaNiO{sub 3} in contrast, pure (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) oriented KTN films were achieved with a high crystalline quality illustrated by narrow {omega}-scans ({Delta}{omega} = 0.56 Degree-Sign and {Delta}{omega} = 0.80 Degree-Sign for (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) KTN, to be compared to 0.048 Degree-Sign and 0.22 Degree-Sign for (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) LaNiO{sub 3}, respectively). Electrical measurements performed in tunneling atomic force microscopy (TUNA mode) on a KTN/Pt heterostructure showed a high asymmetry of the conduction mechanisms when a positive or a negative bias is applied on the sample. In particular leakage currents appear even at very low positive applied voltage. TUNA imaging operated at a moderate negative applied voltage of -3 V shows that some areas corresponding to grain boundaries seem to be more leaky than others.

  14. Unsaturated magnetoconductance of epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Niu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the temperature and field dependence of resistance of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films over a wide temperature range and in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T. The epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films were deposited by laser molecular beam epitaxy. High magnetic field magnetoresistance curves were fitted by the Brillouin function, which indicated the existence of magnetically polarized regions and the underlying hopping mechanism. The unsaturated magnetoconductance was the most striking finding observed in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T. These observations can deepen the fundamental understanding of the colossal magnetoresistance in manganites with strong correlation of transport properties and magnetic ordering.

  15. Analysis for positions of Sn atoms in epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} film in low temperature depositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji, E-mail: ejkamiyama@aol.com [Dept. of Comm. Eng., Okayama Pref. Univ., 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Sueoka, Koji [Dept. of Comm. Eng., Okayama Pref. Univ., 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Nakatsuka, Osamu; Taoka, Noriyuki; Zaima, Shigeaki [Dept. of Cryst. Mat. Sci., Grad. School of Eng., Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Izunome, Koji; Kashima, Kazuhiko [Technology, GlobalWafers Japan Corp. Ltd, 6-861-5 Higashiko, Seiro, Niigata 957-0197 (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    We investigated the position of Sn atoms in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} film grown at a low temperature by using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) method. Vacancies had been expected to be introduced near the growing surface vicinity of a Sn atom and located at a split-vacancy position due to the binding nature between a Sn atom and a vacancy, which was predicted by the calculation for a bulk model in the literature. However, the EXAFS showed that almost all Sn atoms were located at the substitutional position and did not form a split-vacancy. - Highlights: • Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) study of epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x}Snx film • EXAFS shows that almost all Sn atoms are located at substitutional positions. • The amount of vacancies introduced in low-temperature epitaxial growth is small.

  16. Epitaxial ZnO Thin Films on a-Plane Sapphire Substrates Grown by Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Yudai; Kameyama, Naoki; Fujita, Shizuo

    2009-12-01

    High-quality epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown by an ultrasonic spray-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a-plane sapphire substrates with ZnO buffer layers. The ZnO thin films were grown with c-axis orientation without notable rotational domains. Surface morphologies and electrical properties were markedly improved as an effect of the ZnO buffer layers. The mobility in the ZnO epitaxial (main) layer was estimated to be 90 cm2/(V·s), which is reasonably high compared with those in ZnO layers grown by CVD processes. Photoluminescence at a low temperature (4.5 K) revealed a free A-exiton peak, and that at room temperature showed a strong band-edge peak with little deep-level luminescence.

  17. Effects of Mn3O4 precipitates on the vibrational properties of epitaxial Ca-doped LaMnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Kais; Alawadhi, Hussain; El Helali, Saoussen; Boudard, Michel; Othmen, Zied; Gaidi, Mounir; Oueslati, Meherzi; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a systematic study by Raman spectroscopy of the vibrational properties of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO70/30) thin films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 single crystalline substrates. The epitaxial LCMO70/30 thin films were prepared using a metal organic deposition process with thermal annealing at 800 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C, with thicknesses ranging from 20-80 nm. The evolution of the Raman modes versus film thickness and annealing temperature have been investigated. The Raman spectra of the obtained films are found to be mainly dominated by three Raman lines at 225, 440 and 661 cm-1. The first two Raman lines are assigned to the vibrational modes of the LCMO70/30 films. However, by combining magnetization, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with Raman spectroscopy, we concluded that the 661 cm-1 Raman line is due to the existence of a precipitate of a Mn3O4 phase in the LCMO70/30 films.

  18. Crystalline domains in epitaxial Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 thin films grown by PLD on different STO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, L. E.; Rebled, J.; Ventura, J.; Yate, L.; Ferrater, C.; Langenberg, E.; Polo, M. C.; Xuriguera, E.; Peiro, F.; Varela, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of ferromagnetic Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 (YNMO) perovskite were grown on different SrTiO3 (STO) substrate orientations [i.e. (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1)] by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and their morphological and functional properties were studied and characterized. Optimal deposition parameters were identified and their individual influence on the quality of the films was also addressed. Films showed a single out-of-plane orientation in all the substrate scenarios, while the in-plane texture in STO(0 0 1) and STO(1 1 1) show two and three in plane domains, respectively. Growth mechanism and morphology were studied by HRTEM and AFM. As a result, a clear 3D growth mechanism was identified and a direct correlation between the two in-plane crystalline domains on the surface morphology of the sample was observed. Magnetic response of the films was investigated as a function of their crystalline properties. The films were found to have a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition around 90 K consistent with their bulk counterparts. Finally, the discrepancies on the epitaxial growth between YMnO3 (YMO) and YMNO thin films were clarified and tabulated, giving a clear picture of the effect of Ni substitution in the epitaxial and crystalline properties of manganites of this family.

  19. Magneto-optical and Microwave Properties of LuBiIG Thin Films Prepared by Liquid Phase Epitaxy Method from Lead-Free Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Hui; Zhnag, Huai-Wu; Wen, Qi-Ye; Liu, Ying-Li; Ihor, Syvorotka M.; Ihor, Syvorotka I.

    2009-04-01

    Lu2.1 Bi0.9Fe5 O12 (LuBiIG) garnet films are prepared by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates from lead-free flux. Three-inch single crystal garnet films with (444) orientation and good surface are successfully fabricated. The lattice mismatch to the GGG(111) substrate is as small as 0.08%. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth of the film is 2ΔH = 2.8-5.1 Oe, the Faraday rotation is 1.64 deg/μm at 633 nm at room temperature and the optical absorption coefficient of the film is 600 cm-1 in visible range and about 100-170 cm-1 when the wavelength is larger than 800 nm. The epitaxy film possesses dominating in-plane magnetization with a saturation magnetization of about 1562G. These superior optical, magnetic-optical (MO) and microwave properties of our garnet films have potential applications in both MO and microwave devices.

  20. Crystal orientation, crystallinity, and thermoelectric properties of Bi0.9Sr0.1CuSeO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Mamoru; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tomoyuki; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We have grown Bi0.9Sr0.1CuSeO epitaxial thin films on MgO and SrTiO3 (STO) single-crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under various growth conditions, and investigated the crystal orientation, crystallinity, chemical composition, and thermoelectric properties of the films. The optimization of the growth conditions was realized in the film grown on MgO at the temperature T s = 573 K and Ar pressure P Ar = 0.01 Torr in this study, in which there was no misalignment apart from the c-axis and no impurity phase. It was clearly found that the higher crystal orientation of the epitaxial film grown at a higher temperature under a lower Ar pressure mainly enhanced the thermoelectric power factor P (= S 2/ρ), where S is the Seebeck coefficient and ρ is the electrical resistivity. However, the thermoelectric properties of the films were lower than those of polycrystalline bulk because of lattice distortion from lattice mismatch, a low crystallinity caused by a lower T s, and Bi and Cu deficiencies in the films.

  1. Dynamic Atomic Reconstruction: How Fe_{3}O_{4} Thin Films Evade Polar Catastrophe for Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Chang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polar catastrophe at the interface of oxide materials with strongly correlated electrons has triggered a flurry of new research activities. The expectations are that the design of such advanced interfaces will become a powerful route to engineer devices with novel functionalities. Here, we investigate the initial stages of growth and the electronic structure of the spintronic Fe_{3}O_{4}/MgO(001 interface. Using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have discovered that the so-called A-sites are completely missing in the first Fe_{3}O_{4} monolayer. This discovery allows us to develop an unexpected but elegant growth principle in which, during deposition, the Fe atoms are constantly on the move to solve the divergent electrostatic potential problem, thereby ensuring epitaxy and stoichiometry at the same time. This growth principle provides a new perspective for the design of interfaces.

  2. Electric field-tunable Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} films with high figures of merit grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Kajdos, Adam P.; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2012-12-17

    We report on the dielectric properties of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on epitaxial Pt bottom electrodes. Paraelectric films (x Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 0.5) exhibit dielectric losses that are similar to those of BST single crystals and ceramics. Films with device quality factors greater than 1000 and electric field tunabilities exceeding 1:5 are demonstrated. The results provide evidence for the importance of stoichiometry control and the use of a non-energetic deposition technique for achieving high figures of merit of tunable devices with BST thin films.

  3. Spin dependent transport of hot electrons through ultrathin epitaxial metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, Emanuel

    2010-06-23

    In this work relaxation and transport of hot electrons in thin single crystalline metallic films is investigated by Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy. The electron mean free paths are determined in an energy interval of 1 to 2 eV above the Fermi level. While fcc Au-films appear to be quite transmissive for hot electrons, the scattering lengths are much shorter for the ferromagnetic alloy FeCo revealing, furthermore, a strong spin asymmetry in hot electron transport. Additional information is gained from temperature dependent studies in combination with golden rule approaches in order to disentangle the impact of several relaxation and transport properties. It is found that bcc Fe-films are much less effective in spin filtering than films made of the FeCo-alloy. (orig.)

  4. Helical-type surface defects in GaN thin films epitaxially grown on GaN templates at reduced temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, P. Q.; Preble, E. A.; Roskowski, A. M.; Einfeldt, S.; Davis, R. F.

    2003-06-01

    Surface pits in the form of v-shaped defects and resulting surface roughening, previously associated solely with InGaN films, were observed and investigated using atomic force microscopy on GaN films grown at 780°C via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on conventionally and pendeo-epitaxially deposited GaN thin film templates. The density of the v-shaped defects was similar to the density of threading dislocations of ˜3×10 9 cm -2 (that originate from the heteroepitaxial interface between the GaN template layer and the SiC substrate). Moreover, the v-defect density was diminished with decreases in the dislocation density via increases in the template layer thickness or the use of pendeo-epitaxial seed layers. A concomitant reduction in the full-width half-maxima of the X-ray rocking curves was also observed. A qualitative model is presented that describes the formation of v-shaped defects as a result of interactions between the movement of surface steps, screw-type dislocation cores, and clusters of atoms on the terraces that form under conditions of high surface undercooling.

  5. Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001 with germane precursor in metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hong Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of germanium (Ge epitaxial film grown directly on a silicon (Si (001 substrate with 6° off-cut using conventional germane precursor in a metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD system is studied. The growth sequence consists of several steps at low temperature (LT at 400 °C, intermediate temperature ramp (LT-HT of ∼10 °C/min and high temperature (HT at 600 °C. This is followed by post-growth annealing in hydrogen at temperature ranging from 650 to 825 °C. The Ge epitaxial film of thickness ∼ 1 μm experiences thermally induced tensile strain of 0.11 % with a treading dislocation density (TDD of ∼107/cm2 and the root-mean-square (RMS roughness of ∼ 0.75 nm. The benefit of growing Ge epitaxial film using MOCVD is that the subsequent III-V materials can be grown in-situ without the need of breaking the vacuum hence it is manufacturing worthy.

  6. The influence of oxygen flow rate on properties of SnO{sub 2} thin films grown epitaxially on c-sapphire by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.M. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University (China); Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Hubei University (China); Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University (China); Jiang, J. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Xia, C. [Physical Chemistry Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kramm, B.; Polity, A. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); He, Y.B., E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University (China); Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Hubei University (China); Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University (China); Klar, P.J.; Meyer, B.K. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    Tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition using SnI{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as reactants. The growth experiments were carried out at a fixed substrate temperature of 510 °C and different O{sub 2} flow rates. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis–IR spectrophotometry and Hall-effect measurement were used to characterize the films. All films consisted of pure-phase SnO{sub 2} with a rutile structure and showed an epitaxial relationship with the substrate of SnO{sub 2}(100)||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and SnO{sub 2}[010]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}< 11–20 >. The crystalline quality and properties of the films were found to be sensitively dependent on the O{sub 2} flow rate during the film growth. The absolute average transmittance of the SnO{sub 2} films exceeded 85% in the visible and infrared spectral region. The films had optical band-gaps (3.72–3.89 eV) that are in line with the band gap of single-crystal SnO{sub 2}. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the films decreased from 3.3 × 10{sup 19} to 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and from 19 to 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively, while the resistivity increased from 0.01 to 3 Ω cm with increasing of the O{sub 2} flow rate from 5 to 60 sccm. - Highlights: • SnI{sub 2} (Sn{sup 2+}) was used as tin precursor to prepare tin oxide films by CVD. • Epitaxial SnO{sub 2} (100) films were obtained on c-sapphire with thickness more than 1 μm. • The epitaxial relationship is SnO{sub 2}(100)||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and SnO{sub 2}[010]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}< 11–20 >. • B{sub 2g} Raman mode was found to be absent in (100)-orientated SnO{sub 2} films on c-sapphire. • The crystal quality and properties of SnO{sub 2} films depended sensitively on the O{sub 2} flow rate.

  7. Conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN(0 0 0 1) thin films on Si(1 1 1) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert F.; Gehrke, Thomas; Linthicum, Kevin J.; Preble, Edward; Rajagopal, Pradeep; Ronning, Carsten; Zorman, Christian; Mehregany, Mehran

    2001-10-01

    Single-crystal wurtzitic GaN(0 0 0 1) films have been grown via conventional methods on high-temperature AlN(0 0 0 1) buffer layers previously deposited on 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Si(1 1 1) substrates using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Formation of the 3C-SiC transition layer employed a carburization step and the subsequent deposition of epitaxial 3C-SiC(1 1 1) on the Si(1 1 1) surface using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) for both processes. Similar films, except with significantly reduced dislocation densities, have been grown via pendeo-epitaxy (PE) from the (1 1 2¯ 0) sidewalls of silicon nitride masked, raised, rectangular, and [1 1¯ 0 0] oriented GaN stripes etched from films conventionally grown on similarly prepared, Si-based, multilayer substrates. The FWHM of the (0 0 0 2) X-ray diffraction peak of the conventionally grown GaN was 1443 arcsec. The FWHM of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra for the near band-edge emission on these films was 19 meV. Tilting in the coalesced PE-grown GaN epilayers of 0.2° was confined to the areas of lateral overgrowth over the masks; no tilting was observed in the material suspended above the trenches. The strong, low-temperature PL band-edge peak at 3.456 eV with an FWHM of 17 meV in the PE films was comparable to that observed in PE GaN films grown on AlN/6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) substrates.

  8. Epitaxial Bi3Fe5O12(001) films grown by pulsed laser deposition and reactive ion beam sputtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N.; Denysenkov, V. P.; Khartsev, S. I.; Grishin, A. M.; Okuda, T.

    2000-09-01

    We report on processing and comparative characterization of epitaxial Bi3Fe5O12 (BIG) films grown onto Gd3(ScGa)5O12[GSGG,(001)] single crystal using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and reactive ion beam sputtering (RIBS) techniques. A very high deposition rate of about 0.8 μm/h has been achieved in the PLD process. Comprehensive x-ray diffraction analyses reveal epitaxial quality both of the films: they are single phase, exclusively (001) oriented, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of (004) Bragg reflection is 0.06 deg for PLD and 0.05 deg for RIBS film, strongly in-plane textured with cube-on-cube film-to-substrate epitaxial relationship. Saturation magnetization 4πMs and Faraday rotation at 635 nm were found to be 1400 Gs and -7.8 deg/μm in PLD-BIG, and 1200 Gs and -6.9 deg/μm in RIBS-BIG. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements performed at 9.25 GHz yielded the gyromagnetic ratio γ=1.797×107l/s Oe, 1.826×107 l/s Oe; the constants of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy were Ku*=-8.66×104erg/cm3, -8.60×104 erg/cm3; the cubic magnetic anisotropy K1=-2.7×103 erg/cm3,-3.8×103 erg/cm3; and the FMR linewidth ΔH=25 and 34 Oe for PLD and RIBS films correspondingly. High Faraday rotation, low microwave loss, and low coercive field ⩽40 Oe of BIG/GSGG(001) films promise their use in integrated magneto-optic applications.

  9. Reversible pyroelectric and photogalvanic current in epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Esayan, S.; Prohaska, J.; Safari, A.

    1994-01-01

    The pyroelectric and photogalvanic effects have been studied in epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films. Photoinduced currents, which were completely reversible by electrical voltage, were observed. The photoinduced currents exhibited transient and steady state components. The transient component, in turn, consisted of two components with fast (<1 s) and slow (˜hours) relaxation times. The mechanisms of the photoinduced currents in PZT films and their possible applications in nondestructive readout ferroelectric memory are discussed.

  10. Adsorbate-induced modification of electronic band structure of epitaxial Bi(111) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matetskiy, A.V., E-mail: mateckij@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, L.V.; Tupchaya, A.Y.; Gruznev, D.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Eremeev, S.V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, 634021 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Modification of electronic properties of ultrathin Bi films by adsorbates is demonstrated. • Due to electron doping from Cs adatoms, surface-state bands shift to higher binding energies. • As a result, only electron pockets are left in the Fermi map. • Tin acts as an acceptor dopant for Bi, shifting Fermi level upward. • As a result, only hole pockets are left in the Fermi map. - Abstract: Changes of the electronic band structure of Bi(111) films on Si(111) induced by Cs and Sn adsorption have been studied using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. It has been found that small amounts of Cs when it presents at the surface in a form of the adatom gas leads to shifting of the surface and quantum well states to the higher binding energies due to the electron donation from adsorbate to the Bi film. In contrast, adsorbed Sn dissolves into the Bi film bulk upon heating and acts as an acceptor dopant, that results in shifting of the surface and quantum well states upward to the lower binding energies. These results pave the way to manipulate with the Bi thin film electron band structure allowing to achieve a certain type of conductivity (electron or hole) with a single spin channel at the Fermi level making the adsorbate-modified Bi a reliable base for prospective spintronics applications.

  11. The effect of lattice mismatch on epitaxial La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastell, C. J.; Lin, Y.-K.; Miller, D. J.

    1999-05-06

    We present a study of the effect of lattice mismatch on the structure and magneto-transport properties of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) epitaxial films. Pulsed laser deposition was used to synthesize epitaxial LCMO thin films on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO), NdGaO{sub 3} (NGO), SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), and MgO substrates. Our results show that the nature of the lattice mismatch and the structure of the substrate governs the microstructure of the film. The microstructure consists of domains of two crystal structures, a pseudo-cubic phase and a monoclinic phase. The monoclinic phase forms as the film relaxes away from the interface, with an orientation dependent on whether the film is under a tensile or compressive in-plane strain. A special case is observed on NGO where the orthorhombic nature of the substrate results in the alignment of the monoclinic phase so that its long axis is in the plane. The observation of an in-plane anisotropy in the magnetoresistance data for LCMO on NGO suggests that the monoclinic phase is important in explaining the magneto-transport properties.

  12. Domain structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial SrRuO sub 3 films grown on SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by ion beam sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S H

    2000-01-01

    The domain structure of epitaxial SrRuO sub 3 thin films grown on SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by using ion beam sputtering has been investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SrRuO sub 3 films grown in the present study revealed a unique cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship, i.e., (100) sub S sub R sub O ll (100) sub S sub T sub O , [010] sub S sub R sub O ll [101] sub S sub T sub O , prevailing with a cubic single-domain structure. The cubic SrRuO sub 3 thin films that were inherently with free from RuO sub 6 octahedron tilting exhibited higher resistivity with suppressed magnetic properties. The Curie temperature of the thin films was suppressed by 60 K from 160 K for the bulk specimen, and the saturation magnetic moment was reduced by a significant amount. The tetragonal distortion of the SrRuO sub 3 thin films due to coherent growth with the substrate seemed to result in a strong magnetic anisotropy.

  13. Epitaxy of Ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) Films via Removable PTFE Templates and Its Application in Semiconducting/Ferroelectric Blend Resistive Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Peter, Christian; Weng, Junhui; Zhang, Jian; Kliem, Herbert; Jiang, Yulong; Zhu, Guodong

    2017-04-05

    Ferroelectric polymer based devices exhibit great potentials in low-cost and flexible electronics. To meet the requirements of both low voltage operation and low energy consumption, thickness of ferroelectric polymer films is usually required to be less than, for example, 100 nm. However, decrease of film thickness is also accompanied by the degradation of both crystallinity and ferroelectricity and also the increase of current leakage, which surely degrades device performance. Here we report one epitaxy method based on removable poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) templates for high-quality fabrication of ordered ferroelectric polymer thin films. Experimental results indicate that such epitaxially grown ferroelectric polymer films exhibit well improved crystallinity, reduced current leakage and good resistance to electrical breakdown, implying their applications in high-performance and low voltage operated ferroelectric devices. On the basis of this removable PTFE template method, we fabricated organic semiconducting/ferroelectric blend resistive films which presented record electrical performance with operation voltage as low as 5 V and ON/OFF ratio up to 10(5).

  14. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic Heusler Ru2MnGe Epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatani, Naoto; Fujita, Hirohito; Miyawaki, Tetsuya; Ueda, Kenji; Asano, Hidefumi

    2013-08-01

    Structural and magnetic properties were investigated for Heusler-type alloy Ru2MnGe thin films. Ru2MnGe films on MgO substrate were subjected to an in-plane compressive strain, and exhibited enhanced antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature ( T N ) up to 353 K, which exceeds by 37 K from the cubic bulk material ( T N = 316 K). We also observed the exchange coupling between Ru2MnGe and Heusler-type ferromagnetic (FM) half-metal Fe2CrSi thin films. The present AFM Heusler alloy with relatively high T N is useful to fabricate high-quality all Heusler-type half-metal AFM/FM junctions and is a promising material for the emerging field of AFM spintronics.

  16. Anomalously high thermoelectric power factor in epitaxial ScN thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    found that the ScN thin-film exhibits a rather low electrical resistivity of ∼2.94 μΩm, while its Seebeck coefficient is approximately ∼−86 μV/K at 800 K, yielding a power factor of ∼2.5 × 10−3 W/mK2. This value is anomalously high for common transition-metal nitrides. © 2011 American Institute......Thermoelectric properties of ScN thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0001) wafers are reported. X-ray diffraction and elastic recoil detection analyses show that the composition of the films is close to stoichiometry with trace amounts (∼1 at. % in total) of C, O, and F. We...

  17. Liquid phase epitaxy growth of bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet thin films for magneto-optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Min; Xu Zhichun

    2004-03-01

    The novel Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnet films were grown by the modified liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique for use as a 45 deg. Faraday rotator in optical isolators. First, single crystals of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG), with a lattice constant of 1.2378 nm, were grown by means of the Czochralski method. Using the seed crystal of YIG instead of the conventional non-magnetic garnet of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} as a substrate, a film of BiYbIG was grown by means of the LPE method from Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} fluxes. The structural, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of BiYbIG LPE film/YIG crystal composite have been investigated using directional X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, vibrating sample magnetometer and near-infrared transmission spectrometry. The saturation magnetization 4{pi}M{sub s} has been estimated to be approximately 1200 G. The Faraday rotation spectrum was measured by the method of rotating analyzer ellipsometry with the wavelength varying from 800 to 1700 nm. The resultant Bi{sub 0.37}Yb{sub 2.63}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} LPE film/YIG crystal composite showed an increased Faraday rotation coefficient due to doping Bi{sup 3+} ions on the dodecahedral sites of the magnetic garnet without increasing absorption loss, therefore a good magneto-optic figure of merit, defined by the ratio of Faraday rotation and optical absorption loss, has been achieved of 21.5 deg/dB and 30.2 deg/dB at 1300 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths, respectively, at room temperature. Since Yb{sup 3+} ions and Y{sup 3+} ions provide the opposite contributes to the wideband and temperature characteristic of Faraday rotation, the values of Faraday rotation wavelength and temperature coefficients were reduced to 0.06%/nm and 0.007 deg/ deg. C at 1550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  18. Large anisotropy in colossal magnetoresistance of charge orbital ordered epitaxial Sm(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Z; Sun, J R; Zhao, J L; Wang, J; Shen, B G; Pryds, N

    2009-11-04

    We investigated the structure and magnetotransport properties of Sm(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) (SCMO) films epitaxially grown on (011)-oriented SrTiO(3) substrates, which exhibited clear charge/orbital ordering transition. A significant anisotropy of ∼1000 in the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect was observed in the films with a thickness between 50 and 80 nm, which was distinctly different from the basically isotropic CMR effect in bulk SCMO. The large anisotropy in the CMR can be ascribed to the intrinsic asymmetric strain in the film, which plays an important role in tuning the spin-orbit coupling in manganite films. The origin of the peculiar CMR effect is discussed.

  19. Layer-by-layer shuttered molecular-beam epitaxial growth of superconducting Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maritato, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Ingegneria Elettrica e Matematica Applicata-DIEM,University of Salerno and CNR-SPIN, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Galdi, A.; Orgiani, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Ingegneria Elettrica e Matematica Applicata-DIEM, University of Salerno and CNR-SPIN, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Harter, J. W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schubert, J. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Institute of Bio- and Nano-systems IBN, D-52425 Julich (Germany) and Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Shen, K. M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schlom, D. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Superconducting Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} thin films have been grown on GdScO{sub 3} substrates by reflection high-energy electron diffraction calibrated layer-by-layer molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction analysis has confirmed the infinite layer structure after an in situ vacuum annealing step. In situ photoemission spectroscopy indicates that the vacuum annealing step employed immediately after film growth to achieve superconducting films results in oxygen loss from the films. The superconducting critical temperature depends on the La content x, with the highest value obtained for x{approx}0.10. Resistivity as a function of temperature {rho}(T) curves of optimally doped samples show a T{sup 2} temperature dependence characteristic of a scattering process where electron-electron interactions dominate.

  20. Magnetic domains in epitaxial BaFe12O19 thin films with perpendicular anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic domains, microstructure and magnetic properties of highly oriented barium ferrite thin films with perpendicular anisotropy have been investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM), VSM, SEM and TEM. Two kinds of magnetic domain are energetically favourable: (a) cluster-like structure in

  1. In-situ studies of the martensitic transformation in epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buschbeck, J.; Niemann, R.; Heczko, Oleg; Thomas, M.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2009), s. 2516-2526 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic shape memory alloy * martensitic phase transformation * thin films * interfaces * twinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2009

  2. Planar Hall effect and magnetic anisotropy in epitaxially strained chromium dioxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goennenwein, S.T.B.; Keizer, R.S.; Schink, S.W.; Van Dijk, I.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Miao, G.X.; Xiao, G.; Gupta, A.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance of 100?nm thick CrO2 thin films at liquid He temperatures. In low magnetic fields H, both the longitudinal and the transverse (planar Hall) resistance show abrupt switches, which characteristically depend on the orientation of H. All the

  3. Domain matched epitaxial growth of (111) Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with ZnO buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaprasad, P. S., E-mail: pskrishnaprasu@gmail.com, E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: pskrishnaprasu@gmail.com, E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Antony, Aldrin [Department of Applied Physics and Optics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India); Rojas, Fredy [Department of Applied Physics and Optics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-03-28

    Epitaxial (111) Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate with ZnO as buffer layer. The x-ray ω-2θ, Φ-scan and reciprocal space mapping indicate epitaxial nature of BST thin films. The domain matched epitaxial growth of BST thin films over ZnO buffer layer was confirmed using Fourier filtered high resolution transmission electron microscope images of the film-buffer interface. The incorporation of ZnO buffer layer effectively suppressed the lattice mismatch and promoted domain matched epitaxial growth of BST thin films. Coplanar inter digital capacitors fabricated on epitaxial (111) BST thin films show significantly improved tunable performance over polycrystalline thin films.

  4. Epitaxial CrN Thin Films with High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Camilo X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Podkaminer, Jacob P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Luckyanova, Maria N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 USA; Paudel, Tula R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln NE 68588 USA; Thies, Eric L. [Department of Physics, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive Boise ID 83725 USA; Hillsberry, Daniel A. [Department of Physics, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive Boise ID 83725 USA; Tenne, Dmitri A. [Department of Physics, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive Boise ID 83725 USA; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln NE 68588 USA; Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 USA; Eom, Chang-Beom [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Rivadulla, Francisco [Centro de Investigación en Química Biológica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 Spain

    2015-04-09

    A large enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit is reported in single-crystalline films of CrN. The mechanism of the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in cubic CrN is similar to the resonant bonding in IV–VI compounds. Therefore, useful ideas from classic thermo­electrics can be applied to tune functionalities in transition metal nitrides and oxides.

  5. Metamagnetic transitions and magnetocaloric effect in epitaxial Ni–Co–Mn–In films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niemann, R.; Heczko, Oleg; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 22 (2010), 222507/1-222507/3 ISSN 0003-6951 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100913; DFG - SPP1239(DE) FA 453/7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni–Co–Mn–In films * martensitic transformation * magnetically induced transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2010

  6. EDITORIAL: Epitaxial graphene Epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Graphene is widely regarded as an important new electronic material with interesting two-dimensional electron gas properties. Not only that, but graphene is widely considered to be an important new material for large-scale integrated electronic devices that may eventually even succeed silicon. In fact, there are countless publications that demonstrate the amazing applications potential of graphene. In order to realize graphene electronics, a platform is required that is compatible with large-scale electronics processing methods. It was clear from the outset that graphene grown epitaxially on silicon carbide substrates was exceptionally well suited as a platform for graphene-based electronics, not only because the graphene sheets are grown directly on electronics-grade silicon carbide (an important semiconductor in its own right), but also because these sheets are oriented with respect to the semiconductor. Moreover, the extremely high temperatures involved in production assure essentially defect-free and contamination-free materials with well-defined interfaces. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide is not a unique material, but actually a class of materials. It is a complex structure consisting of a reconstructed silicon carbide surface, which, for planar hexagonal silicon carbide, is either the silicon- or the carbon-terminated face, an interfacial carbon rich layer, followed by one or more graphene layers. Consequently, the structure of graphene films on silicon carbide turns out to be a rich surface-science puzzle that has been intensively studied and systematically unravelled with a wide variety of surface science probes. Moreover, the graphene films produced on the carbon-terminated face turn out to be rotationally stacked, resulting in unique and important structural and electronic properties. Finally, in contrast to essentially all other graphene production methods, epitaxial graphene can be grown on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce graphene

  7. Enhancement of L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate in FePt alloy film by using an epitaxial cap-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ohtake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FePt alloy thin films with cap-layers of MgO or C are prepared on MgO(001 single-crystal substrates by using a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The FePt film thickness is fixed at 10 nm, whereas the cap-layer thickness is varied from 1 to 10 nm. The influences of cap-layer material and cap-layer thickness on the variant structure and the L10 ordering are investigated. Single-crystal FePt(001 films with disordered fcc structure (A1 grow epitaxially on the substrates at 200 °C. Single-crystal MgO(001 cap-layers grow epitaxially on the FePt films, whereas the structure of C cap-layers is amorphous. The phase transformation from A1 to L10 occurs when the films are annealed at 600 °C. The FePt films with MgO cap-layers thicker than 2 nm consist of L10(001 variant with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas those with C cap-layers involve small volumes of L10(100 and (010 variants with the c-axis lying in the film plane. The in-plane and the out-of-plane lattices are respectively more expanded and contracted in the continuous-lattice MgO/FePt/MgO structure due to accommodations of misfits of FePt film with respect to not only the MgO substrate but also the MgO cap-layer. The lattice deformation promotes phase transformation along the perpendicular direction and L10 ordering. The FePt films consisting of only L10(001 variant show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropies and low in-plane coercivities. The present study shows that an introduction of epitaxial cap-layer is effective in controlling the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  8. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110 orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111 orientation in BaTiO3 films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature TC of (110-oriented BaTiO3 films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110- and (111-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  9. Strain-Dependence of the Structure and Ferroic Properties of Epitaxial NiTiO3 Thin Films Grown on Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Varga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarization-induced weak ferromagnetism has been predicted a few years back in perovskite MTiO3 (M = Fe, Mn, and Ni. We set out to stabilize this metastable perovskite structure by growing NiTiO3 epitaxially on different substrates and to investigate the dependence of polar and magnetic properties on strain. Epitaxial NiTiO3 films were deposited on Al2O3, Fe2O3, and LiNbO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition and characterized using several techniques. The effect of substrate choice on lattice strain, film structure, and physical properties was investigated. Our structural data from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy shows that substrate-induced strain has a marked effect on the structure and crystalline quality of the films. Physical property measurements reveal a dependence of the weak ferromagnetism and lattice polarization on strain and highlight our ability to control the ferroic properties in NiTiO3 thin films by the choice of substrate. Our results are also consistent with the theoretical prediction that the ferromagnetism in acentric NiTiO3 is polarization induced. From the substrates studied here, the perovskite substrate LiNbO3 proved to be the most promising one for strong multiferroism.

  10. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huaping, E-mail: wuhuaping@gmail.com, E-mail: hpwu@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun; Chai, Guozhong [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jie [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110) orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111) orientation in BaTiO{sub 3} films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature T{sub C} of (110)-oriented BaTiO{sub 3} films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110)- and (111)-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  11. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Bivas [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Sands, Timothy D. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  12. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Epitaxial transformation of hcp–fcc Ti sublattices during nitriding processes of evaporated-Ti thin films due to nitrogen-implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Feng, Xiaoyi [Department of Metallurgy, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 02, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kasukabe, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kasukabe@insc.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 02, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Center for International Exchange, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Sendai 980-8576 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shunya; Yoshikawa, Masahito [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Fujino, Yutaka [Center for International Exchange, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Sendai 980-8576 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Atomistic transformation processes of Ti films due to N-implantation have been clarified. ► The N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with 62 keV are implanted into as-deposited Ti film in the in-situ TEM. ► The hcp-fcc transformation is induced by the shear in the <0 1 · 0> direction on the (<0 0 · 1>) plane. ► The shear is promoted by the forming of covalent bonds and by the weakening of Ti–Ti bonds. -- Abstract: Atomistic transformation processes of Ti films due to N-implantation have been clarified through in-situ observations by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with molecular orbital calculations. The N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with 62 keV are implanted into as-deposited Ti films which consist of hcp-Ti and TiH{sub x} with preferred orientations, in the 400 kV analytic high resolution TEM combined with ion accelerators. Thus, titanium nitride (TiN{sub y}) films with preferred orientations are epitaxially formed by the inheritance of partial atomic arrangement of hcp-Ti or TiH{sub x} in as-deposited Ti films and by the occupation of octahedral sites by N atoms, which elucidates that epitaxial transformation of hcp–fcc Ti sublattices occurs. The analysis of electronic structure of Ti films during the implantation clarifies that octahedral sites of hcp-Ti with larger space have lower electron density, which leads to the invasion of N ions into octahedral sites. Thus, the hcp–fcc transformation is induced by the shear in the <0 1 · 0> direction on the (0 0 · 1) plane, promoted by the forming of covalent bonds mainly composed of hybridized orbitals due to combination of Ti3d and N2p orbitals, and by the weakening of Ti–Ti bonds.

  14. Epitaxial growth and surface properties of half-metal NiMnSb films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, C N; Ristoiu, D; Jeong, H-K; Komesu, Takashi; Caruso, A N; Pierre, J; Ranno, L; Nozières, J P; Dowben, P A

    2007-08-08

    We present, herein, an extended study of the half-Heusler alloy NiMnSb, starting with the deposition technique, continuing with the basic structural and magnetic properties of the thin films, and finishing with the electronic and compositional properties of their surfaces. The experimental methods we apply combine magnetization and magnetoresistivity measurements, atomic force microscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, x-ray and neutron diffraction, low energy electron diffraction, angle resolved x-ray photoemission, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and spin polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy. We find that stoichiometric surfaces exhibit close to 100% spin polarization at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone at the Fermi edge at ambient temperatures. There is strong evidence for a moment reordering transition at around 80 K which marks the crossover from a high polarization state (T80 K). The results from the different experimental techniques are successively reviewed, with special emphasis on the interplay between composition and electronic structure of the NiMnSb film surfaces. Surface segregation, consistent with a difference in free enthalpy between the surface and the bulk, is induced by annealing treatments. This surface segregation greatly reduces the surface polarization.

  15. Epitaxial growth and surface properties of half-metal NiMnSb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borca, C N [Swiss Light Source and the Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institute, Viligen PSI CH-5232 (Switzerland); Ristoiu, D [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Jeong, H-K [Department of Physics, SungkyunKwan University, Jangan Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Komesu, Takashi [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Caruso, A N [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58047 (United States); Pierre, J [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ranno, L [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Nozieres, J P [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Dowben, P A [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States)

    2007-08-08

    We present, herein, an extended study of the half-Heusler alloy NiMnSb, starting with the deposition technique, continuing with the basic structural and magnetic properties of the thin films, and finishing with the electronic and compositional properties of their surfaces. The experimental methods we apply combine magnetization and magnetoresistivity measurements, atomic force microscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, x-ray and neutron diffraction, low energy electron diffraction, angle resolved x-ray photoemission, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and spin polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy. We find that stoichiometric surfaces exhibit close to 100% spin polarization at the centre of the surface Brillouin zone at the Fermi edge at ambient temperatures. There is strong evidence for a moment reordering transition at around 80 K which marks the crossover from a high polarization state (T<80 K) to a more representative metallic ferromagnetic state (T>80 K). The results from the different experimental techniques are successively reviewed, with special emphasis on the interplay between composition and electronic structure of the NiMnSb film surfaces. Surface segregation, consistent with a difference in free enthalpy between the surface and the bulk, is induced by annealing treatments. This surface segregation greatly reduces the surface polarization.

  16. Domain formation due to surface steps in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisova, S.; Kampmeier, J.; Mussler, G.; Grützmacher, D. [Peter Grünberg Institute-9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Jülich Aachen Research Alliance, Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Luysberg, M. [Peter Grünberg Institute-5 and Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany)

    2013-08-19

    The atomic structure of topological insulators Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films on Si (111) substrates grown in van der Waals mode by molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Besides single and multiple quintuple layer (QL) steps, which are typical for the step-flow mode of growth, a number of 0.4 QL steps is observed. We determine that these steps originate from single steps at the substrate surface causing domain boundaries in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film. Due to the peculiar structure of these domain boundaries the domains are stable and penetrate throughout the entire film.

  17. Misfit strain relaxation in (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 epitaxial thin films on orthorhombic NdGaO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-07-01

    Strain relaxation in (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 (BST) thin films on ⟨110⟩ orthorhombic NdGaO3 substrates is investigated by x-ray diffractometry. Pole figure analysis indicates a [010]BST∥[1¯10]NGO and [001]BST∥[001]NGO in-plane and [100]BST∥[100]NGO out-of-plane epitaxial relationship. The residual strains are relaxed at h ˜200nm, and for h >600nm, films are essentially strain free. Two independent dislocations mechanisms operate to relieve the anisotropic misfit strains along the principal directions. The critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation along [001] and [010] are 11 and 15nm, respectively. Stress analysis indicates deviation from linear elasticity for h <200. The films with 10

  18. Room temperature photoluminescence from In{sub x}Al{sub (1−x)}N films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W., E-mail: wei.kong@duke.edu; Jiao, W. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Brown, A. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Mohanta, A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Research Participation Program, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Roberts, A. T. [Charles Bowden Research Lab, Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Fournelle, J. [Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Losurdo, M. [Plasma Chemistry Research Center-CNR, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy); Everitt, H. O. [Charles Bowden Research Lab, Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-09-29

    InAlN films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy exhibited a lateral composition modulation characterized by 10–12 nm diameter, honeycomb-shaped, columnar domains with Al-rich cores and In-rich boundaries. To ascertain the effect of this microstructure on its optical properties, room temperature absorption and photoluminescence characteristics of In{sub x}Al{sub (1−x)}N were comparatively investigated for indium compositions ranging from x = 0.092 to 0.235, including x = 0.166 lattice matched to GaN. The Stokes shift of the emission was significantly greater than reported for films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, possibly due to the phase separation in these nanocolumnar domains. The room temperature photoluminescence also provided evidence of carrier transfer from the InAlN film to the GaN template.

  19. Self-starting mode locking in a Cr:forsterite laser by use of non-epitaxially-grown semiconductor-doped silica films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasankumar, R P; Chudoba, C; Fujimoto, J G; Mak, P; Ruane, M F

    2002-09-01

    We demonstrate RF sputtered, non-epitaxially-grown semiconductor nanocrystallite-doped silica films for mode locking a Cr:forsterite laser. We controlled the size and the optical properties of the nanocrystallites by varying the ratio of InAs to SiO(2) during fabrication. Femtosecond pump-probe measurements were performed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of these films, revealing their lower saturation fluences. Using the InAs-doped silica films as saturable absorbers permitted self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking (KLM), generating pulses of 25-fs duration with 91-nm spectral bandwidth at 1.3 microm . We also describe saturable-absorber mode-locked operation without KLM and investigate its dependence on intracavity dispersion.

  20. Halide vapor phase epitaxy of thick GaN films on ScAlMgO4 substrates and their self-separation for fabricating freestanding wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kazuki; Kanoh, Masaya; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Mukai, Takashi; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Halide vapor phase epitaxy of thick GaN films was demonstrated on ScAlMgO4 (SCAM) substrates, and their self-separation was achieved. The 320-µm-thick GaN film was self-separated from the SCAM substrate during the cooling process after the growth. This separation phenomenon occurred because of both the c-plane cleavability of SCAM and the difference in the thermal-expansion coefficients between GaN and SCAM. The dark-spot densities for the GaN films on the SCAM substrates were approximately 30% lower than those on sapphire substrates. These results indicate that SCAM substrates are promising for fabricating a high-quality freestanding GaN wafer at a low cost.

  1. Epitaxial growth of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} thin films with basal planes parallel or orthogonal to the surface on {alpha}-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Barbot, J. F.; Alkazaz, M.; Cabioch, T.; Beaufort, M. F. [Institut Pprime, UPR 3346, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, Departement de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd M. et P. Curie, BP 30179, F-86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France)

    2012-07-09

    The growth of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} thin films were studied onto {alpha}-SiC substrates differently oriented by thermal annealing of TiAl layers deposited by magnetron sputtering. For any substrate's orientation, transmission electron microscopy coupled with x-ray diffraction showed the coherent epitaxial growth of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} films along basal planes of SiC. Specifically for the (1120) 4H-SiC, Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} basal planes are found to be orthogonal to the surface. The continuous or textured nature of Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} films does not depend of the SiC stacking sequence and is explained by a step-flow mechanism of growth mode. The ohmic character of the contact was confirmed by current-voltage measurements.

  2. Low-field tunnel-type magnetoresistance properties of polycrystalline and epitaxial La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, I B; Choi, S Y

    2000-01-01

    The low-field tunnel-type magnetoresistance (TMB) properties of sol-gel derived polycrystalline and epitaxial La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3 (LSMO) thin films were investigated. The polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on Si (100) with a thermally oxidized SiO sub 2 layer while the epitaxial thin films were grown on LaAlO sub 3 (001) single-crystal substrates. The epitaxial thin films displayed both typical intrinsic colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and abnormal extrinsic tunnel-type magnetoresistance behaviors. Tunnel-type MR ratio as high as 0.4% were observed in the polycrystalline thin films at a field of 120 Oe at room temperature (300 K) whereas the ratios were less than 0.1% for the epitaxial films in the same field range. The low-field tunnel-type MR of polycrystalline LSMO/SiO sub 2 ?Si (100) thin films originated from the behaviors of the grain-boundary properties.

  3. Polymorph separation induced by angle distortion and electron delocalization effect via orbital modification in V O2 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin; Hu, Kai; Tao, Zhuchen; Zhao, Jiangtao; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lu, Minghui; Yang, Yuanjun; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2017-02-01

    Since Morin discovered that vanadium dioxide (V O2 ) undergoes a reversible and dramatic structural phase transition coupled with an abrupt metal-insulator transition, extensive attention has been paid to V O2 due to its importance in fundamental condensed state physics and its potential technological applications. Here, we observed that the precipitated phases of V O2 (insulating and metallic polymorphs) could be controlled by relaxing the dimerization of the vanadium-vanadium (V-V) atomic chain. In particular, the monoclinic metallic phase can be stabilized even at room temperature with the assistance of the angle-distortion-induced (β =120∘ ) metallization through symmetry matching between the V O2 epitaxial thin films and the (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates. Concomitantly, the insulating phase (M1 ,β =122 .6∘ ) that separates from the metallic matrix may supply another driving force for stabilizing the metallic phase, as indicated by scattering-type scanning near-field optical infrared microscopy and further confirmed by synchrotron radiation high-resolution x-ray diffraction characterizations. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy results showed that the orbital features of the monoclinic metallic phase are analogous to those of the high-temperature metallic rutile V O2 (R) phase. First-principles calculations further demonstrate the angle-distortion-induced reduction of the V-V atomic dimerization, which enhances the electron delocalization and thus the conductivity. Therefore, the angle distortion results in the metallic monoclinic phase and stabilizes it with the assistance of the nanoscale insulating V O2 (M1) domains at room temperature. These results are of great importance for understanding the contributions of various polymorphs to the metal-insulator transition and for the design of novel artificially heterointerfacial devices based on V O2 nanoscale polymorphs.

  4. Magnetic and superconducting properties of a heavy-fermion CeCoIn5 epitaxial film probed by nuclear quadrupole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takayoshi; Shimozawa, Masaaki; Shishido, Hiroaki; Kitagawa, Shunsaku; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Terashima, Takahito; Matsuda, Yuji; Ishida, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    Since the progress in the fabrication techniques of thin films of exotic materials such as strongly correlated heavy-fermion compounds, microscopic studies of the magnetic and electronic properties inside the films have been needed. Herein, we report the observation of 115In nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in an epitaxial film of the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, for which the microscopic field gradient within the unit cell as well as magnetic and superconducting properties at zero field are evaluated. We find that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in the film is in excellent agreement with that of bulk crystals, whereas the NQR spectra show noticeable shifts and significant broadening indicating a change in the electric-field distribution inside the film. The analysis implies a displacement of In layers in the film, which, however, does not affect the magnetic fluctuations and superconducting pairing. This implies that inhomogeneity of the electronic field gradient in the film sample causes no pair-breaking effect.

  5. Electrical transport properties and laser-induced voltage effect in La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theingi, Mya; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Hui; Cui, Qi; Yi, Jianhong; Chen, Qingming

    2014-03-01

    La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 (LCMO) thin films about 200 nm thickness were grown on untilted and tilted (5°, 10° and 15°) LaAlO3 (100) single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Electrical properties of the epitaxial thin films were studied by conventional four-probe technique and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties of the films grown on the tilted substrates have been investigated by laser-induced voltage (LIV) measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis and atomic force microscopy results show that the prepared LCMO thin films have a single phase and high crystalline quality. The remarkably large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) values (above 11 %/K) are observed in the all films. TCR value reaches 18 %/K on the film grown on 10° tilted substrate. The intensity of LIV signals monotonously increases with the tilting angles, and the largest signal is 148 mV with the fast time response 229 ns for the film grown on 15° tilted substrate.

  6. Epitaxial Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O thin films ablated from targets synthesized by wet chemistry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Doria, J. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Cordoba, C.; Paredes, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Gomez, A. [Laboratorio de caracterizacion de materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Paucar, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Fuchs, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-08-15

    Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) substrates. The polymeric precursor method was used to synthesize the powders from which the ablation targets were fabricated. Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O films ablated from these targets showed excellent epitaxial growth with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) {approx}0.07{sup o}. Probably, the purity offered by the soft chemistry methods to prepare ceramic-type polycrystalline compounds with nanometric particle size plays an important role in achieving high-quality films of novel oxides as Mn-doped ZnO. Interestingly, the Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O films displayed well-defined magnetic hysteresis loops both at room temperature and 5 K, which points out to the presence of ferromagnetic order in the films. Nevertheless, the mechanism leading to room temperature ferromagnetism in the Mn-doped ZnO is not fully established. Probably, unpaired electron spins responsible for ferromagnetism in the films have their origin in the oxygen vacancies, especially on the surfaces of the oxide nanoparticles. The oxygen deficiency would result from thin film growth conditions as the studied samples were grown in low-pressure oxygen atmosphere (1x10{sup -4} mbar).

  7. Epitaxial superconducting GdBa2Cu3O7‑δ /Gd2O3 nanocomposite thin films from advanced low-fluorine solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, Pablo; Mundet, Bernat; Eloussifi, Hichem; Vallés, Ferrán; Coll, Mariona; Ricart, Susagna; Gázquez, Jaume; Palau, Anna; Roura, Pere; Farjas, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the CSD method to synthesize GdBCO and GdBCO–Gd2O3 nanocomposite 250–300 nm thin films. For this we have designed a new low-fluorine solution never used before in the synthesis of GdBCO thin films that allows us to reduce the HF release by 80% and increase the reproducibility of the pyrolysis process. The growth of these thin films required a new thermal process to be designed, which we refer to as ‘flash-heating’, where the heating rate is extremely fast (∼600 °C min‑1). The structure and the superconducting properties of the pristine GdBCO films are excellent, showing a (00 l) epitaxial orientation of the GdBCO grains and T c values that reach 92.8 K, which means an enhancement of more than 1 K with respect to standard YBCO films. The calculated J c inside the grains ({J}{{c}}{{G}}) also presents remarkable values: {J}{{c}}{{G}}(5 K) ∼ 40 MA cm‑2 and {J}{{c}}{{G}}(77 K) ∼ 3.3 MA cm‑2. Finally, the GdBCO–Gd2O3 nanocomposites films, with a 20% mol of Gd2O3, exhibit superior superconducting properties and pinning performances with respect to GdBCO pristine films.

  8. Optical and electrical properties of CuScO 2 epitaxial films prepared by combining two-step deposition and post-annealing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Yoshiharu; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutom; Masuko, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2009-02-01

    A CuScO 2(0 0 0 1) epitaxial film with a thickness of a few hundred nanometers was successfully grown on an a-plane sapphire substrate by combining the two-step deposition and post-annealing techniques. The film was single-phase with a rhombohedral crystal structure and showed six-fold rotational symmetry in the basal plane, indicating that the film had a twinned domain structure. The orientation relationships of the film with respect to the substrate were CuScO 2[3R](0 0 0 1)//sapphire(1 1 2¯ 0) and CuScO 2[3R][1 1 2¯ 0]//sapphire[0 0 0 1]. The average optical transmittance of the film was higher than 60% in the visible/near-infrared regions, and the energy gap for direct allowed transition was estimated to be 3.7 eV. The p-type conduction of the film was confirmed by Hall measurement. The electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, Hall mobility, and Seebeck coefficient of the film at room temperature were 1.0×10 -3 S cm -1, 4.5×10 16 cm -3, 1.4×10 -1 cm 2 V -1 s -1, and +968 μV K -1, respectively. The activation energy estimated from the temperature dependence of the carrier concentration was 0.62 eV.

  9. Effects of strain on the magnetic and transport properties of the epitaxial La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, M.; Kameli, P.; Ehsani, M. H.; Ahmadvand, H.; Salamati, H.

    2016-12-01

    The epitaxial strain can considerably modify the physical properties of thin films compared to the bulk. This paper reports the effects of substrate-induced strain on La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (LCMO) thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Transport and magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on strain type. It is also shown that compressive (tensile) strain leads to the increase (decrease) in the magnetization of the films. Moreover, it was observed that all LCMO films deposited on both LAO and STO substrates behave as an insulator, but LCMO/LAO thin films with compressive strain have lower resistivity than LCMO/STO thin films with tensile strain. Applying magnetic field to LCMO/STO thin films with thickness of 25 and 50 nm leads to very small change in the resistivity, while the effects of magnetic field on the sample with thickness of 125 nm leads to an insulator-metal transition. For LCMO/LAO thin films, the magnetic field has a strong impact on the resistivity of samples. The results show that the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced by increasing film thickness for LCMO/LAO samples, due to the relatively stronger phase separation. For LCMO/STO thin films MR is drastically decreased by reduction of film thickness, which is attributed to the enhancement of the charge-orbital order (CO-O) accompanying the complex spin order (the so-called CE type). The changes of the antiferromagnetic structure from the CE to C type and the enhancement of the CE type could be attributed to the in-plane compressive and tensile strain, respectively.

  10. Electrically induced insulator to metal transition in epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Nikhil, E-mail: nss152@psu.edu; Dasgupta, Sandeepan; Datta, Suman [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Joshi, Toyanath; Borisov, Pavel; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We report on the electrically induced insulator to metal transition (IMT) in SmNiO{sub 3} thin films grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition. The behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature suggests that the primary transport mechanism in the SmNiO{sub 3} insulating state is dominated by Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH). Additionally, the magnetic transition in the insulating state of SmNiO{sub 3} modifies the characteristics of the ES-VRH transport. Systematic DC and pulsed current-voltage measurements indicate that current-induced joule heating is the fundamental mechanism driving the electrically induced IMT in SmNiO{sub 3}. These transport properties are explained in context of the IMT in SmNiO{sub 3} being related to the strong electron-lattice coupling.

  11. Growth and charge ordering of epitaxial YbFe2O4 films on sapphire using Fe3O4 buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tatsuo; Numata, Tomoya; Nakahata, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kano, Jun; Ikeda, Naoshi

    2018-01-01

    Well-crystallized epitaxial YbFe2O4 films were prepared on an α-Al2O3(001) substrate using an Fe3O4 buffer layer. Fe3O4 has a relatively small lattice mismatch with both YbFe2O4 and α-Al2O3. Electron diffraction analysis combined with transmission electron microscopy revealed the epitaxial relationship to be α-Al2O3[110](001) ∥ Fe3O4[\\bar{2}11](111) ∥ YbFe2O4[110](001). Moreover, superlattice spots due the Fe2+–Fe3+ charge order state of YbFe2O4 were clarified. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in YbFe2O4 was nearly stoichiometric. The film exhibited a ferrimagnetic transition at ∼220 K and a nonlinear current–voltage characteristic at room temperature. These results confirmed the good crystallinity and stoichiometry of the obtained YbFe2O4 films.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence analysis of plasmas for epitaxial growth of YBiO3 films with pulsed laser deposition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orsel, K; Groenen, Rik; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M; Boller, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    ... the influence of oxygen present in the background gas during pulsed laser deposition to the oxidation of plasma species as well as the formation of epitaxial YBiO 3 films. With spatiotemporal LIF mapping of ...

  13. Combined impact of strain and stoichiometry on the structural and ferroelectric properties of epitaxially grown N a1 +xNb O3 +δ films on (110) NdGa O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Biya; Schwarzkopf, J.; Feldt, C.; Sellmann, J.; Markurt, T.; Wördenweber, R.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate that the strain of an epitaxially grown film, which is induced by the lattice mismatch between the crystalline substrate and film and relaxes with increasing film thickness, can be conserved beyond the critical thickness of plastic relaxation of the respective film/substrate heterostructure system by adding epitaxially embedded nanoprecipitates and/or nanopillars of a secondary phase. By doing so we modify the ferroelectric properties of the film in a very controlled way. For this purpose, strained N a1 +xNb O3 +δ films are epitaxially grown on (110 ) NdGa O3 and their structural and electronic properties are investigated. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate that in addition to the epitaxially grown majority phase NaNb O3 , a second phase N ayNb O3 +δ is present in the films and forms crystalline precipitates and vertically aligned pillars a few nanometers in diameter. For large enough concentrations, this secondary phase appears to be able to suppress the plastic relaxation of the NaNb O3 matrix. In contrast to stoichiometric films and films with small Na excess, which demonstrate strain relaxation for film thickness exceeding a few nanometers and relaxor-type ferroelectric behavior, the N a1 +xNb O3 +δ film with the largest off-stoichiometry (grown from a target with x =17 % ) exhibits the "classic" ferroelectric behavior of unstrained NaNb O3 with a hysteretic structural and ferroelectric transition. However, the temperature of this hysteretic transition is shifted from 616 K to 655 K for unstrained material to room temperature for the strained N a1 +xNb O3 +δ film grown from the off-stoichiometric target.

  14. Ion beam induced damage and superlattice formation in epitaxial YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-//sub delta/ thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; White, A.E.; Short, K.T.; Dynes, R.C.; Poate, J.M.; Jacobson, D.C.; Mankiewich, P.M.; Skocpol, W.J.; Howard, R.E.

    1989-03-20

    We have studied the effect of ion beam irradiation on the microstructure of epitaxial YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-//sub delta/ thin films. The ion beam induced defects are found to cluster in small (<100 A) disordered areas. The size and density of the disordered areas are found to increase with the ion fluence. The presence of these small disordered areas can lead to the reduction of phase coherence of the electron pair wave function. Ion beam irradiation is also found to reduce the orthorhombicity of the lattice structure. A new incommensurate superlattice phase due to ion beam induced defect ordering has also been observed.

  15. van der Waals epitaxy of Al-doped ZnO film on mica as a flexible transparent heater with ultrafast thermal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shanming; Xie, Jing; Chen, Chang; Lin, Peng; Zeng, Xierong; Shu, Longlong; Fei, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Ye, Mao; Wang, Danyang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, high-performance conducting Al-doped ZnO (AZO) electrodes were deposited on transparent and flexible muscovite mica substrates. The use of mica as a substrate material makes a van der Waals epitaxy possible, which significantly improves the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited AZO single-crystal-like films. AZO/mica retains its low electric resistivity, even after continuous bending of up to 1000 times on account of the unique layered structure of mica. When used as a transparent heater, AZO/mica shows an ultrahigh heating rate (200 °C/s) across large areas, which is a record among flexible transparent heaters.

  16. Superconducting spin valves based on epitaxial Fe/V-hybrid thin film heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Gregor

    2010-12-10

    This study presents a systematic investigation of the SSV effect in FM/SC/FM and FM/N/FM/SC heterostructures. Before investigating the actual SSV effect, we first pre-analyzed structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of the Fe/V system. In these preliminary studies we demonstrated, that epitaxial Fe/V heterostructures of superior crystalline quality can be grown by DC sputter deposition. With a Fe/V interface thickness of only one monolayer, the chemical separation of the Fe and V layers is extremely sharp. Moreover, the magnetic investigation showed that from thicknesses of two Fe(001) monolayers on the Fe layers in the superlattice possess a magnetic moment. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interlayer exchange coupling as oscillatory function of the V interlayer thickness. The investigations of the superconducting parameters of the Fe/V system revealed a non-monotonic T{sub S} vs. d{sub Fe} dependence in sample series (1). This observation proves the presence of the FM/SC proximity effect. The studies of various heterostructures of the design AFM/FM/SC/FM revealed a strong counteracting influence on the SSV effect, the stray field effect. The sample containing Fe{sub 25}V{sub 75} alloy layers, has the highest ratio of Cooper pair coherence length and superconductor thickness (ξ{sub S})/(d{sub S}), and its superconducting transition temperature is comparable to the sample with Fe{sub 35}V{sub 65} alloy layers. Nevertheless, the SSV effect in sample Fe{sub 25}V{sub 75} with alloy layers is much smaller than in sample with Fe{sub 35}V{sub 65} alloy layers. For a high-performance superconducting spin valve based on a FM1/SC/FM2 heterostructure at least four parameters have to be optimized simultaneously. 1. The magnetic domain size in FM1 and FM2 has to be as large as possible in order to reduce the stray field effect resulting from magnetization components in the FM domain walls perpendicular to the SC layer. 2. When using ferromagnetic alloys as

  17. Characterization of reclaimed GaAs substrates and investigation of reuse for thin film InGaAlP LED epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englhard, M.; Klemp, C.; Behringer, M.; Rudolph, A. [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Skibitzki, O.; Zaumseil, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Institute of Physics and Chemistry, BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2016-07-28

    This study reports a method to reuse GaAs substrates with a batch process for thin film light emitting diode (TF-LED) production. The method is based on an epitaxial lift-off technique. With the developed reclaim process, it is possible to get an epi-ready GaAs surface without additional time-consuming and expensive grinding/polishing processes. The reclaim and regrowth process was investigated with a one layer epitaxial test structure. The GaAs surface was characterized by an atomic force microscope directly after the reclaim process. The crystal structure of the regrown In{sub 0.5}(Ga{sub 0.45}Al{sub 0.55}){sub 0.5}P (Q{sub 55}) layer was investigated by high resolution x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. In addition, a complete TF-LED grown on reclaimed GaAs substrates was electro-optically characterized on wafer level. The crystal structure of the epitaxial layers and the performance of the TF-LED grown on reclaimed substrates are not influenced by the developed reclaim process. This process would result in reducing costs for LEDs and reducing much arsenic waste for the benefit of a green semiconductor production.

  18. Comparative study on the roles of anisotropic epitaxial strain and chemical doping in inducing the antiferromagnetic insulator phase in manganite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Feng, Qiyuan; Guo, Zhuang; Lan, Da; Wang, Lingfei; Gao, Guanyin; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Binbin; Chen, Feng; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial strain and chemical doping are two different methods that are commonly used to tune the physical properties of epitaxial perovskite oxide films, but their cooperative effects are less addressed. Here we try to tune the phase separation (PS) in (La1-xP rx) 2 /3C a1 /3Mn O3 (0 ≤x ≤0.4 , LPCMO) films via cooperatively controlling the anisotropic epitaxial strain (AES) and the Pr doping. These films are grown simultaneously on NdGa O3(110 ) ,(LaAlO3) 0.3(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3 ) 0.7(001 ) , and NdGa O3(001 ) substrates with progressively increased in-plane AES, and probed by x-ray diffraction, magnetotransport, and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Although it is known that for x =0 the AES can enhance the orthorhombicity of the films yielding a phase diagram with the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered insulator (AF-COI) state induced, which is quite different from the bulk one, we illustrate that the Pr doping can further drive the films towards a more robust COI state. This cooperative effect is reflected by the increasing magnetic fields needed to melt the COI phase as a function of AES and the doping level. More strikingly, by directly imaging the phase competition morphology of the LPCMO /NdGa O3(001 ) films via MFM, we find that during COI melting the PS domain structure is subject to both AES and the quenched disorder. However, in the reverse process, as the magnetic field is decreased, the COI phase reappears and the AES dominates leaving a crystalline-orientation determined self-organized microstructure. This finding suggests that the PS states and the domain configurations can be selectively controlled by the AES and/or the quenched disorder, which may shed some light on the engineering of PS domains for device fabrications.

  19. Correlation of growth temperature with stress, defect states and electronic structure in an epitaxial GaN film grown on c-sapphire via plasma MBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha; Mishra, Monu; Maurya, K K; Singh, Sandeep; Dilawar, Nita; Nagarajan, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Govind

    2016-03-21

    The relationship of the growth temperature with stress, defect states, and electronic structure of molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN films on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates is demonstrated. A minimum compressively stressed GaN film is grown by tuning the growth temperature. The correlation of dislocations/defects with the stress relaxation is scrutinized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements which show a high crystalline quality with significant reduction in the threading dislocation density and defect related bands. A substantial reduction in yellow band related defect states is correlated with the stress relaxation in the grown film. Temperature dependent Raman analysis shows the thermal stability of the stress relaxed GaN film which further reveals a downshift in the E2 (high) phonon frequency owing to the thermal expansion of the lattice at elevated temperatures. Electronic structure analysis reveals that the Fermi level of the films is pinned at the respective defect states; however, for the stress relaxed film it is located at the charge neutrality level possessing the lowest electron affinity. The analysis demonstrates that the generated stress not only affects the defect states, but also the crystal quality, surface morphology and electronic structure/properties.

  20. Measurement of absolute density of N atom in sputtering plasma for epitaxial growth ZnO films via nitrogen mediated crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Tomoaki; Matsushima, Koichi; Takasaki, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyuwoong; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Itagaki, Naho

    2015-09-01

    ZnO has attracted attention as a potential alternative to GaN in light emitting diodes because of the wide band gap and large exciton binding energy. Recently, we have developed a fabrication method of ZnO by sputtering, nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC), enabling us to make epitaxial films with low defect density. By utilizing the buffer layers fabricated by NMC method, we have succeeded in fabrication of single crystalline ZnO films even on 18% lattice mismatched substrates. Here, aiming to clarify effects of nitrogen during NMC process, we measured absolute density of N atom in sputtering plasma by means of vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy. First, NMC-ZnO buffer layers were deposited in Ar/N2 atmosphere. Then, ZnO films were deposited in Ar/O2 atmosphere. With increasing N2 flow rate ratio from 4 to 12%, the N density increases from 3.2 × 1010 to 1.4 × 1011 cm-3. By utilizing the NMC-ZnO buffer layer fabricated at under these conditions, single crystalline ZnO films are grown. However, large number of pits are observed on the surface of ZnO films under N-rich conditions, indicating that N density is of importance in controlling the morphology of ZnO films. This work was supported in part by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant Number 15H05431.

  1. Orientation-dependent physical properties of layered perovskite La{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Li-Wei; Guo, Bing; Chen, Chang-Le, E-mail: chenchl@nwpu.edu.cn; Luo, Bing-Cheng; Dong, Xiang-Lei; Jin, Ke-Xin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the resistivity and magnetization of orientation-engineered layered perovskite La{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} epitaxial thin films have been investigated. Epitaxial thin films were deposited on single-crystalline LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) (001), (110) and (111) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that only the (100)-oriented thin film performs insulator behavior, whereas the (110) and (111)-oriented thin films exhibit obvious metal-insulator transition at 70 K and between 85 and 120 K, respectively. Moreover, the same spin freezing temperature and different spin-glass-like transition temperatures have been observed in various oriented films. The observed experimental results were discussed according to the electron-transport mechanism and spin dynamics.

  2. Real-time growth study of plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy of InN films by synchrotron x-ray methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Anderson, Virginia R. [American Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; Johnson, Scooter D. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Downey, Brian P. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Meyer, David J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; DeMasi, Alexander [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Robinson, Zachary R. [Department of Physics, SUNY College at Brockport, 350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, New York 14420; Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Eddy, Charles R. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375

    2017-03-13

    The temporal evolution of high quality indium nitride (InN) growth by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) on a-plane sapphire at 200 and 248 °C was probed by synchrotron x-ray methods. The growth was carried out in a thin film growth facility installed at beamline X21 of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at beamline G3 of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University. Measurements of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) during the initial cycles of growth revealed a broadening and scattering near the diffuse specular rod and the development of scattering intensities due to half unit cell thick nucleation islands in the Yoneda wing with correlation length scale of 7.1 and 8.2 nm, at growth temperatures (Tg) of 200 and 248 °C, respectively. At about 1.1 nm (two unit cells) of growth thickness nucleation islands coarsen, grow, and the intensity of correlated scattering peak increased at the correlation length scale of 8.0 and 8.7 nm for Tg = 200 and 248 °C, respectively. The correlated peaks at both growth temperatures can be fitted with a single peak Lorentzian function, which support single mode growth. Post-growth in situ x-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a growth rate of ~0.36 Å/cycle consistent with the growth rate previously reported for self-limited InN growth in a commercial ALEp reactor. Consistent with the in situ GISAXS study, ex situ atomic force microscopy power spectral density measurements also indicate single mode growth. Electrical characterization of the resulting film revealed an electron mobility of 50 cm2/V s for a 5.6 nm thick InN film on a-plane sapphire, which is higher than the previously reported mobility of much thicker InN films grown at higher temperature by molecular beam epitaxy directly on sapphire. These early results indicated that in situ synchrotron x-ray study of the epitaxial growth kinetics of InN films is a very powerful method to

  3. Substrate induced tuning of compressive strain and phonon modes in large area MoS2 and WS2 van der Waals epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rajib; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Vishal, Badri; Negi, Devendra Singh; Sil, Anomitra; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Datta, Ranjan

    2017-07-01

    Large area MoS2 and WS2 van der Waals epitaxial thin films with control over number of layers including monolayer is grown by pulsed laser deposition utilizing slower growth kinetics. The films grown on c-plane sapphire show stiffening of A1g and E12g phonon modes with decreasing number of layers for both MoS2 and WS2. The observed stiffening translate into the compressive strain of 0.52% & 0.53% with accompanying increase in fundamental direct band gap to 1.74 and 1.68 eV for monolayer MoS2 and WS2, respectively. The strain decays with the number of layers. HRTEM imaging directly reveals the nature of atomic registry of van der Waals layers with the substrate and the associated compressive strain. The results demonstrate a practical route to stabilize and engineer strain for this class of material over large area device fabrication.

  4. Terahertz-radiation generation and detection in low-temperature-grown GaAs epitaxial films on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B.; Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Buriakov, A. M.; Bilyk, V. R.; Mishina, E. D. [Moscow Technological University “MIREA” (Russian Federation); Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The efficiency of the generation and detection of terahertz radiation in the range up to 3 THz by LT-GaAs films containing equidistant Si doping δ layers and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) and (111)Ga substrates is studied by terahertz spectroscopy. Microstrip photoconductive antennas are fabricated on the film surface. Terahertz radiation is generated by exposure of the antenna gap to femtosecond optical laser pulses. It is shown that the intensity of terahertz radiation from the photoconductive antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga is twice as large as the intensity of a similar antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) and the sensitivity of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga as a terahertz-radiation detector exceeds that of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) by a factor of 1.4.

  5. In-situ synchrotron x-ray studies of the microstructure and stability of In 2 O 3 epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highland, M. J.; Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Fong, D. D.; Thompson, Carol; Fuoss, P. H.; Calvo-Almazan, I.; Maddali, S.; Ulvestad, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Huang, X.; Yan, H.; Chu, Y. S.; Zhou, H.; Baldo, P. M.; Eastman, J. A.

    2017-10-16

    We report on the synthesis, stability, and local structure of In2O3 thin films grown via rf-magnetron sputtering and characterized by in-situ x-ray scattering and focused x-ray nanodiffraction. We find that In2O3 deposited onto (0 0 1)-oriented single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates adopts a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode at a temperature of 850 degrees C, resulting in epitaxial, truncated square pyramids with (1 1 1) side walls. We find that at this temperature, the pyramids evaporate unless they are stabilized by a low flux of In2O3 from the magnetron source. We also find that the internal lattice structure of one such pyramid is made up of differently strained volumes, revealing local structural heterogeneity that may impact the properties of In2O3 nanostructures and films.

  6. Low-Temperature epitaxial growth of InGaAs films on InP(100) and InP(411) A substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimova, E. A.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Klochkov, A. N.; Trunkin, I. N.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2017-07-01

    The structural and electrical characteristics of In0.53Ga0.47As epitaxial films, grown in the low-temperature mode on InP substrates with (100) and (411) A crystallographic orientations at flow ratios of As4 molecules and In and Ga atoms of γ = 29 and 90, have been comprehensively studied. The use of InP(411) A substrates is shown to increase the probability of forming two-dimensional defects (twins, stacking faults, dislocations, and grain boundaries), thus reducing the mobility of free electrons, and AsGa point defects, which act as donors and increase the free-electron concentration. An increase in γ from 29 to 90 leads to transformation of single-crystal InGaAs films grown on (100) and (411) A substrates into polycrystalline ones.

  7. Ultra-low voltage resistive switching of HfO2 buffered (001) epitaxial NiO films deposited on metal seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, X. Y.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, Z.; Wei, M. L.; Ji, H.; Chai, Y.; Zhou, F. C.; Dai, J. Y.; Zhang, T.; Li, L. T.; Meng, X. S.

    2017-10-01

    A set of (001) epitaxial NiO films were prepared on highly textured (001) Pt seed layers using magnetron sputtering, and their resistive switching performance was measured. Cube-to-cube epitaxial relationships of NiO(001)//Pt(001) and NiO[001]//Pt[001] were demonstrated. Current-voltage measurements revealed that the Ag/(001)NiO/(001)Pt capacitor structures exhibited stable bipolar switching behavior with an ON/OFF ratio of 20 and an endurance of over 5 × 103 cycles. Furthermore, inserting a HfO2 buffer layer between the NiO film and the Ag top electrode increased the ON/OFF ratio to more than 103 and reduced the SET/RESET voltage to below ±0.2 V. These enhancements are attributed to the differing filament growth mechanisms that occur in the NiO and HfO2 layers. The present work suggests that Ag/HfO2/(001)NiO/(001)Pt capacitor structures are a promising technology for next-generation, ultra-low voltage resistive switching memory.

  8. Terahertz-radiation generation in low-temperature InGaAs epitaxial films on (100) and (411) InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B., E-mail: galiev-galib@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra-High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Grekhov, M. M. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation); Kitaeva, G. Kh. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Klimov, E. A.; Klochkov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra-High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Kolentsova, O. S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation); Kornienko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, K. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P.; Pushkarev, S. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra-High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The spectrum and waveforms of broadband terahertz-radiation pulses generated by low-temperature In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As epitaxial films under femtosecond laser pumping are investigated by terahertz time-resolved spectroscopy. The In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As films are fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 200°C under different arsenic pressures on (100)-oriented InP substrates and, for the first time, on (411)A InP substrates. The surface morphology of the samples is studied by atomic-force microscopy and the structural quality is established by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the amplitude of terahertz radiation from the LT-InGaAs layers on the (411)A InP substrates exceeds that from similar layers formed on the (100) InP substrates by a factor of 3–5.

  9. Growth and characterization of β-Ga2O3 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Susmita; Rahman, Shafiqur; Hong, Liang; Rojas-Ramirez, Juan Salvador; Jin, Hanbyul; Park, Kibog; Klie, Robert; Droopad, Ravi

    2017-09-01

    The growth of high quality epitaxial beta-gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) using a compound source by molecular beam epitaxy has been demonstrated on c-plane sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. The compound source provides oxidized gallium molecules in addition to oxygen when heated from an iridium crucible in a high temperature effusion cell enabling a lower heat of formation for the growth of Ga2O3, resulting in a more efficient growth process. This source also enabled the growth of crystalline β-Ga2O3 without the need for additional oxygen. The influence of the substrate temperatures on the crystal structure and quality, chemical bonding, surface morphology, and optical properties has been systematically evaluated by x-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Under optimized growth conditions, all films exhibited pure (" separators="|2 ¯01 ) oriented β-Ga2O3 thin films with six-fold rotational symmetry when grown on a sapphire substrate. The thin films demonstrated significant absorption in the deep-ultraviolet (UV) region with an optical bandgap around 5.0 eV and a refractive index of 1.9. A deep-UV photodetector fabricated on the high quality β-Ga2O3 thin film exhibits high resistance and small dark current (4.25 nA) with expected photoresponse for 254 nm UV light irradiation suggesting that the material grown using the compound source is a potential candidate for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Structural and Electrical Properties of Single Crystalline Ga-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Zou, Wen-Qin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Ming; Du, You-Wei

    2009-11-01

    High-quality Ga-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) single crystalline films with various Ga concentrations are grown on a-plane sapphire substrates using molecular-beam epitaxy. The site configuration of doped Ga atoms is studied by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is found that nearly all Ga can substitute into ZnO lattice as electrically active donors, a generating high density of free carriers with about one electron per Ga dopant when the Ga concentration is no more than 2%. However, further increasing the Ga doping concentration leads to a decrease of the conductivity due to partial segregation of Ga atoms to the minor phase of the spinel ZnGa2O4 or other intermediate phase. It seems that the maximum solubility of Ga in the ZnO single crystalline film is about 2 at.% and the lowest resistivity can reach 1.92 × 10-4 Ω·cm at room temperature, close to the best value reported. In contrast to ZnO:Ga thin film with 1% or 2% Ga doping, the film with 4% Ga doping exhibits a metal semiconductor transition at 80 K. The scattering mechanism of conducting electrons in single crystalline ZnO:Ga thin film is discussed.

  11. Strain induced ferromagnetism and large magnetoresistance of epitaxial La1.5Sr0.5CoMnO6 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, J.; Jyotsna, G.; N, Nileena; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the structural, magnetic, and magneto-transport properties of La1.5Sr0.5CoMnO6 (LSCMO) thin films deposited on a SrTiO3 (001) substrate were investigated. A normal θ/2θ x-ray diffraction, rocking curve, ϕ-scan, and reciprocal space mapping data showed that prepared LSCMO thin films are single phase and highly strained with epitaxial nature. Temperature vs. magnetization of LSCMO films exhibits strain-induced ferromagnetic ordering with TC ˜ 165 K. In contrast to the bulk samples, there was no exchange bias and canted type antiferromagnetic and spin glass behavior in films having thickness (t) ≤ 26 nm. Temperature dependent resistivity data were explained using Schnakenberg's model and the polaron hopping conduction process. The slope change in resistivity and magnetoresistance maximum (˜65%) around TC indicates the existence of a weak double exchange mechanism between the mixed valence states of transition metal ions. Suppression of spin dependent scattering with the magnetic field is attributed for the large negative magnetoresistance in LSCMO films.

  12. Pendeo-epitaxial Growth and Characterization of III-Nitride Thin Films on SiC(0001) and Si(111) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert

    2002-03-01

    Conventional heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on low temperature GaN or AlN buffer layers previously deposited on Al2O3 and SiC substrates results in films containing a high dislocation density (1E8-1E10 cm-2) due to the lattice mismatches between the buffer layer and the film and/or the buffer layer and the substrate. The objective of this research has been the significant reduction in dislocation density in GaN thin films via special methods of metallorganic vapor phase growth. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN stripes patterned in an SiO2 mask deposited on GaN film/AlN buffer layer/6H-SiC(0001) substrates was the initial method. The mask contained 3mm and 5mm wide stripe openings, spaced parallel at 3-40 mm, and oriented along and in the GaN film. The deposited material grew vertically to the top of the mask and then both laterally over the mask and vertically until coalescence. Threading dislocations, originating from the GaN/AlN buffer layer interface, propagated to the top surface of the regrown GaN layer within the window regions of the mask. By contrast, there were no observable threading dislocations in the overgrown portions of the layer. The few dislocations observed formed parallel to (0001) plane via the extension of the vertical threading dislocations after a 90^o bend in the regrown region. They did not subsequently propagate to the surface of the overgrown GaN layers. Recently we have pioneered a new process for selective epitaxy of GaN and AlGaN layers with a low-defect density, namely, pendeo (from the Latin: to hang or be suspended from)-epitaxy (PE). It incorporates mechanisms of growth exploited by conventional lateral overgrowth processes by using masks to prevent vertical propagation of threading defects, and extends the phenomenon to employ the substrate itself as a pseudo-mask. The growth does not initiate through open windows, rather it begins on sidewalls of forms etched into a seed layer and continues until coalescence over and

  13. Thin film epitaxy, defects and interfaces in gallium nitride/sapphire and zinc oxide/sapphire heterostructures (polar and non-polar) for light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Punam

    There are three sources of strain in heteroepitaxial growth, lattice misfit; thermal misfit; and growth related defects. The primary aim of the present work was to do a fundamental study of strain and mechanisms for strain relaxation in epitaxial growth of polar-GaN and polar and nonpolar-ZnO thin films grown on sapphire substrates. We have shown that through the paradigm of domain matching epitaxy (DME) these large lattice misfit systems can be grown in a fully relaxed state at the growth temperature. As a result we need to deal with thermal and defect strains only. Growth of GaN and ZnO films on sapphire is characterized by structural inhomogeneities which are caused by impurities, variation in composition or strain. Depending on crystal structure and growth orientation of epitaxial layers, the presence of strain in epilayers can induce various phenomena which can affect device properties. The inhomogeneities due to strain have been favorably used to increase efficiency of solid state light devices based on GaN and ZnO. An understanding of the epitaxial growth mode and strain generation and relaxation processes in these systems is imperative to constructively exploit strain inhomogeneities. Working towards this end, my research work focused on a fundamental study of epitaxial growth and strain relaxation mechanisms in heteroepitaxy of GaN and ZnO and was conducted in the following three parts. Epitaxial Nucleation Layer (NL) for GaN based LEDs. This work addressed the formation of nanostructured GaN NL which is necessary to obtain smooth surface morphology and reduce defects in h-GaN layers for LEDs and lasers. From detailed X-ray and HR-TEM studies, it was determined that NL consists of nanostructured grains which were found to be faulted cubic GaN (c-GaN) with a small fraction of unfaulted c-GaN. From X-ray scans and modeling, we determined c-GaN fraction to be over 63% and rest h-GaN. From HRXRD and Raman spectroscopy it was determined that the NL contained in

  14. Role of dislocations and carrier concentration in limiting the electron mobility of InN films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; De, Arpan; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of device quality InN films on GaN epilayer and nano-wall network (NWN) templates deposited on c-sapphire by varying the film thickness up to 1 μm. The careful experiments are directed towards obtaining high mobility InN layers having a low band gap with improved crystal quality. The dislocation density is quantified by using high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve broadening values of symmetric and asymmetric reflections, respectively. We observe that the dislocation density of the InN films grown on GaN NWN is less than that of the films grown on the GaN epilayer. This is attributed to the nanoepitaxial lateral overlayer growth (ELOG) process, where the presence of voids at the interface of InN/GaN NWN prevents the propagation of dislocation lines into the InN epilayers, thereby causing less defects in the overgrown InN films. Thus, this new adaptation of the nano-ELOG growth process enables us to prepare InN layers with high electron mobility. The obtained electron mobility of 2121 cm2/Vs for 1 μm thick InN/GaN NWN is comparable with the literature values of similar thickness InN films. Furthermore, in order to understand the reasons that limit electron mobility, the charge neutrality condition is employed to study the variation of electron mobility as a function of dislocation density and carrier concentration. Overall, this study provides a route to attaining improved crystal quality and electronic properties of InN films.

  15. Growth and structure characterization of epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub y} thermoelectric thin films on LaAlO{sub 3} (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shufang, E-mail: swang2008@hotmail.co [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); He Liping [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); Elhadj, Dogheche [Institut Electronique Microelectronique Nanotechnologie IEMN DOAE CNRS UMR 8520, Universite de Valenciennes, Le Mont Houy Valenciennes Cedex F-59309 (France); Chen Jingchun; Wang Jianglong; Chen Mingjing; Yu Wei; Fu Guangsheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China)

    2010-09-30

    Epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub y} thin films with excellent c-axis and ab-plane alignments have been grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by chemical solution deposition using metal acetates as starting materials. Microstructure studies show that the resulting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub y} films have a well-ordered layer structure with a flat and clear interface with the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy of the films reveals a step-terrace surface structure without any microcracks and pores. At room temperature, the epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub y} films exhibit a resistivity of about 2 m{Omega} cm and a seebeck coefficient of about 115 {mu}V/K comparable to those of single crystals.

  16. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric responses of (110) and (001)-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thin films on all-oxide layers buffered silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Hien Thu [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Minh Duc, E-mail: minh.nguyen@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Houwman, Evert; Boota, Muhammad [Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Dekkers, Matthijn [SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Vu, Hung Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Rijnders, Guus [Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The cross sections show a very dense structure in the (001)-oriented films (c,d), while an open columnar growth structure is observed in the case of the (110)-oriented films (a,b). The (110)-oriented PZT films show a significantly larger longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33{sub ,f}), but smaller transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31{sub ,f}) than the (001) oriented films. - Highlights: • We fabricate all-oxide, epitaxial piezoelectric PZT thin films on Si. • The orientation of the films can be controlled by changing the buffer layer stack. • The coherence of the in-plane orientation of the grains and grain boundaries affects the ferroelectric properties. • Good cycling stability of the ferroelectric properties of (001)-oriented PZT thin films. The (110)-oriented PZT thin films show a larger d33{sub ,f} but smaller d31{sub ,f} than the (001)-oriented films. - Abstract: Epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were fabricated on silicon substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Depending on the buffer layers and perovskite oxide electrodes, epitaxial films with different orientations were grown. (110)-oriented PZT/SrRuO{sub 3} (and PZT/LaNiO{sub 3}) films were obtained on YSZ-buffered Si substrates, while (001)-oriented PZT/SrRuO{sub 3} (and PZT/LaNiO{sub 3}) were fabricated with an extra CeO{sub 2} buffer layer (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Si). There is no effect of the electrode material on the properties of the films. The initial remnant polarizations in the (001)-oriented films are higher than those of (110)-oriented films, but it increases to the value of the (001) films upon cycling. The longitudinal piezoelectric d33{sub ,f} coefficients of the (110) films are larger than those of the (001) films, whereas the transverse piezoelectric d31{sub ,f} coefficients in the (110)-films are less than those in the (001)-oriented films. The difference is ascribed to the lower density (connectivity between

  17. Configuration and local elastic interaction of ferroelectric domains and misfit dislocation in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Kiguchi, Kenta Aoyagi, Yoshitaka Ehara, Hiroshi Funakubo, Tomoaki Yamada, Noritaka Usami and Toyohiko J Konno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the strain field around the 90° domains and misfit dislocations in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 (001 epitaxial thin films, at the nanoscale, using the geometric phase analysis (GPA combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and high-angle annular dark field––scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM. The films typically contain a combination of a/c-mixed domains and misfit dislocations. The PbTiO3 layer was composed from the two types of the a-domain (90° domain: a typical a/c-mixed domain configuration where a-domains are 20–30 nm wide and nano sized domains with a width of about 3 nm. In the latter case, the nano sized a-domain does not contact the film/substrate interface; it remains far from the interface and stems from the misfit dislocation. Strain maps obtained from the GPA of HRTEM images show the elastic interaction between the a-domain and the dislocations. The normal strain field and lattice rotation match each other between them. Strain maps reveal that the a-domain nucleation takes place at the misfit dislocation. The lattice rotation around the misfit dislocation triggers the nucleation of the a-domain; the normal strains around the misfit dislocation relax the residual strain in a-domain; then, the a-domain growth takes place, accompanying the introduction of the additional dislocation perpendicular to the misfit dislocation and the dissociation of the dislocations into two pairs of partial dislocations with an APB, which is the bottom boundary of the a-domain. The novel mechanism of the nucleation and growth of 90° domain in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 epitaxial system has been proposed based on above the results.

  18. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M; Marincel, Daniel M; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D; Fraleigh, Robert D; Ross, Ian M; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Rainforth, W Mark

    2015-08-14

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)(3+) Fe(3+)O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community.

  19. Surface morphology and chemical state of epitaxial Al sub 2 O sub 3 film on Cu-9%Al(111) single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, Y; Song, W

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the surface morphology, natures of chemical bond and thickness of oxide film grew on the Cu-9%Al (111) single crystal by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By introducing 1300L oxygen at 725degC, aluminum was oxidized and copper was not, and the epitaxial alumina film grew on the Cu-9%Al surface. The alumina surface showed two morphologies in SEM image. One was a flat surface with a few small defects, and the other was a rough surface which had smooth and rough regions. The rough surface was remarkably seen in sputtered region to obtain clean surface. The alumina film whose thickness was about 3.5 nm uniformly grew on the flat surface, and the thickness was about 3.0-3.5 nm on rough surface. It is concluded that the surface roughness in alumina is related to the roughness of clean surface. Therefore, to grow the uniform alumina film over large area of Cu-9%Al surface, it is essential to obtain the flat clean surface prior to oxidation. (author)

  20. Strain Effects in Epitaxial VO2 Thin Films on Columnar Buffer-Layer TiO2/Al2O3 Virtual Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Burgess, Katherine; Charipar, Nicholas; Cheng, Shu-Fan; Stroud, Rhonda; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-01-18

    Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 thin film heterostructures were grown on (100) (m-cut) Al2O3 substrates via pulsed laser deposition. We have demonstrated the ability to reduce the semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) temperature of VO2 to ∼44 °C while retaining a 4 order of magnitude SMT using the TiO2 buffer layer. A combination of electrical transport and X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping studies help examine the specific strain states of VO2/TiO2/Al2O3 heterostructures as a function of TiO2 film growth temperatures. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the columnar microstructure present in TiO2 buffer films is responsible for the partially strained VO2 film behavior and subsequently favorable transport characteristics with a lower SMT temperature. Such findings are of crucial importance for both the technological implementation of the VO2 system, where reduction of its SMT temperature is widely sought, as well as the broader complex oxide community, where greater understanding of the evolution of microstructure, strain, and functional properties is a high priority.

  1. Structure and conductivity of epitaxial thin films of barium ferrite and its hydrated form BaFeO2.5-x+δ (OH)2x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha Sukkurji, Parvathy; Molinari, Alan; Benes, Alexander; Loho, Christoph; Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Venkata; Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Kruk, Robert; Clemens, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    Barium ferrite and its hydrated form (BaFeO2.5-x+δ (OH)2x , BFO) is an interesting cathode material for protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFC) due to its potential to be both, conducting for electrons and protons. We report on the fabrication of almost epitaxially grown thin films (22 nm) of barium ferrite BaFeO~2.5 (BFO) on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates via pulsed laser deposition (PLD), followed by treatment under inert, and subsequently wet inert atmospheres to induce water (respectively proton) incorporation. Microstructure, chemical composition and conducting properties are investigated for the BFO films and their hydrated forms, highlighting the influence of hydration on the conductivity characteristics between ~200-290 K. We find that water incorporation gives a strong enhancement of the conductivity to ~10-9 S cm-1 compared to argon annealed films, inducing electronic and protonic charge carriers at the same time. In comparison to bulk powders, proton conductivity is found to be strongly suppressed in such thin hydrated BFO films, pointing towards the influence of strain on the conductivity, which is evaluated based on a detailed investigation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  2. High-quality AlN film grown on a nanosized concave-convex surface sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Nagatomi, Takaharu; Morishita, Tomohiro; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2017-10-01

    We developed a method for fabricating high-crystal-quality AlN films by combining a randomly distributed nanosized concavo-convex sapphire substrate (NCC-SS) and a three-step growth method optimized for NCC-SS, i.e., a 3-nm-thick nucleation layer (870 °C), a 150-nm-thick high-temperature layer (1250 °C), and a 3.2-μm-thick medium-temperature layer (1110 °C). The NCC-SS is easily fabricated using a conventional metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy reactor equipped with a showerhead plate. The resultant AlN film has a crack-free and single-step surface with a root-mean-square roughness of 0.5 nm. The full-widths at half-maxima of the X-ray rocking curve were 50/250 arcsec for the (0002)/(10-12) planes, revealing that the NCC surface is critical for achieving such a high-quality film. Hexagonal-pyramid-shaped voids at the AlN/NCC-SS interface and confinement of dislocations within the 150-nm-thick high-temperature layer were confirmed. The NCC surface feature and resultant faceted voids play an important role in the growth of high-crystal-quality AlN films, likely via localized and/or disordered growth of AlN at the initial stage, contributing to the alignment of high-crystal-quality nuclei and dislocations.

  3. Interruption-free growth of 10 μm-thick GaN film prepared on sputtered AlN/PSS template by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. A.; Kuo, C. H.; Wu, J. P.; Chang, C. W.

    2015-09-01

    GaN films (10 μm-thick) of high crystalline quality were prepared on sputtered AlN/PSS template by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). By introducing the two-step growth method into HVPE, one can reduce the steps in the procedure, realize uninterrupted growth, and improve the crystal quality of the films. The effects of initial GaN growth on the AlN/PSS template by HVPE were also investigated. In this study, 10 μm-thick GaN films prepared on sputtered AlN/PSS template by HVPE showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped GaN film grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, the full width at half maximum of the (0 0 2) and (1 0 2) peaks of GaN decreased from 450 arcsec to 290 arcsec and from 376 arcsec to 344 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the gaps observed between the convex regions would eventually turn into dislocations during coalescence, because the number of dislocations increased with the number of gaps observed between the convex regions after step-1 growth.

  4. Optical properties of CuFeO2 and CuFe1-xGaxO2 highly epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Wheatley, R. A.; Rojas, S.; Joshi, T.; Borisov, P.; Lederman, D.

    Delafossite thin films of 20 and 200 nm CuFeO2 and 52 nm CuFe1-xGaxO2 were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on Al2O3 (0001) substrates. High epitaxial quality of the films was verified by the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.. Optical transmission and reflection spectroscopies were performed on the films under vacuum and in CO2 controlled atmosphere, respectively. Tauc plots based on transmission data yielded direct optical band gap at 2.4 eV, 2.8eV and 3.1eV and indirect band gap at 0.9 eV and 1.3 eV for CuFe1-xGaxO2 (x =0.25) and the direct band gap at 1.9eV, 3.1eV and the indirect band gap at 1.1eV for the CuFeO2films. Supported by FONDECyT 1130372.

  5. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M.; Marincel, Daniel M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M.; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D.; Fraleigh, Robert D.; Ross, Ian M.; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Mark Rainforth, W.

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)3+ Fe3+O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community.

  6. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 Composite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME voltage coefficient αME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient αME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of αME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO3-BiFeO3 superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO3-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites.

  7. Moessbauer study of epitaxial Co{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Al thin films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenofontov, Vadim; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Herbort, Christian; Jourdan, Martin [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg - University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Epitaxial thin films of the promising for spintronic applications Heusler half-metallic compound Co{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Al (CCFA) were investigated using conversion electron Moessssbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in order to get insight into the structural and magnetic properties. Thin films of 100 nm thickness were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates without and with 10 nm Fe buffer layer. We discuss a correlation between the annealing temperature and the structural disorder and hyperfine fields on Fe atoms measured by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples prepared at the optimum annealing temperature as determined by tunneling magnetoresistance measurements show the optimum degree of order on the Fe sites as determined by CEMS. Additionally, we observed evidence for a diffusion of Cr atoms from the CCFA thin film into the Fe buffer layer and the related diffusion of Fe atoms from the buffer into the CCFA film. Thus the thermal treatment changes the Fe to Cr ratio of the Heusler compound additional to influencing the degree of disorder on the Fe/Cr sites.

  8. Terahertz photoconductivity of double acceptors in narrow gap HgCdTe epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(013) and Si(013) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, V. V.; Kozlov, D. V.; Morozov, S. V.; Fadeev, M. A.; Kadykov, A. M.; Teppe, F.; Varavin, V. S.; Yakushev, M. V.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Gavrilenko, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    The energy spectra of the mercury vacancy, the most common acceptor in HgCdTe material, is studied via numerical calculations and low temperature photoconductivity (PC) measurements of ‘vacancy-doped’ HgCdTe films with low cadmium content. Since the Hg vacancy is known to be a double acceptor, the model for the helium atom was adopted for degerate valence band of zinc blende semiconductors to classify the observed PC bands. This approach provides a fairly good description of the photoionization of both neutral and singly-ionized vacancy when the central cell potential is taken into account.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of Sb-doped BaSnO{sub 3} epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qinzhuang; Dai Jianming; Liu Zhongliang; Zhang Xiaobo; Zhu Guangping; Ding Guohua, E-mail: qzliu@mail.ustc.edu.c [Department of Physics, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China)

    2010-11-17

    In this paper we report the structural, electrical and optical properties of epitaxial Ba(Sb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (x = 0-0.30) (BSSO) films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. The investigation reveals that the transport and optical characteristics of BSSO films depend very sensitively on the Sb-doping content. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements show that at low Sb contents (x = 0.03, 0.07) the metal-semiconductor transition occurs at 150 K and 80 K, respectively, and the semiconductor behaviour appears in high doped (x = 0.15, 0.30) films. The transmittance decreases significantly from about 80% to nearly zero in the visible region and the optical band gap shifts from 3.48 to 4.0 eV with increasing Sb content in the films. The lowest room-temperature resistivity of 2.43 m{Omega} cm with carrier density and mobility of 1.65 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and 1.75 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was obtained in the films with doping at x = 0.07. By employing them as bottom electrodes we have fabricated transparent Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} ferroelectric capacitors showing square polarization-electric field hysteresis loops, indicating that these perovskite-type BSSO films at low doping can be potentially used in transparent devices especially based on all-perovskite heterostructures.

  10. On the Relationship of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy and Stoichiometry in Epitaxial L1{sub 0} CoPt(001) and FePt(001) Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmak, K

    2004-08-10

    Two series of epitaxial CoPt and FePt films, with nominal thicknesses of 42 or 50 nm, were prepared by sputtering onto single crystal MgO(001) substrates in order to investigate the chemical ordering and the resultant magnetic properties as a function of alloy composition. In the first series, the film composition was kept constant, while the substrate temperature was increased from 144 to 704 C. In the second series the substrate temperature was kept constant at 704 C for CoPt and 620 C for FePt, while the alloy stoichiometry was varied in the nominalrange of 40-60 at% Co(Fe). Film compositions and thicknesses were measured via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The lattice and long-range order parameter for the L1{sub 0} phase were obtained for both sets of films using x-ray diffraction. The room-temperature magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants were determined for a subset of the films using torque magnetometry. The order parameter was found to increase with increasing temperature, with ordering occurring more readily in FePt when compared with CoPt. A perpendicular anisotropy developed in CoPt for substrate temperatures above 534 C and in FePt above 321 C. The structure and width of the magnetic domains in CoPt and FePt, as seen by magnetic force microscopy, also demonstrated an increase in magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature. For the films deposited at the highest temperatures (704 C for CoPt and 620 C for FePt), the order parameter reached a maximum near the equiatomic composition, whereas the magnetocrystalline anisotropy increased as the concentration of Co or Fe was increased from below to slightly above the equiatomic composition. It is concluded that non-stoichiometric L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt, with a slight excess of Co or Fe, are preferable for applications requiring the highest anisotropies.

  11. Magnetic state controllable critical temperature in epitaxial Ho/Nb bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Gu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the magnetic properties of Ho thin films with different crystallinity (either epitaxial or non-epitaxial and investigate their proximity effects with Nb thin films. Magnetic measurements show that epitaxial Ho has large anisotropy in two different crystal directions in contrast to non-epitaxial Ho. Transport measurements show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc of Nb thin films can be significantly suppressed at zero field by epitaxial Ho compared with non-epitaxial Ho. We also demonstrate a direct control over Tc by changing the magnetic states of the epitaxial Ho layer, and attribute the strong proximity effects to exchange interaction.

  12. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2017-08-24

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  13. Germanium epitaxy on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of on-chip optical interconnects and optical computing in the past decade, silicon-based integrated devices for monolithic and hybrid optoelectronic integration have attracted wide attention. Due to its narrow pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si technology, epitaxial Ge-on-Si has become a significant material for optoelectronic device applications. In this paper, we describe recent research progress on heteroepitaxy of Ge flat films and self-assembled Ge quantum dots on Si. For film growth, methods of strain modification and lattice mismatch relief are summarized, while for dot growth, key process parameters and their effects on the dot density, dot morphology and dot position are reviewed. The results indicate that epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials will play a bigger role in silicon photonics.

  14. Ferroelectric domain structures of epitaxial CaBi2Nb2O9 thin films on single crystalline Nb doped (1 0 0) SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yoonho; Seo, Jeong Dae; Son, Jong Yeog

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBNO) thin films were deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates. The CBNO thin films as a lead-free ferroelectric material exhibit a good ferroelectric property with the remanent polarization of 10.6 μC/cm2. In the fatigue resistance test, the CBNO thin films have no degradation in polarization up to 1×1012 switching cycles, which is applicable for non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMs). Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy study (PFM) reveals that the CBNO thin films have larger ferroelectric domain structures than those of PbTiO3 thin films. From the Landau, Lifshiftz, and Kittel's scaling law, it is inferred that the domain wall energy of CBNO thin films is probably very similar to that of the PbTiO3 thin films.

  15. Strong magnetorefractive effect in epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabovsky, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Catalonia (Spain); Herranz, G., E-mail: gherranz@icmab.e [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Catalonia (Spain); Caicedo, J.M.; Infante, I.C.; Sanchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    We report here on the magneto-optical characterization of epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. We observe that the magnetic field dependence of the magneto-optical signal measured in transverse Kerr geometry can be decomposed into even and odd contributions which evolve differently with the temperature. We demonstrate that whereas the odd component is proportional to the magnetization, the even contribution is related to the magnetorefractive effect, which is caused by the changes of the refractive index and optical conductivity with the magnetic field. This phenomenon, previously reported only at infrared wavelengths in some spin valves and granular systems, is shown here to be very relevant at visible frequencies for the colossal magnetoresistance manganites, thus allowing simultaneous optical characterization of the magnetic and magnetotransport properties. We argue that these characteristics result from inherent transport properties of these strongly correlated ferromagnetic oxides.

  16. Optical properties of epitaxial Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric thin films: Ellipsometric and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorywalski, Krzysztof; Lemée, Nathalie; Andriyevsky, Bohdan; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius; Piasecki, Michał; Bousquet, Marie; Krzyzynski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    Ultra-thin Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 films were epitaxially deposited on (001)SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. From the ellipsometric spectra collected in the photon energy range 2÷8.7 eV, real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric function were determined. It was found, that the electronic transitions related to the fundamental absorption edge are of indirect type, which is confirmed by ab initio band structure calculations. This finding is in contradiction to previous theoretical studies but in agreement with the most recent experimental works. Based on their determined energies, phonons involved in the band gap transition can be primarily associated with vibrations involving oxygen atoms. Contributions to the VUV absorption spectra come mainly from the electronic transitions from the O 2p valence band levels to Ti 3d conduction band levels and a little to the Bi p levels.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of (1 1 1)-oriented CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoran, E-mail: xxl030@email.uark.edu; Kareev, M.; Cao, Yanwei; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Chakhalian, J. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Liu, Jian [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We report on the fabrication of high quality (1 1 1)-oriented ferrimagnetic normal spinel CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin films on single crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties were characterized by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, dc magnetization measurement, and element resolved resonant X-ray magnetic scattering. The comprehensive characterization reveals that no disorder in the cation distribution or multivalency issue is present in the samples. As a result, Kagomé and triangular layers are naturally formed via this specific growth approach. These findings offer a pathway to fabricate two dimensional Kagomé heterostructures with exotic quantum many-body phenomena by means of geometrical design.

  18. Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial ferrimagnetic anti-perovskite Mn{sub 4−x}Dy{sub x}N films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X., E-mail: wushx3@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Zhou, W. Q.; Ren, L. Z.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W., E-mail: stslsw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been studied for ferrimagnetic antiperovskite Mn{sub 4−x}Dy{sub x}N films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The introduction of Dy changes the AHE dramatically, even changes its sign, while the variations in magnetization are negligible. Two sign reversals of the AHE (negative-positive-negative) are ascribed to the variation of charge carriers as a result of Fermi surface reconstruction. We further demonstrate that the AHE current J{sub AH} is dissipationless (independent of the scattering rate), by confirming that anomalous Hall conductivity, σ{sub AH}, is proportional to the carrier density n at 5 K. Our study may provide a route to further utilize antiperovskite manganese nitrides in spintronics.

  19. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Wöll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE of the metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA, 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyltriptycene (CMMT. The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100 direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111 direction.

  20. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxuan; Shekhah, Osama; Stammer, Xia; Arslan, Hasan K.; Liu, Bo; Schüpbach, Björn; Terfort, Andreas; Wöll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  1. Deposition of metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy: The influence of substrate functional group density on film orientation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J.

    2012-09-05

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4\\'-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  2. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of (110)-oriented PbZr1-xTixO3 epitaxial thin films on silicon substrates at shifted morphotropic phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X.; Houwman, E. P.; Steenwelle, R.; van Schaijk, R.; Nguyen, M. D.; Dekkers, M.; Rijnders, G.

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectrical, ferroelectrical, and structural properties of epitaxial pseudocubic (110)pc oriented 500 nm thick PbZr1-xTixO3 thin films, prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (001) silicon substrates, were measured as a function of composition. The dependence of the measurement data on the Ti content is explained by an abrupt transition from the rhombohedral r-phase to the tetragonal (c/a)45 phase for x ≈ 0.6, indicating a shift of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary to this value, where the effective piezoelectric coefficient e31,eff and dielectric constant ɛ33,eff reach their maximum values. These findings are of great significance for Si-based piezo-micro electro mechanical systems, in particular energy harvesters. The largest value of the figure-of-merit for such devices was found for x = 0.6, FOM=24.0 GPa.

  3. Exchange bias effect in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films applied to pin CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, N.; Boehnke, A.; Behler, A.; Weise, B.; Waske, A.; Hütten, A.

    2015-05-01

    The exchange bias effect is commonly used to shift the coercive field of a ferromagnet. This technique is crucial for the use of magnetic tunnel junctions as logic or memory devices. Therefore, an independent switching of the two ferromagnetic electrodes is necessary to guarantee a reliable readout. Here, we demonstrate that the intrinsic exchange bias effect of Ni-Mn-Sn can be used to apply a unidirectional anisotropy to magnetic tunnel junctions. For this, we use epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn films as pinning layers for microfabricated CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. We compare the exchange bias field ( HEB ) measured after field cooling in -10 kOe external field by magnetization measurements with HEB obtained from tunnel magnetoresistance measurements. Consistent for both methods, we find an exchange bias of about HEB=130 Oe at 10 K, which decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes above 70 K.

  4. Phenomenological theory of phase transitions in epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films on (111)-oriented cubic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Shakhovoy, R. A.; Razumnaya, A. G.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2015-07-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST-x) thin films epitaxially grown on (111)-oriented cubic substrates is developed using the Landau-Devonshire approach. The group-theoretical analysis of the low-symmetry phases was performed taking into account two order parameters: the polarization related to ionic shifts in polar zone-center F1u mode and the out-of-phase rotation of TiO6 octahedra corresponding to the R25 zone-boundary mode in the parent cubic phase P m 3 ¯ m . The eight-order thermodynamic potential for BST-x solid solutions was developed and analyzed. We constructed the "concentration-misfit strain" phase diagram for BST-x thin films at room temperature and found that polar rhombohedral R3m phase with the polarization normal to the substrate is stable for x > 0.72 and negative misfit strains, while ferroelectric monoclinic C2 and Cm phases with in-plane polarization are stable for much smaller x and positive or slightly negative misfit strains. We constructed the "temperature-misfit strain" phase diagrams for several concentrations (x = 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2). Systematic changes of the phase transition lines between the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are discussed. The phase diagrams are useful for practical applications in thin-film engineering.

  5. Discrimination of polar order extent in BaZrxTi1-xO3 epitaxial thin films by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, J.; Hernández, S.; Polo, M. C.; Ferrater, C.; Fàbrega, L.; Varela, M.

    2017-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy studies of BaZrxTi1-xO3 (BZT) epitaxial thin films are presented over the entire compositional range (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1). The analysis of the results has allowed the elaboration of the phase diagram of the BZT thin films in which three types of ferroelectric behaviour were distinguished based on the polar order extent: long range conventional ferroelectricity for x ≤ 0.2, relaxor behaviour for 0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 and weak polar interaction for 0.8 ≤ x ≤ 0.9. In order to verify the validity of this phase diagram, Raman spectra of the films were also performed over a wide temperature range (from 97 K to 497 K). The results reveal that the presence or absence of a temperature dependent structural transition correlates with the polar order extent and, thus, the ferroelectric behaviour of BZT.

  6. Magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films with various crystal orientations and tunnel magnetoresistance effect at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahama, Taro, E-mail: nagahama@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Matsuda, Yuya; Tate, Kazuya; Kawai, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Nozomi; Hiratani, Shungo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yanase, Takashi; Shimada, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi8, Kitak-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2014-09-08

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is a ferrimagnetic spinel ferrite that exhibits electric conductivity at room temperature (RT). Although the material has been predicted to be a half metal according to ab-initio calculations, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} electrodes have demonstrated a small tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. Not even the sign of the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio has been experimentally established. Here, we report on the magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films with various crystal orientations. The films exhibited apparent crystal orientation dependence on hysteresis curves. In particular, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(110) films exhibited in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. With respect to the squareness of hysteresis, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) demonstrated the largest squareness. Furthermore, we fabricated MTJs with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(110) electrodes and obtained a TMR effect of −12% at RT. The negative TMR ratio corresponded to the negative spin polarization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} predicted from band calculations.

  7. On the dielectric and optical properties of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks: A study on epitaxially grown thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Engelbert; Wang, Zhengbang; Walheim, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof

    2013-08-01

    We determine the optical constants of two highly porous, crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Since it is problematic to determine the optical constants for the standard powder modification of these porous solids, we instead use surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs). These MOF thin films are grown using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on modified silicon substrates. The produced SURMOF thin films exhibit good optical properties; these porous coatings are smooth as well as crack-free, they do not scatter visible light, and they have a homogenous interference color over the entire sample. Therefore, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) can be used in a straightforward fashion to determine the corresponding SURMOF optical properties. After careful removal of the solvent molecules used in the fabrication process as well as the residual water adsorbed in the voids of this highly porous solid, we determine an optical constant of n = 1.39 at a wavelength of 750 nm for HKUST-1 (stands for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1; and was first discovered there) or [Cu3(BTC)2]. After exposing these SURMOF thin films to moisture/EtOH atmosphere, the refractive index (n) increases to n = 1.55-1.6. This dependence of the optical properties on water/EtOH adsorption demonstrates the potential of such SURMOF materials for optical sensing.

  8. X-ray photoelectron diffraction study of thin Al2O3 films grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kazzi, M.; Grenet, G.; Merckling, C.; Saint-Girons, G.; Botella, C.; Marty, O.; Hollinger, G.

    2009-05-01

    The in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations of Al2O3 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) have been determined by combining x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the one hand, polar and azimuth XPD curves for Al2p , O1s , and Si2p core levels (recorded on a 6-nm-thick film) clearly indicate that Al2O3 grows (111) oriented on Si(111) but with two in-plane orientations: a “direct” one, i.e., [112¯]Al2O3//[112¯]Si(111) and a “mirror” one, i.e., [1¯1¯2]Al2O3(111)//[112¯]Si(111) . On the other hand, a close inspection of the 404¯Al2O3 TEM diffraction spots (recorded on a 2-nm-thick film) reveals that these two in-plane orientations are slightly rotated with respect to the Si(111) orientations. These two results are consistent with an oxygen plane as the interfacial plane between Al2O3(111) and Si(111).

  9. Thermal stability and relaxation mechanisms in compressively strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, C.; Lieten, R. R.; Shimura, Y.; Vandervorst, W. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Hermann, P.; Hönicke, P.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Seidel, F. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Institut für Elektronik-und Sensormaterialien, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Richard, O.; Bender, H. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zaima, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Uchida, N. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba West SCR, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Temst, K.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-08-28

    Strained Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} thin films have recently attracted a lot of attention as promising high mobility or light emitting materials for future micro- and optoelectronic devices. While they can be grown nowadays with high crystal quality, the mechanism by which strain energy is relieved upon thermal treatments remains speculative. To this end, we investigated the evolution (and the interplay) of composition, strain, and morphology of strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films with temperature. We observed a diffusion-driven formation of Sn-enriched islands (and their self-organization) as well as surface depressions (pits), resulting in phase separation and (local) reduction in strain energy, respectively. Remarkably, these compositional and morphological instabilities were found to be the dominating mechanisms to relieve energy, implying that the relaxation via misfit generation and propagation is not intrinsic to compressively strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

  10. Effect of Zn and Te beam intensity upon the film quality of ZnTe layers on severely lattice mismatched sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, W.; Kobayashi, M.; Asahi, T.

    2017-06-01

    Zinc telluride layers were grown on highly-lattice-mismatched sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and their crystallographic properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction pole figures. The crystal quality of the ZnTe thin film was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray rocking curves and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements. These methods show that high-crystallinity (111)-oriented single domain ZnTe layers with the flat surface and good optical properties are realized when the beam intensity ratio of Zn and Te beams is adjusted. The migration of Zn and Te was inhibited by excess surface material and cracks were appeared. In particular, excess Te inhibited the formation of a high-crystallinity ZnTe film. The optical properties of the ZnTe layer revealed that the exciton-related features were dominant, and therefore the film quality was reasonably high even though the lattice constants and the crystal structures were severely mismatched.

  11. Giant Faraday rotation of blue light in epitaxial CexY3-xFe5O12 films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyonju; Grishin, Alex; Rao, K. V.

    2001-04-01

    We report crystalline, magnetic, and magneto-optic (MO) properties of Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet (CexY3-xFe5O12) thin films epitaxially grown onto single crystal Gd3Ga5O12 (111) substrates using Nd:YAG pulsed laser deposition technique. Oxygen ambient pressure used for the growth is found to be the critical parameter to prepare CexY3-xFe5O12 films with good crystalline and magnetic properties as well as large MO effect. The film fabricated at 50 m Torr oxygen pressure exhibits a maximum Faraday rotation (FR) θF=1.78 and 4°/μm at λ=633 and 430 nm, respectively, a minimum in-plane coercivity Hc=35 Oe, and the narrowest full width at half maximum = 0.06° for the (444) x-ray Bragg reflection rocking curve. The analog of the Verdet constant V=θF/4πMs also found to be dependent on the oxygen ambient pressure reaches a value as high as 1.41°/μm kG at 633 nm, suggesting that this material is useful for MO applications. The energy dispersion FR spectra, measured over visible region 400 to 840 nm, clearly demonstrate that Ce substitution prominently enhances Faraday effect at 690 and at 430 nm blue-wavelength region.

  12. Effect of oxygen vacancy distribution on the thermoelectric properties of La-doped SrTiO3 epitaxial thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2012-12-03

    A detailed study of the role of oxygen vacancies in determining the effective mass and high temperature (300–1000 K) thermoelectricproperties of La-doped epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films is presented. It is observed that at intermediate temperatures, a transition from degenerate to non-degenerate behavior is observed in the Seebeck coefficient, but not electrical conductivity, which is attributed to heterogeneous oxygen non-stoichiometry. Heikes formula is found to be invalid for the films with oxygen vacancies. By fitting the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) data, obtained in the range 300–2100 nm, using a Drude-Lorentz dispersion relation with two Lorentz oscillators, the electrical and optical properties of the films are extracted. Using the excellent agreement between the transport properties extracted from SE modeling and direct electrical measurements, we demonstrate that an increase in concentration of oxygen vacancies results in a simultaneous increase of both carrier concentration and electron effective mass, resulting in a higher power factor.

  13. Growth of ferroelectric Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} epitaxial films by ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of chemical solution derived precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queraltó, A.; Pérez del Pino, A., E-mail: aperez@icmab.es; Mata, M. de la; Tristany, M.; Gómez, A.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Arbiol, J. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-29

    Highly crystalline epitaxial Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin-films are grown on (001)-oriented LaNiO{sub 3}-buffered LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser irradiation of solution derived barium-zirconium-titanium precursor layers using a UV Nd:YAG laser source at atmospheric conditions. The structural analyses of the obtained films, studied by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy, demonstrate that laser processing allows the growth of tens of nm-thick BST epitaxial films with crystalline structure similar to that of films obtained through conventional thermal annealing methods. However, the fast pulsed nature of the laser employed leads to crystallization kinetic evolution orders of magnitude faster than in thermal treatments. The combination of specific photothermal and photochemical mechanisms is the main responsible for the ultrafast epitaxial laser-induced crystallization. Piezoresponse microscopy measurements demonstrate equivalent ferroelectric behavior in laser and thermally annealed films, being the piezoelectric constant ∼25 pm V{sup −1}.

  14. Epitaxial growth and dielectric properties of Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 thin films on TiN/Si substrates with SrTiO sub 3 buffer layers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Joseph, M; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    2000-01-01

    Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 (BVO) thin films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO sub 3 /TiN/Si substrates by using pulsed laser ablation. A TiN thin film was prepared at 700 .deg. C as a bottom electrode. The TiN film exhibited a high alpha axis orientation and a very smooth morphology. Before the preparation of the BVO thin film, a crystallized SrTiO sub 3 thin film was deposited as a buffer layer on TiN/Si. The BVO thin film grown at a substrate temperature at 700 .deg. C and an oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr was found to be epitaxial along the c-axis. Also, BVO films were observed to have flat surfaces and the step-flow modes. The dielectric constant of the BVO film on STO/TiN/Si was constant at about 8 approx 4 in the applied frequency range between 10 sup 2 and 10 sup 6 Hz.

  15. Effect of microstructure on the electronic transport properties of epitaxial CaRuO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daptary, Gopi Nath; Sow, Chanchal; Sarkar, Suman; Chiniwar, Santosh; Kumar, P.S. Anil [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sil, Anomitra [Center For Nano Science And Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bid, Aveek, E-mail: aveek.bid@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-04-15

    We have carried out extensive comparative studies of the structural and transport properties of CaRuO{sub 3} thin films grown under various oxygen pressure. We find that the preferred orientation and surface roughness of the films are strongly affected by the oxygen partial pressure during growth. This in turn affects the electrical and magnetic properties of the films. Films grown under high oxygen pressure have the least surface roughness and show transport characteristics of a good metal down to the lowest temperature measured. On the other hand, films grown under low oxygen pressures have high degree of surface roughness and show signatures of ferromagnetism. We could verify that the low frequency resistance fluctuations (noise) in these films arise due to thermally activated fluctuations of local defects and that the defect density matches with the level of disorder seen in the films through structural characterizations.

  16. Epitaxial graphene

    OpenAIRE

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Wu, Xiaosong; First, Phillip N.; Conrad, Edward H.; Li, Xuebin; Li, Tianbo; Sprinkle, Michael; Hass, Joanna; Sadowski, Marcin L.; Potemski, Marek; Martinez, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Graphene multilayers are grown epitaxially on single crystal silicon carbide. This system is composed of several graphene layers of which the first layer is electron doped due to the built-in electric field and the other layers are essentially undoped. Unlike graphite the charge carriers show Dirac particle properties (i.e. an anomalous Berry's phase, weak anti-localization and square root field dependence of the Landau level energies). Epitaxial graphene shows quasi-ballistic transport and l...

  17. Gallium and indium co-doping of epitaxial zinc oxide thin films grown in water at 90 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Le, Hong; Chua, Soo Jin

    2011-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were intentionally co-doped with group III elements (gallium) in order to investigate and understand the effects of co-doping on the morphological, electrical and optical properties of gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) films. The co-doped films were grown on MgAl2O4 spinel substrates using a low-temperature solution-phase method known as hydrothermal synthesis. Gallium with indium co-doped ZnO (GIZO) films displayed a dramatic improvement in surface morphology as compared with the Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films due to the compensation effect of gallium and indium doping which reduced the lattice strain. The 0.0033M gallium with 3.3 × 10-4M indium co-doped film exhibited an electron concentration of 3.14 × 1020 cm-3 and resistivity of 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm which were both enhancements of 1.5 times over the GZO film. These films were comparable to the films fabricated by more expensive and complicated vapour-phase methods. The figure of merit for this film was determined to be 1.63 × 10-2 sq/Ω which was very close to the indium tin oxide conducting films currently used commercially. Finally, the GIZO film was hydrothermally grown on a p-GaN film to form an n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode (LED). This LED showed diode I-V characteristics and exhibited strong cool-white light emission which signified the prospect of using GIZO as an effective and low-cost n-type layer in LEDs.

  18. Intrinsic stability of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 thin films on silicon in relation to grain tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert P Houwman, Minh D Nguyen, Matthijn Dekkers and Guus Rijnders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric thin films of PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 were grown on Si substrates in four different ways, resulting in different crystalline structures, as determined by x-ray analysis. The crystalline structures were different in the spread in tilt angle and the in-plane alignment of the crystal planes between different grains. It is found that the deviations of the ferroelectric polarization loop from that of the ideal rectangular loop (reduction of the remanent polarization with respect to the saturation polarization, dielectric constant of the film, slanting of the loop, coercive field value all scale with the average tilt angle. A model is derived based on the assumption that the tilted grain boundaries between grains affect the film properties locally. This model describes the observed trends. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33,eff shows also a weak dependence on the average tilt angle for films grown in a single layer, whereas it is strongly reduced for the films deposited in multiple layers. The least affected properties are obtained for the most epitaxial films, i.e. grown on a SrTiO3 epitaxial seed layer, by pulsed laser deposition. These films are intrinsically stable and do not require poling to acquire these stable properties.

  19. Intrinsic stability of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 thin films on silicon in relation to grain tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, Evert P.; Nguyen, Minh D.; Dekkers, Matthijn; Rijnders, Guus

    2013-08-01

    Piezoelectric thin films of PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 were grown on Si substrates in four different ways, resulting in different crystalline structures, as determined by x-ray analysis. The crystalline structures were different in the spread in tilt angle and the in-plane alignment of the crystal planes between different grains. It is found that the deviations of the ferroelectric polarization loop from that of the ideal rectangular loop (reduction of the remanent polarization with respect to the saturation polarization, dielectric constant of the film, slanting of the loop, coercive field value) all scale with the average tilt angle. A model is derived based on the assumption that the tilted grain boundaries between grains affect the film properties locally. This model describes the observed trends. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33,eff shows also a weak dependence on the average tilt angle for films grown in a single layer, whereas it is strongly reduced for the films deposited in multiple layers. The least affected properties are obtained for the most epitaxial films, i.e. grown on a SrTiO3 epitaxial seed layer, by pulsed laser deposition. These films are intrinsically stable and do not require poling to acquire these stable properties.

  20. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Co{sub 2}MnAl film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, K.K., E-mail: kkmeng@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao, J.; Xu, X.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, J.H. [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-04-04

    We have investigated the thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and intrinsic anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in single-crystalline full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}MnAl (CMA) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(001). The magnetic anisotropy is the interplay of uniaxial and the fourfold anisotropy, and the corresponding anisotropy constants have been deduced. Considering the thickness of CMA is small, we ascribe it to the influence from interface stress. The AHE in CMA is found to be well described by a proper scaling. The intrinsic anomalous conductivity is found to be smaller than the calculated one and is thickness dependent, which is ascribed to the influence of chemical ordering by affecting the band structure and Fermi surface. - Highlights: • Single-crystalline full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}MnAl grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. • Uniaxial and the fourfold magnetic anisotropies in Heusler alloys. • Anomalous Hall effect in Heusler alloys. • The intrinsic contributions modified by chemical ordering.

  1. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of B2 ordered Co{sub 2}MnAl film epitaxially grown on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jihong; Qiao, Shuang, E-mail: sqiao@hbu.edu.cn

    2015-11-05

    Co{sub 2}MnAl, considering its potential 100% spin polarization and high Curie temperature, is expected to be one of the most promising materials for realizing half metallicity. However, on the premise of high polarization, the optimization of the magnetic damping constant is directly determined the critical current density for spin torque transfer switching and also the stability of spin polarization for spin injection transfer, thus research on damping constant is also very important. In this paper, we have systematically investigated the magnetic damping constant in Co{sub 2}MnAl film epitaxially grown on GaAs(100) substrate by FMR and TR-MOKE measurements, and found that the damping constant of 0.023 extracted by FMR is comparable with that of TR-MOKE at low field. While, considering field-dependent spin orientation, we think that the field-dependent damping constant deduced by TR-MOKE may provide important information for Co{sub 2}MnAl/GaAs heterostructure and its potential application in spintronics. - Graphical abstract: Co{sub 2}MnAl, considering its potential 100% spin polarization and high Curie temperature, is expected to be one of the most promising materials for realizing half metallicity. In this paper, we have successfully grown the B2-ordered Co{sub 2}MnAl film on GaAs (100) substrate and systematically investigated the magnetic damping constant in Co{sub 2}MnAl film epitaxially grown on GaAs(100) substrate by employing both FMR and TR-MOKE measurements. Our results show that the damping constant of 0.023 extracted by FMR is comparable with that of TR-MOKE at low field. However, considering field-dependent spin orientation, we think that the field-dependent damping constant deduced by TR-MOKE may be more useful for Co{sub 2}MnAl/GaAs heterostructure and its possible application in spintronics. - Highlights: • B2 ordered Co{sub 2}MnAl was successfully prepared and studied by LMOKE and ROT-MOKE. • Static magnetic measurements show clear cubic

  2. Structural properties of Bi{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}Se{sub 3} thin films grown via molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Borisov, Pavel; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David, E-mail: david.lederman@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Marcus, Matthew A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tarafder, Kartick [Department of Physics, BITS-Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500078 (India)

    2015-07-28

    The effects of Mn doping on the structural properties of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in thin film form were studied in samples grown via molecular beam epitaxy. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, supported by density functional theory calculations, indicate that preferential incorporation occurs substitutionally in Bi sites across the entire film volume. This finding is consistent with x-ray diffraction measurements which show that the out of plane lattice constant expands while the in plane lattice constant contracts as the Mn concentration is increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the Mn valency is 2+ and that the Mn bonding is similar to that in MnSe. The expansion along the out of plane direction is most likely due to weakening of the Van der Waals interactions between adjacent Se planes. Transport measurements are consistent with this Mn{sup 2+} substitution of Bi sites if additional structural defects induced by this substitution are taken into account.

  3. Pendeo-epitaxial growth and characterization of thin films of gallium nitride and related materials on SiC(0001) and Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.F.; Zheleva, T.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gehrke, T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Nitronex Corp., Raleigh, NC (United States); Linthicum, K.J.; Rajagopal, P. [Nitronex Corp., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zorman, C.A.; Mehregany, M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Monocrystalline GaN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N films have been grown via the pendeo-epitaxy (PE) technique with and without Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} masks on GaN/AlN/6H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001)/AlN(0001)/3C-SiC(111)/Si(111) substrates using organometallic vapor phase deposition. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were used to evaluate the external microstructures and the distribution of dislocations, respectively. The dislocation densities in the PE grown films were reduced at least five orders of magnitude relative to the initial GaN seed layers. Tilting to 0.2 in the portion of the coalesced GaN epilayers grown over the silicon nitride masks was observed via X-ray diffraction. Neither tilting nor low angle boundaries were observed within areas of coalescence in the material grown on substrates without the masks. (orig.)

  4. Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN(0 0 0 1) films via MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskowski, A. M.; Miraglia, P. Q.; Preble, E. A.; Einfeldt, S.; Davis, R. F.

    2002-05-01

    Investigations of the origins of surface roughening in GaN(0 0 0 1) have resulted in the development of a growth process route having an optimum temperature of 1020°C and a film thickness beyond 2.5 μm which results in films with the smoothest surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed uncoalesced GaN islands and hillocks for non-optimum temperatures below and above 1020°C, respectively. Uncoalesced islands were a result of insufficient lateral growth. Hillocks were a result of the rotation of heterogeneous steps formed at pure screw or mixed dislocations which terminated on the (0 0 0 1) surface. Growth of the latter features was controlled kinetically by temperature through adatom diffusion. The 10 6 cm -2 density of hillocks was reduced through growth on thick GaN templates and regions of pendeo-epitaxy (PE) overgrowth with lower pure screw or mixed dislocations. Smooth PE surfaces were obtained at temperatures that reduced the lateral to vertical growth rate but also retarded hillock growth that originated in the stripe regions. The (1 1 2¯ 0) PE sidewall surface was atomically smooth, with a root mean square roughness value of 0.17 nm, which was the noise limited resolution of the AFM measurements.

  5. Epitaxial Fe Thin Films on {100} Y2Ti2O7: Model Interfaces for Nano-Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, T.; Wu, Y.; Wells, P. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Odette, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys, a variant of oxide dispersion strengthened steels, contain a high density of ≈2.5 nm Y-Ti-O nano-oxides (NOs) that provide remarkable irradiation tolerance, enhance recombination of vacancies and self-interstitial irradiation defects, and trap He in fine-scale bubbles at their interfaces. To complement studies of embedded NOs, mesoscopic-scale metal-oxide interfaces were fabricated by electron beam deposition of Fe films on {100} Y2Ti2O7 (YTO) bulk single-crystal substrates. We report, for the first time, the dominant epitaxial orientation relationship (OR) for the polycrystalline Fe film: {110}Fe{100}YTO and 〈111〉Fe〈110〉YTO. Further, one large grain region had an OR that is also found in embedded NOs: {100}Fe{100}YTO and 〈100〉Fe〈110〉YTO. HRTEM studies show clean, semicoherent interfaces with misfit dislocation spacings of 0.7 and 1.4 nm, respectively. These observations are important for the development of first principles models of metal-oxide interfaces, and the bilayers themselves will be used to observe the He partitioning between the Fe, YTO, and the corresponding interface.

  6. Epitaxial Fe Thin Films on {100} Y2Ti2O7: Model Interfaces for Nano-Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, T.; Wu, Y.; Wells, P. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Odette, G. R.

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys, a variant of oxide dispersion strengthened steels, contain a high density of ≈2.5 nm Y-Ti-O nano-oxides (NOs) that provide remarkable irradiation tolerance, enhance recombination of vacancies and self-interstitial irradiation defects, and trap He in fine-scale bubbles at their interfaces. To complement studies of embedded NOs, mesoscopic-scale metal-oxide interfaces were fabricated by electron beam deposition of Fe films on {100} Y2Ti2O7 (YTO) bulk single-crystal substrates. We report, for the first time, the dominant epitaxial orientation relationship (OR) for the polycrystalline Fe film: {110}Fe {100}YTO and 〈111〉Fe 〈110〉YTO. Further, one large grain region had an OR that is also found in embedded NOs: {100}Fe {100}YTO and 〈100〉Fe 〈110〉YTO. HRTEM studies show clean, semicoherent interfaces with misfit dislocation spacings of 0.7 and 1.4 nm, respectively. These observations are important for the development of first principles models of metal-oxide interfaces, and the bilayers themselves will be used to observe the He partitioning between the Fe, YTO, and the corresponding interface.

  7. Morphological and microstructural stability of N-polar InAlN thin films grown on free-standing GaN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.hardy.ctr@nrl.navy.mil; Storm, David F.; Downey, Brian P.; Katzer, D. Scott; Meyer, David J. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); McConkie, Thomas O.; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Nepal, Neeraj [Sotera Defense Solutions, 2200 Defense Hwy Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The sensitivity of the surface morphology and microstructure of N-polar-oriented InAlN to variations in composition, temperature, and layer thickness for thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been investigated. Lateral compositional inhomogeneity is present in N-rich InAlN films grown at low temperature, and phase segregation is exacerbated with increasing InN fraction. A smooth, step-flow surface morphology and elimination of compositional inhomogeneity can be achieved at a growth temperature 50 °C above the onset of In evaporation (650 °C). A GaN/AlN/GaN/200-nm InAlN heterostructure had a sheet charge density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and no degradation in mobility (1760 cm{sup 2}/V s) relative to 15-nm-thick InAlN layers. Demonstration of thick-barrier high-electron-mobility transistors with good direct-current characteristics shows that device quality, thick InAlN layers can be successfully grown by PAMBE.

  8. The observation of valence band change on resistive switching of epitaxial Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film using removable liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2015-12-01

    The resistive switching (RS) phenomenon in transition metal oxides (TMOs) has received a great deal of attention for non-volatile memory applications. Various RS mechanisms have been suggested as to explain the observed RS characteristics. Many reports suggest that changes of interface and the role of oxygen vacancies originate in RS phenomena; therefore, in this study, we use a liquid drop of mercury as the top electrode (TE), epitaxial Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO) (110) film of the perovskite manganite family for RS material, and an Nb-doped (0.7 at. %) SrTiO3 (100) single crystal as the substrate to observe changes in the interface between the TE and TMOs. The use of removable liquid electrode Hg drop as TE not only enables observation of the RS characteristic as a bipolar RS curve (counterclockwise) but also facilitates analysis of the valence band of the PCMO surface after resistive switching via photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed I-V behaviors of the low and high resistance states (HRS) are explained with an electrochemical migration model in PCMO film where accumulated oxygen vacancies at the interface between the Hg TE and PCMO (110) surface induce the HRS. The interpreted RS mechanism is directly confirmed via valence band spectrum analysis.

  9. Ferromagnetic response of multiferroic TbMnO{sub 3} films mediated by epitaxial strain and chemical pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Morán, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellín, Departamento de Física, Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vítreos, A.A. 568, Medellín Colombia (Colombia); Astudillo, A.; Bolaños, G. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cauca, Calle 5 No. 4-70, Popayán (Colombia); Arnache, O. [Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-05-07

    High quality Tb{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.3) films have been grown under different values of compressive/tensile strain using (001)-oriented SrTiO{sub 3} and MgO substrates. The films were grown by means of rf sputtering at substrate temperature of 800  °C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that films are single phase, preferentially oriented in the (111) and (122) directions for films deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} and MgO substrates, respectively. Although the TbMnO{sub 3} target shows antiferromagnetic order, the films deposited on both substrates show weak ferromagnetic phase at low temperature coexisting with the antiferromagnetic phase. The introduction of Al in the films clearly enhances their ferromagnetic behavior, improving the magnetic performance of this material. Indeed, M(H) measurements at 5 K show a well-defined hysteresis for films grown on both substrates. However, a stronger magnetic signal (larger values of remanence and coercive field) is observed for films deposited on MgO substrates. The chemical pressure generated by Al doping together with the substrate-induced strain seem to modify the subtle competition between magnetic interactions in the system. It is speculated that such modification could lead to a non-collinear magnetic state that may be tuned by strain modifications. This may be performed by varying the thickness of the films and/or considering other substrate materials.

  10. Ferroelectric nanodomains in epitaxial PbTiO.sub.3./sub. films grown on SmScO.sub.3./sub. and TbScO.sub.3./sub. substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodavka, Fedir; Gregora, Ivan; Bartasyte, A.; Margueron, S.; Plausinaitiene, V.; Abrutis, A.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 18 (2013), "187216-1"-"187216-7" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR GAP204/10/0616 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV-2011-263303 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electric domains * epitaxial layers * ferroelectric thin films * lead compounds * MOCVD * phonons * Raman spectra * texture Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2013

  11. Effect of thermal annealing on structural properties of GeSn thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. P.; Song, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Wu, X. Y.; Zhu, Z. Y. S.; Han, Y.; Zhang, L. Y.; Huang, H.; Wang, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    GeSn alloy with 7.68% Sn concentration grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been rapidly annealed at different temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. Surface morphology and roughness annealed below or equal to 500°C for 1 min have no obvious changes, while the strain relaxation rate increasing. When the annealing temperature is above or equal to 600°C, significant changes occur in surface morphology and roughness, and Sn precipitation is observed at 700°C. The structural properties are analyzed by reciprocal space mapping in the symmetric (004) and asymmetric (224) planes by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The lateral correlation length and the mosaic spread are extracted for the epi-layer peaks in the asymmetric (224) diffraction. The most suitable annealing temperature to improve both the GeSn lattice quality and relaxation rate is about 500°C.

  12. Strain-induced nanostructure of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 on SrTiO3 epitaxial thin films with low PbTiO3 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Takanori; Fan, Cangyu; Shiraishi, Takahisa; Konno, Toyohiko J.

    2017-10-01

    The singularity of the structure in (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) (x = 0-50 mol %) epitaxial thin films of 100 nm thickness was investigated from the viewpoint of the localized residual strain in the nanoscale. The films were deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) (001) single-crystal substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) using metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) solutions. X-ray and electron diffraction patterns revealed that PMN-xPT thin films included a single phase of the perovskite-type structure with the cube-on-cube orientation relationship between PMN-xPT and STO: (001)Film ∥ (001)Sub, [100]Film ∥ [100]Sub. X-ray reciprocal space maps showed an in-plane tensile strain in all the compositional ranges considered. Unit cells in the films were strained from the rhombohedral (pseudocubic) (R) phase to a lower symmetry crystal system, the monoclinic (MB) phase. The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) that split the R and tetragonal (T) phases was observed at x = 30-35 for bulk crystals of PMN-xPT, whereas the strain suppressed the transformation from the R phase to the T phase in the films up to x = 50. High-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) analysis and its related local strain analysis revealed that all of the films have a bilayer morphology. The nanoscale strained layer formed only above the film/substrate semi-coherent interface. The misfit dislocations generated the localized and periodic strain fields deformed the unit cells between the dislocation cores from the R to an another type of the monoclinic (MA) phase. Thus, the singular and localized residual strains in the PMN-xPT/STO (001) epitaxial thin films affect the phase stability around the MPB composition and result in the MPB shift phenomena.

  13. High-resolution structural characterization and magnetic properties of epitaxial Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Vikram Singh, Amit; Rastogi, Ankur; Gazquez, Jaume; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Mishra, Rohan; Gupta, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    Thin films of magnetic garnet materials, e.g. yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG), are useful for a variety of applications including microwave integrated circuits and spintronics. Substitution of rare earth ions, such as cerium, is known to enhance the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) as compared to pure YIG. Thin films of Ce0.75Y2.25Fe5O12 (Ce:YIG) have been grown using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and their crystal structure examined using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous substitution of Ce in YIG, without oxidation to form a separate CeO2 phase, can be realized in a narrow process window with resulting enhancement of the MOKE signal. The thermally generated signal due to spin Seebeck effect for the optimally doped Ce:YIG films has also been investigated.

  14. Determination of magnetic anisotropies and miscut angles in epitaxial thin films on vicinal (111) substrate by the ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Izotov, A. V.; Solovev, P. N.; Yakovlev, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    A method for determining magnetic anisotropy parameters of a thin single-crystal film on vicinal (111) substrate as well as substrate miscut angles from angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance field has been proposed. The method is based on the following: (i) a new approach for the solution of the system of nonlinear equations for equilibrium and resonance conditions; (ii) a new expression of the objective function for the fitting problem. The study of the iron silicide films grown on vicinal Si(111) substrates with different miscut angles confirmed the efficiency of the method. The proposed method can be easily generalized to determine parameters of single-crystal films grown on substrates with an arbitrary cut.

  15. Structure and magnetism of single-phase epitaxial gamma '-Fe4N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Kramer, JL; Borsa, DM; Garcia-Martin, JM; Martin-Gonzalez, MS; Boerma, DO; Briones, F

    Single phase epitaxial pure gamma(')-Fe4N films are grown on MgO (001) by molecular beam epitaxy of iron in the presence of nitrogen obtained from a radio frequency atomic source. The epitaxial, single phase nature of the films is revealed by x-ray diffraction and by the local magnetic environment

  16. Effects of Pb doping on the magneto-optical properties of EuPbTe epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E.; Motisuke, P. [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Couto, O.D.D. Jr. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Lang, R. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Institute of Science and Technology, UNIFESP, São José dos Campos, 12231-280 SP (Brazil); Balanta, M.A.G.; Brasil, M.J.S.P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Oliveira Rappl, P.H. de [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Iikawa, F., E-mail: iikawa@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    We investigate the magneto-optical properties of magnetic-semiconductor Eu{sub 1−x}Pb{sub x}Te epitaxial layers with Pb contents up to 5%. We show that the inclusion of a small amount of Pb atoms in EuTe affects the optical and magnetic properties of the resulting alloy. The incorporation of Pb gives rise to a reduction of the Néel temperature and of the slope of the giant magneto-red-shift of the magnetic polaron optical emission. All those effects can be understood in terms of the magnetic dilution effect due to the reduced Eu concentration. The introduction of Pb also reveals a splitting of the high emission energy side-band under applied magnetic field, presenting a more complex feature of the band structure of the alloys. Our results cannot be fully explained on the basis of the current theoretical knowledge of the EuTe band structure and, therefore, we expect that they can stimulate future theoretical investigations and encourage applied investigations of spintronic devices based on these materials. - Highlights: • Reduction of the Néel temperature when small amount of Pb is introduced into EuTe. • The saturation magnetic field needed to fully order the magnetic moments of Eu also reduces increasing Pb content. • Splitting of the high energy optical emission line under applied magnetic field, which is more evident for Pb doped samples.

  17. Optical detection of carbon dioxide adsorption on epitaxial CuFe1 -xGaxO2 Delafossite film grown by pulse laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, S.; Joshi, T.; Wheatley, R. A.; Sarabia, M.; Borisov, P.; Lederman, D.; Cabrera, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    A highly epitaxial delafossite CuFe1 -xGaxO2 film was made with pulse laser deposition in high vacuum. The sample thickness was around 48 nm and it was terminated with CuFeO2. This delafossite sample was exposed to a CO2 atmosphere under controlled conditions and chemisorption of CO2 on the surface was observed. Transmittance and reflectance spectroscopies were recorded for the sample post surface heat treatment held in a vacuum chamber (0.05 Kpa) and after exposure to CO2. Both spectra were recorded over a wavelength range of 350-1100 nm. Chemisorption of CO2 was correlated with an increase in transmittance and decrease in reflectance in the pressure range 0-60 kPa. These observations were confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal programmed desorption data obtained in an independent experiment. The CO2 is bound to the surface forming a carboxylate structure via coordination of a bent CO2- δ molecule to a Cu center.

  18. Fourfold symmetric planar Hall effect in epitaxial La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, W. Y.; Li, P.; Bai, H. L., E-mail: baihaili@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparation Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-07

    The effect of Sr concentration on the planar Hall effect (PHE) in epitaxial magnetic phase separated La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.60) thin films was studied systematically. It was found that crystalline anisotropy and spin-orbital coupling are the main contributions to the unexpected fourfold symmetric PHE. The uniaxial anisotropy field was given by H{sub uni} = 70 Oe and cubic anisotropic field H{sub cub} = 143 Oe, respectively. The magnetic anisotropy was weakened by Sr doping, which corresponds with the disappearance of the fourfold symmetry in PHE with the increasing Sr concentration. The first principle calculations proved that the contribution of Co-d orbitals to the magnetic anisotropy strongly depends on the Sr concentration. e{sub g}−d{sub x{sup 2}−y{sup 2}} and e{sub g}−d{sub 3z{sup 2}−r{sup 2}} orbitals play a dominant role in the magnetic anisotropy of the samples with x = 0.125, 0.25, while the t{sub 2g}−d{sub xy}, d{sub yz}, d{sub xz} orbitals contribute mainly to the magnetic anisotropy of the samples with x = 0.375, 0.5, 0.625.

  19. Comparative study of water and carbon dioxide adsorption on CuFeO2 and CuFe1-xGaxO2 highly epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, S.; Joshi, T.; Borisov, P.; Lederman, D.; Cabrera, A. L.

    Thermal programmed desorption (TPD) of CO2 and H2O from a 200 nm thick CuFeO2 and 52 nm thick CuFe1-xGaxO2 delafossite surfaces was performed in a Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber. The thin films with epitaxial quality were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on Al2O3 (0001) substrates . The adsorption / desorption of CO2 and H2O process was also monitored with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Our results revealed that carbon dioxide is preferentially chemisorbed by CuFe1-xGaxO2 over water and we observed the opposite behavior with regard to chemisorption of CO2 and H2O over CuFeO2. Hydroxyls and metal carbonates were formed on the surface due to the chemisorption of H2O and CO2. Arrhenius plots for CO2 and H2O desorption were done and activation energy for desorption were obtained. Supported by FONDECyT 1130372.

  20. Effects of strain on the magnetic and transport properties of the epitaxial La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, M. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kameli, P., E-mail: kameli@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H. [Department of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadvand, H.; Salamati, H. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The epitaxial strain can considerably modify the physical properties of thin films compared to the bulk. This paper reports the effects of substrate-induced strain on La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) and LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Transport and magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on strain type. It is also shown that compressive (tensile) strain leads to the increase (decrease) in the magnetization of the films. Moreover, it was observed that all LCMO films deposited on both LAO and STO substrates behave as an insulator, but LCMO/LAO thin films with compressive strain have lower resistivity than LCMO/STO thin films with tensile strain. Applying magnetic field to LCMO/STO thin films with thickness of 25 and 50 nm leads to very small change in the resistivity, while the effects of magnetic field on the sample with thickness of 125 nm leads to an insulator–metal transition. For LCMO/LAO thin films, the magnetic field has a strong impact on the resistivity of samples. The results show that the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced by increasing film thickness for LCMO/LAO samples, due to the relatively stronger phase separation. For LCMO/STO thin films MR is drastically decreased by reduction of film thickness, which is attributed to the enhancement of the charge–orbital order (CO–O) accompanying the complex spin order (the so-called CE type). The changes of the antiferromagnetic structure from the CE to C type and the enhancement of the CE type could be attributed to the in-plane compressive and tensile strain, respectively. - Highlights: • Epitaxial La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. • The compressive strain leads to the increase in the magnetization of the films. • The tensile strain leads to the decrease in the magnetization of the films. • The magnetoresistance is enhanced by

  1. Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry and its application to the processing of yttrium barium copper oxide films by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Brady J.

    The major issues which currently limit the use of YBCO in devices based on Josephson junction technology are related to the properties of the interfaces between YBCO and other materials. Specifically, oxygen deficiency at the interface severely degrades the properties of a junction. In this thesis, both ex situ and real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE and RTSE) have been explored for use as tools to understand this effect. Initially, the sensitivity of SE to the oxygen content in the near surface region of a YBCO film was studied. It was found that for atomically smooth c-axis oriented YBCO films, SE is sensitive to the oxygen concentration within one unit cell, even when the profile is graded. The sensitivity to small changes in the surface concentration of oxygen was also determined. This was done for both a- and c-axis oriented films that were exposed or buried under a normal metal layer. SE was then used to determine the reference dielectric function data for five common YBCO substrate materials; LaAlO3,/ NdGaO3,/ (LaAlO3)0.3- (Sr2AlTaO6)0.7,/ LaSrGaO4 and 9.5 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2. Also, data for one known reaction layer material, BaZrO3, was determined. An RTSE was constructed for a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition system for observation of the processing of YBCO and one of its constituent oxides. The instrument was used to monitor the deposition of Y2O3 on Si. The thickness derived from the RTSE measurement showed excellent agreement with the thickness determined by in situ flux measurements, as well as with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. From comparison of the cation incorporation vs. the arrival rate, a sticking coefficient of ≈1.00 ± 0.07 was obtained for Y. Finally, SE was used to study the diffusion of oxygen in YBCO. The activation energy (Ea) for the diffusion of oxygen in YBCO was found by heating an initially oxygen deficient film at various rates in a 10% O3/90% O2 atmosphere and observing the temperature at which oxidation was

  2. Characterization of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, M.D.; Nazeer, H.; Karakaya, K.; Pham, S.V.; Steenwelle, R.; Dekkers, M.; Abelmann, L.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rijnders, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the piezoelectric-microelectromechanical system micro-fabrication process and the behavior of piezoelectric stacks actuated silicon cantilevers. All oxide layers in the piezoelectric stacks, such as buffer-layer/bottom-electrode/film/top-electrode: YSZ/SrRuO\\3/Pb(Zr,

  3. Characterization of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Nazeer, H.; Karakaya, K.; Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Steenwelle, Ruud Johannes Antonius; Dekkers, Jan M.; Abelmann, Leon; Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the piezoelectric-microelectromechanical system micro-fabrication process and the behavior of piezoelectric stacks actuated silicon cantilevers. All oxide layers in the piezoelectric stacks, such as buffer-layer/bottom-electrode/film/top-electrode: YSZ/SrRuO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)3/SrRuO3,

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial delafossite CuFeO{sub 2} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Toyanath; Senty, Tess R.; Trappen, Robbyn; Zhou, Jinling; Borisov, Pavel; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Bristow, Alan D.; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Chen, Song; Song, Xueyan [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6070 (United States); Ferrari, Piero; Cabrera, Alejandro L. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Instituto de Física, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-07

    Growth of pure phase delafossite CuFeO{sub 2} thin films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (00.1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was systematically investigated as a function of growth temperature and oxygen pressure. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the existence of the delafossite phase. Infrared reflectivity spectra determined a band edge at 1.15 eV, in agreement with the bulk delafossite data. Magnetization measurements on CuFeO{sub 2} films demonstrated a phase transition at T{sub C} ≈ 15 ± 1 K, which agrees with the first antiferromagnetic transition at 14 K in the bulk CuFeO{sub 2}. Low temperature magnetic phase is best described by commensurate, weak ferromagnetic spin ordering along the c-axis.

  5. Post deposition annealing of epitaxial Ce(1-x)Pr(x)O(2-δ) films grown on Si(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H; Spiess, W; Zoellner, M H; Niu, G; Schroeder, T; Wollschläger, J

    2015-04-21

    In this work the structural and morphological changes of Ce1-xPrxO2-δ (x = 0.20, 0.35 and 0.75) films grown on Si(111) due to post deposition annealing are investigated by low energy electron diffraction combined with a spot profile analysis. The surface of the oxide films exhibit mosaics with large terraces separated by monoatomic steps. It is shown that the Ce/Pr ratio and post deposition annealing temperature can be used to tune the mosaic spread, terrace size and step height of the grains. The morphological changes are accompanied by a phase transition from a fluorite type lattice to a bixbyite structure. Furthermore, at high PDA temperatures a silicate formation via a polycrystalline intermediate state is observed.

  6. Spin injection from epitaxial Heusler alloy thin films into InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2006-01-01

    to typically 0.02-0.1 Ωmm2 for Fe and Co contacts but two orders of magnitude higher for the Co2MnGa contacts. Point contact Andreev reflection measurements on an off-stoichiometric thin film (Co2.4Mn1.6Ga) show a spin polarization of P ≈ 50 %. Furthermore spin injection into a InGaAs/GaAs quantum well have...

  7. Microstructure of GaN epitaxial films at different stages of the growth process on sapphire (0 0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennegues, P.; Beaumont, B.; Vaille, M.; Gibart, P.

    1997-04-01

    The microstructure of GaN films at different stages of a classical two steps growth process is studied using TEM. The buffer layer grown at low temperature (600°C) exhibits a mixed cubic-hexagonal columnar microstructure. Numerous defects are present to accomodate the misorientations between micrograins. During the following annealing step up to 1050°C, the microstructure drastically changes: cubic islands remain on the top of a film with hexagonal structure. The buffer layer at this stage is still highly polycrystalline. The microstructure of micrometer thick films grown at 1050°C could be separated in two zones. Close to the interface with sapphire, misfit dislocations, basal stacking faults and nanocavities are observed. We propose a mechanism of relaxation of the strain due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients which could explain the presence of stacking faults. The existence of nanocavities is supposed to be related to a contamination by oxygen. After a thickness of 0.5 μm, two types of threading defects remain: edge dislocations with {1}/{3} Burgers vector which accommodate slight misorientations between grains, and nanopipes. These nanopipes are identified as open core dislocations with (0 0 0 1) Burgers vector. They have an alternating behaviour: close core, open core. The microstructure of this bulk zone duplicates the microstructure of the buffer layer at a higher scale, pointing out the crucial importance of the first steps of the growth.

  8. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth of tensile-strained and n-doped Ge/Si(001) films using a GaP decomposition source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, T.K.P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Ghrib, A. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 220, F-91405 Orsay (France); Dau, M.T.; Zrir, M.A. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Stoffel, M. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy-Université, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Le Thanh, V., E-mail: lethanh@cinam.univ.mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Daineche, R. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS IM2NP-UMR 6242, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Le, T.G.; Heresanu, V.; Abbes, O.; Petit, M. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS CINaM-UMR 7325, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); El Kurdi, M.; Boucaud, P. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS UMR 8622, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 220, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rinnert, H. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy-Université, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Murota, J. [Res. Inst. Elec. Comm., Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    We have combined numerous characterization techniques to investigate the growth of tensile-strained and n-doped Ge films on Si(001) substrates by means of solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The Ge growth was carried out using a two-step growth method: a low-temperature growth to produce strain relaxed and smooth buffer layers, followed by a high-temperature growth to get high crystalline quality Ge layers. It is shown that the Ge/Si Stranski–Krastanov growth mode can be completely suppressed when the growth is performed at substrate temperatures ranging between 260 °C and 300 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the Ge films grown at temperatures of 700–770 °C are tensile-strained with typical values lying in the range of 0.22–0.24%. Cyclic annealing allows further increase in the tensile strain up to 0.30%, which represents the highest value ever reported in the Ge/Si system. n-Doping of Ge was carried out using a GaP decomposition source. It is shown that heavy n-doping levels are obtained at low substrate temperatures (210–250 °C). For a GaP source temperature of 725 °C and a substrate temperature of 210 °C, a phosphorus concentration of about 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} can be obtained. Photoluminescence measurements reveal an intensity enhancement of about 16 times of the direct band gap emission and display a redshift of 25 meV that can be attributed to band gap narrowing due to a high n-doping level. Finally, we discuss about growth strategies allowing optimizing the Ge growth/doping process for optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of tensile strain and n-doping on Ge optical properties. • We show that cyclic annealing allows getting a tensile strain up to 0.30% in Ge. • n-Doping of Ge/Si films is performed using a GaP decomposition source. • We show that n-doping is more important to enhance the photoluminescence intensity. • We present new growth strategies to develop Ge

  9. Growth of epitaxial films of paramagnetic garnets and their characterization by cems and double-crystal diffractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrino, G.; Paroli, P.; Antonini, B.; Luce, G.; Maturi, B.

    1987-11-01

    We report on the LPE growth of iron garnet films, paramagnetic at room temperature because of a high substitution (up to 1.7 atoms per formula unit) of diamagnetic Sc 3+ for Fe 3+. For yttrium iron garnet, the maximum amount of Sc 3+ that can be substituted is found to be an increasing function of the growth temperature, and to be little dependent on the Sc concentration in the melt. Simultaneous substitution of La 3+ enhances the maximum Sc 3+ substitution obtainable, and appears to increase the Sc 3+ preference for octahedral garnet sites.

  10. Anisotropic stress relief mechanism in epitaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailionis, Arturas; Boschker, Hans; Houwman, Evert; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus; Blank, Dave H. A.

    2009-10-01

    We report an anisotropic misfit stress relief mechanism in thin La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) films coherently grown on NdGaO3(110) substrates. These results are uniquely related to the orthorhombicity of the LSMO. The x-ray diffraction measurements and quantitative simulations demonstrate that biaxial mismatch stress is relieved differently along in-plane directions perpendicular to each other: in the [11¯0] direction stress is accommodated by decrease of the γ angle of the orthorhombic LSMO unit cell, while in the [001] direction stress is partially relieved by periodic lattice modulations.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial delafossite CuFeO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senty, Tess; Joshi, Toyanath; Trappen, Robbyn; Zhou, Jinling; Chen, Song; Ferrari, Piero; Borisov, Pavel; Song, Xueyan; Holcomb, Mikel; Bristow, Alan; Cabrera, Alejandro; Lederman, David

    2015-03-01

    Growth of pure phase delafossite CuFeO2 thin films on Al2O3 (00.1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was systematically investigated as function of growth temperature and oxygen pressure. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the existence of the delafossite phase. Infrared reflectivity spectra determined a band edge at 1.15 eV, in agreement with the bulk delafossite data. Magnetization measurements on CuFeO2 films demonstrated a phase transition at TC = 15K, which agrees with the first antiferromagnetic transition at 14K in the bulk CuFeO2. Low temperature magnetic phase is best described by commensurate, weak ferromagnetic spin ordering along the c-axis. This work was supported by a Research Challenge Grant from the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission (HEPC.dsr.12.29) and the Microelectronics Advanced Research Corporation (Contract #2013-MA-2382) at WVU. Work at PUC was supported by FONDECyT.

  12. Simple Molecules Adsorption Studies on Highly Epitaxial -Pure Phase- Delafossite CuFeO2 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alejandro; Ferrari, Piero; Joshi, Toyanath; Borisov, Pavel; Lederman, David

    2014-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) adsorption studies on CuFeO2 thin films grown on Al2O3 (00.1) substrates were performed in ultrahigh vacuum using thermal programmed desorption (TPD). Growth of pure phase Delafossite CuFeO2 thin films on Al2O3 (00.1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was systematically investigated as a function of growth temperature and oxygen pressure. CO2 and H2 TPD were performed on CuFeO2 -grown at 600°C and in 0.1mTorr pressure- indicating chemisorption of both gases on the oxide surface. TPD with a temperature ramp of 50 K/s showed a CO2 peak at 573 K and H2 peak at 823 K. The chemisorption of CO2 and H2 on the CuFeO2 surface is relevant to the potential use of this material in photocatalytic applications for H2 production and/or CO2 conversion. Fund from FONDECyT 1130372.

  13. Metal propionate synthesis of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciontea, L; Petrisor, T Jr; Petrisor, T [Technical University of Cluj, Str. C. Daicoviciu Nr. 15, 400020 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Angrisani, A; Celentano, G; Rufoloni, A; Vannozzi, A; Augieri, A; Galuzzi, V; Mancini, A [ENEA Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy)], E-mail: Lelia.Ciontea@chem.utcluj.ro

    2008-02-15

    A modified TFA-MOD method, using only barium trifluoroacetate, is presented. The yttrium and copper triflouroacetates were replaced by the alcoholic solutions of Cu and Y acetates dispersed in propionic acid. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analyses (DTA/TG) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to study the decomposition of the precursor. The method permits the shortening of the pyrolysis time by a factor 4, with respect to conventional TFA-MOD method, due to the smaller amount of evolved hydrofluoric acid. Using this method 600 nm thick YBCO films were grown both on (100)SrTiO{sub 3} and on CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CeO{sub 2}/Pd buffered Ni-5at.%W substrates. The as obtained films exhibit good morphological, structural and superconducting properties with T{sub c} (R=0) greater than 91K and with an out-of-plain texture of 0.24 deg. and 1.9 deg., respectively.

  14. Stress management on underlying GaN-based epitaxial films: A new vision for achieving high-performance LEDs on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Yunhao; Wang, Wenliang; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-11-01

    High-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on Si substrates have been achieved by applying a suitable tensile stress in the underlying n-GaN. It is demonstrated by simulation that tensile stress in the underlying n-GaN alleviates the negative effect from polarization electric fields on multiple quantum wells but an excessively large tensile stress severely bends the band profile of the electron blocking layer, resulting in carrier loss and large electric resistance. A medium level of tensile stress, which ranges from 4 to 5 GPa, can maximally improve the luminous intensity and decrease forward voltage of LEDs on Si substrates. The LED with the optimal tensile stress shows the largest simulated luminous intensity and the smallest simulated voltage at 35 A/cm2. Compared to the LEDs with a compressive stress of -3 GPa and a large tensile stress of 8 GPa, the improvement of luminous intensity can reach 102% and 28.34%, respectively. Subsequent experimental results provide evidence of the superiority of applying tensile stress in n-GaN. The experimental light output power of the LEDs with a tensile stress of 1.03 GPa is 528 mW, achieving a significant improvement of 19.4% at 35 A/cm2 in comparison to the reference LED with a compressive stress of -0.63 GPa. The forward voltage of this LED is 3.08 V, which is smaller than 3.11 V for the reference LED. This methodology of stress management on underlying GaN-based epitaxial films shows a bright feature for achieving high-performance LED devices on Si substrates.

  15. Electronic structure and magneto-optical Kerr spectra of an epitaxial Ni54.3Mn31.9Sn13.8 Heusler alloy film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, L.; Bonda, A.; Uba, S.; Bekenov, L. V.; Antonov, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    In this joint experimental and ab initio study, we investigated the influence of chemical composition and martensitic phase transition on the electronic, magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of ferromagnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Sn alloys. Optical properties and polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectra for Ni-Mn-Sn alloy film of composition Ni54.3Mn31.9Sn13.8 deposited epitaxially on MgO(0 0 1) substrate were measured over the photon energy range 0.8≤slant hν ≤slant 5.8 eV, and the complete set of optical conductivity tensor elements were determined. To explain the microscopic origin of the optical and magneto-optical spectra, extensive first-principles calculations were made, using the spin-polarized fully relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method. The electronic, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloys were investigated for the cubic austenitic and 4O orthorhombic martensitic phases, in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric compositions. The MOKE properties of Ni-Mn-Sn systems are very sensitive to deviation from stoichiometry. It was shown that the ab initio calculations reproduce experimental spectra well, and help to explain the microscopic origin of Ni-Mn-Sn optical and magneto-optical responses. The interband transitions responsible for the prominent structures in the Ni-Mn-Sn MOKE spectra have been identified—they come from relatively narrow energy intervals at several well-defined vicinities of high-symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone. Significant modification of the MOKE spectra can be considered as a fingerprint of martensitic phase transition in Ni-Mn-Sn alloys.

  16. Structural, magnetic and electrical transport properties in electron-doped La{sub 0.85}Hf{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} epitaxial film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Li-an; Zhu, Hua-ze; Zhang, Tao [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China); Ma, Zi-wei [Yuncheng University, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Yuncheng (China); Chen, Chang-le [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China)

    2017-03-15

    Using a pulsed laser deposition method, the electron-doped La{sub 0.85}Hf{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (LHMO) film with the thickness of 90 nm was epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystal substrate. The structural, magnetic and electrical transport properties of the film have been studied comprehensively. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that LHMO film is of single phase, good quality and c axis orientation. The film undergoes a ferromagnetic-like ordering to paramagnetic states at T{sub C} =280 K. Moreover, a spin glass behavior observed in the film may be attributed to the strain effects. Using the percolation theory, we have analyzed the resistivity data ρ (T) of the film and given an excellent fit in the whole temperature range. Particularly, large temperature coefficient of resistance of 11.27% K{sup -} {sup 1} has been discovered near sub-room-temperature, indicating that LHMO film could be useful for bolometric applications. (orig.)

  17. Crystal defects and cation ordering domains in epitaxial PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectric thin films investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birajdar, B.I., E-mail: balaji.birajdar@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Chopra, A.; Alexe, M.; Hesse, D. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Epitaxial thin films of PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} grown by pulsed laser deposition. > Microstructure studied by transmission electron microscopy. > Microstructural defects: {pi} stacking faults and cation ordering domains. > Explanation for the formation of defects. > Explanation of reduced dielectric constant of relaxor thin films. - Abstract: Epitaxial thin films of the relaxor ferroelectric PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) were grown by pulsed laser deposition on an SrTiO{sub 3} substrate with an SrRuO{sub 3} buffer layer and investigated by diffraction contrast imaging and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in cross-section and plan-view. Crystal defects, viz. misfit dislocations, {pi} stacking faults and cation ordering domains, have been characterized and the mechanism of their formation is discussed. The state of the structural disorder in PST relaxor thin films is characterized by the high density of {pi} stacking faults and the rather small size (<10 nm) of the cation ordering domains, and is therefore markedly distinct from the state of the disorder in bulk relaxor PST. Polar nanoregions, supposed to be essential for explaining the relaxor properties, could not be detected using TEM, possibly due to their high fluctuation frequency. The dielectric constant of the relaxor PST thin films is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of bulk relaxor PST, which is attributed to the large density of {pi} stacking faults in the thin films.

  18. Energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism study of epitaxial MnAs film on GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Arras, R.; Serin, V. [CEMES-CNRS UPR 8011, Univ. Toulouse, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Demaille, D.; Eddrief, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 7588, INSP, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Etgens, V. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 7588, INSP, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Institut VeDeCoM – UVSQ, 78000 Versailles (France)

    2015-08-10

    The room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of MnAs/GaAs(001) thin film has been locally explored by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). We first differentiated hexagonal α-MnAs and quasi-hexagonal β-MnAs which are very similar in atomic structure by electron diffraction. Local magnetic moment information of the identified α-MnAs was extracted from manganese-L{sub 2,3} edges using Energy-loss Magnetic Circular Dichroism technique and the ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moment was measured. In this experiment, atomic structure identification, chemical analysis, and magnetic moment measurement were simultaneously achieved at high spatial resolution in TEM, thus providing a potential method for in-situ study of local properties of multiphase magnetic materials.

  19. Polarized Raman study on the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yang

    2014-11-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films on different substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Interestingly, the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films exhibit distinct polarization dependences. The symmetries of the fundamental Raman modes in 50-700 cm-1 were identified based on group theory. The symmetries of the high order Raman modes in 900-1500 cm-1 of BiFeO3 are determined for the first time, which can provide strong clarifications to the symmetry of the fundamental peaks in 400-700 cm-1 in return. Moreover, the lattice structures of BiFeO3 films are identified consequently on the basis of Raman spectroscopy. BiFeO3 films on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrate, CaRuO3 coated SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrate and tin-doped indium oxide substrate are found to be in the rhombohedral structure, while BiFeO3 film on SrRuO3 coated Nb: SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrate is in the monoclinic structure. Our results suggest that polarized Raman spectroscopy would be a feasible tool to study the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films.

  20. Spin wave and percolation studies in epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettayfi, A. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R., E-mail: reda.moubah@hotmail.fr [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Colis, S.; Lenertz, M.; Dinia, A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 UDS-CNRS (UDS-ECPM), 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the magnetic and transport properties of high quality La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the deposited films are epitaxial with the expected pseudo-cubic structure. Using the spin wave theory, the temperature dependence of magnetization was satisfactory modeled at low temperature, in which several fundamental magnetic parameters were obtained (spin wave stiffness, exchange constants, Fermi wave-vector, Mn–Mn interatomic distance). The transport properties were studied via the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity [ρ(T)], which shows a peak at Curie temperature due to metal to insulator transition. The percolation theory was used to simulate ρ(T) in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. Reasonable agreement with the experimental data is reported. - Highlights: • The magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films are investigated. • The M(T) curve was modeled at low temperature, and several magnetic parameters were obtained using spin wave theory. • The percolation theory was used to simulate ρ(T) in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases.