WorldWideScience

Sample records for epilepsy eastern cape

  1. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  2. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  3. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  4. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides a rationale for off-grid projects, and then briefly discusses renewable energy for rural electrification in the Eastern Cape. The impact of this project, and related research work, is also touched on....

  5. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-03-29

    Mar 29, 1984 ... Whitfield & Blaber (1978) investigated the feeding ecology of piscivorous ...... Figure 3 Trophic relationships of carnivores (square blocks) in eastern Cape estuaries. ... Key species in the food chain of group A samples (Figures.

  6. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  7. Quality assurance in the foundation phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this study was whether and how provision is made to enhance the quality of education in the Foundation Phase. After a case study investigation into a primary school and its view on quality assurance and interviews with the Department of Education: Eastern Cape province it became apparent that more ...

  8. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the ...

  9. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. ER Hay1, K .... The current water balance (see Fig. 1) and the .... in selected towns in the Eastern and Western Cape. Town .... work in order to reduce the risk of failure in the water supply to the town. .... Asset management, to prolong the life of the infrastructure.

  10. The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-02-25

    Feb 25, 1988 ... The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the ... relation to previous studies of intertidal pools in the eastern and western Cape, ... transient species, particularly two species in the family ..... schooling species (27%) made up the balance. ..... consistent with other work that has shown greater.

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of the Eastern Cape School Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ncanywa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the trends of education indicators that affect efficiency at schools in the Eastern Cape in the period 2009 to 2013. The focus is on the state of public ordinary schools which include primary and secondary schools from grade one to grade twelve. The province is regarded as a poor province as it constituted 95% of quintile one to three schools which are declared as ‘no fee schools’. There had been decline in learner performance as learners’ progress to higher grades and a drastic decline in important subjects such as Mathematics.  province had a significant number of educators with 16 years’ experience and an average of 45% under-qualified educators in 2013. There were variations in educator learner ratios per district with larger ratios found in the former Transkei. The province progressed well in learner transport, learner teacher support material and school nutrition programmes. There was no virtual change in infrastructural developments. Education in schools should be provided in a manner that ensures learners can realise their potential and aspirations, in schools that facilitate learning and reduce societal disparities.

  12. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  13. Ethical business practices in the Eastern Cape automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Lloyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High profile scandals have brought about a renewed interest in business ethics and, in particular, inunderstanding the factors that promote ethical behaviour. Business ethics is about identifying andimplementing values, rules and standards of conduct for guiding morally right behaviour in an organisation’sinteraction with its stakeholders. Against this background a quantitative analysis of the ethical practices of46 companies operating in the Eastern Cape automotive industry was conducted to determine the extent towhich ethics-related interventions contributed to establishing and maintaining an ethical organisationalenvironment. A structured online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data collected wassubjected to extensive statistical analyses, including Cronbach Alpha coefficients and item total correlations,and various descriptive statistics were included as a quantitative summary of the data. A constant referencevalue for the study was also calculated to allow inferences regarding the significance of the tested variablesto the study. The results revealed that the organisations in the sample are highly ethical due to the presenceof ethics-related interventions, including a code of ethics, committed leadership, adherence to internal andexternal governance requirements, compliance with legislation and encouragement and disclosure ofunethical behaviour. In light of the high number of ethical scandals internationally, this study will add to theempirical body of business ethics research, as it provides organisations with a framework to establish andmaintain an ethical business environment.

  14. Desmodium: A low-cost pasture for the eastern Cape coastal region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Animal production; Beef production; botany; Desmodium intortum; dryland; east london; Eastern Cape; economic evaluation; fertilizer; grasses; gross margin; Growth requirements; livestock; Management; maximum production; pasture; Pastures; Production costs; south africa; star grass; stocking rate; stocking ...

  15. Colonel John Graham of Fintry and the Fourth Cape Eastern Frontier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graham's grand strategy to clear the eastern frontier of Xhosa invaders was carefully planned. He warned Major ..... This created a market for local ... interests surpassed the 'luxury' of military and security needs, regulated from Cape Town and.

  16. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  17. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  18. Hyperglycaemic crisis in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... of admission and mortality rates) for various types of hyperglycaemic crisis. ... to Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, E Cape, from 1 January 2008 to ... N=119), and non-hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (NHDKA, N=97) were ...

  19. The biomes of the eastern Cape with emphasis on their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lubke

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available The four major phytochoria of southern Africa, the Cape. Tongoland-Pondoland. Karoo-Namib and Afromontane regions, converge in the complex transition zone of the eastern Cape. The area is rich in species and communities with a complex vegetation in which are represented all the major vegetation formations of southern Africa — Cape Fynbos. Cape Transitional Shrublands, Subtropical Thicket. Karoo, Savanna, Afromontane Forest, Grasslands and Littoral Strand Vegetation. Our results support previous findings that, although species-rich and of great diversity, the flora has fewer endemics (205 or 5,6% than the Cape (73% or Karoo-Namib (35%.  The communities with the largest proportion of endemics (30%, and threatened plants (18% are those of the Subtropical Thicket. On the basis of these data and an index of conserv ation status, the Subtropical Thicket was determined to be highest on the priority list for conservation in the eastern Cape. Subtropical Thicket is being cleared at an increasing rate and is most vulnerable due to changing farming practice.

  20. Perceptions of staff at Eastern Cape Technikon on the value and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to determine the perceptions of staff at Eastern Cape Technikon on the value and effectiveness of linkage partnerships. Academic staff indicated that the main reason for their involvement in these projects is capacity building. Apart from the development of skills and competencies they also rate ...

  1. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  2. Perceived HIV and Aids impasse in the eastern cape province and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on perceived HIV and AIDS impasse in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim is to explore perceptions of those students already known to be living with HIV and Aids. There are a myriad of risky behaviours observed amongst them that continue to persist unabated despite several ...

  3. Rural development and the role of game farming in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasmans, Thijs; Hebinck, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of game farming is set in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Game farming reorders the use, meaning and value of land and animal species. However, what it means for rural development processes in the immediate region and beyond is not well accounted for. We perceive game farming as an

  4. ‘Irrigation by night’ in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der Bram; Hebinck, P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses water-related issues in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Irrigation development and providing water for human consumption have been key factors in the country’s rural development planning, notably during the post-apartheid era when the Reconstruction and Development Programme

  5. Using Teacher Stories to Reveal Quality Educational Practice: An Eastern Cape Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Chartres, Mike; Kenyon, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The University of Fort Hare Distance Education Project set out to improve qualifications of primary teachers in rural and township schools in the Eastern Cape of the Republic of South Africa. At the culmination of an 11-year AUSAid collaboration between the University of Fort Hare and University of South Australia a research project to reveal…

  6. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  7. A Profile of the Eastern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Eastern Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  8. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  9. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  10. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    OpenAIRE

    R.G.T. Paley; G.I.H. Kerley

    1998-01-01

    Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact...

  11. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa’s colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the development of early hospital and mental health services in the Eastern Cape from the time of the Cape Colony to the dissolution of apartheid in 1994, and highlights the influence of colonialism, race and legislation in the development of mental health services in this province. The objective is to provide a background of mental health services in order to identify the historical factors that have had an impact on the current shortcomings in the provision of public sector mental health services in the province. This information will assist in the future planning and development of a new service for the province without the stigma of the past. This research indicates that one lesson from the past should be the equitable distribution of resources for the provision of care for all that inhabit this province, as enshrined in South Africa’s constitution.

  12. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epilepsia What Is Epilepsy? Epilepsy comes from a Greek word meaning "to hold or seize," and people ... for epilepsy than somebody whose family has no history of seizures. How Can Doctors Help? If a ...

  13. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  14. An evaluation of knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, Emine; Dayapoglu, Nuray

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding epilepsy among individuals in eastern Turkey. This descriptive study involved 530 healthy individuals who came to the Research and Application Hospital of Ataturk University in Erzurum, Turkey. A questionnaire and the epilepsy knowledge and attitude scale were administered to collect data. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's correlation tests were used to analyze the data. The participants' epilepsy knowledge mean score was 6.34 (SD=3.71), and their attitude mean score was 50.22 (SD=11.17). There was a positive (r=0.404) correlation between the knowledge and the attitude scores (pattitude scores (pattitude scores were higher for the participants who were high school and university graduates, had expenses equal to income, and lived in nuclear families and in the city center (pattitude scores (pattitude mean scores were also found for those who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion (pattitudes toward it. Higher knowledge positively affected attitude, and younger individuals had greater knowledge and, thus, more positive attitudes. Women, civil servants, and housewives had higher knowledge, whereas singles and students had better attitudes. The participants who had high educational levels and expenses equal to income and lived in nuclear families and the city center had more knowledge and displayed more positive attitudes. Greater knowledge and more positive attitudes were also found among the participants who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained the information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...... on soil and litter carbon stocks. The second site showed a clear decline in combined soil and litter carbon stocks following wattle encroachment. The lowest stock was in the oldest wattle stand, meaning that carbon stocks are still declining after 50 years of encroachment. The results from the two sites...

  16. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  17. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.T. Paley

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.

  18. Incidence of haematological malignancies, Eastern Cape Province; South Africa, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, Diana; Truter, Ilse

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of haematological malignancies in Africa's rapidly urbanising populations is insufficiently explored. Reliable population-based cancer statistics, however, continues to be a scarce resource in Africa and tends to be urban biased with limited rural coverage. In addition, many haematological malignancies are regarded as rare cancers, a sub-group that often affects the young disproportionately and require advanced diagnostic services and facilities able to deliver costly sophisticated treatments. This study provides a first attempt to estimate the incidence of haematological malignancies among the Eastern Cape Province population of South Africa. Multiple public- and private sector data archives and resources were utilised to optimise the identification of incident cases, including clinical records; bone marrow; cytology; histology; flow cytometry and cytogenetic records. Crude incidence, age-and gender-standardised rates are presented and comparison made with existing national data and select data from other economically developed countries and global institutions. A total of 3603 incident cases were identified between 2004 and 2013. Mature lymphoid malignancies accounted for approximately 60% (n = 2153), myeloma/plasma cell neoplasms 13% (n = 465), acute leukaemia 17% (n = 596), chronic myeloid leukaemia 4% (n = 155) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms 6% (n = 234) when stratified according to conventional groups. Most subtypes increase with age, with male excess. Haematological malignancies in the Eastern Cape Province show disparities in gender and pathology-specific incidence patterns. The present study suggest that haematological malignancies are not uncommon in this region and the incidence rate of at least one rare subtype, APL, is comparable with some European populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Ter Goon, Daniel; Owolabi, Eyitayo Omolara; Eboh, Alfred; Lambert, John

    2018-04-13

    Context-specific factors influence adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among pregnant women living with HIV. Gaps exist in the understanding of the reasons for the variable outcomes of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme at the health facility level in South Africa. This study examined adherence levels and reasons for non-adherence during pregnancy in a cohort of parturient women enrolled in the PMTCT programme in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This was a mixed-methods study involving 1709 parturient women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. We conducted a multi-centre retrospective analysis of the mother-infant pair in the PMTCT electronic database in 2016. Semi-structured interviews of purposively selected parturient women with self-reported poor adherence (n = 177) were conducted to gain understanding of the main barriers to adherence. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of ART non-adherence. A high proportion (69.0%) of women reported perfect adherence. In the logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, marital status, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and non-disclosure to a family member were the independent predictors of non-adherence. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed that drug-related side-effects, being away from home, forgetfulness, non-disclosure, stigma and work-related demand were among the main reasons for non-adherence to ART. Non-adherence to the antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in this setting is associated with lifestyle behaviours, HIV-related stigma and ART side-effects. In order to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, clinicians need to screen for these factors at every antenatal clinic visit.

  20. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  1. Human enteric bacteria and viruses in five wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Osuolale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring effluents from wastewater treatment plants is important to preventing both environmental contamination and the spread of disease. We evaluated the occurrence of human enteric bacteria (faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli and viruses (rotavirus and enterovirus in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Human viruses were recovered from the effluent samples with the adsorption–elution method and detected with singleplex real-time RT–PCR assays. Rotavirus was detected in several effluents samples, but no enterovirus was detected. At WWTP-C, rotavirus titre up to 105 genome copies/L was observed and present in 41.7% of the samples. At WWTP-B, the virus was detected in 41.7% of samples, with viral titres up to 103 genome copies/L. The virus was detected once at WWTP-E, in 9% of the samples analysed. The viral titres at WWTP-A were below the detection limit in all 25% of the 1.25 L samples in which the virus was detected. Rotavirus was not observed at WWTP-D. Faecal coliform bacteria and E. coli were detected in all the WWTPs, but no correlation was established between the enteric bacteria and viruses studied. The occurrence of rotavirus in effluent samples discharged into surface waters highlights the importance of assessing viral contamination in the water sources used for domestic water use. Keywords: Rotavirus, Enterovirus, Wastewater, Eastern Cape, Effluent, Faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli

  2. Regional aspects of long-term public sector psychiatric care in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this research was to determine regional aspects (such as clinical, geographic and socio-demographic influencing the use of public sector long-term psychiatric services in the Eastern Cape. This is important in improving service delivery, to assist policy developers with evidence-based research and in providing equitable and efficient resource utilisation. Methodology: A situational analysis of Tower Psychiatric Hospital and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre (TPHPRC in the Eastern Cape was conducted. Patient administrative data were utilised to determine geographic origin, date and age at admission, gender and diagnosis as of December 2015. The number of admissions from each region for the years 2010–2015 was also extracted from these data. Results: As of December 2015, there were a total of 390 patients at TPHPRC. Of these, 87% were male patients. The average age at admission for male and female patients was 36 years and 44 years, respectively. Of the patients, 53% originated from the western regions and 57% of female patients presented with a dual diagnosis. The highest number of admissions was in 2015, with the majority originating from Port Elizabeth. Conclusion: Despite higher access to public psychiatric care in the western region, the majority of patients originated from there. Contributing factors to this include diagnoses, insufficient bed numbers and the absence of admission criteria and referral pathways. It is recommended that the provincial Department of Health set up a task team to determine a standardised working framework for all public sector psychiatric institutions. This should be informed by national policies, legislation and provincial norms and indicators.

  3. School District Leadership Styles and School Improvement: Evidence from Selected School Principals in the Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorosi, Pontso; Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership styles in the Eastern Cape school districts support school improvement. Mixed methods research was employed and data was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with school principals in various districts. The study was guided by the following questions:…

  4. Failure to Thrive? The Community Literacy Strand of the Additive Bilingual Project at an Eastern Cape Community School, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an attempt to establish community literacy procedures in an Eastern Cape community school. The school hosts the Additive Bilingual Education (ABLE) project, a cooperation between UK and South African universities and the school trust. The community literacy strand of the project encourages family members to contribute oral…

  5. Role of small-scale sawmilling in household and community livelihoods – Case studies in the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horn, J

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available on the role of SSM in household and community livelihoods in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It has therefore not been possible to evaluate whether SSM is a suitable entry point for support to livelihood enhancement and / or pro-poor enterprise...

  6. No visible means of subsistence : rural livelihoods, gender and social change in Mooiplaas, Eastern Cape 1950-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Leslie; Qambata, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Ngxingxolo in 1997-1998, this study highlights some of the key changes that have taken place in the way rural livelihoods have been made in Mooiplaas location, situated 45 km outside the city of East London in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa). In line with developments

  7. Quality service delivery for the community, by the community: an innovative Eastern Cape infrastructure and job creation success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ; and service delivery; through O/&M activities that increase the availability and utility of infrastructure, and the quality and reliability of services. ... of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa Annual (IMIESA) Conference, Port Elizabeth, October 2013 Quality service delivery for the community, by the community: an innovative Eastern Cape infrastructure and job creation success Wall K, Ive O, Bhagwan J...

  8. The Influence of School Culture and School Climate on Violence in Schools of the Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kalie; Brynard, Susette; de Wet, Corene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF), which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners. With the assistance of Pearson's…

  9. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a needs-based gap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the authors propose a plan for public sector mental health services to address the human resource needs in the poorer eastern regions of the province. The plan focuses on human resource training and development.  Methods. Evidence-based data on staff development in mental health from low-middle income countries were utilised to develop strategies to increase staff capacity to address unmet need. A financing model with a poverty index was developed to sustain a needs-based plan. Databases searched included Pubmed, Medline, Google and Google Scholar. The key words used included: mental health, mental health training, mental health resources, mental health in low-middle-income countries, mental health policy and plans, mental health needs- based planning, primary healthcare, primary mental healthcare, mental health financing. In addition the websites of the World Health Organization and the World Psychiatric Association were searched for similar resources. Conclusions. It is feasible, with careful attention to planning and implementation of evidence-based tools, to improve public mental health service delivery in this province. Sustained political will and professional commitment will ensure successful delivery of mental health services in a resource-limited province.

  10. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. Other Organizations Epilepsy Foundation National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Questions Questions to Ask Your Doctor What causes epilepsy? What are symptoms other than seizures? What should ...

  11. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters ... may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, ...

  12. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eventually become less frequent or disappear altogether. What Causes Epilepsy? This's no clear-cut answer to why people ... epilepsy. Often doctors can't pinpoint the exact cause of a person's epilepsy. But scientists do know that some things can ...

  13. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and clas......-sification. More than two thirds of patients with epilepsy can obtain complete seizure control. The remainders, counting around 12.000 patients in Denmark, having medical refractory epilepsy should be considered for other treatment options; epilepsy surgery or other non-pharmacological treatment....

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Barriers to Care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Kegan; van Rooyen, Kempie; Grobler, Christoffel; van Rooyen, Dalena; Andersson, Lena M C

    2015-08-01

    A range of barriers to seeking mental health care in low- and middle-income countries has been investigated. Little, however, is known of the barriers to care and help-seeking behavior among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries. This was a population-based study including 977 people aged 18-40 years from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Current PTSD was assessed by using a diagnostic questionnaire (Mini International Psychiatric Interview). An additional questionnaire captured socioeconomic and health-related data. The prevalence of current PTSD was 10.8%. Only 48.1% of people with current PTSD accessed health care services. Younger people aged 18 to 29 years were less likely to seek health care, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.85]. People earning a salary or wage, OR = 2.91, 95% CI [1.26, 6.71]; and those with tuberculosis, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [1.42, 95.56], were more likely to seek health care. A range of barriers to seeking care were identified, the most striking being stigma and a lack of knowledge regarding the nature and treatment of mental illness. People with current PTSD may seek help for other health concerns and brief screening means those affected may be readily identified. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  16. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  17. Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahn Münch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change analysis was performed for three catchments in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa, for two time steps (2000 and 2014, to characterize landscape conversion trajectories for sustained landscape health. Land cover maps were derived: (1 from existing data (2000; and (2 through object-based image analysis (2014 of Landsat 8 imagery. Land cover change analysis was facilitated using land cover labels developed to identify landscape change trajectories. Land cover labels assigned to each intersection of the land cover maps at the two time steps provide a thematic representation of the spatial distribution of change. While land use patterns are characterized by high persistence (77%, the expansion of urban areas and agriculture has occurred predominantly at the expense of grassland. The persistence and intensification of natural or invaded wooded areas were identified as a degradation gradient within the landscape, which amounted to almost 10% of the study area. The challenge remains to determine significant signals in the landscape that are not artefacts of error in the underlying input data or scale of analysis. Systematic change analysis and accurate uncertainty reporting can potentially address these issues to produce authentic output for further modelling.

  18. Farmers' perceptions of goat kid mortality under communal farming in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayi, Mhlangabezi; Maphosa, Viola; Fayemi, Olutope Peter; Mapfumo, Lizwell

    2014-10-01

    Rearing of goats under communal farming conditions is characterised by high kid mortality and low weaning percentages. A survey was conducted to determine farmers' perceptions on the causes of kid mortality during summer under the communal farming system in Nkonkobe Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This was done by administering questionnaires to a total of 162 respondents in 14 villages around Nkonkobe Local Municipality. The study showed that majority of farmers (75 %) keep flock sizes of less than 10 goats and kids, and this indicates that goat production in Nkonkobe Local Municipality is suppressed. According to the farmers, diseases (89 %), endo-parasites (72 %) and ecto-parasites (68 %) were perceived as the major causes of kid mortality. Other causes reported include starvation (15 %), extreme weather conditions (28 %), abortion (7 %), theft (35 %), diarrhoea (43 %), accidents (10 %) and wounds (9 %). The low number of goats could be attributed to high mortalities. It was also found that all causes reported by farmers played a role in high kid mortality in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. However, the causes which require more emphasis to formulate extension support were tick-borne diseases and parasites. This study provided baseline information on possible causes of kid mortalities in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. There is, however, a need to conduct further studies to determine actual causes of high kid mortalities so as to develop preventive strategies that would minimize kid mortality for good economic returns.

  19. Papering over the cracks: An ethnography of land title in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Kingwill

    Full Text Available The article addresses the dualistic legal paradigm prevalent in South Africa's approach to recognising rights in land. The system of title is characterised by precise and quantifiable mathematical formulae formalised through paper records that convey proprietary powers to registered owners. This view is contrasted with the characteristics of land tenure among African families with freehold title in the Eastern Cape who trace their relationship to their land to forebears who acquired title in the nineteenth century. The findings show that relationships reminiscent of 'customary' concepts of the family are not extinguished when title is issued. The land is viewed as family property held by unilineal descent groups symbolised by the family name. This conception diverges considerably from the formal, legal notion of land title as embodied in common law, and from rules of inheritance in official customary law. African freeholders' source of legitimation of successive rights in land is not the 'law' but locally understood norms framed within identifiable parameters that sanction socially acceptable practices. The conclusion raises broader questions about the paradigm that informs South African law reform in a range of tenure contexts, suggesting that current policies are poorly aligned with the social realities on the ground.

  20. Rabies in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - where are we going wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Van Sittert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a growing problem in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study investigated dog ecology, vaccination coverage and rabies neutralising antibody levels in 203 randomly selected dogs within a local municipality in the former Transkei area. Responses to vaccination were also evaluated in 80 of these dogs. The population was remarkably uniform in size, breed and condition. Slightly over 1/5th of the population was between 6 weeks and 1 year of age, while very few dogs reached 10 years or older. According to owner responses, the Animal Health Technicians achieved a total vaccination coverage of 65 % of owned dogs over several years, but only 56 % within the previous 12 months. Only 32%of dogs had adequate circulating rabies virus neutralisation antibodies (≥0.5IU/ℓ. After vaccination, 83 % had seroconverted to this level. The magnitude of seroconversion was independent of body condition or age. This study proposes a different approach to vaccination strategies than those currently employed in certain areas of the province.

  1. Social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrain T. Murire

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT framework was used as the theoretical foundation of the questionnaire that was distributed to 300 full-time staff members. A response rate of 39% was attained. Factor analysis was used to test the relationship between variables. Contribution: The study’s contribution is to the theoretical body of knowledge that affirms that the UTAUT framework is an appropriate tool to use to test adoption of social media at traditional universities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that academics are conversant with emerging technologies and could incorporate these technologies into academic settings with an aim to increase communication and interaction among lecturers and learners. The results revealed that performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy and behavioural intention have a positive influence on social media adoption and continued use by academics in teaching and learning at traditional university. The facilitating condition scale was not statistically significant, but must be considered by management in order to improve the adoption of social media among lecturers.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny Motlatso; Said, Halima; Gcebe, Nomakorinte

    2017-10-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in human and Mycobacterium bovis commonly causes tuberculosis in animals. Transmission of tuberculosis caused by both pathogens can occur from human to animals and vice versa. In the current study, M. tuberculosis, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting 3 regions of difference (RD4, RD9 and RD12) on the genomes, was isolated from cattle originating from two epidemiologically unrelated farms in the Eastern Cape (E.C) Province of South Africa. Although the isolates were genotyped with variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, no detailed epidemiological investigation was carried out on the respective farms to unequivocally confirm or link humans as sources of TB transmission to cattle, a move that would have embraced the 'One Health' concept. In addition, strain comparison with human M. tuberculosis in the database from the E.C Province and other provinces in the country did not reveal any match. This is the first report of cases of M. tuberculosis infection in cattle in South Africa. The VNTR profiles of the M. tuberculosis strains identified in the current study will form the basis for creating M. tuberculosis VNTR database for animals including cattle for future epidemiological studies. Our findings however, call for urgent reinforcement of collaborative efforts between the veterinary and the public health services of the country.

  3. Black economic empowerment in the Eastern Cape automotive industry: Challenges and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in South Africa are under pressure to meet the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policies and charters of the South African government by giving BEE suppliers additional opportunities to tender. However, many BEE suppliers, due to being historically disadvantaged, experience various problems which make it difficult for them to win tenders, including lack of finances, opportunities to tender and management and business skills, and problems with quality and capacity. This paper outlines these practical problems experienced by BEE suppliers, the effects of these problems on risk and complexity in the South African automotive industry and policies that address these problems and assist BEE suppliers to become A-rated suppliers. Data for the paper was obtained from interviews with: senior employees of the AIDC involved with supplier development training; middle managers of supplier quality and development departments at the three OEMs in the Eastern Cape Province; and BEE and small suppliers identified to undergo AIDC training. The findings of the study are that unless sufficient training is given to BEE and potential BEE suppliers, supply to OEMs will remain in the hands of existing established suppliers and very little transformation will occur within the automobile industry in South Africa.

  4. Barriers and Incentives to Potential Adoption of Biofuels Crops by Smallholder Farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge; Mushunje, Abbyssinia; Taruvinga, Amon

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify barriers and incentives that influence the potential adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. The study utilized a semi-structured questionnaire to record responses from 129 smallholder farmers that were identified through a snowballing sampling technique. The respondents were from the Oliver Tambo and Chris Hani District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A Heckman two-step model was applied to analyze the dat...

  5. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and cl...

  6. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  7. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  8. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Part I of this research article presents a needs-based analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape (EC Province, South Africa. This part of the research paper focuses on quantifying human resources and bed needs for these three severe mental illnesses. Human resource expenditure is calculated for nursing staff at acute, ambulatory and medium-to-long-stay services. A further objective was to conduct a gap analysis for human resources and beds for the EC in order to assist mental health planners in the commissioning of services.  Methods. Data from previous research conducted in the province, and international and national epidemiological studies were utilised to quantify the requirements for human resources (psychiatrists, medical officers/registrars, psychologists, nurses, occupational therapists and social workers and beds for acute, medium-to-long-stay and ambulatory services at provincial and regional levels, to provide mental healthcare. The authors focused on three of the eight priority conditions set by the World Health Organization. A target coverage rate of 80% was used in all calculations. A gap analysis was conducted to demonstrate deficits and excesses, utilising available data on human resources and beds available in the province. Results. The results showed that the districts of Alfred Nzo and Ukhahlamba have no human resources or beds for the provision of mental health services. The province has a deficit of 23 psychiatrists and 243 nurses trained in psychiatry, and an oversupply of 486 other nurses. The results also clearly demonstrated an inequitable distribution of resources in the province.  Conclusions. This is the first study that has provided detailed estimates of human resource and bed deficits in the EC. The study demonstrates that the areas of greatest need in terms of bed and human resource requirements are in the eastern regions of the

  9. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-08-01

    Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires. Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives. Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  10. Acidification of a white spruce ecosystem in eastern Cape Breton Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouman, O.T.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2003 at an ecosystem monitoring plot near Sydney, Nova Scotia, in a mature white spruce stand on a Shulie soil. The objective was to examine how spruce forests filter atmospheric sulfur dioxide and become destabilized by the resulting soil acidification. The acid rain problem at the level of input, top soil, sub soil and run off was assessed following results from 4 monitoring stations equipped for bulk sampling of throughfall water and two lysimeters for soil water extraction at a depth of 15 cm and 45 cm, respectively. Rainwater was collected in 2 open areas outside the forest along with samples from a stream draining the forest and surrounding wetland. Water samples were collected 8 times between April 2003 and November 2004. Results show that the problem of acid rain is present in eastern Cape Breton Island. Canopy passage was found to lower the average rainwater pH from 4.7 to 4.2 with a related increase of sulfate from 2.2 ppm to 8.3 ppm. Top soil solution pH was 3.9 increasing to 4.5 in the sub soil. Aluminum was found to increase significantly in the soil solution when pH dropped below 4.2. This demonstrated that soil acidification due to acid rain frees the aluminum in the top soil. However, the concentration of metal was reduced at lower soil depth due to base cation exchange. High sodium concentrations in rainwater and throughfall were closely associated with sulfate values, indicating high inputs of saline oceanic spray with the potential to cause a salt effect in the top soil chemistry. Most water samples had very low nitrate concentrations. The water chemistry in the stream fluctuated with the pH, often dropping below 5 when sulfate contents increased during high run off events

  11. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun O. Adeniji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n-alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  12. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  13. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Abiodun O; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-20

    Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n -alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  14. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling, to ones that are much more benign. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle ...

  16. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  17. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  18. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cultivated in home gardens in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callistus Bvenura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of some essential (copper, manganese and zinc and toxic metals (lead and cadmium in cultivated vegetables – Brassica oleracea (cabbage, Daucus carota (carrot, Allium cepa (onion, Spinacia oleracea(spinach and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato – was examined. The vegetables were locally cultivated in home gardens in Alice, a small town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Samples of these vegetables were randomly collected from residential areas, dried, digested and analysed for the heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals in the vegetables were in the range of 0.01 mg/kg – 1.12 mg/kg dry weight for cadmium, 0.92 mg/kg – 9.29 mg/kg for copper, 0.04 mg/kg – 373.38 mg/kg for manganese and 4.27 mg/kg – 89.88 mg/kg for zinc. Lead was undetectable in all the samples. Results of analysis of soils from the area revealed that cadmium in soil was in the range of 0.01 mg/kg – 0.08 mg/kg, copper levels were 4.95 mg/kg – 7.66 mg/kg, lead levels were 5.15 mg/kg – 14.01 mg/kg and zinc levels were 15.58 mg/kg – 53.01 mg/kg. The concentration of manganese was the highest of all the metals, ranging between 377.61 mg/kg and 499.68 mg/kg, at all three residential sites. Although the concentrations in soils and vegetables of the critical heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium, may not pose a threat (according to FAO/WHO standards, the concentration of manganese was very high in spinach and soils, whilst that of zinc exceeded safe levels in spinach, onions and tomatoes. However, neither the soils nor the vegetables were consistently found to pose a risk to human health.

  19. Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: No research data exists on forensic psychiatric service provision in the Eastern Cape, Republic of South Africa. The objective of this research was to assess current forensic psychiatric service provision and utilisation rates at Fort England Hospital. This is important in improving and strengthening the service. A related objective was to develop a model for a provincial prison mental health service. Methodology: This study is a situational analysis of an existing forensic psychiatric service in the Eastern Cape. The design of the study was cross sectional. An audit questionnaire was utilised to collate quantitative data, which was submitted to Fort England Hospital, Grahamstown. A proposed prison mental health service was developed utilising prevalence rates of mental illness among prisoners to calculate bed and staff requirements for an ambulatory and in-patient service. Results: During the study period a total of 403 remand detainees were admitted to the forensic psychiatry division of Fort England Hospital. The average length of stay was 494 days and the bed utilisation rate was determined at 203.54%. We estimate that to provide a provincial prison mental health service to treat psychotic illnesses and major depression the province requires a 52 bedded facility and a total staff complement of approximately 31. Conclusions: Forensic psychiatric services include the assessment, management and treatment of mentally disordered persons in conflict with the law and prisoners requiring psychiatric assessments. The Eastern Cape Province does not have plans or policies to assess and manage mentally ill offenders, resulting in an increased load on available services. We recommend that an inter-departmental task team, which includes Health, Justice and Constitutional Development and Correctional Services, should be established in the province, to develop a strategy to assist in the development of an effective and efficient forensic

  20. Catalogue of the living Bivalvia of the eastern Pacific Ocean: Bering Strait to Cape Horn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard, F. R

    1983-01-01

    ...) to Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego (60 deg S). 1308 species from the high intertidal zone to deep waters extending approximately two thousand kilometers offshore are included, representing the total described fauna...

  1. Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are emerging as realistic tools for seizure control. Numerous open-label trials and a few recent randomized controlled trials suggest the capacity of both techniques to suppress seizures. Additionally, specialized TMS protocols aimed to map cortical function and to measure cortical excitability may have realistic roles as diagnostic tools in epilepsy. As the prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy has not changed in recent years, TMS and tDCS offer noninvasive and nonpharmacological options to improve control of intractable seizures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecology and distribution of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata of the Eastern Cape Karoo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah Mabidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the large branchiopod fauna of the Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa was undertaken to provide baseline biodiversity information in light of impending shale gas development activities in the region. Twenty-two waterbodies, including nine dams and thirteen natural depression wetlands, were sampled during November 2014 and April 2015. A total of 13 species belonging to four orders were collected, comprising five anostracans, one notostracan, six spinicaudatans and one laevicaudatan. Cyzicus australis was most common, occurring in 46% of the waterbodies. Species co-occurred in 87% of the waterbodies, with a maximum number of six species recorded from the same waterbody. Our new distribution records for Lynceus truncatus, Streptocephalus spinicaudatus and S. indistinctus represent substantial expansions of the previously known ranges for these species. Tarkastad is now the westernmost record for S. spinicaudatus, while Jansenville now constitutes the southernmost record for S. indistinctus. Large branchiopod distribution data from previous Eastern Cape records were combined with our current data, demonstrating that a total of 23 large branchiopod species have been recorded from the region to date. As the Karoo is one of the few major shale basins in the world where the natural baseline is still largely intact, this survey forms a basis for future reference and surface water quality monitoring during the process of shale gas exploration/extraction.

  3. Correlates of risky sexual behaviors in recently traditionally circumcised men from initiation lodges in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Ruiter, Robert A C; Van Den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S

    This exploratory quantitative study examines past risky sexual behaviors among young men who were circumcised as part of a rite of passage to adulthood embedded within a cultural and traditional belief system in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Following permission from the Eastern Cape House of Traditional Leaders (ECHOTL), individual face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted among 114 initiates. The mean age of the participants was 18.9 years, ranging from 15 to 32 years old. About 79.8% reported already having had sex with a woman prior to initiation. Of those, 89% reported that they ever used condoms when having sex, and 61% reported consistent use. Logistic regression analysis showed that consistent condom use increased with higher educational levels. Those involved in other risky health behaviors (specifically, smoking) were also more likely to report inconsistent condom use. Most participants had positive beliefs about male circumcision and STI/HIV transmission. This study provides a first look at the sexual behaviors of young men at the time of their initiation in adulthood, a process that is intended to make it socially acceptable to initiate sexual relations and highlights a major public health challenge in integrating the protective health benefits of circumcision with indigenous cultural practices.

  4. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools. Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress. Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention. Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  5. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  6. Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, H.G. [University Hospital, Dep. of Neurology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    PET has added valuable information to our knowledge of the human epilepsies. The most important observations have been the identification of localized regions of interictal cerebral dysfunction in patients with partial epilepsy, revealed with PET as local hypometabolism, hypoperfusion, or (in one study) enhanced {mu}opiate receptor binding. The following general conclusions about the anatomy of epilepsy can be drawn from interictal PET studies: (1) interictal neuronal dysfunction is not limited to the site of ictal onset, nor to brain areas immediately adjacent to structural damage, (2) temporal lobe dysfunction is most commonly encountered, usually in association with primary epileptogenic lesions in mesial temporal structures, but also on occasion with lateral temporal or extratemporal epileptogenic lesions which preferentially propagate to mesial temporal structures to give rise to complex partial seizures. It is now accepted that interictal {sup 18}F-FDG PET correctly lateralises the primarily epileptic temporal lobe in approximately 70% of patients. As a consequence of inclusion of PET into the UCLA presurgical evaluation protocol, Engel et al. were able to operate on 28% of the patients without using invasive methods, (3) local isolated neocortical dysfunction associated with simple partial seizures is only rarely revealed by PET, (4) remote interictal cerebral dysfunction associated with complex partial seizures is not necessarily limited to the involved TL, since contralateral temporal, extemporal neocortical and cerebral dysfunction may also be seen, (5) a variety of anatomical patterns of interictal cerebral dysfunction occur in secondary generalized epilepsies, which may be related to symptoms and signs, (6) no diffuse or localized interictal cerebral dysfunction has been identified by PET in patients with primary generalized childhood absence seizures. (author) 29 refs.

  7. Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Frost, J.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18(F)FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18(F)FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references.

  8. Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.; Frost, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18[F]FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18[F]FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references

  9. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  10. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  11. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  12. ICT applications as e-health solutions in rural healthcare in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxwana, Nkqubela L; Herselman, Marlien E; Conradie, D Pieter

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions (e.g. e-health, telemedicine, e-education) are often viewed as vehicles to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban healthcare centres and to resolve shortcomings in the rural health sector. This study focused on factors perceived to influence the uptake and use of ICTs as e-health solutions in selected rural Eastern Cape healthcare centres, and on structural variables relating to these facilities and processes. Attention was also given to two psychological variables that may underlie an individual&s acceptance and use of ICTs: usefulness and ease of use. Recommendations are made with regard to how ICTs can be used more effectively to improve health systems at fi ve rural healthcare centres where questionnaire and interview data were collected: St. Lucy&s Hospital, Nessie Knight Hospital, the Tsilitwa Clinic, the Madzikane Ka-Zulu Memorial Hospital and the Nelson Mandela General Hospital.

  13. An evaluation of the procedures required to ensure consistent material supply in the Eastern Cape automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Horn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a common perception that logistics practice and supply chain management have not yet reached the required international standards among all the supply chain members in the South African automotive industry. This article is based on a research study that investigated possible reasons for the inconsistent supply of materials in the Eastern Cape automotive industry specifically. Problems identified include the fact that suppliers are not evaluated on a regular basis and do not receive sufficient logistics training, while a commitment and will to development local suppliers is lacking. Recommendations made to the South African automotive industry include the improvement of development programmes to assist local suppliers in becoming world-class suppliers, better logistics training, more regular supplier assessments, as well as improved mutual communication among suppliers and motor vehicle assemblers.

  14. Drought Dynamics and Vegetation Productivity in Different Land Management Systems of Eastern Cape, South Africa—A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Graw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Cape Province in South Africa has experienced extreme drought events during the last decade. In South Africa, different land management systems exist belonging to two different land tenure classes: commercial large scale farming and communal small-scale subsistence farming. Communal lands are often reported to be affected by land degradation and drought events among others considered as trigger for this process. Against this background, we analyzed vegetation response to drought in different land management and land tenure systems through assessing vegetation productivity trends and monitoring the intensity, frequency and distribution of the drought hazard in grasslands and communal and commercial croplands during drought and non-drought conditions. For the observation period 2000–2016, we used time series of 250 m Vegetation Condition Index (VCI based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS precipitation data with 5 km resolution. For the assessment of vegetation dynamics, we: (1 analyzed vegetation productivity in Eastern Cape over the last 16 years with EVI; (2 analyzed the impact of drought events on vegetation productivity in grasslands as well as commercial and communal croplands; and (3 compared precipitation-vegetation dynamics between the drought season 2015/2016 and the non-drought season 2011/2012. Change in total annual vegetation productivity could detect drought years while drought dynamics during the season could be rather monitored by the VCI. Correlation of vegetation condition and precipitation indicated areas experiencing significant vegetation productivity trends showing low and even negative correlation coefficients indicating other drivers for productivity change and drought impact besides rainfall.

  15. The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, SC; Barrows, TT; Telfer, MW; Fifield, LK

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa journaltitle: Geomorphology articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.11.011 content_type: article copyright: Crown Copyright © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Colonel John Graham of Fintry and the Fourth Cape Eastern Frontier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In July 1795, commanding a company of this regiment, he served on the Isle .... Graham's grand strategy to clear the eastern frontier of Xhosa invaders was carefully ..... greatest ability and good management, and has expressed himself in the .... interests surpassed the 'luxury' of military and security needs, regulated from ...

  17. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  18. Procurement Adjudication and the Rights of Children: Freedom Stationery (Pty Ltd v MEC for Education, Eastern Cape 2011 JOL 26927 (E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Couzens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are heavily reliant on the services provided by the government and irregularities in public procurement processes are bound to affect the realisation of children's rights. In the Freedom Stationery (Pty Ltd v The Member of the Executive Council for Education, Eastern Cape the Court was urged by the Centre for Child Law acting as an amicus curiae to consider children's right to education and their best interests when deciding on an interim interdict which would result in a delay in the provision of stationery to several schools in the Eastern Cape. This case note contains a summary of the case, some comments on the court's approach to the rights of children in procurement adjudication, and an assessment of the significance of the case for the development of children's rights in South Africa.

  19. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD 50 ) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (pphytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

  1. Barriers to implementing evidence-based practice in a private intensive care unit in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia Janine Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence-based practices (EBPs have been promoted to enhance the delivery of patient care, reduce cost, increase patient and family satisfaction and contribute to professional development. Individual and organisational barriers can hamper the implementation of EBP, which can be detrimental to healthcare delivery. Objective. To determine the individual and organisational implementation barriers of EBP among nurses in a private intensive care unit (ICU. Methods. A quantitative research design was used to collect data from nurses in a private ICU in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The structured questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.72 was administered to 70 respondents, with a response rate of 93%. Results. Barriers at individual level were identified, and include lack of familiarity with EBP, individual perceptions that underpin clinical decision-making, lack of access to information required for EBP, inadequate sources to access evidence, inability to synthesise the literature available, and resistance to change. Barriers related to organisational support, change and operations were identified. Conclusion. Although the findings were similar to other studies, this study showed that nurses younger than 40 years of age were more familiar with the concepts of EBP. Physicians were perceived as not being very supportive of EBP implementation. In order to enhance healthcare delivery in the ICUs, nurse managers need to take cognisance of the individual and organisational barriers that might hamper the implementation of EBP.

  2. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. F. Katiyatiya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality, gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3% reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%, and Nguni (45.3% cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%, tick resistance (54.7%, and milking ability (28.2% traits. Excessive panting (56.6% and disease transmission (76% were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%, and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  3. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  5. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyegunhi Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  6. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-11-01

    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  7. Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Rooftop Rainwater-Harvesting Tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaba Shirley Malema

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many developing countries use harvested rainwater (HRW for drinking and other household purposes, its quality is seldom monitored. Continuous assessment of the microbial quality of HRW would ensure the safety of users of such water. The current study investigated the prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in HRW tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Rainwater samples were collected weekly between June and September 2016 from 11 tanks in various areas of the province. Enumeration of E. coli was performed using the Colilert®18/Quanti-Tray® 2000 method. E. coli isolates were obtained and screened for their virulence potentials using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and subsequently tested for antibiotic resistance using the disc-diffusion method against 11 antibiotics. The pathotype most detected was the neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC (ibeA 28% while pathotype enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC was not detected. The highest resistance of the E. coli isolates was observed against Cephalothin (76%. All tested pathotypes were susceptible to Gentamicin, and 52% demonstrated multiple-antibiotic resistance (MAR. The results of the current study are of public health concern since the use of untreated harvested rainwater for potable purposes may pose a risk of transmission of pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli.

  8. Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Rooftop Rainwater-Harvesting Tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malema, Mokaba Shirley; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Tandlich, Roman; Zuma, Bonga; Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice

    2018-05-01

    Although many developing countries use harvested rainwater (HRW) for drinking and other household purposes, its quality is seldom monitored. Continuous assessment of the microbial quality of HRW would ensure the safety of users of such water. The current study investigated the prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in HRW tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Rainwater samples were collected weekly between June and September 2016 from 11 tanks in various areas of the province. Enumeration of E. coli was performed using the Colilert ® 18/Quanti-Tray ® 2000 method. E. coli isolates were obtained and screened for their virulence potentials using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequently tested for antibiotic resistance using the disc-diffusion method against 11 antibiotics. The pathotype most detected was the neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) ( ibeA 28%) while pathotype enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) was not detected. The highest resistance of the E. coli isolates was observed against Cephalothin (76%). All tested pathotypes were susceptible to Gentamicin, and 52% demonstrated multiple-antibiotic resistance (MAR). The results of the current study are of public health concern since the use of untreated harvested rainwater for potable purposes may pose a risk of transmission of pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli.

  9. The association between ethnic identity and condom use among young men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Resnicow, Ken; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Reddy, Priscilla

    2014-08-01

    This article reports on the association between ethnic identity and condom use among Black African men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Individual face-to-face structured interviews were conducted by trained community research assistants among 1,656 men who had undergone traditional initiation and male circumcision. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between two components of ethnic identity (cultural affiliation and cultural alienation) and condom use. Overall, 49.2 % of the participants reported using condoms consistently and, of these users, 66.4 % used them correctly. Logistic regression adjusting for age, employment status, education level, and nation of origin showed that participants who expressed high as opposed to low cultural affiliation were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently and correctly when having sex, especially if they reported to have more than one sexual partner. Cultural alienation was negatively related with consistent condom use, whereas its association with correct use was unclear. The findings of this study suggest that positively emphasizing the ethnic identity of African black men may promote condom use.

  10. Lifestyle factors and co-morbidities associated with obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otang-Mbeng, Wilfred; Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-05-25

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects 500 million people worldwide and is predicted to increase to one billion people by 2030. The prevalence of obesity is increasing across populations in South Africa. However, questions still remain surrounding the predisposing factors and obesity-related health problems especially in the rural areas. This study evaluated several lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, co-morbidities and their association with the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted among 118 residents in four rural/sub-urban townships of the study area. Measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dietary habits were determined using a validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 38 and 19%, respectively. The highest prevalence of obesity (70%) was observed among those who do not undertake any physical activity. Close to half (48.48%) of the respondents who eat fast foods always were obese, and 30.30% were overweight; when combined, the prevalence for obesity is 78.78%. A negative association with obesity was observed among regular smokers (26.92%) and consumers of alcohol (4.00%). Arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were co-morbidities significantly (P fast and fried foods, low fruit and vegetable consumption as well as arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were significant risk factors of obesity in Nkonkobe Municipality.

  11. Developing and Institutionalising Supply Chain Management Procedures: A Case Study of the Eastern Cape Dept of Roads and Public Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukile Dlova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a case study research in the Eastern Cape Department of Roads and Public Works. It systematically investigates why public institutions fail to implement their Supply Change Management (SCM policies and procedures. The article provides a clear context for the researchand explains why policies and procedures are vital for organisations. It also illustrateshow policies and procedures are a meansto effective supply chain systems and describes the research method, population and sample. Findings based on the set outcriteria for good institutionalisation of policies and procedures showed that although SCM policies and procedures areprovided to employees and they were aware of the existence of theseinstruments, there was very little participation of employees in the development and review of these policies.  Based on the findings of the research, a key recommendation is that practitioners, are involved in the day to day implementation of the SCM process in public institutions, should also be involved in the development processes of SCM policies and procedures. The research also argues that for public institutions to be effective and efficient, clear departmental guidelines should be simple and straight forward language should be used so as to avoid different interpretations by implementers. These two critical points will contribute to the effective and efficient development and institutionalization of SCM policies and procedures in government institutions.

  12. Measuring evapotranspiration using an eddy covariance system over the Albany Thicket of the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwate, O.; Mantel, Sukhmani K.; Palmer, Anthony R.; Gibson, Lesley A.

    2016-10-01

    Determining water and carbon fluxes over a vegetated surface is important in a context of global environmental changes and the fluxes help in understanding ecosystem functioning. Pursuant to this, the study measured evapotranspiration (ET) using an eddy covariance (EC) system installed over an intact example of the Albany Thicket (AT) vegetation in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Environmental constraints to ET were also assessed by examining the response of ET to biotic and abiotic factors. The EC system comprised of an open path Infrared Gas Analyser and Sonic anemometer and an attendant weather station to measure bi-meteorological variables. Post processing of eddy covariance data was conducted using EddyPro software. Quality assessment of fluxes was also performed and rejected and missing data were filled using the method of mean diurnal variations (MDV). Much of the variation in ET was accounted for by the leaf area index (LAI, p water storage capacity of the vegetation and the possibility of vegetation accessing ground water. Most of the net radiation was consumed by sensible heat flux and this means that ET in the area is essentially water limited since abundant energy was available to drive turbulent transfers of energy. Understanding the environmental constraints to ET is crucial in predicting the ecosystem response to environmental forces such as climate change.

  13. The role of the state in stock farming in rural areas: A case study of Hertzog, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbai R. Jenjezwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of the state in providing veterinary services to resource-poor stock farmers. Communal stock farmers in most rural areas have low incomes and generally poor access to commercial veterinary healthcare. The state veterinary services thus offer a means for stock farmers to maintain the health of their livestock and receive information on animal healthcare. Interviews and participant observation were used to collect data about animal healthcare practices in Hertzog, a village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The findings were that the state played an important role in animal healthcare and in the education of farmers. However, the lack of a skilled workforce was a constraint to effective service delivery, whilst veterinary educational institutions that disseminate information to the stock farmers were not utilised. It is thus important to fully utilise training centres to educate stock farmers and for more incentives to be given to state employees, so as to attract the necessary skilled personnel to improve service delivery.

  14. The influence of school culture and school climate on violence in schools of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalie Barnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey - Short Form (CSCSS-SF, which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners. With the assistance of Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, it was found that the better the school culture and school climate are at a school, the lower the levels of school violence. On the other hand, a lack of school safety contributed to learners experiencing higher levels of violence at schools. The results of hierarchy regression analyses indicated that school culture and school climate can be used to explain a significant percentage of variance in school violence. The f² values indicate that, with the exception of two aspects of the variance physical and verbal harassment, the results did not have any practical value. The article concludes with a few suggestions on how the results can be used to address school violence.

  15. The provision of Primary Health Care in two rural districts of the Eastern Cape Province with particular reference to human resources and accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thipanyana

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision of Primary Health Care Services (PHC is still a problem in developing countries like South Africa. In other countries, one finds enough human resources whilst in other countries there may be enough material resources. A both qualitative and quantitative research was conducted at Mqanduli and part of the Eastern Elliotdale districts in the Eastern Cape Province with the aim of investigating the provision of Primary health Care Services, reference was made to the availability of human resources and accessibility of PHC services.

  16. Impacts of supplemental irrigation as a climate change adaptation strategy for maize production: a case of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ndhleve, S; Nakinand, MDV; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2017-01-01

    Dry spells and climatic hazards are responsible for maize output decline, sometimes to levels below potential yield levels. There is a pressing need to reduce the gap between actual and potential maize yield/ha, especially among farmers in semi-arid regions. This present study examines the potential role of supplemental irrigation and its differential impact on maize yield in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In this study, maize yield data were generated from information recorded ov...

  17. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  18. Detection, referral and control of diabetes and hypertension in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa by community health outreach workers in the rural primary healthcare project: Health in Every Hut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A. Morris-Paxton

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: In this rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the follow-up of patients with hypertension or diabetes as well as those individuals at-risk adds value to hypertension and glucose control.

  19. Assessing missed opportunities for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in an Eastern Cape local service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, L C; Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N; Metcalf, C A; Treger, L

    2009-03-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical imperative for South Africa; the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is one of the most efficacious HIV prevention interventions. Assessment of a PMTCT programme to determine missed opportunities. The Kouga local service area (LSA), bordering Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (Port Elizabeth) in the Eastern Cape. An assessment was conducted in 2007 before implementing technical support for strengthening the PMTCT programme, including: interviews with 20 PMTCT managers, 4 maternity staff and 27 other health workers on service provision, management, infrastructure, human resources and the health information system; 296 antenatal clinic users on their service perceptions; 70 HIV-positive women on HIV knowledge, infant feeding, coping, support and service perceptions; 8 representatives from community organisations and 101 traditional health practitioners (THPs). Observations were conducted during site visits to health facilities, and the District Health Information System (DHIS) data were reviewed. Staff had high levels of awareness of HIV policies and most had received some relevant training. Nevirapine uptake varied by clinic, with an average of 56%. There were many missed opportunities for PMTCT, with 67% of pregnant women tested for HIV and only 43% of antenatal care attendees tested during a previous pregnancy. Only 6% of HIV-positive women reported support group participation. Reducing missed opportunities for PMTCT requires strengthening of the formal health sector, intersectoral liaison, and greater community support. Priority areas that require strengthening in the formal health sector include HIV counselling and testing; family planning and nutrition counselling; infant follow-up; human resources; and monitoring and evaluation.

  20. Knowledge of practising radiographers of the supraspinatus outlet projection for shoulder impingement syndrome in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.; Morton, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: There are many projections in plain film imaging to demonstrate the specific aspects of the anatomy of the shoulder. However, reproducing the required projections can be challenging especially if radiographers are not familiar with the projections and their evaluation criteria. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge of practising radiographers regarding the supraspinatus outlet projection for shoulder impingement syndrome. Method: A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive design was followed. The population served as the sample and included all the practising radiographers in the public and private hospitals of a metropolitan municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A total of 84 respondents completed the structured, self-administered questionnaire. Results: The data revealed that in many cases, the majority of radiographers in the study, due to inadequate knowledge levels would not be able to produce an optimal radiographic image of the supraspinatus outlet. The results of the chi-squares indicated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between public and private hospitals regarding certain aspects of the scapular Y projection and SOP. Conclusion: It was found that the radiographers in the study had inadequate knowledge of scapular Y projections and SOPs in relation to SIS. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that radiographers are updated on their knowledge of radiographic practice on a continuous basis. - Highlights: • Many radiographers unable to produce an optimal image of the supraspinatus outlet. • Radiographers had poor knowledge of scapular Y and supraspinatus outlet projections. • It is essential that radiographers update their knowledge of radiographic practice.

  1. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  2. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  4. Floral diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in hogsback, the eastern cape province, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.Y.; Tol, J.J.V.; Maroyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate plant species diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in Hogsback, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Twenty four circular plots with radius of 2m were established between March and August 2013 within Hogsback montane wetland. Within each sample plot, the habitat information and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. A total of 41 species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were recorded. Of the documented species, 7.3% were exotic and endemic to South Africa, indicating diversity and dynamic nature of Hogsback montane wetland flora. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Poaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (six species), Onagraceae and Cyperaceae (three species each) and Lamiaceae with two species. The low number of exotic plant species recorded in Hogsback wetland (three species in total) indicates limited anthropogenic influences. Unique species recorded in Hogsback montane wetland were three species that are endemic to South Africa, namely, Alchemilla capensis Thunb., Helichrysum rosum (P.J. Bergius) Lees and Lysimachia nutans Nees. Five main floristic associations were identified from the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that edaphic factors, particularly area covered with water, erosion category, organic matter content and water table depth were the most important environmental variables measured accounting for the vegetation pattern present in the Hogsback montane wetland. Montane wetlands have a relatively low species richness characterised by unique species compositions which are distinctive and habitat specific. (author)

  5. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that

  6. Livelihood benefits and costs from an invasive alien tree (Acacia dealbata) to rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorima, A; Shackleton, C M

    2018-05-31

    The negative effects of invasive alien species (IAS) are increasingly invoked to justify widespread and usually top-down approaches for their management or eradication. However, very little of the research or discourse is based on investigating local perceptions, uses and struggles with IAS, and how their presence influences and changes local livelihoods. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions and livelihood uses of Acacia dealbata by local communities at three localities in the montane grasslands of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a combination of random household interviews, focus group discussions and participatory tools. We calculated direct-use values for each product and household (based on quantity used and local prices) and disaggregated these by gender of the household head and wealth quartiles. The results revealed the dualistic role of A. dealbata in local livelihoods. On the one hand, A. dealbata was widely used for firewood (100% of households), tools (77%) and construction timber (73%), with limited use for traditional medicines and forage. The cumulative value of approximately ZAR 2870 (±US$224) per household per year (across all households) represents considerable cash saving to households, most of whom are quite poor by national and international measures. On the other hand, the increasing extent of A. dealbata (93% said it was increasing) exacerbates local household vulnerability though reported reductions in cultivated areas, crop yields and forage production, and allegedly higher risks of crime. This quandary is well encapsulated by the considerable majority of respondents (84%) not wanting higher extents and densities of A. dealbata, but an equally high majority not wanting its total removal from local landscapes. Most respondents disliked A. dealbata in fields, close to homesteads or along primary access routes, and were more tolerant of it away from such sites. Institutional and use dynamics have varied over several

  7. Human resource management practices in a medical complex in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: assessing their impact on the retention of doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Bruce; Ronnie, Linda

    2014-03-26

    Human resource management (HRM) practices have the potential to influence the retention of doctors in the public health sector. To explore the key human resource (HR) practices affecting doctors in a medical complex in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. We used an open-ended questionnaire to gather data from 75 doctors in this setting. The most important HR practices were paying salaries on time and accurately, the management of documentation, communication, HR staff showing that they respected and valued the doctors, and reimbursement for conferences and special leave requests. All these practices were judged to be poorly administered. Essential HR characteristics were ranked in the following order: task competence of HR staff, accountability, general HR efficiency, occupation-specific dispensation adjustments and performance management and development system efficiency, and availability of HR staff. All these characteristics were judged to be poor. HRM practices in this Eastern Cape medical complex were inadequate and a source of frustration. This lack of efficiency could lead to further problems with regard to retaining doctors in public sector service.

  8. The impact of risk on the financial performance of small medium enterprises in the construction industry in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Chiliya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management has become the driving force for business success due to the everchanging business environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the level of awareness and use of risk management techniques on the financial performance. The data was collected from 82 of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs owners/managers in the construction industry in Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results show that the level of awareness and use of risk management techniques have a significant impact on the financial performance of SMEs in the construction industry. The study recommends that the government, tertiary institutions, construction industry development board, and SME owners or managers in the construction industry should work together in improving the level of awareness and use of risk management techniques.

  9. A comparative analysis of the implementation of anti-corruption legislation by anti-corruption agencies in the provinces of the Eastern and Northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozama Majila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.

  10. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control.

  11. An investigation into possibilities for implementation of a virtual community of practice delivered via a mobile social network for rural community media in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Muwanga-Zake

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how a virtual community of practice can be delivered via a mobile social networking framework to support rural community media in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Objectives: The article presents the results of a study conducted to ascertain the possibilities of utilising mobile social networking as a means to provide access to required information and knowledge to rural community media through creation of a virtual community of practice. Improving the operational effectiveness of rural community media as a component of the rural community communication process would serve to improve the entire rural community communication process as well, making them more effective tools for availing relevant news and information to rural communities and reflecting the realities of rural communities to their broader environment. Method: The study was conducted on rural community media small micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study applied an interpretive research philosophy, qualitative research design and multiple–case study approach. Primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews supported by a questionnaire, with secondary data collected via literature review, observation and documentation analysis. Results: Findings were that rural community media do make use of social media and mobile devices in operating their business, require access to generic and domain specific support services and actively engage their peers and stakeholders in this respect, although no formalised structure existed. The authors’ recommendation is to create a formalised virtual community of practice through the establishment of a mobile social network. Conclusion: Because of the fact that rural community SMMEs already utilise mobile devices and social media to operate their businesses, development of a solution based on a mobile social

  12. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  13. Behavior in yield and quality of 54 cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. accessions from north-eastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera M. Axel M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the performance in production and fruit quality of 54 accessions of cape gooseberry collected from plants that were cultivated, feral and indeterminate from the north-east. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with four replicates per accession in a greenhouse. We estimated the germination percentage (GP for 30 seeds per accession and with a random sampling of 20 fruits at 120 days after the beginning of harvest (dah, weight of the fruit with calyx (CFW, percentage of cracked fruit (CF, number of fruits per plant (NFP and yield (Y, were determined and at 105 dah total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, maturity ratio (MR = TSS/TTA, pH and ascorbic acid (AA were evaluated. Significant differences were observed in GP, Y and CFW with the highest values recorded at 91.23%, 6.17 kg/ plant and 5.68 g, respectively. For the variables TSS and CF, feral materials showed the highest values with 14.7°Brix and 23.93%, respectively. The results suggest the presence of significant variability in the Cape gooseberry germplasm analyzed that can be incorporated into future conservation and breeding programs.

  14. The Humansdorp Cape Griffon Site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    Figure 1. The cliff north-west of the town of Humansdorp, Eastern Cape, South Africa, where a small group of Cape Griffons Gyps coprotheres roosted, and reportedly bred, until the end of the. 19 th century. The trees seen in the picture are all alien, invasive, black wattles Acacia mearnsii. (Photo: A Boshoff).

  15. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (goats formed their own cluster separated from commercial meat type breeds and the Venda and Zulu ecotypes. The discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90.41% of the Zulu goats and 82.93% of the Xhosa village populations. None of the Savanna goats were correctly classified. The study demonstrated diversity in village goat

  16. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  17. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  18. HIV- and AIDS-related (mis)perceptions and (non)responses of school principals in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Webb, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Despite various HIV and AIDS training programmes offered for educators by the South African Department of Education, little has been achieved at the level of management in terms of creating a wider understanding of the social and cultural complexities of the condition and its impact on the quality of teaching and learning. Specifically, there is a lack of developmental programmes to help school principals provide leadership that can ensure that teachers and children who live in a context affected by the disease will still find themselves in a school environment of quality, care and compassion. With this in mind, we conducted a qualitative research enquiry among a sample of 12 school principals in the Eastern Cape Province in order to discover their perceptions about the impacts of HIV and AIDS on their schools and to learn how they have responded to the corresponding challenges. Our intention was to use the findings primarily to inform the development of an academic programme and short courses to empower school principals and leadership in this regard, but the findings may also be relevant as a guide for research on a larger scale.

  19. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from dairy farms in Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asive Myataza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 in water and cattle rectal samples from three commercial dairy farms in Amathole District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: Samples were collected bimonthly from cattle rectum and dairy water sources including irrigation water, drinking water troughs and wastewater between June and November 2014. Standard culture-based methods were applied for the microbial analyses, the disc diffusion method was employed for the antibiotic susceptibility test and PCR approach was utilized for identification of the isolates. Results: A total of 252 presumptive E. coli O157:H7 were isolated and subjected to molecular confirmation by PCR. About 18.7% (47/252 of these were confirmed as E. coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these confirmed isolates revealed high-level resistance against penicillin G (81%, tetracycline (43%, oxytetracycline (62%, erythromycin (68%, sulphamethoxazole (57%, chloramphenicol (55%, doxycycline (51% and trimethoprimsulphamethoxazole (45%. Conclusions: This is the first report of multi-drug resistance E. coli O157:H7 in commercial dairy farms in the province and suggests the possibility of same in other provinces of the country, and this is the subject of the intensive investigation in our group.

  20. Occurrences of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Course of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape of South Africa and Its Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrazaq Yahaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most organochlorine pesticides (OCPs which are increasingly used in agriculture and industry are not biodegradable and thereby persist in the environment for a very long period of time. They are capable of negatively impacting the health of humans and biota when present in a higher concentration than recommended. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 OCPs in surface water samples collected from six sampling sites along the course of the Buffalo River in Eastern Cape, South Africa, between December 2015 and May 2016. The samples were subjected to solvent extraction, followed by florisil clean up, and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector. The individual concentrations of OCPs detected ranged from

  1. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  2. A comparative study of detrital zircon ages from river sediment and rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous to Jurassic), Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Gondwanaland’s southern continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) The Mzimvubu River, situated in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, drains essentially strata of the Late Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup with minor intersection of the underlying Devonian Msikaba Formation near the mouth of the river at Port St. Johns. Rock- and river sediment samples were collected at specific points from within the Mzimvubu River drainage basin, based on changes in the geology through which the rivers flow. Detrital zircon age populatio...

  3. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession

  4. Distribution and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semi-arid region earmarked for shale gas exploration (Eastern Cape Karoo, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah Mabidi

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and composition across the three major waterbody types (temporary rivers, depression wetlands and semi-permanent dams of the Eastern Cape Karoo, and to identify important environmental and spatial correlates of macroinvertebrate assemblage composition in the region. A total of 33 waterbodies (9 dams, 13 depression wetlands and 11 rivers were sampled. Altogether, 91 taxa were recorded in November 2014 and 82 in April 2015. Twenty-seven taxa were common to all three waterbody types (across both sampling occasions, with 17 of these observed in November and 19 in April. The ANOSIM tests revealed significant differences in assemblage composition between the depression wetlands and rivers for both sampling occasions, but dams did not differ from the other waterbody types. SIMPER analyses indicated that the notonectid Anisops varia and the corixid Micronecta scutellaris were abundant across all three waterbody types during both sampling occasions. The mayfly Cloeon africanum and the damselfly Pseudagrion sp. were abundant in river habitats during both sampling occasions, while the gastropod mollusc Bulinus tropicus and the copepod Lovenula falcifera best characterised depression wetlands on both occasions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination highlighted a clear separation of assemblages between November and April, while distance-based Redundancy Analysis revealed that conductivity, altitude, turbidity and pH were the most important variables explaining the variation in macroinvertebrate assemblage patterns. These results provide baseline information which is important for future biological monitoring of impacts associated with hydraulic fracturing activities and climatic changes in the region.

  5. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector clinics in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Gaida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is acknowledged that almost half of patients initiated on efavirenz will experience at least one neuropsychiatric side effect. Objectives: The aim was to determine the incidence and severity of neuropsychiatric side effects associated with efavirenz use in five public-sector primary healthcare clinics in the Eastern Cape. Method: The study was a prospective drug utilisation study. A total of 126 medical records were reviewed to obtain the required information. After baseline assessment, follow-up reviews were conducted at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks from 2014 to 2015. Results: The participant group was 74.60% female (n = 94, and the average age was 37.57±10.60 years. There were no neuropsychiatric side effects recorded for any patient. After the full follow-up period, there were a total of 49 non-adherent patients and one patient had demised. A non-adherent patient was defined as a patient who did not return to the clinic for follow-up assessment and medication refills 30 days or more after the appointed date. Some patients (n = 11 had sent a third party to the clinic to collect their antiretroviral therapy (ART. The clinic pharmacy would at times dispense a two-month supply of medication resulting in the patient presenting only every two months. Conclusion: Further pharmacovigilance studies need to be conducted to determine the true incidence of these side effects. Healthcare staff must be encouraged to keep complete records to ensure meaningful patient assessments. Patients being initiated on ART need to personally attend the clinic monthly for at least the first 6 months of treatment. Clinic staff should receive regular training concerning ART, including changes made to guidelines as well as reminders of side effects experienced. Keywords: neuropsychiatric; side effects; efavirenz; HIV-positive patients

  6. Intracranial suppuration: Review of an 8-year experience at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwary, M A

    2015-09-21

    Intracranial suppuration (ICS) is a life-threatening condition caused by various disease processes and consisting of brain abscess and extradural and subdural empyema. The major causes have changed over the decades. To the author's knowledge, the incidence of ICS in South Africa (SA) has not been established. To determine the incidence of ICS, overall and according to age and gender, and to identify the source and distribution of ICS. The archive of the radiology departments at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in the Transkei region, Eastern Cape Province, SA, was searched retrospectively for computed tomography (CT) reports of patients diagnosed with ICS. Cases in which the CT images, patients' clinical information and CT reports were available for an uninterrupted period of at least 1 year were included. Five time frames were established, encompassing 8 years of data. The first time frame established an incidence of ICS of 1/100,000/year for the Transkei region. All the time frames were utilised to determine the incidence according to gender and age, and the source and distribution of ICS. The incidence of ICS was higher among males than females, and highest in the age groups 0-10 and 11-20 years. A seasonal variation in the incidence of sinusitis- and meningitis-related ICS was noted. Numbers of cases declined during the last 3 years of the study period. Sinusitis, head trauma, ear infection and meningitis were the major sources of ICS. A pulmonary source was not a major feature. In the last 4 years, trauma became the commonest source of ICS. A steady decline in ear infection- and meningitis-related ICS was noted.

  7. Socioeconomic status and self-reported tuberculosis: a multilevel analysis in a low-income township in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Murray Cramm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting the prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries. The compositional and contextual factors that affect health and disease patterns must be fully understood to successfully control tuberculosis. Experience with tuberculosis in South Africa was examined at the household level (overcrowding, a leaky roof, social capital, unemployment, income and at the neighbourhood level (Gini coefficient of inequality, unemployment rate, headcount poverty rate. A hierarchical random-effects model was used to assess household-level and neighbourhood-level effects on self-reported tuberculosis experience. Every tenth household in each of the 20 Rhini neighbourhoods was selected for inclusion in the sample. Eligible respondents were at least 18 years of age and had been residents of Rhini for at least six months of the previous year. A Kish grid was used to select one respondent from each targeted household, to ensure that all eligible persons in the household stood an equal chance of being included in the survey. We included 1020 households within 20 neighbourhoods of Rhini, a suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. About one-third of respondents (n=329; 32% reported that there had been a tuberculosis case within the household. Analyses revealed that overcrowding (P≤0.05 and roof leakage (P≤ 0.05 contributed significantly to the probability of a household TB experience, whereas higher social capital (P≤0.01 significantly reduced this probability. Overcrowding, roof leakage and the social environment affected tuberculosis prevalence in this economically disadvantaged community. Policy makers should consider the possible benefits of programs that deal with housing and social environments when addressing the spread of tuberculosis in economically poor districts.

  8. Genetic assessment of an isolated endemic Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) population in the Amathole Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madisha, M Thabang; Dalton, Desire L; Jansen, Raymond; Kotze, Antoinette

    2018-03-01

    The endemic Samango monkey subspecies (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) inhabits small discontinuous Afromontane forest patches in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal midlands and southern Mpumalanga Provinces in South Africa. The subspecies is affected by restricted migration between forest patches which may impact on gene flow resulting in inbreeding and possible localized extinction. Current consensus, based on habitat quality, is that C. a. labiatus can be considered as endangered as the small forest patches they inhabit may not be large enough to sustain them. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular genetic investigation to determine if the observed isolation has affected the genetic variability of the subspecies. A total of 65 Samango monkeys (including juveniles, subadults and adults) were sampled from two localities within the Hogsback area in the Amathole Mountains. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation was assessed using 17 microsatellite markers and by sequencing the hypervariable 1 region (HVR1). Microsatellite data generated was used to determine population structure, genetic diversity and the extent of inbreeding. Sequences of the HVR1 were used to infer individual origins, haplotype sharing and haplotype diversity. No negative genetic factors associated with isolation such as inbreeding were detected in the two groups and gene flow between groups can be regarded as fairly high primarily as a result of male migration. This was in contrast to the low nuclear genetic diversity observed (H o  = 0.45). A further reduction in heterozygosity may lead to inbreeding and reduced offspring fitness. Translocations and establishment of habitat corridors between forest patches are some of the recommendations that have emerged from this study which will increase long-term population viability of the subspecies.

  9. Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, Taofeek; Okoh, Omobola; Agunbiade, Foluso; Okoh, Anthony

    2018-07-01

    The concentration and fates of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which adopted the activated sludge technology in the Amathole Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa were investigated. The six PAEs were detected in all the influents and in almost all the WWTP effluent of which DBP was the most abundant in the influent followed by DEHP. Influent concentration of DBP in the three WWTPs ranged between 2.7 and 2488 μgL -1 and the average effluent concentration was 4.90-8.88 μgL -1 . On average, the concentration of PAEs in WWTP effluents were higher than PAEs in the upstream and downstream of the discharging point suggesting PAE impact on the receiving water. The concentrations detected in the sludge of which DEHP and DBP were more pervasive ranged between 130 and 1094 μg/g dry weight. The average removal capacity; 27.3-99.5% suggested more adsorption on settling particles and sludge than biodegradation as high significant correlation was found between PAEs removal, total suspended solid and turbidity. Removal of high molecular weight and high octanol-water partition coefficient (logK ow ) PAEs through adsorption was found to be significantly high. It could be concluded that the release of PAEs into the sludge, and the amount in the final effluent which were found to exceed the acceptable levels allowed internationally, raises safety concern for both aquatic and human's health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthcare provider views on the health effects of biomass fuel collection and use in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo; Annegarn, Harold J; Clancy, Joy S

    2013-11-01

    Policymakers at global level recognise that household biomass use in developing countries has significant health consequences. However, it is unclear how local-level health professionals perceive and respond to such health effects. This paper which is derived from the findings of a larger study on perceptions and responses to the harmful health effects of carrying heavy firewood loads and to smoke from cooking fires is based on a study conducted in South Africa among managers of health programmes and community nurses of Qaukeni and Mhlontlo municipalities in rural Eastern Cape. Interviews and participant observations were conducted in 2009 using ethnographic grounded theory approaches. In addition to a 10-month period of ethnographic fieldwork, ten programme managers and nurses in two villages were interviewed about health patterns in the villages that they serve, their perceptions of, and responses to the health effects of carrying heavy firewood loads, and inhalation of smoke from wood and dung cooking fires, their professional qualifications and experience, their own household energy use; and observations made as they served clinic clients. Results show that these programme managers and nurses perceive the health effects of carrying heavy loads of firewood and of cooking smoke as minor. Sometimes, nurses give women symptomatic relief for musculoskeletal pain resulting from carrying heavy loads. We posit that their perceptions are derived from customary neglect of work-related health and non-communicable diseases, cultural interpretations of womanhood, limited access to relevant information, and limited interactions between health and energy sector professionals. We conclude that culturally and gender-sensitive awareness programmes are needed for local-level health professionals to effectively address health effects of biomass collection and use. This paper provides new insights into overlooked differences between globally-driven initiatives to address health

  11. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth F. Bath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  12. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  13. Prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from three selected dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyanda Msolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw milk, cattle udder, milking machines and worker’s hand swabs from three selected commercial dairy farms in the Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected from bulk storage tanks and swab samples were collected from milking machines, cattle udders and worker’s hands fortnightly over a sixmonth sampling regime between June and November 2014. A standard culture-based method was used for the enumeration and isolation of E. coli O157:H7, presumptive identification using sorbitol MacConkey agar (supplemented with cefixime (50 µg/L and potassium tellurite (25 mg/L. A serological confirmation of the presumptive E. coli O157:H7 isolates was conducted using the O157 latex agglutination test kit. Results: A total of 252 E. coli O157:H7 isolates were further subjected to PCR amplification of rfbEO157 and flCH7 genes of which 27(11% of the isolates were confirmed positive E. coli O157:H7. The percentage antibiotic resistance of the 27 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the dairy farms revealed penicillin [23 (85%], tetracycline [22 (81%], erythromycin [19 (70%], streptomycin [14 (52%] and chloramphenicol [12 (45%]. The highest resistances were penicillin [23 (85%] and tetracycline [22 (81%]. Conclusions: These findings revealed that the dairy farms are potential reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 serotype, and harbor antibiotic-resistant determinants, a concern to public and environmental health.

  14. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Evans, Ursula; Purnell, R E

    2004-12-01

    Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective larvae on the pastures.

  15. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective

  16. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  17. Quantitative PCR Detection and Characterisation of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Discharged Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefisoye, Martins Ajibade; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyin

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of enteric viruses in reclaimed wastewater, their removal by efficient treatment processes and the public health hazards associated with their release into the environments are of great significance in environmental microbiology. In this study, TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the prevalence of human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus (RV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, over a twelve-month sampling period. The correlation between the concentrations of viruses in the effluents samples and faecal coliform (FC) densities were assessed as to validate the use of FC as microbiological indicator in water quality assessment. HAdV was detected in 62.5 % (30/48) of the samples with concentrations ranging between 8.4 × 10 1 and 1.0 × 10 5 genome copies/L while HAV and RV were only detected at concentrations below the set detection limits. FCs densities ranged from 1 to 2.7 × 10 4 CFU/100 ml. Adenovirus species HAdV-B (serotype 2) and HAdV-F (serotype 41) were detected in 86.7 % (26/30) and 6.7 % (2/30) of the HAdV-positive samples, respectively. No consistent seasonal trend was observed in HAdV concentrations, however, increased concentrations of HAdV were generally observed in the winter months. Also, there was no correlation between the occurrence of HAdV and FC at both the treatment plants. The persistent occurrence of HAdV in the discharged treated effluents points to the potential public health risk through the release of HAdV into the receiving watersheds, and the possibility of their transmission to human population.

  18. Use of sediment source fingerprinting to assess the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment in a degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Rowntree, Kate; Kakembo, Vincent; Foster, Ian; Collins, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    Sediment source fingerprinting has been successfully deployed to provide information on the surface and subsurface sources of sediment in many catchments around the world. However, there is still scope to re-examine some of the major assumptions of the technique with reference to the number of fingerprint properties used in the model, the number of model iterations and the potential uncertainties of using more than one sediment core collected from the same floodplain sink. We investigated the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment to two sediment cores collected from a floodplain in a small degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results showed that increasing the number of individual fingerprint properties in the composite signature did not improve the model goodness-of-fit. This is still a much debated issue in sediment source fingerprinting. To test the goodness-of-fit further, the number of model repeat iterations was increased from 5000 to 30,000. However, this did not reduce uncertainty ranges in modelled source proportions nor improve the model goodness-of-fit. The estimated sediment source contributions were not consistent with the available published data on erosion processes in the study catchment. The temporal pattern of sediment source contributions predicted for the two sediment cores was very different despite the cores being collected in close proximity from the same floodplain. This highlights some of the potential limitations associated with using floodplain cores to reconstruct catchment erosion processes and associated sediment source contributions. For the source tracing approach in general, the findings here suggest the need for further investigations into uncertainties related to the number of fingerprint properties included in un-mixing models. The findings support the current widespread use of ≤5000 model repeat iterations for estimating the key sources of sediment samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Why do some hospitals achieve better care of severely malnourished children than others? Five-year follow-up of rural hospitals in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puoane, Thandi; Cuming, Katie; Sanders, David; Ashworth, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Staff at 11 rural hospitals in an under-resourced region of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, participated in an intervention to improve the quality of care of severely malnourished children through training and support aimed at implementing the WHO case-management guidelines. Despite similar intervention inputs, some hospitals reduced their case-fatality rates by at least half, whereas others did not. The aim of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Two successful and two poorly performing hospitals were purposively selected based on their case-fatality rates, which were 30% in those performing poorly. Comparative data were collected during June to October 2004 through structured observations of ward procedures, compilation of hospital data on case-loads and resources, and staff interviews and discussions related to attitudes, teamwork, training, supervision, managerial support and leadership. The four study hospitals had broadly similar resources, infrastructure and child:nurse ratios, and all had made changes to their clinical and dietary management following training. Case-management was broadly in line with WHO guidelines but the study revealed clear differences in institutional culture which influenced quality of care. Staff in the successful hospitals were more attentive and assiduous than staff in the poorly performing hospitals, especially in relation to rehydration procedures, feeding and the recording of vital signs. There was a strong emphasis on in-service training and induction of incoming staff in the successful hospitals and better supervision of junior staff and carers. Nurses had more positive attitudes towards malnourished children and their carers, and were less judgmental. Underlying factors were differences in leadership, teamwork, and managerial supervision and support. We conclude that unless there are supportive structures at managerial level, the potential benefits of efficacious interventions and related training

  20. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Dianthus Thunbergii Hooper and Hypoxis Argentea Harv Ex Baker: Plants Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Bradley, Graeme

    2018-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa use the roots of Dianthus thunbergii and corms of Hypoxis argentea to treat diabetes mellitus and other ailments. The objective of this study was to analyze the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots and corms of two plants. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, and alkaloids were determined by standard methods. The scavenging activities of the extracts against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and their ferric-reducing antioxidant potentials (FRAPs) were measured. The ethanol extract of H. argentea had the highest content of phenolics (66.71 ± 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and tannins (1.18 ± 0.07 mg TAE/g), while the ethanol extract of D. thunbergii gave higher contents of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (62.21 ± 1.75 mg Qe/g and 432.62 ± 2.43 mg Ca/g, respectively). Flavonols were the most predominant in the aqueous extract of H. argentea (25.51 ± 1.92 mg Qe/g). We observed a concentration-dependent response in the ABTS- and H 2 O 2 -scavenging activities and FRAP values of the extracts and standards (Vitamin C, butylated hydroxytoluene, and rutin). The ethanol extracts of both plants generally demonstrated better antioxidant activities against H 2 O 2 , NO, and ABTS while also possessing better reducing power than the aqueous extracts. The aqueous extract of D. thunbergii , however, showed the best DPPH scavenging activity. The higher content of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity obtained for the ethanol extracts of D. thunbergii and H. argentea may prove to be valuable information in selecting suitable extraction solvents for the medicinal applications of both plants. Ethanol extracts of Hypoxis argentea had the highest levels of phenolics and tanninsEthanol extracts of Dianthus

  1. Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy. This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  2. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the one before it. Some children have a strange sensation before a seizure. Sensations may be tingling, ... Prognosis) Most children with epilepsy live a normal life. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or ...

  3. April 1977 The Cape gurnard is a commercially exploited species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape gurnard is a commercially exploited species of which the annual landings between ... fishing operations took place along the eastern Cape coast of South Africa ..... Handbook of computation for biological statistics offish populations.

  4. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  5. 'One Man Can': shifts in fatherhood beliefs and parenting practices following a gender-transformative programme in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wessel; Hendricks, Lynn; Hatcher, Abigail; Peacock, Dean; Godana, Patrick; Dworkin, Shari

    2013-02-01

    'One Man Can' (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health programme implemented by Sonke Gender Justice in South Africa. It has been featured as an example of best practice by the World Health Organization, UNAIDS, and the UN Population Fund, and translated into nearly a dozen languages and implemented all across Africa. South Africa has strong gender and HIV-related policies, but the highest documented level of men's violence against women in the world, and the largest number of people living with HIV. In this context, OMC seeks to improve men's relationships with their partners, children, and families, reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS, and reduce violence against women, men, and children. To understand whether and how OMC workshops brought about changes in men's attitudes and practices related to parenting, an academic-non-government organisation partnership was carried out with the University of California at San Francisco, the University of Cape Town, and Sonke. The workshops appear to have contributed powerfully to improved parenting and more involved and responsible fathering. This article shares our findings in more detail and discusses the promises and challenges of gender-transformative work with men, underscoring the implications of this work for the health and well-being of women, children, and men.

  6. Cape fearless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  7. Managing first-time seizures and epilepsy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... Senior Registrar in Paediatric Neurology, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross Children's Hospital, Cape Town. Sally Ackermann is a senior registrar in paediatric neurology. She has an interest in the epidemiology of children with epilepsy. RONALD VAN TOORN ...

  8. Hyperglycaemic crisis in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: high mortality and association of hyperosmolar ketoacidosis with a new diagnosis of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpebegh, C O; Longo-Mbenza, B; Akinrinmade, A; Blanco-Blanco, E; Badri, M; Levitt, N S

    2010-12-01

    To describe the frequencies, presenting characteristics (demographic, clinical and biochemical) and outcomes (duration of admission and mortality rates) for various types of hyperglycaemic crisis. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with hyperglycaemic crisis admitted to Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, E Cape, from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009. Outcome measures were duration of admission and mortality. Data were available for 269 admissions (response rate 81.0%), 169 females and 100 males. Admissions for hyperglycaemia (HG, N=119), and non-hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (NHDKA, N=97) were more frequent than those for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS, N=29) and hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (HDKA, N=24). Duration of admission was similar in all groups. Mortality was high in all groups, but was higher in patients with HDKA (37.5%, risk ratio (RR) 3.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41 - 10.67, p=0.009), HHS (31.0%, RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.09 - 7.75, p=0.033) and HG (19.5%, RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.75 - 3.21, p=0.236) than in those with NHDKA (13.4%). HDKA (62.5%) was associated with new-onset diabetes more often than NHDKA (27.8%), HHS (44.8%) or HG (17.6%) (p<0.0001). An altered level of consciousness was more frequent in HDKA than NHDKA admissions (RR 5.71, 95% CI 1.90 - 17.17, p=0.002). Duration of hospital stay was similar across groups. Mortality rates were high in all groups. New-onset diabetes, altered level of consciousness and mortality were more characteristically associated with HDKA than any of the other types of hyperglycaemic crisis. Optimal glycaemic control in known diabetic patients will reduce rates of hyperglycaemic crisis admissions.

  9. Use of Landsat series data to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of land degradation in a dispersive soil environment: A case of King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Seutloali, Khoboso; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    Land degradation as a result of inappropriate land use practices, such as overgrazing and cultivation on steep slopes, etc. is one of the major global environmental challenges. Specifically, land degradation threatens the productivity and sustainability of the natural environment, agriculture, and most importantly rural economies in most developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan region. The main aim of this study was therefore, to assess the potential and strength of using the free or readily available Landsat series data in mapping degraded land areas at the King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (1984-2010). Data analysis was done using a robust non-parametric classification ensemble; Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show that degraded areas vary over the years. For example, the results show that the year 1994 and 2004 incurred high degradation levels, when compared to the year 1984 and 2010. Moreover, the observed degradation significantly (α = 0.05) varies with soil type. The chromic acrisols have the highest levels of erosion (approx. 80% in 1984), when compared to humic-umbric acrisols (less than 10% for the entire period under study). It can also be observed that considerable part of degradation occurred in the northern part of the municipal district. Overall, the findings of this research underlines the importance and efficacy of multispectral Landsat series data-set in mapping and monitoring levels of land degradation in data-scarce catchments.

  10. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... ... of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at ... mortality rates were in the northern and eastern Cape. Conclusion. The perinatal ..... World Health Organisation. World Health Statistics Annual. Vol.

  11. Targeting Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abilities of people with epilepsy, fear seizures, or lack knowledge about seizure first aid or are not comfortable ... they help eliminate barriers to care, such as lack of transportation or ... both English- and Spanish-speaking adults with epilepsy. Researchers are ...

  12. Epilepsie aktuell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Hüelsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.

    2016-01-01

    of the consensus statements “IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals” and “IVETF’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs” in German language to inform German veterinarians and professional...... circles about new knowledge and innovations in these fields. In the first part of the article, it is explained, why a new classification system of epilepsy and a common language to describe the disease is necessary. The proposals of the IVETF regarding the classification system and the terminology...... Richtlinien zur Klassifikation und Empfehlungen zu allen Aspekten der Epilepsie bei Hund und Katze in englischer Sprache publiziert (IVETF, 2015a, b). Im vorliegenden Artikel werden die Inhalte der Konsenspapiere „IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion...

  13. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  14. Epilepsy - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or antiepileptic drugs), may reduce the number of future seizures: These drugs are taken by mouth. Which ... 23986299 . Wiebe S. The epilepsies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  16. 77 FR 29929 - Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...

  17. Palaemon pacijicus (Stimpson) in eastern Cape tidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-09-25

    Sep 25, 1984 ... seasonally with peak numbers and biomass found in summer ... One part of the programme dealt with the tidal pool ... pools sampled. Unicam spectrophotometer at 458 run. A dilution series was made for each batch of concentrate used. A domestic water meter was coupled to the outlet of a portable pump ...

  18. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A

    2014-12-01

    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  19. Managing Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person’s healthcare provider, and family and friends. What parents or caregivers can do Talk with your child’s heath care ... management resources for people with epilepsy and their caregivers. Learn more on our Find Support page . What can I do to keep my seizures in ...

  20. 76 FR 27970 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of Cape Charles City...[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Cape Charles, VA...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  1. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  2. Abdominal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, N.; Razzaq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is a rather uncommon clinical entity in children that might create diagnostic confusion especially when it lacks the typical manifestations of an epileptic seizure. We report the case of a young boy having apparently unexplained episodes of paroxysmal abdominal symptoms with no other suggestion of an underlying epileptic disorder. The case also explains how the clinical presentation can be misleading unless a high index of suspicion is maintained to reach the ultimate diagnosis. (author)

  3. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  4. Neurocysticercosis in patients presenting with epilepsy at St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To survey the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in patients treated for epilepsy in Lusikisiki, E Cape. Design. This was a descriptive study. Variables considered were age, gender, symptoms and type of seizure, serological data, electroencephalogram and computed tomography (CT) findings, treatment, and ...

  5. Hereditary epilepsy syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Brouwer, OF

    This paper reviews the present knowledge on the genetics of the epilepsies. Main clinical features, gene localization and pattern of inheritance of the idiopathic epilepsies, the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, and some other genetic disorders often associated with epilepsy, are described. (C)

  6. Epilepsy in Qatar: Causes, treatment, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Naim; Melikyan, Gayane; Al Hail, Hassan; Al Jurdi, Ayman; Aqeel, Faten; Elzafarany, Abdullah; Abuhadra, Nour; Laswi, Mujahed; Alsamman, Yasser; Uthman, Basim; Deleu, Dirk; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Alarcon, Gonzalo; Azar, Nabil; Streletz, Leopold; Mahfoud, Ziyad

    2016-10-01

    Qatar is a small country on the Eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its population is a unique mixture of native citizens and immigrants. We aimed to describe the features of epilepsy in Qatar as such information is virtually lacking from the current literature. We summarized information retrospectively collected from 468 patients with epilepsy seen through the national health system adult neurology clinic. Epilepsy was classified as focal in 65.5% of the cases and generalized in 23%. Common causes of epilepsy were as follows: stroke (9%), hippocampal sclerosis (7%), infections (6%), and trauma (6%). Sixty-six percent of patients were receiving a single antiepileptic drug, with levetiracetam being the most frequently prescribed drug (41% of subjects). When the patients were divided by geographical background, remote infections caused the epilepsy in 15% of Asian patients (with neurocysticercosis accounting for 10%) but only in 1% of Qatari and 3% of Middle East/North African subjects (with no reported neurocysticercosis) (pepilepsy in Qatar. The geographical origin of patients adds to the heterogeneity of this disorder. Neurocysticercosis should be in the etiological differential diagnosis of epilepsy in patients coming from Southeast Asian countries, despite the fact that it is not endemic to Qatar. The choice of antiepileptic drugs is influenced by the availability of individual agents in the patients' native countries but had no bearing on the final seizure outcome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Listening to Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunquell, Phillip J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses what epilepsy is and what it is not, defines types of epileptic seizures, identifies epilepsy syndromes, discusses antiepileptic drugs, describes seizure surgery, and examines issues of quality of life. (JDD)

  8. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Filipa; Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Robalo, Conceição; Simões, Mário Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal ...

  9. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  10. Ego functions in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...... served as controls: 15 patients with a non-neurological but relapsing disorder, psoriasis, and 15 healthy volunteers. Compared with the group of healthy volunteers, a decreased adaptive level of ego functioning was found in the epilepsy groups, regardless of seizure types and EEG findings, and...

  11. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Epilepsy: Is there hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Guerreiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a highly prevalent chronic neurologic disorder and leads to social, behavioural, health and economic consequences. 'Treatment gap' varies from 10 per cent in developed countries to 75 per cent in low-income countries. Stigma and discrimination related to epilepsy are prevalent worldwide. Electroencephalography (EEG is considered the most important tool for evaluating the patient with epilepsy. Video-EEG monitoring is an important tool for confirming the seizure type and estimating the epileptogenic zone in the brain. Neuroimaging evaluation is important to determine the aetiology of the epilepsies. Genetic testing has increased the probability of identifying the causes of some types of epilepsies. Epilepsy can be treated in an affordable way with low-cost medications. Refractory epilepsies occur in approximately one-third of recently diagnosed patients with epilepsy. For this group of patients, there are options of surgical treatment, diets and neurostimulation to improve seizure control and quality of life. In poorly organized societies, there is a lack of prioritization of epilepsy in national health policies, limited resources for trained personnel and a shortage of basic antiepileptic medications. There is evidence of improvement in the understanding of epilepsy and a clear progress in the management of epileptic seizures in recent times.

  13. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  14. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy in Adults with TSC Individuals with tuberous sclerosis ... being well controlled for long periods of time. Epilepsy and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that ...

  15. Christianity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, K; Jędrzejczak, J

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic seizures have been known from time immemorial. Throughout the ages, however, ideas concerning the aetiology and treatment of epilepsy have changed considerably. Epilepsy is mentioned many times in the Pentateuch, where it is portrayed as a mysterious condition, whose symptoms, course and contingencies evade rational laws and explanations. In the Middle Ages, the accepted view which prevailed in social consciousness was that patients with epilepsy were possessed by Satan and other impure spirits. One common method of treatment of epileptic seizures was to submit the patient to cruel exorcisms. Patients were frequently injured in the process and some of them even died. Our understanding of epilepsy and its social consequences has improved considerably within the last century. The most significant progress as far as diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is concerned took place in the last four decades of the twentieth century. Although we now know much more about epilepsy than we used to, this knowledge is still insufficiently popularized.

  16. Photoacoustic Imaging of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    using simulation and phantom experiments; (4) To test and validate the PAT system using a well established animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy ...and evaluation (3) Software Development (4) Animal experiments (5) Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (6) Analysis of the images from the in vivo...details please see the progress report of the third year of the project. 5. Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Task 6) During months 37-48 of this

  17. Epilepsy: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanavana Subbareddy Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 50 million people living with epilepsy worldwide, and most of them reside in developing countries. About 10 million persons with epilepsy are there in India. Many people with active epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, leading to large treatment gap. The lack of knowledge of antiepileptic drugs, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, poor health infrastructure, and shortage of trained professionals contribute for the treatment gap. Infectious diseases play an important role in seizures and long-term burden causing both new-onset epilepsy and status epilepticus. Proper education and appropriate health care services can make tremendous change in a country like India. There have been many original researches in various aspects of epilepsy across India. Some of the geographically specific epilepsies occur only in certain regions of our country which have been highlighted by authors. Even the pre-surgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy is available in many centers in our country. This article attempts to provide a complete preview of epilepsy in India.

  18. Pharmacogenomics in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2018-02-22

    There is high variability in the response to antiepileptic treatment across people with epilepsy. Genetic factors significantly contribute to such variability. Recent advances in the genetics and neurobiology of the epilepsies are establishing the basis for a new era in the treatment of epilepsy, focused on each individual and their specific epilepsy. Variation in response to antiepileptic drug treatment may arise from genetic variation in a range of gene categories, including genes affecting drug pharmacokinetics, and drug pharmacodynamics, but also genes held to actually cause the epilepsy itself. From a purely pharmacogenetic perspective, there are few robust genetic findings with established evidence in epilepsy. Many findings are still controversial with anecdotal or less secure evidence and need further validation, e.g. variation in genes for transporter systems and antiepileptic drug targets. The increasing use of genetic sequencing and the results of large-scale collaborative projects may soon expand the established evidence. Precision medicine treatments represent a growing area of interest, focussing on reversing or circumventing the pathophysiological effects of specific gene mutations. This could lead to a dramatic improvement of the effectiveness and safety of epilepsy treatments, by targeting the biological mechanisms responsible for epilepsy in each specific individual. Whilst much has been written about epilepsy pharmacogenetics, there does now seem to be building momentum that promises to deliver results of use in clinic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging of the epilepsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Radiology/Neuroradiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Imaging of epilepsy patients is challenging, since epileptogenic lesions (defined as structural lesions causally related to the epilepsy syndrome) may be small and often do not change during life. Prior clinical information about the epilepsy syndrome and the semiology of the seizures is needed in order to plan the examination properly. The effort to detect an epileptogenic lesion is directed to partial (focal) epilepsy syndromes whereas - by definition - no lesion is identified in idiopathic epilepsies. Most patients with partial epilepsies suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. In these patients, 2- to 3-mm-thick T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) fast spin echo slices along or perpendicular to the temporal lobe length axis have the highest diagnostic efficacy. In contrast, in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsies perpendicular FLAIR slices through the anatomic region, from which, due to clinical and EEG criteria, the seizures are likely to originate, are preferred. The imaging features of common epileptogenic lesions (hippocampal sclerosis, long-term epilepsy-associated tumours, focal cortical dysplasias, vascular malformations, encephalitis including limbic and Rasmussen's encephalitis, gyral scarring including ulegyria) are detailed in the second section of this paper. (orig.)

  20. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  1. Stigma of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Nancy F; Camfield, Carol S; Camfield, Peter R

    2008-09-01

    Epilepsy directly affects 50 million people worldwide. Most can achieve excellent seizure control; however, people living with epilepsy continue to suffer from enacted or perceived stigma that is based on myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings that have persisted for thousands of years. This paper reviews the frequency and nature of stigma toward epilepsy. Significant negative attitudes prevail in the adolescent and adult public worldwide leading to loneliness and social avoidance both in school and in the workplace. People with epilepsy are often wrongly viewed as having mental health and antisocial issues and as being potentially violent toward others. Twenty-five percent of adults having epilepsy describe social stigma as a result of their epilepsy. They fear rejection and often feel shame or loneliness from this diagnosis. The psychosocial and social impact of epilepsy is significant. Yet few specific interventions have been demonstrated to alter this perception. The effect on public education is primarily short-term, while change over the long-term in attitudes and inaccurate beliefs have not presently been proven effective. School education programming demonstrates improved knowledge and attitude a month after a classroom intervention, but persisting change over a longer period of time has not been evaluated. In-depth adult psycho-educational programs for adults with epilepsy improves knowledge, coping skills and level of felt stigma. However these gains have not demonstrated persistence over time. Myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings about epilepsy continue and programs aimed at increasing knowledge and reducing negative public attitudes should be enhanced.

  2. Imaging of the epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging of epilepsy patients is challenging, since epileptogenic lesions (defined as structural lesions causally related to the epilepsy syndrome) may be small and often do not change during life. Prior clinical information about the epilepsy syndrome and the semiology of the seizures is needed in order to plan the examination properly. The effort to detect an epileptogenic lesion is directed to partial (focal) epilepsy syndromes whereas - by definition - no lesion is identified in idiopathic epilepsies. Most patients with partial epilepsies suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. In these patients, 2- to 3-mm-thick T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) fast spin echo slices along or perpendicular to the temporal lobe length axis have the highest diagnostic efficacy. In contrast, in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsies perpendicular FLAIR slices through the anatomic region, from which, due to clinical and EEG criteria, the seizures are likely to originate, are preferred. The imaging features of common epileptogenic lesions (hippocampal sclerosis, long-term epilepsy-associated tumours, focal cortical dysplasias, vascular malformations, encephalitis including limbic and Rasmussen's encephalitis, gyral scarring including ulegyria) are detailed in the second section of this paper. (orig.)

  3. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  4. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  5. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  6. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) common in many marine environments. In this study, the diversity of zoanthids in the Cape Verde Islands is specifically examined for the first time. Field images and sampling are combined with...

  8. The Capes Current: a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    1999-03-01

    Although the dominant boundary current off Western Australia is the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, satellite imagery shows that there is a cool equatorward coastal countercurrent running close inshore in the extreme southwest during the summer months. This seasonal current has been named the Capes Current as it appears to be strongest between Cape Leeuwin (34°20'S) and Cape Naturaliste (33°30'S), and it is probably linked with the general northward shelf current which has been observed previously along most of the Western Australian coastline further north. Strong northwards wind stresses between November and March slow the Leeuwin Current (which moves offshore) and drive the Capes Current, and there may be localised upwelling as well (Gersbach et al., Continental Shelf Research, 1998). It has important implications for the salmon fishery as it may affect the migration of adult salmon around Cape Leeuwin at this time of year.

  9. Mortality in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitiris, Nikolas; Mohanraj, Rajiv; Norrie, John; Brodie, Martin J

    2007-05-01

    All studies report an increased mortality risk for people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Population-based studies have demonstrated that the increased mortality is often related to the cause of the epilepsy. Common etiologies include neoplasia, cerebrovascular disease, and pneumonia. Deaths in selected cohorts, such as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus (SE), suicides, and accidents are more frequently epilepsy-related. SUDEP is a particular cause for concern in younger people, and whether and when SUDEP should be discussed with patients with epilepsy remain problematic issues. Risk factors for SUDEP include generalized tonic-clonic seizures, increased seizure frequency, concomitant learning disability, and antiepileptic drug polypharmacy. The overall incidence of SE may be increasing, although case fatality rates remain constant. Mortality is frequently secondary to acute symptomatic disorders. Poor compliance with treatment in patients with epilepsy accounts for a small proportion of deaths from SE. The incidence of suicide is increased, particularly for individuals with epilepsy and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Late mortality figures in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery vary and are likely to reflect differences in case selection. Future studies of mortality should be prospective and follow agreed guidelines to better quantify risk and causation in individual populations.

  10. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  11. Epilepsi og orale manifestationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Haubek, Dorte; Østergaard, John Rosendahl

    2016-01-01

    Risiko for sygdom I mundhulen hos patienter med epilepsy Epilepsi er en kronisk neurologisk lidelse, der ofte vil kræve medicinsk behandling for at holde patienterne fri for anfald. Lidelsen kan have betydning for patientens psykosociale og kognitive udvikling, der indirekte kan have betydning...

  12. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, Wilhelmina Adriana Maria

    2006-01-01

    Het proefschrift beschrijft de relatie tussen epilepsie en psychiatrische stoornissen. Voor het onderzoek werden zowel klinische als poliklinische patiënten met epilepsie onderzocht op het voorkomen van DSM as I klinische stoornissen en as II persoonlijkheidsstoornissen. De resultaten werden

  13. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  14. Behandling af rolandisk epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Maria Jose; Ahmad, Banoo Bakir

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature indicates, that rolandic epilepsy/epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes may not be as benign as previously assumed. This study investigates the existing evidence, which describes the treatment effects on seizure frequency as well as improvement of cognition in childre...

  15. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  16. Behavior Disorders and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 127 children with epilepsy aged 8-12 years and their mothers, designed to identify factors contributing to behavior problems, is reported from the Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis; the Minnesota Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Minneapolis; and the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.

  17. Managing Epilepsy in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dwyer, V

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest medical conditions affecting women of childbearing age1. In the most recent triennial report into maternal deaths in Ireland and the UK, two thirds of women who died had a medical condition. In this report, 14 maternal deaths during pregnancy and up to 42 days postpartum were attributable to epilepsy or seizures; a rate of 0.4 per 100,000 maternities. In 12 of these women’ the cause was sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. Thus, epilepsy remains a high-risk condition in pregnancy. The gold standard of care is a multidisciplinary approach involving obstetricians, a neurologist and an epilepsy nurse specialist2. Like other units in Ireland this multidisciplinary service is currently provided in the National Maternity Hospital’s maternal medicine clinic, in conjunction with neurology services in Beaumont Hospital.

  18. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung Ah

    2007-01-01

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization

  19. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization.

  20. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  2. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  3. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  4. Epilepsy after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Høgenhaven, H; Thage, O

    1987-01-01

    Development of epilepsy was studied prospectively in a group of 77 consecutive stroke patients. Included were stroke patients less than 75 years old admitted within the first 3 days after the stroke. Excluded were patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vertebrobasilar stroke, and patients...... with other severe diseases. Cerebral angiography, CT, and EEG were performed in all patients. The patients were followed clinically for 2 to 4 years. Seven patients (9%) developed epilepsy. Of 23 patients with lesions involving the cortex, 6 (26%) developed epilepsy. Of 54 patients in whom the cortex...... was not involved, only 1 (2%) developed epilepsy. Patients with persisting paresis and cortical involvement seem to be at particularly high risk of developing epilepsy, as 50% of such patients (6 of 12) developed the disease....

  5. 77 FR 59197 - Epilepsy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Epilepsy... Program Expansion Supplement Award to the Epilepsy Foundation of America. SUMMARY: The Health Resources... Child Health Bureau's Epilepsy Program to the Epilepsy Foundation of America (U23MC19824) to support...

  6. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  7. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  8. [Epilepsy: incidens, prevalens and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Lars; Sundelin, Heléne; Sveinsson, Olafur

    2018-05-21

    Epilepsy affects people in all ages with the highest incidence in small children, particularly before age one year, and in elderly aged 65 years and older. In Sweden, between 4500-5000 persons develop epilepsy annually. Based on studies from North America and Europe, including the Nordic countries, the number of people with active epilepsy in Sweden is between 60000-70000. The lifetime risk for epilepsy up to age 85 years is 4-5 %, i.e. approximately every 25th person. The new epilepsy classification divides etiology into the following groups: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown. The majority (70%) of people with epilepsy eventually become seizure free. Epilepsy increases the risk of psychosocial problems and accidents. People with epilepsy have up to a 3-fold increase in mortality, mainly due to the underlying causes and epilepsy related deaths, e.g. status epilepticus, SUDEP and accidents. Somatic, psychiatric and neuropsychiatric comorbidities are common in epilepsy.

  9. Genetic determinants of common epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    and insufficient power. We aimed to identify risk loci through meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for all epilepsy and the two largest clinical subtypes (genetic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy). METHODS: We combined genome-wide association data from 12 cohorts of individuals with epilepsy...... not previously implicated in epilepsy and provides further evidence about the genetic architecture of these disorders, with the ultimate aim of assisting in disease classification and prognosis. The data suggest that specific loci can act pleiotropically raising risk for epilepsy broadly, or can have effects...... and controls from population-based datasets. Controls were ethnically matched with cases. We phenotyped individuals with epilepsy into categories of genetic generalised epilepsy, focal epilepsy, or unclassified epilepsy. After standardised filtering for quality control and imputation to account for different...

  10. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  11. Art and epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Hunter, Gary; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The impact of health and disease has led many artists to depict these themes for thousands of years. Specifically, epilepsy has been the subject of many famous works, likely because of the dramatic and misunderstood nature of the clinical presentation. It often evokes religious and even mythical processes. Epilepsy surgical treatment has revolutionized the care of selected patients and is a relatively recent advance. Epilepsy surgery has been depicted in very few artistic works. The first portrait showing a potential surgical treatment for patients with epilepsy was painted in the 12th century. During the Renaissance, Bosch famously provided artistic commentary on traditional beliefs in "The stone of madness". Several of these works demonstrate a surgeon extracting a stone from a patient's head, at one time believed to be the source of all "folly", including epileptic seizures, psychosis, intellectual disability, depression, and a variety of other illnesses. There are some contemporary art pieces including themes around epilepsy surgery, all of them depicting ancient Inca Empire procedures such as trepanning. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with epilepsy surgery and also its historical context at the time the work was produced. We also present a painting from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino that represents the patient's journey through refractory epilepsy, investigations, and ultimately recovery. Through this work, the artist intends to communicate hope and reassurance to patients going through this difficult process. © 2013.

  12. Epilepsy is Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, Mia; Gjelsvik, Bergljot; Nakken, Karl O

    2015-10-01

    In "Epilepsy is Dancing", in Antony and the Johnsons' album "The Crying Light"(2009), the lyrics and accompanying music video depicts an epileptic seizure in which the person is transferred to another beautiful and magical world. This may be called "enchanted epilepsy"; i.e., the experience of epilepsy as deeply nourishing and (positively) transforming, is conveyed not only in the lyrics but also the visual and auditory qualities of the video. The seizure in the video gives associations to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's dream". If epilepsy appears in music lyrics, the focus is mostly on negative aspects of the illness, such as horror, fear and repulsive sexuality associated with the fits [1,2]. Contradictory to these lyrics, Anthony and the Johnsons' song is an example of a positive portrayal of epilepsy. It is open to a multitude of meanings, emotional valence and appraisal of epilepsy. By widening the experiential range associated with epileptic seizures, these lyrics highlight the inherently construed nature of epileptic experience. The song stands out in several ways. First, it describes epilepsy in positive terms, prioritising the euphoric, ecstatic, potentially empowering and enhancing aspects of epileptic seizures. Second, the lyrics and accompanying video point to divine experiences associated with epileptic seizures. Through the lyrics and the music video we are, as an audience, able to sense a snicket of an epileptic seizure, but also the universal experience of loosing control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  14. Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Results Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...

  15. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE, childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children, aged 6–15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  16. Surgical management of epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in epilepsy surgery and working in conjunction with an experienced epileptologist ... memory and the psychological impairment, and prepare the family ... ning that allows visualisation of abnormal activity or active lesions in cases of multiple ...

  17. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the people you work with about your seizure disorder. Driving your own car is generally safe and ... References Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  18. Multiplex families with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afawi, Zaid; Oliver, Karen L.; Kivity, Sara; Mazarib, Aziz; Blatt, Ilan; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Misk, Adel J.; Straussberg, Rachel; Walid, Simri; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kahana, Esther; Masalha, Rafik; Kramer, Uri; Ekstein, Dana; Shorer, Zamir; Wallace, Robyn H.; Mangelsdorf, Marie; MacPherson, James N.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie; Gecz, Jozef; Heron, Sarah E.; Corbett, Mark; Mulley, John C.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Korczyn, Amos D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical syndromes and inheritance patterns of multiplex families with epilepsy toward the ultimate aim of uncovering the underlying molecular genetic basis. Methods: Following the referral of families with 2 or more relatives with epilepsy, individuals were classified into epilepsy syndromes. Families were classified into syndromes where at least 2 family members had a specific diagnosis. Pedigrees were analyzed and molecular genetic studies were performed as appropriate. Results: A total of 211 families were ascertained over an 11-year period in Israel. A total of 169 were classified into broad familial epilepsy syndrome groups: 61 generalized, 22 focal, 24 febrile seizure syndromes, 33 special syndromes, and 29 mixed. A total of 42 families remained unclassified. Pathogenic variants were identified in 49/211 families (23%). The majority were found in established epilepsy genes (e.g., SCN1A, KCNQ2, CSTB), but in 11 families, this cohort contributed to the initial discovery (e.g., KCNT1, PCDH19, TBC1D24). We expand the phenotypic spectrum of established epilepsy genes by reporting a familial LAMC3 homozygous variant, where the predominant phenotype was epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, and a pathogenic SCN1A variant in a family where in 5 siblings the phenotype was broadly consistent with Dravet syndrome, a disorder that usually occurs sporadically. Conclusion: A total of 80% of families were successfully classified, with pathogenic variants identified in 23%. The successful characterization of familial electroclinical and inheritance patterns has highlighted the value of studying multiplex families and their contribution towards uncovering the genetic basis of the epilepsies. PMID:26802095

  19. Urban Ecology in Cape Town: South African Comparisons and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel S. Cilliers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.

  20. Pediatric epilepsy: The Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Pradnya; Udani, Vrajesh

    2011-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common clinical entity in neurology clinics. The understanding of the genetics of epilepsy has undergone a sea change prompting re-classification by the International league against epilepsy recently. The prevalence rates of epilepsy in India are similar to those of developed nations. However, the large treatment gap is a major challenge to our public health system. Perinatal injuries are a major causative factor in pediatric group. We have discussed a few common etiologies such as neurocysticercosis and newer genetic epilepsy syndromes. We have also briefly touched upon the Indian experience in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

  1. [Economic aspects of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L

    2000-06-01

    The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.

  2. Coeliac disease and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.

  3. Strategic management: An Eastern Cape construction SME case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term growth and development of the economy of the country. The development and growth of construction SMEs are important for all countries, as a strong SME base has the capacity to produce a high-quality infrastructure for the country.

  4. Valuing water gains in the Eastern Cape's Working for Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... reason it is crucial that the pricing of this water be an accurate reflection of its relative ..... conservation projects, but it is not the best way of pricing water ... Establishment of a Pricing Strategy for Water Use Charges in Terms.

  5. Sodseeding - a promising new development in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of sodseeding experiments have indicated that, provided adequate attention is given to the lime and fertilizer requirements, lucerne and white and red clovers can be successfully established in Dohne sourveld by sod-seeding in the autumn. The need for further research on weed encroachment, sodseeding ...

  6. Vulnerability and Poverty Dynamics in Rural Areas of Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... workers, expansion of water and electricity supply and other .... opportunity or a measure of potential welfare whereas consumption on the other hand .... expectations, no unambiguous predictions on the signs of these ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Primary care morbidity in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, Royal Free and Uni- .... S - Skin. 842. (12.28) 147 (17.78). 563. (15.04). 132. (5.78). A - General unspecified. 823. (12). 108 (13.6). 428. (11.43). 287. (12.56). N - Neurological. 801. (11.68). 90 (10.58) .... absence of longitudinal follow-up data to monitor trends in.

  8. Translating curriculum into practice at Eastern Cape Technikon - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the programme was defined as to train a core group of staff members to become competent curriculum developers according to SAQA requirements and to enable them to play a leading role in the development of learner centered and open learning approaches. In addition to a skills audit different workshops ...

  9. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exorbitant; however, it must be noted that the indirect cost of mental illness is far .... The main weaknesses identified were the short duration of the course, the lack ... SA possesses a well-developed standard treatment guidelines and essential ...

  10. Assessment of the recreational linefishery in selected Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surveys, which were performed primarily during routine fisheries law enforcement patrols by a regional conservation agency, recorded the catch and effort of 2 468 individual ... Overall catch per unit effort (cpue) by number was highest during summer and lowest during winter, and vice versa for cpue according to mass.

  11. Defining function in rangelands of the Peddie district, Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the analysis of satellite-derived vegetation indices, the commercial site had higher active green biomass (higher NDVI) and lower spatial diversity of near-infra red band (lower MSDI) than the communal site. Keywords: soil surface assessment; nutrient content; degradation; fenceline contrasts; patches; fetches

  12. Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temp

    2017-04-06

    Apr 6, 2017 ... Keywords: Geographic Information System; Remote Sensing; Soil Erosion; Vegetation Indices ... Soil erosion is considered one of the world's most critical ... the spatial extent of the problem (Le Roux et al., 2007) in other ...

  13. 'Irrigation by night' in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... tions in irrigation systems in the night: 'It is common place that the night is the time ..... roads and rainwater tanks ('JoJo's') to water the gardens. The ..... drainage system throughout the home garden, but also directly from the ...

  14. Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ment approved the spending of GBP50 000 towards the settlement of .... Mission hospitals contributed significantly to the development of health ... cheap accommodation for the black insane, which resulted in a saving ..... Wu M. Between universalism and racism: Tensions in theories of treatment in South African psychiatry.

  15. Transport and development in the Eastern Cape: a children's perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore and document, through the use of qualitative data, children and young people’s experiences and perceptions of mobility and transport constraints in accessing social services such as health, education...

  16. Quality assurance in the Foundation Phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    School principals should be involved in the quality assurance process at all levels .... The focus of the first function will be on the internal institution level itself, whilst the ..... speech therapy and remedial services can make a difference in the.

  17. (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from the eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-05

    Mar 5, 1990 ... small, aligned in regular rows, indistinct on nape and embedded between pectoral fins and antero-ventral region. .... major row teeth of Barbus omfltolicus sp.nov. B - Posterior view of the right pharyngeal bone and teeth of B. onwtoiicus sp.nov. Scale bar is 1 mm. 191. Figure 4 The nuptial tubercles on the ...

  18. strategic military colonisation: the cape eastern frontier 1806 – 1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda

    for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where .... reality, these expeditions were capturing people for service on settler farms. Official .... distances from the coast of 2 500 yards (2 286 m) and 6 000 yards (5 486 m). It ..... Corps pensioner assumed command and with augmented forces led an attack on Fort.

  19. Party identification and service delivery protests in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African National Congress (ANC) (Kabane 2011; Odendaal 2011). South Africa .... that participation in protests was particularly high when people had ... Faced with the reality that the state is generally unresponsive ... Like most black and coloured residential areas in South Africa, the ..... Latin American Politics and Society,.

  20. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia:

  1. Epilepsy and homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya NS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Pandya,1 Mirna Vrbancic,2 Lady Diana Ladino,3,4 José F Téllez-Zenteno31Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellin, ColombiaPurpose: We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy.Patients and methods: We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides.Results: We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility.Conclusion: The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse.Keywords: aggression, crime, epilepsy

  2. Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis spawn mainly east of Cape Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is ... Based on the total area of 16–19°C water on the western Agulhas. Bank, Richardson et al. .... in the zone, φ the new value, and β is a relaxation pa-.

  3. Epilepsy in Dostoevsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Fyodor M. Dostoevsky (Moscow, 1821-Saint Petersburg, 1881) suffered epilepsy throughout his whole literary career. The aim here is to understand his condition in light of his novels, correspondence, and his contemporaries' accounts as well as through the eyes of later generations of neurologists. From Murin (The landlady, 1847) to Smerdyakov (The brothers Karamazov, 1880), Dostoevsky portrayed up to six characters with epilepsy in his literature. The first symptoms of the disease presented in early adulthood, but he was only diagnosed with epilepsy a decade later. In 1863 he went abroad seeking expert advice from the famous neurologists Romberg and Trousseau. Dostoevsky made an intelligent use of epilepsy in his literature (of his experiential auras or dreamy states particularly) and through it found a way to freedom from perpetual military servitude. His case offers an insight into the natural history of epilepsy (a cryptogenic localization related one of either fronto-medial or temporal lobe origin using contemporary medical terms), thus inspiring later generations of writers and neurologists. Furthermore, it illustrates the good use of an ordinary neurological disorder by an extraordinary writer who transformed adversity into opportunity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of Khoi-San and Cape Dutch medical ethnobotany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, B-E

    2008-10-28

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: Cape herbal medicine as a distinct and unique healing system is conceptualized for the first time, together with a first compilation of the authentic materia medica of the system. The early literature on Khoikhoi (Hottentot), San (Bushman) and Cape Dutch medicinal plants and medical practices is reviewed, with a focus on the Cape Floristic Region (from Namaqualand to the Eastern Cape). To avoid recent additions and modern cultural influences in the results, the date of publication of the last volume of Marloth's Flora of South Africa (1932) was chosen as a cut-off date. The recorded Cape materia medica (up to 1932) is briefly summarized, giving the scientific names, vernacular names (in Afrikaans or Khoi-San/Nama) and main uses. It comprises about 170 items and includes mainly indigenous and endemic plant species, some exotic (garden) plants, and a few other items (fungi, seaweeds, lichens, hyraceum and natural potassium nitrate). Most of the plants (and hyraceum) are still widely used today, especially in rural areas. The combination of unique cultural practices and a diverse, highly endemic flora has led to the development of a distinct herbal healing system, here called Cape herbal medicine, but hitherto rather vaguely and inaccurately referred to as Khoi-San medicine, Cape Dutch medicine or boererate (farm remedies). The data allows for a more informed consideration of indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights associated with particular plants (e.g. Hoodia and Pelargonium). It also offers opportunities for linking modern ethnobotanical field studies with historical data.

  5. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  6. Computer tomographic examinations in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1984-01-01

    Epileptic patients that was examined at the Universitas Hospital (Bloemfontein) by means of computerized tomography for the period July 1978 - December 1980, are divided into two groups: a) Patients with general epilepsy of convulsions - 507; b) Patients with vocal or partial epilepsy - 111. The method of examination and the results for both general and vocal epilepsy are discussed. A degenerative state was found in 35% of the positive computer tomographic examinations in general epilepsy and 22% of the positive examinations for vocal epilepsy. The purpose of the article was to explain the circumstances that can be expected when a epileptic patient is examined by means of computerized tomography

  7. Cognitive impairments in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kostylev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are a current problem in neurology. The basis of the idea on the pathogenesis of higher nervous system dysfunctions is the interaction of a few factors that include the form and duration of the disease, gender differences, and the impact of antiepileptic therapy. The role of interattack epileptiform changes in the development of cognitive deficit in adults and epileptic encephalopathies in children is discussed. Up-to-date neurophysiological and neuroimaging diagnostic methods allow the detection of new features in the course and progression of higher nervous system dysfunctions in epilepsy.

  8. Epilepsy: A Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, a disorder of unprovoked seizures is a multifaceted disease affecting individuals of all ages with a particular predilection for the very young and old. In addition to seizures, many patients often report cognitive and psychiatric problems associated with both the seizures themselves and its therapy. Epilepsy has numerous etiologies both idiopathic and acquired with a wide range of therapeutic responses. Despite numerous treatments available to control repetitive seizures including medications, diets, immunotherapy, surgery, and neuromodulatory devices, a large percentage of patients continue to suffer the consequences of uncontrolled seizures, which include psychosocial stigma and death. PMID:26328931

  9. Morphological characteristics of Cape sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) are the largest nectarivores in the Western Cape and feed almost exclusively on protea nectar and associated arthropods. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa, has a large diversity of Protea and supports breeding sugarbirds. As part of a larger study, we captured ...

  10. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  11. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Goto, Ikuo

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed with the 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose method on 29 patients with epilepsy (generalized epilepsy, 4; partial epilepsy, 24; undetermined type, 1). The subjects were restricted to patients with epilepsy without focal abnormality on X-CT. All the patients with generalized epilepsy showed a normal pattern on PET. Fourteen out of the 24 patients with partial epilepsy and the 1 with epilepsy of undermined type showed focal hypometabolism on PET. The hypometabolic zone was localized in areas including the temporal cortex in 11 patients, frontal in 2 and thalamus in 1. The location of hypometabolic zone and that of interictal paroxysmal activity on EEG were well correlated in most patients. The patients with poorly-controlled seizure showed a higher incidence of PET abnormality (12 out of 13) than those with well-controlled seizures (2 out of 11). The incidence of abnormality on PET and MRI and the location of both abnormality were not necessarily coincident. These results indicated that the PET examination in epilepsy provides valuable information about the location of epileptic focus, and that the findings on PET in patients with partial epilepsy may be one of the good indicators about the intractability of partial epilepsy, and that PET and MRI provide complementary information in the diagnosis of epilepsy. (author)

  12. Recent advances in epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Alessandro; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale

    2018-02-22

    In last few years there has been rapid increase in the knowledge of epilepsy genetics. Nowadays, it is estimated that genetic epilepsies include over than 30% of all epilepsy syndromes. Several genetic tests are now available for diagnostic purposes in clinical practice. In particular, next-generation sequencing has proven to be effective in revealing gene mutations causing epilepsies in up to a third of the patients. This has lead also to functional studies that have given insight into disease pathophysiology and consequently to the identification of potential therapeutic targets opening the way of precision medicine for epilepsy patients. This minireview is focused on the most recent advances in genetics of epilepsies. We will also overview the modern genomic technologies and illustrate the diagnostic pathways in patients with genetic epilepsies. Finally, the potential implications for a personalized treatment (precision medicine) are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of river flooding on the fish populations of two eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish populations in two eastern Cape estuaries is compared. .... Methods. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fish in the Swartkops and Sundays estuaries was obtained by means of gill-nets. ..... Abundance of other species was little affected ex-.

  14. Marijuana for epilepsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana has been used for centuries for medical reasons. In the early 20th century it was first linked to treatment for epilepsy. Over the last few decades researchers have been unravelling the truth behind the drug. Prof. Giuseppe Di Giovanni tells us more about using marijuana for medical research and his own research on this controversial drug.

  15. Mobile EEG in epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of routine EEG recordings for interictal epileptiform discharges in epilepsy is limited. In some patients, inpatient video-EEG may be performed to increase the likelihood of finding abnormalities. Although many agree that home EEG recordings may provide a cost-effective alternative

  16. Global Health: Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amza

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a frequently misunderstood and highly stigmatized condition. Major treatment gaps exist across the world, most so in areas of financial constraint. Classification permits the best approaches to treatment and to ascertaining prognosis. The International League Against Epilepsy's new classification system emphasizes clinical aspects and utilizes all available resources to determine whether it is a focal or generalized epilepsy. The most important tools are a careful history, clinical examination, electroencephalography, and appropriate neuroimaging. Inadequate, delayed, and incomplete evaluation may lead to misdiagnosis and costly mismanagement. Treatment is generally pharmacological, with approximately 20 to 30% of patients eventually proving refractory to medications and thus becoming potential surgical candidates. The type of epilepsy, age, gender, comorbidities, drug interactions, and drug cost are important factors in choosing an antiepileptic drug (AED). The teratogenic potential of some AEDs, weight gain, and menstrual hormone-related issues are important considerations in women. The impact of AEDs on bone health is critical in all age groups, particularly in the elderly. Psychiatric problems, mostly depression and anxiety, can have a great impact on seizure control and overall quality of life. Finally, effective partnerships and collaborations can bring resources, both human and financial, to regions that would otherwise find it impossible to effect change on their own. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  18. Epilepsy in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-An Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people are the largest and continuously fastest growing population among patients with epilepsy. Elderly patients with epilepsy are very different from other age groups in many respects and clinicians shouldn’t treat them in the same way as younger adults. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy in the elderly is much more difficult and atypical manifestations and misdiagnoses are certainly not the exception. Syncope is probably the most important differential diagnosis. High clinical suspicion and proper investigation are the best tools for prompt diagnosis. Etiologies of late-onset epilepsy are mainly symptomatic and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes in this age group, followed by degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is appropriate to consider starting antiepileptic drug (AED treatment at the first-ever seizure in elderly patients who have remote symptomatic causes such as stroke and dementia. According to the high recurrence rate of seizure and the good response to AEDs in elderly patients, the proper choice from various AEDs for seizure control is very important. Decision-making for AED choice depends on many different factors, including pharmacological properties, efficacy, tolerability from side effects, drug interactions, and medical comorbidities. The newer AEDs with lesser adverse effects and fewer drug interactions appear to be reasonable treatment options for elderly patients. However, more evidence from clinical trials in this specific age group is warranted.

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction in epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Kunz, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-40 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epilepsy * mitochondrial dysfunction * neurodegeneration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.025, year: 2012

  20. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  1. exercise and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    UK, Epilepsy Society

    2018-01-01

    Exercise improves fitness, energy and mood and relieves stress. Improving overall health and wellbeing in this way can help reduce seizures and the impact of epilepsy for some people. It can also help people feel more in control of their health.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  3. Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC In this video ... Aria Fallah, MD, discusses the surgical treatment of epilepsy in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsy is ...

  4. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  5. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  6. Familial benign nonprogressive myoclonic epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; de Falco, Fabrizio A; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Work on the classification of epileptic syndromes is ongoing, and many syndromes are still under discussion. In particular, special difficulty still persists in correctly classifying epilepsies with myoclonic seizures. The existence of special familial epileptic syndromes primarily showing myoclonic features has been recently suggested on the basis of a clear pattern of inheritance or on the identification of new chromosomal genetic loci linked to the disease. These forms in development include familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME), benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME), or autosomal dominant cortical myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME), and, maybe, adult-onset myoclonic epilepsy (AME). In the future, the identification of responsible genes and the protein products will contribute to our understanding of the molecular pathways of epileptogenesis and provide neurobiologic criteria for the classification of epilepsies, beyond the different phenotypic expression.

  7. Management of epilepsy in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsono Harsono

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of epilepsy in elderly requires understanding the unique biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these patients. Management decisions must be based on accurate classification of seizures or epilepsy syndromes, a thorough neurological assessment to define etiology, and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health and living situation. Concomitant illnesses such as neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, or cardiac disorders will require individualization of plans and instructions. Specific problems of treatment of epilepsy in the elderly compared to childhood patients are as follows: distinctive range of causes of epilepsy, distinctive differential diagnosis, concurrent pathologies unrelated to epilepsy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, and distinctive psychosocial effects. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 40-7 Keywords:  epilepsy, elderly, management, concomitant illness, pharmacokinetic

  8. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  9. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  10. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Rolandic epilepsy and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecila P. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS is an idiopathic, age-related epilepsy syndrome with favorable outcome, recent studies have shown impairment in specific neuropsychological tests. The objective of this study was to analyze the comorbidity between dyslexia and BECTS. Method Thirty-one patients with clinical and electroencephalographic diagnosis of BECTS (group A and 31 paired children (group B underwent a language and neuropsychological assessment performed with several standardized protocols. Our findings were categorized as: a dyslexia; b other difficulties; c without difficulties. Our results were compared and statistically analyzed. Results Our data showed that dyslexia occurred in 19.4% and other difficulties in 74.2% of our patients. This was highly significant when compared with the control group (p<0.001. Phonological awareness, writing, reading, arithmetic, and memory tests showed a statistically significant difference when comparing both groups. Conclusion Our findings show significant evidence of the occurrence of dyslexia in patients with BECTS.

  12. Epilepsy and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Michelle; Hirsch, Edouard; Vigevano, Federico

    2004-01-01

    Since the first case of videogame (VG) epilepsy was reported in 1981, many cases of seizures triggered by VGs were reported, not only in photosensitive, but also in non-photosensitive children and adolescents with epilepsy. We provide an overview of the literature with overall conclusions and recommendations regarding VG playing. Specific preventive measures concerning the physical characteristics of images included in commercially available VGs (flash rate, choice of colors, patterns, and contrast) can lead in the future to a clear decrease of this problem. In addition to the positive effect of such measures, the collaborative studies performed in France and in the rest of Europe have stressed the importance of a safe distance to the screen of > or = 2 m, and the less provocative role of 100-Hz screens.

  13. Imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Raju; Sarma, Dipanka

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common problem in the paediatric age group. Imaging plays a vital role in identifying the seizure focus. Cross-sectional imaging modalities like CT and MRI have had a major impact on the management of seizure disorders. MRI, because of its high contrast resolution and multiplanar capability is the ideal imaging modality but its use is restricted due to high cost. Computed tomography is cheaper and is the first, and often, the only modality used, especially in the under privileged areas of the world. In the tropical countries inflammatory granuloma are a common cause of epilepsy and CT is adequate to detect these lesions. Other causes include congenital abnormalities, neoplastic and vascular causes. (author)

  14. [Epilepsy and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmis, J; Drazancić, A; Tkalcević, T; Ivanisević, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 132 women with epilepsy were confined in the period from 1978-1989. Their pregnancies and outcomes were analysed. The special aim was to find out if the anticonvulsive therapy has any correlation with the occurrence of fetal malformations in the studied group of women. In 43.9% of pregnant women with epilepsy, methyl-phenobarbitone as an anticonvulsive drug was administered, while carbamazepine was applied in 13.6% cases. A combination of phenytoin and phenobarbitone was prescribed in 18.9% of cases. Primidone was the drug of choice in 8% cases and 5.3% of patients were treated with various combinations of anticonvulsive drugs. Hyperemesis, threatened spontaneous abortion and premature labor complicated significantly more pregnancies in patients with epilepsy than on controls. Pregnancies from the studied group were terminated by the cesarean section in significantly more cases (11.2%) than in the control group (5.4%). Newborns from mothers with epilepsy had a statistically lower birthweight (3173 +/- 575 g) than those born from healthy mothers (3376 +/- 510g). Fifteen newborns or 11.2% were born with congenital malformations, while among the control group of newborns only two were malformed. It is noticed that the newborns from mothers treated with phenitoin and phenobarbitone had dysmorphic anomalies of the face more frequently. The drugs mentioned above interfere with the metabolism of K vitamin and as a result of this interreaction, mothers and newborns can suffer from coagulation disorders. In conclusion it is important to mention that no anticonvulsant drug seems to be absolutely safe when used during pregnancy since each of them has a teratogenic effect on the fetus.

  15. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  16. Neuroreceptor imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The neurochemical processes that mediate seizures in humans are not fully understood. PET has contributed to our understanding of the neurochemical abnormalities of epilepsy with studies of cerebral metabolism and, more recently, regional neuroreceptor binding. We have focused on inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors that may (1) be decreased, thus facilitating seizure initiation, or (2) increase in response to seizure activity. Opiate receptors are believed to mediate anticonvulsant effects of the endogenous opioids. Accordingly, [ 11 C]carfentanil, a ligand selective for the mu-opiate receptor, displays increased binding in temporal neocortex ipsilateral to seizure foci in complex partial epilepsy. This finding is consistent with activation of the endogenous opiate system in response to seizure activity. [ 11 C]diprenorphine, a ligand that labels mu-, delta- and kappa-opiate receptors with equal affinity, shows little or no change in temporal cortex. Together, these findings suggest a decrease in delta- or kappa-receptors. The development of delta- and kappa-selective receptor ligands will help to elucidate the involvement of these opiate receptors in human epilepsy. The benzodiazepine-GABA receptor complex is the most prevalent in mediating inhibitory brain processes. Use of the benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligand [ 11 C]RO 15-1788 has shown decreases in BZD receptors in human epilepsy in one study, but this has not been observed in a current study. Thus, the existence of reduced inhibitory processes that might enhance seizure initiation remains uncertain at present. Future studies of receptors for excitatory transmitters will provide additional insight into alternate factors potentially responsible for the initiation of seizures

  17. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  18. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  19. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. Results: We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Conclusions: Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized. PMID:24384641

  20. Epilepsy and radiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberg, T.

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogenous group of disorders with multiple causes. Clinical management of epilepsy patients requires knowledge of seizure syndromes, causes, and imaging features. The aim of radiological investigations is to recognize the underlying cause of epilepsy. The main indications for neuroimaging studies are partial and secondarily generalized seizures, patients with neurological signs and intractable seizures, and patients with focal signs on EEG. Partial seizures of any type are more likely to be associated with a focus that may be identified on neuroimaging. MRI is the method of choice for evaluating structural abnormalities of the brain. High resolution MRI and dedicated imaging technique are needed for detection of subtle pathological changes as cortical dysplasias and temporal medial sclerosis. Other lesions that may be detected include neoplasms, vascular malformations, destructive lesions following brain injury, stroke, infection, etc. CT continues to be the technique for the investigation of patients with seizures under certain conditions. New techniques such as functional MRI, MR spectroscopy, SPECT, receptor PET and magnetic source imaging are becoming clinical tools for improving diagnosis [et

  1. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  2. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  3. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  4. AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE CAPE EXPERIMENT V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was deployed during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE). AMPR data...

  5. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  6. Cannabinoids for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, David; Vickrey, Barbara

    2014-03-05

    Marijuana appears to have anti-epileptic effects in animals. It is not currently known if it is effective in patients with epilepsy. Some states in the United States of America have explicitly approved its use for epilepsy. To assess the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids when used as monotherapy or add-on treatment for people with epilepsy. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (9 September 2013), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid) (9 September 2013), ISI Web of Knowledge (9 September 2013), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (9 September 2013), and ClinicalTrials.gov (9 September 2013). In addition, we included studies we personally knew about that were not found by the searches, as well as searched the references in the identified studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) whether blinded or not. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted the data. The primary outcome investigated was seizure freedom at one year or more, or three times the longest interseizure interval. Secondary outcomes included responder rate at six months or more, objective quality of life data, and adverse events. We found four randomized trial reports that included a total of 48 patients, each of which used cannabidiol as the treatment agent. One report was an abstract and another was a letter to the editor. Anti-epileptic drugs were continued in all studies. Details of randomisation were not included in any study report. There was no investigation of whether the control and treatment participant groups were the same or different. All the reports were low quality.The four reports only answered the secondary outcome about adverse effects. None of the patients in the treatment groups suffered adverse effects. No reliable conclusions can be drawn at present regarding the efficacy of cannabinoids as a treatment for epilepsy. The dose of 200 to 300 mg daily of cannabidiol was

  7. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  8. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. 7.45 Section 7.45... Atlantic Coast § 7.45 Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River...

  9. 33 CFR 80.505 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the seaward extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light 6, 225° true across... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles...

  10. Submikroskopiske kromosomforandringer disponerer til epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Hjalgrim, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGEs) affect up to 0.3% of the general population. Genetic factors play a predominant role in the aetiology of IGEs. Molecular genetic studies have mainly identified causative gene mutations in rare monogenic forms of idiopathic epilepsies. However, the genetic ...

  11. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  12. The Music Student with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Matthew C.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Laverghetta, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship can afford the music educator an opportunity to be the first to identify behaviors associated with epilepsy. A case of a student with epilepsy, based on the authors' experience, is described in which the music educators were the first and only individuals to become aware of a change in the student's behavior, after…

  13. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  14. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  15. Epilepsy in tropics: Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shejoy P Joshua; Ashok Kumar Mahapatra

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. The causes and treatment protocols vary widely. A proper understanding of the causes and treatment strategies is essential for managing this patient group. This article analyzes the common causes of epilepsy in India and provides a brief summary on the available treatment strategies.

  16. Epilepsy in tropics: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejoy P Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. The causes and treatment protocols vary widely. A proper understanding of the causes and treatment strategies is essential for managing this patient group. This article analyzes the common causes of epilepsy in India and provides a brief summary on the available treatment strategies.

  17. Epilepsy, language, and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle

    2017-10-04

    Language and social skills are essential for intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Since epilepsy impacts these important domains of individuals' functioning, understanding the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the relationship among epilepsy, language, and social skills has important theoretical and clinical implications. This review first describes the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the association between language and social behavior in children and in adults and their relevance for epilepsy. It reviews the findings of studies of social skills and the few studies conducted on the inter-relationship of language and social skills in pediatric and adult epilepsy. The paper concludes with suggested future research and clinical directions that will enhance early identification and treatment of epilepsy patients at risk for impaired language and social skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The social and economic consequences of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy.......Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy....

  19. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a chronic mental disorder associated with psychomotor epilepsy, like those of the seizures, are... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...

  20. Rationale for treating epilepsy in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrini, R; Arzimanoglou, A; Brouwer, O

    2002-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the effects of antiepileptic drugs on childhood epilepsies are partly linked to the specific type of epilepsy or epilepsy syndrome. Most (but not all) types of epilepsy can be classified into categories that are conceptually meaningful. It is likewise logical to set

  1. Post-epilepsy stroke: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Rong; Xiao, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and epilepsy are two of the most common neurological disorders and share a complicated relationship. It is well established that stroke is one of the most important causes of epilepsy, particularly new-onset epilepsy among the elderly. However, post-epilepsy stroke has been overlooked. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that epilepsy patients have increased risk and mortality from stroke when compared with the general population. Additionally, it was proposed that post-epilepsy stroke might be associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), epileptic seizures and the lifestyle of epileptic patients. Here, we comprehensively review the epidemiology, causes and interventions for post-epilepsy stroke.

  2. Vigabatrin in childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Alving, J; Gram, L

    1995-01-01

    In an retrospective uncontrolled long-term study in 30 children with intractable epilepsy, it was found that treatment with vigabatrin resulted in a seizure reduction of more than 50% at 1-year follow-up in 40% of the children. The responders were all children with partial seizures. Side effects...... seizure-free patients were unsuccessful. No further side effects were observed. A study of evoked potentials in 12 children showed no alteration in latency and amplitudes of VEP following treatment with vigabatrin. Our results show that in children vigabatrin seems to have a stable effect even though...

  3. Epilepsy and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    The glucose metabolism of interictal epileptic foci in human brains were analyzed by positron emission tomography. The seizure patterns of 29 epileptic patients were as follows; complex partial 13 cases, elementary partial 9 cases, and generalized 7 cases. 11 C was produced by a JSW medical cyclotron BC105 and was randomly tagged to glucose prepared by photosynthesis. Data sampling by PET was started 15 minutes after peroral administration of 11 C-glucose to the patients. Three slices with 1.75 cm distance were obtained by a single scanning. In temporal lobe epilepsy, three slices were selected as 2.0 cm, 3.75 cm and 5.5 cm above orbitomeatal line. The basal ganglia were scanned 4.5 -- 5.0 cm and the motor and sensory strips were 5.0 -- 9.0 cm above OML. The glucose metabolic rate was expressed with color scales and qualitatively estimated. The results disclosed an obvious hypometabolic zone around a focus area in 22 cases (76%) out of the 29 subjects. This hypometabolic zone was observed in 12 cases (92%) of 13 complex partial, 9 cases (78%) of 9 elementary partial, and 3 cases (43%) of 7 generalized seizure patterns. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the location of the hypometabolic zone was different according to the clinical symptoms. The patients with automatism, pseudoabsence, autonomic, and emotional symptoms had its foci in the mesial portion of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the patients with psychical seizure revealed its low metabolic area in the lateral temporal cortex. In the elementary partial epilepsy, the hypoactive zones were observed in the motor, sensory, and visual cortical area in accordance with the clinical symptoms. Very interestingly, an explicit cortical focus was discovered in two cases of the generalized epilepsy. In these cases the mechanism of secondary generalization was supposed to proceed in the expression of their clinical symptoms. In one Lennox-Gastaut case, a unilateral temporal lobe was involved as the seizure focus. (J.P.N.)

  4. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  5. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827)

    OpenAIRE

    Kootker, Lisette M.; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts a...

  6. Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern Cape province – race and disease status. ... Fisher's exact test was used to assess the univariate association between H. pylori infection and the possible risk factors. ... Gender, antibiotic treatment and alcohol consumption may be risk factors for infection.

  7. Contract farming approach to essential oil production in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on empirical evidence from small scale growers and a processor, this study evaluated contract farming of rose geranium (Pelagonium graveoleus) production in a rural setting of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the aid of interview schedules and observation, cross sectional data were collected from the ...

  8. Why epilepsy challenges social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-01-01

    Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions. We consider societal, psychological, and neuropsychological aspects of social life with particular emphasis on socio-cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind, two main aspects of social cognition, are frequently observed in individuals with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Results from behavioural studies targeting these functions will be presented with a focus on their relevance for patients' daily life. Furthermore, we will broach the issue of pitfalls in current diagnostic tools and potential directions for future research. By giving a broad overview of individual and interpersonal determinants of social functioning in epilepsy, we hope to provide a basis for future research to establish social cognition as a key component in the comprehensive assessment and care of those with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  10. Epilepsy care in general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2009-06-01

    Epilepsy care in Ireland is shared between primary, secondary and tertiary care services with the General Practitioner (GP) managing the process. Barriers to effective epilepsy care in Irish general practice remain undocumented although sub-optimal and fragmented services are frequently anecdotally reported. This survey of Irish GPs reports on such barriers to epilepsy care and on the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) issues potentially relevant to the use of an epilepsy specific Electronic Patient Record (EPR). The response rate was 247\\/700 (35.3%). Respondents supported the concept of shared care for epilepsy 237 (96%) however they were very dissatisfied with existing neurology services, including pathways of referral 207 (84%) and access to specialist neurology advice and investigations 232 (94%). They reported that neurology services and investigations may be accessed more expeditiously by patients with private health insurance than those without 178 (72%). Consequently many patients are referred to the emergency department for assessment and treatment 180 (73%). A deficit in epilepsy care expertise among GPs was acknowledged 86 (35%). While computerisation of GP practices appears widespread 230 (93%), just over half the respondents utilise available electronic functionalities specific to chronic disease management. GP specific electronic systems infrequently link or communicate with external electronic sources 133 (54%). While the current pathways of care for epilepsy in Ireland appear fragmented and inadequate, further investigations to determine the quality and cost effectiveness of the current service are required.

  11. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  12. Epilepsy in Dostoevsky's novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuil, Piet H A

    2013-01-01

    Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (1821-1881) suffered from epilepsy. Some type of psychopathology can be found in about 25% of the characters of his novels. Some of them have seizures. In at least five of them Dostoevsky clearly intends them to have epilepsy. Others are more likely to be created as people with hysteria or sometimes, for instance, possession. In this essay an inventory is given by more or less comprehensive quotes of different types of seizures in five novels. The seizures are named in the novels with a varying vocabulary based on the concepts of nosology in the 19th century, the knowledge of Dostoevsky of these concepts, his own experiences, and problems in translation and transliteration. In the discussion, analysis of the role these factors played in the understanding of what Dostoevsky really expressed is given attention. Special attention is given to the so-called ecstatic aura. This element of focal epileptic seizures is so rare that in the past the description of it raised doubts on its existence as such and therefore the embellishment by Dostoevsky, describing his own experience and/or that of his epileptic characters Kirillov and Myshkin. The consequence of this analytic approach, however, should not be losing one's amazement of the genius polyphonic creativity of Dostoevsky to integrate so many profound aspects of the human and especially the Russian soul in the characters of his novels. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Infective Causes of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression and genetic causal attribution of epilepsy in multiplex epilepsy families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Shawn T; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Phelan, Jo C; Winawer, Melodie R; Shostak, Sara; Goldsmith, Jeff; Chung, Wendy K; Ottman, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Rapid advances in genetic research and increased use of genetic testing have increased the emphasis on genetic causes of epilepsy in patient encounters. Research in other disorders suggests that genetic causal attributions can influence patients' psychological responses and coping strategies, but little is known about how epilepsy patients and their relatives will respond to genetic attributions of epilepsy. We investigated the possibility that among members of families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy, depression, the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in the epilepsies, might be related to the perception that epilepsy has a genetic cause. A self-administered survey was completed by 417 individuals in 104 families averaging 4 individuals with epilepsy per family. Current depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Genetic causal attribution was assessed by three questions addressing the following: perceived likelihood of having an epilepsy-related mutation, perceived role of genetics in causing epilepsy in the family, and (in individuals with epilepsy) perceived influence of genetics in causing the individual's epilepsy. Relatives without epilepsy were asked about their perceived chance of developing epilepsy in the future, compared with the average person. Prevalence of current depression was 14.8% in 182 individuals with epilepsy, 6.5% in 184 biologic relatives without epilepsy, and 3.9% in 51 individuals married into the families. Among individuals with epilepsy, depression was unrelated to genetic attribution. Among biologic relatives without epilepsy, however, prevalence of depression increased with increasing perceived chance of having an epilepsy-related mutation (p = 0.02). This association was not mediated by perceived future epilepsy risk among relatives without epilepsy. Depression is associated with perceived likelihood of carrying an epilepsy-related mutation among individuals without epilepsy in families containing

  16. Stress, the hippocampus, and epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress is among the most frequently self-reported precipitants of seizures in patients with epilepsy. This review considers how important stress mediators like corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticosteroids, and neurosteroids could contribute to this phenomenon. Cellular effects of stress

  17. Behavior Problems Antedating Epilepsy Onset

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of behavior problems among 224 children (ages 4 to 14 years) with epilepsy, in the six month period before the first recognized seizure, were studied at the Indiana School of Nursing, Indianapolis.

  18. Novel approaches to epilepsy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kokaia, Merab

    2013-01-01

    The aim of epilepsy treatment is to achieve complete seizure freedom. Nonetheless, numerous side effects and seizure resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affecting about 30-40% of all patients are main unmet needs in today's epileptology. For this reason, novel approaches to treat epilepsy......, and inhibitory neurotransmitters. We also address new molecular-genetic approaches utilizing optogenetic technology. The therapeutic strategies presented herein are predominately aimed toward treatment of partial/focal epilepsies, but could also be envisaged for targeting key seizure propagation areas...... are highly needed. Herein, we highlight recent progress in stem-cell-based and gene transfer-based therapies in epilepsy according to findings in animal models and address their potential clinical application. Multiple therapeutic targets are described, including neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors...

  19. [Modern aspects of epilepsy treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajbegović, Azra; Kantardzić, Dzelaludin; Suljić, Enra; Alajbegović, Salem

    2003-01-01

    It is a general rule today, after a relevant diagnostics of an epilepsy, to start a monotherapy treatment, depending on a kind of a seizure, a life age and a general health condition. First line of monotherapy epilepsy drugs remain carbamazapine and sodium valproat. New drugs that are being introduced are: felbamat, gabapentin, lamotrigin, oxcarbazepin, tiagabin, topiramat, vigabatin and zanisamid. These are commonly used as add-on therapy, or as an addition for previously used antiepileptic. Their indicated areas are complex resistant partial seizures with or without generalization. Attention should be paid on proper dosage, interactions and toxicity. Regardless on the new epileptic era, according to reports of International League against epilepsy, most of the patients do not receive the drug that is the most appropriate for them concerning the price (cost-benefit). Neurosurgical methods in epilepsy treatment are: selective amygdalo-hyppocampotomy, temporal lobotomy, subpial resection, hemispherectomy, corpus callosotomy, removal of lesions like tumors or cysts provide encouraging results in reduction of epileptic seizures that can be followed by reduction of drug therapy. N. vagus stimulation is being wider introduced in resident epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy in women requires an approach to sexuality, conception, pregnancy, introduction of medicaments, antiepileptic terratogenity, contraception, motherhood and menopause. A special significance of modern approach to epilepsy is in treatment of elderly who have cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease as a cause of seizures. A complex treatment of epilepsy using pharmacological and neurosurgical approach requires supportive psychotherapy, socio-therapy, the work with a family, education about epilepsy and living a life with more quality having one.

  20. Management of epilepsy in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Harsono Harsono

    2003-01-01

    Management of epilepsy in elderly requires understanding the unique biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these patients. Management decisions must be based on accurate classification of seizures or epilepsy syndromes, a thorough neurological assessment to define etiology, and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health and living situation. Concomitant illnesses such as neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, or cardiac disorders will require individualization of plans and ...

  1. Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Ahmed, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prognosis of seizures in epileptic children and identify early predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy. All children (aged 1 month to 16 years) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy who were treated and followed at the centre during the study period were included. The patients who had marked seizures even after two years of adequate treatment were labeled as intractable epileptics (cases). Children who had no seizure for more than one year at last follow-up visit were the controls. Adequate treatment was described as using at least three anti-epileptic agents either alone or in combination with proper compliance and dosage. Records of these patients were reviewed to identify the variables that may be associated with seizure intractability. Of 442 epileptic children, 325 (74%) intractable and 117 (26%) control epileptics were included in the study. Male gender (OR=3.92), seizures onset in infancy >10 seizures before starting treatment (OR=3.76), myoclonic seizures (OR=1.37), neonatal seizures (OR=3.69), abnormal EEG (OR=7.28) and cryptogenic epilepsy (OR=9.69) and head trauma (OR=4.07) were the factors associated with intractable epilepsy. Seizure onset between 5-7 years of age, idiopathic epilepsy, and absence seizures were associated with favourable prognosis in childhood epilepsy. Intractable childhood epilepsy is expected if certain risk factors such as type, age of onset, gender and cause of epilepsy are found. Early referral of such patients to the specialized centres is recommended for prompt and optimal management. (author)

  2. The Managing Epilepsy Well Network:: Advancing Epilepsy Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Jobst, Barbara C; Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Begley, Charles E; Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Erica K; Pandey, Dilip K; Quarells, Rakale C; Scal, Peter; Spruill, Tanya M; Thompson, Nancy J; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy, a complex spectrum of disorders, affects about 2.9 million people in the U.S. Similar to other chronic disorders, people with epilepsy face challenges related to management of the disorder, its treatment, co-occurring depression, disability, social disadvantages, and stigma. Two national conferences on public health and epilepsy (1997, 2003) and a 2012 IOM report on the public health dimensions of epilepsy highlighted important knowledge gaps and emphasized the need for evidence-based, scalable epilepsy self-management programs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention translated recommendations on self-management research and dissemination into an applied research program through the Prevention Research Centers Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network. MEW Network objectives are to advance epilepsy self-management research by developing effective interventions that can be broadly disseminated for use in people's homes, healthcare providers' offices, or in community settings. The aim of this report is to provide an update on the MEW Network research pipeline, which spans efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination. Many of the interventions use e-health strategies to eliminate barriers to care (e.g., lack of transportation, functional limitations, and stigma). Strengths of this mature research network are the culture of collaboration, community-based partnerships, e-health methods, and its portfolio of prevention activities, which range from efficacy studies engaging hard-to-reach groups, to initiatives focused on provider training and knowledge translation. The MEW Network works with organizations across the country to expand its capacity, help leverage funding and other resources, and enhance the development, dissemination, and sustainability of MEW Network programs and tools. Guided by national initiatives targeting chronic disease or epilepsy burden since 2007, the MEW Network has been responsible for more than 43 scientific journal articles, two

  3. Ketone bodies in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Melanie A; Hartman, Adam L

    2012-04-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Vigilance, sleep and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, J

    1986-01-01

    The correlations between vigilance and epilepsy are manifold. Nearly all epileptic seizures cause a diminution of vigilance extending to unconsciousness. Many of the influences triggering or inhibiting epileptic seizures produce alterations of vigilance or are produced by them. Nearly all chemical influences more or less cause diminution of vigilance. The enhancement of vigilance may inhibit seizures. Decreasing vigilance may act vice versa. As a means to enhance vigilance afferent stimuli are able to trigger seizures. This may be accomplished when singular or rhythmic stimulation of afferents gets the already excited neuronal system oscillating. This principle is also responsible for the strong correlation between triggering of seizures and the sleep/waking cycle with its different grades of neuronal synchronization. On the other hand, inhibition of seizures is possible by a continuously applied stimulation load, which may disturb the increasing excitatory oscillation. Also, conditioning may trigger or inhibit seizures. But the EEG biofeedback only is used to decrease abnormal neuronal activity.

  5. Vigabatrin in childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Alving, J; Gram, L

    1995-01-01

    In an retrospective uncontrolled long-term study in 30 children with intractable epilepsy, it was found that treatment with vigabatrin resulted in a seizure reduction of more than 50% at 1-year follow-up in 40% of the children. The responders were all children with partial seizures. Side effects...... were mild and did not lead to discontinuation of the drug. Increased numbers of seizures were seen in three cases. A moderate weight increase was seen in 27% of the children. At 5-year follow-up 7 children (23%) still maintained a seizure reduction of more than 50%. Trials of monotherapy in three...... seizure-free patients were unsuccessful. No further side effects were observed. A study of evoked potentials in 12 children showed no alteration in latency and amplitudes of VEP following treatment with vigabatrin. Our results show that in children vigabatrin seems to have a stable effect even though...

  6. Video material and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, G F; Jeavons, P M; Edson, A S

    1994-01-01

    Nine patients who had epileptic attacks while playing computer games were studied in the laboratory. Patients had an EEG recorded as well as their response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) at flash rates of 1-60 fps. In addition, pattern sensitivity was assessed in all patients by a gratings pattern. Only 2 patients had no previous history of convulsions, and only 2 had a normal basic EEG. All but 1 were sensitive to IPS, and all but 1 were pattern sensitive. Most patients were male, but although this appears to conflict with previously published literature results regarding the sex ratio in photosensitivity, it was due to the male predominance of video game usage. We compared our results with those reported in the literature. Diagnosing video game epilepsy requires performing an EEG with IPS and pattern stimulation. We propose a standard method of testing.

  7. RECURRENT CONVULSIONS IN CAPE TOWN CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-11-03

    Nov 3, 1970 ... Child Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town studied and the .... Sex Distribution (Table III) ... family history in children with brain damage is surprisingly high. .... nized that more male infants develop the respiratory.

  8. The Cape doctor 1807-1910: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Howard

    2004-01-01

    This chapter contrasts the Cape doctor in 1807 and in 1910, and finds that, in a whole variety of ways, the differences between the two were not of degree but of kind. Underlying this sea-change was the germ revolution of the late Victorian era, which transformed the Cape doctor out of all recognition, thereby laying important foundations for the development of the twentieth-century South African doctor.

  9. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  10. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...

  11. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...

  12. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are

  13. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TYDSKRIF. 1035. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy ... watersrand, as well as with the Department of Psychiatry, .... Is the response to therapy different in the three groups? 6. .... epilepsy in the occupational and the social spheres and.

  14. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  15. Comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalles P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities are often associated with chronic neurological diseases, such as headache and epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To identify comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches, and to determine possible drug interactions. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire with information about type of epilepsy/headache, medical history, and medication was administered to 80 adult subjects (40 with epilepsy and 40 with chronic headache. RESULTS: Patients with epilepsy had an average of two comorbidities and those with headache of three. For both groups, hypertension was the most prevalent. On average, patients with epilepsy were taking two antiepileptic medications and those with headache were taking only one prophylactic medication. Regarding concomitant medications, patients with epilepsy were in use, on average, of one drug and patients with headache of two. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and headaches, have a high number of comorbidities and they use many medications. This may contribute to poor adherence and interactions between different medications.

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  17. Pregnancy Among Women With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S V

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to pregnancy and birth defects in the baby are major concerns for women with epilepsy. Hardly any data from this country is available in this regards to provide factual information to people with epilepsy. This study was undertaken to survey the outcome of pregnancies in women with epilepsy in this part of the country. Women with epilepsy (20to55 year of age who had attended this institute between March 1997 and march 1997 were sent a questionnaire by post regarding their martial status, reproductive history and outcome of pregnancies including any birth defects in their children. The data on clinical aspects and treatment were extracted from their medical records. 184 women (mean age 28.5 + 8 years were included in this study. 108 (58.7% of them were married. Women with epilepsy had three times higher rate of abortions (24.1% than general population(8%. Their mean family size (1.6 was lower than that is Kerala State (2.3. The proportion of women without children (13.9% was also higher than that for the state (9.8%. The frequency of birth defects among their children was twice (4% that in the community (2%. Women taking sodium valproate had higher frequency of birth defects in their children (15% as compared to other drugs but this was not statistically significant. There is a tendency for lower fertility among women with epilepsy. There is a slight increase in the frequency of birth defects among children born to mothers with epilepsy.

  18. Introduction-Pediatric epilepsy surgery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenhag, Bertil; Cukiert, Arthur

    2017-04-01

    This supplement includes the proceedings from the Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Techniques Meeting held in Gothenburg (July 4-5, 2014), which focused on presentations and discussions regarding specific surgical technical issues in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Pediatric epilepsy neurosurgeons from all over the world were present and active in very fruitful and live presentations and discussions. These articles represent a synopsis of the areas and subjects dealt with there. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. PET studies in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced 11C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and 18F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased 11C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and 11C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. 11C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

  20. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  1. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.M.A.; Gorter, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  2. Neuropsychological Research Approaches in the Epilepsies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contributions of electro-encephalography to neurology and neurosurgery have tended to overshadow its value for the neuropsychologist as a tool for the study of instability of brain function in relation to the epilepsies and the borderlands of epilepsy. Studies of criminal behaviour have shown a high incidence of epilepsy ...

  3. Vascular anomalies associated with epilepsy - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drgova, M.; Polacek, H.; Stevik, M.; Zelenak, K.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in which the individual has recurrent seizures. These seizures occur when there is an imbalance in the electrical activity of the brain. The malfunction may be in a small area of the brain or spread to the entire brain. Epilepsy usually begins in childhood or adolescence. About 2.3 million people have seizures or epilepsy. (author)

  4. Epilepsy. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a seizure disorder. According to the Epilepsy Foundation of America, a seizure happens when a brief, strong surge of electrical activity affects part or all of the brain. About three million Americans have epilepsy. Of the 200,000 new cases diagnosed each year, nearly 45,000 are children and adolescents. Following a brief story of a…

  5. The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the complexities of assigning cause in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the difficulties in assigning cause in epilepsy are described. A historical review is given, emphasizing aspects of the history which are relevant today. The historical review is divided into three approximately semicentenial periods (1860-1910, 1910-1960, 1960-present). A definition of symptomatic epilepsy and this is followed by listing of causes of symptomatic epilepsy. The fact that not all the causes of idiopathic epilepsy are genetic is discussed. A category of provoked epilepsy is proposed. The complexities in assigning cause include the following: the multifactorial nature of epilepsy, the distinction between remote and proximate causes, the role of nongenetic factors in idiopathic epilepsy, the role of investigation in determining the range of causes, the fact that not all symptomatic epilepsy is acquired, the nosological position of provoked epilepsy and the view of epilepsy as a process, and the differentiation of new-onset and established epilepsy. The newly proposed ILAE classification of epilepsy and its changes in terminologies and the difficulties in the concept of acute symptomatic epilepsy are discussed, including the inconsistencies and gray areas and the distinction between idiopathic, symptomatic, and provoked epilepsies. Points to be considered in future work are listed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epilepsy surgery: Recommendations for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article recommends guidelines for epilepsy surgery for India. This article reviews the indications, the various surgical options available and the outcome of surgery for drug resistant epilepsy based on current evidence. Epilepsy surgery is a well-established option for patients who have been diagnosed to have drug resistant epilepsy (DRE (on at least two appropriate, adequate anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs (either in monotherapy or in combination with continuing seizures, where the presurgical work-up has shown concordance of structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and electrical mapping data (electroencephalography (EEG, video EEG. There may be a requirement of functional imaging techniques in a certain number of DRE like positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission tomography, (SPECT. Invasive monitoring should be restricted to a few when all noninvasive investigations are inconclusive, there is a dual pathology or there is a discordance of noninvasive data. The types of surgery could be curative (resective surgeries: amygdalo hippocampectomy, lesionectomy and multilobar resections; functional surgeries: hemispherotomy and palliative (multiple subpial transaction, corpus callosotomy, vagal nerve stimulation. Epilepsy surgery in indicated cases has a success range from 50 to 86% in achieving seizure freedom as compared with < 5% success rate with AEDs only in persons with DRE. Centers performing surgery should be categorized into Level I and Level II.

  7. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  8. Toxoplasma gondii and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Erol; Türkoğlu, Şule Aydın; Orallar, Hayriye

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates. Suppression of the immune system is being transformed to the shape and texture of the cysts with bradyzoite. The parasite settles in the cells of the tissue cysts and causes change in the cellular mechanisms, such as cytokinin task. Depending on changes and type of neurotransmitter (GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine) levels in CSF in ions (Ca, K, Cl, Mg), it is believed that there is a change in their concentration. In this review, literature about the relationship between T. gondii and epilepsy and epileptiform activity the importance of parasites, which settle in the brain, will be highlighted.

  9. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  10. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  11. Pediatric epilepsy - an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh

    2005-04-01

    Prevalence studies from India suggest that epilepsy prevalence is similar to developed nations. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) predominates as an etiology. A large treatment gap is still a public health problem. Benign epilepsies and West syndrome appear to be underrepresented in studies on classification of seizures/syndromes. Febrile seizures prevalence in India is similar to other countries and appear to be as benign. Risk factors of intractable epilepsy (IE) in Indian studies include early age of onset, neurodevelopmental abnormalities and certain seizure types. Perinatal injuries underlie many IE. Many IE are not truly intractable and respond to simple therapeutic measures. The ketogenic diet and surgery are other methods now being used in Indian centers. Neurocysticercosis and neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury, two widely prevalent etiologies are reviewed in detail.

  12. Pediatric epilepsy -- an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh

    2005-04-01

    Prevalence studies from India suggest that epilepsy prevalence is similar to developed nations. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) predominates as an etiology. A large treatment gap is still a public health problem. Benign epilepsies and West syndrome appear to be underrepresented in studies on classification of seizures/syndromes. Febrile seizures prevalence in India is similar to other countries and appear to be as benign. Risk factors of intractable epilepsy (IE) in Indian studies include early age of onset, neurodevelopmental abnormalities and certain seizure types. Perinatal injuries underlie many IE. Many IE are not truly intractable and respond to simple therapeutic measures. The ketogenic diet and surgery are other methods now being used in Indian centers. Neurocysticercosis and neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury, two widely prevalent etiologies are reviewed in detail.

  13. [Possibilities of psychoprophylaxis in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1976-01-01

    The psychiatrist should be given also their share in the prevetion of epilepsy by means of raising the psychiatric culture of the society and teaching the population the principles of mental hygiene and psychoprophylaxia. The possibilities of psychiatry in prophylactic management of patients with developed epilepsy include: 1. Energetic measures for controlling attacks which has many psychoprophylactic aspects. 2. Prevention of psychotraumatizing situations leading to secondary neurotic, psychotic and other reactions and behaviour disorders of the type of homilopathy and sociopathy, 3. Counteracting the development of mental and social disability in epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy should be conducted from its very beginning in cooperation with psychiatrists and therapeutic psychologists. The probems of prophylaxis cannot be separated from prophylactic treatment, psychotherapy sociotherapy and rehabilitation.

  14. Sex differences in human epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-09-01

    In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. Emerging data suggest that gender differences exist also in the epidemiology, and pathophysiology of epilepsy. The present review summarizes the current information regarding gender and epilepsy. These differences are regarded from the perspective of innate sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, and assuming that these differences may render men and women differently vulnerable to epileptogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CT findings of infant epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojoh, Hiroatsu; Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Shozo; Tomita, Yutaka.

    1982-01-01

    CT diagnosis of infantile epilepsy was evaluated. High incidence of abnormal CT findings in infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was same as in other reports. Comparison between CT findings and neurological complications and that between CT findings and electroencephalogram findings revealed a stronger relationship existing in the former. This suggested that CT is more useful as a measure to detect underlying diseases which are due to organic change of the brain to cause epilepsy, rather than as that to disclose epileptic primary lesions of functional change. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  17. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  18. Determinants of felt stigma in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, N; Kaya, B; Yıldız, G; Öztura, I; Baklan, B

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the level of felt stigma, overprotection, concealment, and concerns related to epilepsy in different life domains by using culturally-specific scales for Turkish individuals with epilepsy. Also, it aimed to detect relations among the study variables and to determine the variables which predict felt stigma. For this purpose, felt stigma scale, overprotection scale, concealment of epilepsy scale, and concerns of epilepsy scale were administered to two hundred adult persons with epilepsy (PWE). The results showed that almost half of the participants reported felt stigma, overprotection, concealment of epilepsy, concerns related to future occupation, and concerns related to social life. Almost all the study variables show correlations with each other. Concealment of epilepsy, concerns related to social life, and concerns related to future occupation were found as the predictors of felt stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korczyn, A.D.; Schachter, S.C.; Brodie, M.J.; Dalal, S.S.; Engel Jr., J.; Guekht, A.; Hecimovic, H.; Jerbi, K.; Kanner, A.M.; Landmark, C.J.; Mareš, Pavel; Marusič, P.; Meletti, S.; Mula, M.; Patsalos, P. N.; Reuber, M.; Ryvlin, P.; Štillová, K.; Tuchman, R.; Rektor, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-302 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : epilepsy * psychiatry * clinical studies * experimental models Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  20. Epilepsy and astrocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological syndrome characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and sudden, synchronized electrical discharges that can manifest as seizures. It is now increasingly recognized that impaired astrocyte function and energy homeostasis play key roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Excessive neuronal discharges can only happen, if adequate energy sources are made available to neurons. Conversely, energy depletion during seizures is an endogenous mechanism of seizure termination. Astrocytes control neuronal energy homeostasis through neurometabolic coupling. In this review, we will discuss how astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy leads to distortion of key metabolic and biochemical mechanisms. Dysfunctional glutamate metabolism in astrocytes can directly contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability. Closure of astrocyte intercellular gap junction coupling as observed early during epileptogenesis limits activity-dependent trafficking of energy metabolites, but also impairs clearance of the extracellular space from accumulation of K + and glutamate. Dysfunctional astrocytes also increase the metabolism of adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP degradation that broadly inhibits energy-consuming processes as an evolutionary adaptation to conserve energy. Due to the critical role of astroglial energy homeostasis in the control of neuronal excitability, metabolic therapeutic approaches that prevent the utilization of glucose might represent a potent antiepileptic strategy. In particular, high fat low carbohydrate "ketogenic diets" as well as inhibitors of glycolysis and lactate metabolism are of growing interest for the therapy of epilepsy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  2. ECG changes in epilepsy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tigaran, S; Rasmussen, V; Dam, M

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of ECG abnormalities suggestive of myocardial ischaemia in patients with severe drug resistant epilepsy and without any indication of previous cardiac disease, assuming that these changes may be of significance for the group of epileptic patients with sudden unexpected...

  3. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Sussman, N.M.; Selzer, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal alterations in behavior and psychological functions, associated with increased neural discharge that is detectable by EEG. In between these paroxysmal events patients may appear superficially normal, but may have neurological signs and neurpsychological deficits. The neurological signs are sometimes correlated with radiologically detectable lesions, but there is little correlation between the CT abnormalities and the EEG focus, and CT abnormalities are rarely found in ''primary'' or ''idiopathic'' forms of epilepsy. Thus, seizure foci documented by ictal EEG can occur in regions that appear normal on CT. Since brain abnormalities implicated in epilepsy are more clearly reflected in measures of neural activity than in measures of anatomy, PET has particular potential for the study of epileptic pathophysiology. It provides the ability to measure local alterations in brain blood flow and metabolism, which are highly coupled with neural activity, and this makes possible the characterization of metabolic changes associated with epilepsy. Thus PET has the potential for contributing to the localization of epileptic activity as well as to the understanding of its pathophysiology

  4. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, MRI, and EEG findings in 54 patients (35 female, 19 male; aged 1 to 64 years with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH were analyzed in relation to epileptic outcome and genesis of epileptic discharges, in a study at the Neurological Institute and Epilepsy Surgery Center, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, Italy.

  5. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  6. Trends in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Botre, Abhijit; Udani, Vrajesh

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy surgery has become an accepted treatment for drug resistant epilepsy in infants and children. It has gained ground in India over the last decade. Certain epilepsy surgically remediable syndromes have been delineated and should be offered surgery earlier rather than later, especially if cognitive/behavioral development is being compromised. Advances in imaging, particularly in MRI has helped identify surgical candidates. Pre-surgical evaluation includes clinical assessment, structural and functional imaging, inter-ictal EEG, simultaneous video -EEG, with analysis of seizure semiology and ictal EEG and other optional investigations like neuropsychology and other newer imaging techniques. If data are concordant resective surgery is offered, keeping in mind preservation of eloquent cortical areas subserving motor, language and visual functions. In case of discordant data or non-lesional MRI, invasive EEG maybe useful using a two-stage approach. With multi-focal / generalized disease, palliative surgery like corpus callosotomy and vagal nerve stimulation maybe useful. A good outcome is seen in about 2/3rd of patients undergoing resective surgery with a low morbidity and mortality. This review outlines important learning aspects of pediatric epilepsy surgery for the general pediatrician.

  7. APPROACH TO EPILEPSY IN CHILDHOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    day care facility, training centre or to receive special needs education. Similar ... access to medical resources and the continuing stigma around epilepsy.1-3 ... information from the EEG, request an awake study with hyperventilation for sus- .... Appear pale and frightened, run to a carer and cling to them and may vomit.

  8. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.

  9. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior..., or disapprove a Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on..., easements, or rights-of-way for renewable energy projects on the OCS. The Secretary delegated that authority...

  10. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  11. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-. Afrikaans and the Islamic .... That these words continued to be used in Cape Muslim Afrikaans, in both sec- ular and religiOUS ...... In tenns of the Arabie dictionary. (Hans Wehr 1980: 68), ...

  12. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  13. April 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  14. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  15. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Data on the thermal structure, copepod biomass and production, and total number of eggs of the Cape anchovy ... To identify factors controlling the area of this water mass, a cluster ...... thesis, University of Cape Town: [vii] + 278 pp. SHANNON ...

  17. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  18. Neurocysticercosis as an infectious acquired epilepsy worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Volkmer, Randy

    2017-11-01

    Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide. NCC is caused by brain cysts from the T. solium and related tapeworms. Many people with NCC infection may develop epilepsy but the rates are highly variable. MRI imaging shows many changes including localization of cysts as well as the host response to treatment. Epilepsy, in a subset of NCC patients, appears to be due to hippocampal sclerosis. Serologic and brain imaging profiles are likely diagnostic biomarkers of NCC infection and are also used to monitor the course of treatments. Limited access to these tools is a key limitation to identify and treat NCC-related epilepsy in places with high prevalence of this parasite infestation. Overall, NCC is a common infection in many patients with epilepsy worldwide. Additional clinical and animal studies could confirm common pathology of NCC as a postinfectious epilepsy that is curable. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life.

  20. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  1. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  2. Clinicopathological study on refractory epilepsy treated by several epilepsy surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and investigate the clinicopathological features and types of refractory epilepsy treated by several epilepsy surgeries. Methods There were 19 patients with age less than 20 years who underwent 2 (16/19 or 3 (3/19 epilepsy surgeries. After pathological examination, pathological diagnosis and subtype was made according to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD classification proposed by International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission in 2011 and World Health Organization (WHO Classification of Tumors of Central Nervous System in 2007. Results The operation intervals were 1-10 years (average 4.24 years. The pathological diagnoses after first operation were FCDⅠb in 2 cases (2/19, FCDⅡa in 2 cases (2/19, FCDⅢa in one case (1/19, FCDⅢd in one case (1/19, 5 cases of tumor lesions [2 (2/19 of astrocytoma, one (1/19 of oligoastrocytoma, one (1/ 19 of mixed germ cell tumor, one (1/19 of hysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT], one case (1/19 of hamartoma, one case (1/19 of angioma, one case (1/19 of heterotopic gray matter, and 4 cases (4/19 of ulegyria. The last one (1/19 underwent corpus callosal incision. Pathological diagnoses after reoperation were FCDⅢa in 4 cases (4/19, FCDⅢb in 4 cases (4/19, FCDⅢc in one case (1/19, FCDⅢd in 8 cases (8/19, dual pathology (FCDⅢa with oligoastrocytoma and with glial scar and/or ulegyria in 2 cases (2/19. Patients were followed up for 0.50-5.00 years after second or third operation (average 2.34 years, and the results showed Engel Ⅰ in 10 patients (10/19, Engel Ⅱ in 6 patients (6/19 and Engel Ⅲ in 3 patients (3/19. The rate of good prognosis was 84.21%. Conclusions The pathological diagnoses of brain tissue resected from patients accepting several epilepsy surgeries are mainly FCD Ⅲ and dual pathology. It is suggested that the second or third operation would be effective for refractory epilepsy patients who underwent surgery already. DOI: 10

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial focal epilepsy with variable foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with FFEVF have developed psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia ), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... 5 links) American Epilepsy Society Brain Foundation (Australia) CURE: Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy Epilepsy Foundation ...

  5. Long-Term Social Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population-based longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of social outcomes of children with epilepsy in different countries are reviewed by researchers at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.Epilepsy, Chronic Disease, Idiopathic Epilepsy.

  6. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  7. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  8. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  9. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  10. Complex single gene disorders and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, Aine

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders, often associated with significant comorbidity, such as intellectual disability and skin disorder. The genetic underpinnings of many epilepsies are still being elucidated, and we expect further advances over the coming 5 years, as genetic technology improves and prices fall for whole exome and whole genome sequencing. At present, there are several well-characterized complex epilepsies associated with single gene disorders; we review some of these here. They include well-recognized syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis complex, epilepsy associated with Rett syndrome, some of the progressive myoclonic epilepsies, and novel disorders such as epilepsy associated with mutations in the PCDH 19 gene. These disorders are important in informing genetic testing to confirm a diagnosis and to permit better understanding of the variability in phenotype-genotype correlation.

  11. The current treatment options for epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, P.; Svecova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most prevalent chronic brain disease manifesting with epileptic seizures. Epilepsy itself is not one nosological entity, it rather includes several diseases with various etiology, clinics, course and therapy. Antiepileptic therapy aims seizure freedom without affecting psychical and physical functions. The therapy is in first line pharmacological. The choice of antiepileptic drug depends not only on the seizure phenomenology, but also on the respective type of epilepsy syndrome. Most patients achieve seizure freedom or at least significant seizure frequency reduction. In 20-30% of the patients is the pharmacotherapy ineffective. In these cases of refractory epilepsy therapeutical options include epilepsy surgery, vagal stimulation or ketogenic diet. Despite recent advances in the diagnostics and therapy, epilepsy remains a serious medical and social issue. (author)

  12. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  13. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D.; Schachter, Steven C.; Brodie, Martin J.; Dalal, Sarang S.; Engel, Jerome; Guekht, Alla; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Jerbi, Karim; Kanner, Andres M.; Landmark, Cecilie Johannessen; Mares, Pavel; Marusic, Petr; Meletti, Stefano; Mula, Marco; Patsalos, Philip N.; Reuber, Markus; Ryvlin, Philippe; Štillová, Klára; Tuchman, Roberto; Rektor, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is, of course, not one disease but rather a huge number of disorders that can present with seizures. In common, they all reflect brain dysfunction. Moreover, they can affect the mind and, of course, behavior. While animals too may suffer from epilepsy, as far as we know, the electrical discharges are less likely to affect the mind and behavior, which is not surprising. While the epileptic seizures themselves are episodic, the mental and behavioral changes continue, in many cases, interictally. The episodic mental and behavioral manifestations are more dramatic, while the interictal ones are easier to study with anatomical and functional studies. The following extended summaries complement those presented in Part 1. PMID:23764496

  14. Focal epilepsies in adult patients attending two epilepsy centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, Isabella; Vignoli, Aglaia; Visani, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    , and we evaluated the risk factors associated with AED resistance using logistic regression analysis. We further grouped AED-resistant patients in different grades (I, II, and III) according to the number of AEDs already tried as proposed by Perucca. KEY FINDINGS: AED resistance occurred in 57...... consecutively after 1990 and followed regularly at two epilepsy centers. We systematically collected the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data using a custom-written database. We classified the patients as seizure-free or AED resistant according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria...... control (14.9% needed three or more AEDs). Furthermore, among seizure-free patients who could be previously classified as resistant to two or more AEDs, 52.2% reached seizure freedom while receiving treatment with "new generation" AEDs. SIGNIFICANCE: The ILAE classification of AED resistance, as well...

  15. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal : diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient

  16. CT and MRI Guidelines in Recent-Onset Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Subcommittee for Pediatric Neuroimaging examined the value of, and indications for, neuroimaging in the evaluation of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  17. Parkinson’s Disease and Cryptogenic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Y. Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is an uncommon comorbidity of Parkinson’s disease (PD and has been considered not directly associated with PD. We present five patients (3 men and 2 women; ages 49–85 who had concomitant PD and cryptogenic epilepsy. Although rare, epilepsy can coexist with PD and their coexistence may influence the progression of PD. While this may be a chance association, an evolving understanding of the neurophysiological basis of either disease may suggest a mechanistic association.

  18. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  19. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Autistic Characteristics in Adults with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeford, SallyAnn Rose

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders [ASD] in epilepsy is approximately 20%-32%, with previous research reporting high rates of under-diagnosis of ASD in epilepsy. Current psychological assessments were adapted to provide epilepsy-specific measures of behaviour, which increased validity by addressing specific methodological problems highlighted by several researchers. The initial experiments provided a comprehensive investigation of autistic traits and characteristics in a heterogeneou...

  1. Epilepsy-associated long-term mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Jukka; Lindgren, Antti; Kurki, Mitja I; Huttunen, Terhi; Frösen, Juhana; Koivisto, Timo; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Immonen, Arto; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2017-07-18

    To elucidate the epilepsy-associated causes of death and subsequent excess long-term mortality among 12-month survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage from saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA-SAH). The Kuopio SIA Database (kuopioneurosurgery.fi) includes all SIA-SAH patients admitted to the Kuopio University Hospital from its defined catchment population in Eastern Finland. The study cohort consists of 779 patients, admitted from 1995 to 2007, who were alive at 12 months after SIA-SAH. Their use of reimbursable antiepileptic drugs and the causes of death (ICD-10) were fused from the Finnish national registries from 1994 to 2014. The 779 12-month survivors were followed up until death (n = 197) or December 31, 2014, a median of 12.0 years after SIA-SAH. Epilepsy had been diagnosed in 121 (15%) patients after SIA-SAH, and 34/121 (28%) had died at the end of follow-up, with epilepsy as the immediate cause of death in 7/34 (21%). In the 779 patients alive at 12 months after SIA-SAH, epilepsy was an independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0). Comorbid epilepsy in 12-month survivors of SIA-SAH is associated with increased risk of death in long-term follow-up. Survivors of SIA-SAH require long-term dedicated follow-up, including identification and effective treatment of comorbid epilepsy to prevent avoidable deaths. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Epilepsy Genetics—Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Annapurna; Lowenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous condition in which genetics play an important etiological role. We begin by reviewing the past history of epilepsy genetics, a field that has traditionally included studies of pedigrees with epilepsy caused by defects in ion channels and neurotransmitters. We highlight important recent discoveries that have expanded the field beyond the realm of channels and neurotransmitters and that have challenged the notion that single genes produce single disorders. Finally, we project toward an exciting future for epilepsy genetics as large-scale collaborative phenotyping studies come face to face with new technologies in genomic medicine. PMID:21277190

  3. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honghan, Gong; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Takae

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  4. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deblaere, Karel; Achten, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  5. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, Karel [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital, MR Department - 1K12, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  6. Anesthesia-induced epilepsy: causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xuefeng

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a type of chronic brain disease that results from an abnormally high synchronization of neuronal discharge. The typical clinical features of epilepsy are paroxysms and transient and stereotyped brain dysfunction. Many cases of epileptic seizures occurring during anesthesia have been reportedx. Recently, risk assessment of epileptic seizures during surgery and anesthesia has gained increasing attention. In this review, we systematically summarize the influence of anesthesia on epileptic seizures; the types, durations and frequencies of seizures related to anesthesia; and the epidemiology, prevention, treatment and prognosis of epilepsy. We also explore the possible mechanism of epilepsy and provide guidance for anesthesia during surgeries.

  7. Pannexin-1 channels in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mark S; Whyte-Fagundes, Paige; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2017-09-05

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) expression is raised in several animal seizure models and in resected human epileptic brain tissue, suggesting relevance to epilepsy. Multiple factors that are characteristic of seizures are thought to regulate Panx1 channel opening, including elevated levels of extracellular K + . Panx1, when open, 1) releases ATP, glutamate, and other metabolites into the extracellular medium, and 2) may depolarize the membrane due to a channel reversal potential around 0mV. Resultant ATP release from stimulated Panx1 can activate purinergic receptors, including P2X7 receptors. Glutamate and other signaling molecules released by Panx1 opening may have both excitatory and inhibitory actions on seizure generation. This review examines the critical and complex roles of Panx1 channels in epilepsy, which could provide a basis for future therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  9. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s (MCT ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  10. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, D.J.; Clarke, G.L.; White, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable whi...

  12. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  13. Epilepsy and recommendations for breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte; Engelsen, Bernt A; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis of benefits and potential harmful effects of exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) via breastmilk, and present recommendations for breastfeeding in women with epilepsy. The article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, the LactMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. Breastfeeding is associated with benefits for the infant, including nutrition, protection against infectious and immunological disease, and promotion of development and psychological attachment. Exposure to AEDs via breastmilk could potentially produce side effects or negatively affect development. Most studies on AED transfer through breastmilk report infant serum levels well below the limit of an expected pharmacological effect. Some drugs have the potential to reach significant serum levels in breastfed infants, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, lamotrigine, and ethosuximide. Thus, breastfed infants should be monitored for side effects. Still, adverse symptoms are rarely reported in breastfed infants of mothers taking AEDs, and prospective studies have failed to demonstrate any negative developmental effects in children that have been exposed to AEDs via breastmilk. The nursing infant's degree of drug exposure can be minimized by breastfeeding when drug concentrations in the milk are low, reducing maternal AED dosage to prepregnancy levels, and administering mixed nutrition. Most AEDs are considered safe or moderately safe during breastfeeding. Mothers with epilepsy should be encouraged to breastfeed, provided careful monitoring of the infant. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epilepsy and music: practical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, M

    2017-04-01

    Music processing occurs via a complex network of activity far beyond the auditory cortices. This network may become sensitised to music or may be recruited as part of a temporal lobe seizure, manifesting as either musicogenic epilepsy or ictal musical phenomena. The idea that sound waves may directly affect brain waves has led researchers to explore music as therapy for epilepsy. There is limited and low quality evidence of an antiepileptic effect with the Mozart Sonata K.448. We do not have a pathophysiological explanation for the apparent dichotomous effect of music on seizures. However, clinicians should consider musicality when treating patients with antiepileptic medication or preparing patients for epilepsy surgery. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine each may cause a reversible altered appreciation of pitch. Surgical cohort studies suggest that musical memory and perception may be affected, particularly following right temporal lobe surgery, and discussion of this risk should form part of presurgical counselling. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. The experiences of people living with epilepsy in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanywe, Asahngwa; Matchawe, Chelea; Fernandez, Ritin

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a global public health problem affecting people of all ages, sex, races, nations and social class. The majority of the 50 million people with epilepsy live in developing countries, with a prevalence rate of five to 10 people per 1000. The disease poses an enormous psychological, social and economic burden on patients. An estimated 90% of people with epilepsy in developing countries do not receive treatment due to sociocultural, economic and political factors. Current treatment interventions are limited to the clinical management of the disease and are largely driven by the healthcare provider's perspective, ignoring the experiences of people living with epilepsy (PLWE). The aim of this review was to identify, critically appraise, extract, synthesize and present the best and most current available evidence on the experiences of PLWE in developing countries. • What are the experiences of PLWE regarding the causes of their condition?• What are the experiences of PLWE regarding treatment of epilepsy?• How has epilepsy shaped the social relationships of the affected persons? People living with epilepsy in developing countries (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America).The experiences of PLWE in developing countries with particular attention on the causes, treatment and its impact on their social relationships.Primary research studies with a qualitative design not limited to phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, ethnomethodology, phenomenography, critical theory, interpretative or feminist analysis, case study, narrative studies and action research. Qualitative studies conducted in hospitals and community settings in developing countries. A three-step search strategy was used to identify published and unpublished studies in the English language from the 1990s to the present. Identified studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and critically appraised by two independent reviewers prior to their inclusion using the Joanna Briggs

  16. [Effects of temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy on cognitive function and emotion in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Long, Li-Li; Xiao, Bo

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy on cognitive function and emotion in children and the risk factors for cognitive impairment. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 38 children with temporal lobe epilepsy and 40 children with idiopathic epilepsy. The controls were 42 healthy children. All subjects received the following neuropsychological tests: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, verbal fluency test, digit span test, block design test, Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC), and Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRSC). Compared with the control group, the temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy groups showed significantly lower scores of MoCA, verbal fluency, digit span, and block design (Pepilepsy group, the temporal lobe epilepsy group showed significantly lower scores of MoCA, verbal fluency, digit span, and block design (Ptemporal lobe epilepsy group, MoCA score was negatively correlated with SASC score, DSRSC score, and seizure frequency (r=-0.571, -0.529, and -0.545 respectively; Pepilepsy group, MoCA score was also negatively correlated with SASC score, DSRSC score, and seizure frequency (r=-0.542, -0.487, and -0.555 respectively; Ptemporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy show impaired whole cognition, verbal fluency, memory, and executive function and have anxiety and depression, which are more significant in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. High levels of anxiety, depression, and seizure frequency are risk factors for impaired cognitive function.

  17. Understanding Death in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Elizabeth J; Camfield, Peter; Brooks, Linda; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Camfield, Carol; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wirrell, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Death in children with epilepsy is profoundly disturbing, with lasting effects on the family, community, and health care providers. The overall risk of death for children with epilepsy is about ten times that of the general population. However, the risk of premature death for children without associated neurological comorbidities is similar to that of the general population, and most deaths are related to the cause of the epilepsy or associated neurological disability, not seizures. The most common cause of seizure-related death in children with epilepsy is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is relatively uncommon in childhood, but the risk increases if epilepsy persists into adulthood. Although the direct cause of SUDEP remains unknown, most often death follows a generalized convulsive seizure and the risk of SUDEP is strongly related to drug-resistant epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The most effective SUDEP prevention strategy is to reduce the frequency of seizures, although a number of seizure detection devices are under development and in the future may prove to be useful for seizure detection for those at particularly high risk. There are distinct benefits for health care professionals to discuss mortality with the family soon after the diagnosis of epilepsy. An individual approach is appropriate. When a child with epilepsy dies, particularly if the death was unexpected, family grief may be profound. Physicians and other health care professionals have a critical role in supporting families that lose a child to epilepsy. This review will provide health care providers with information needed to discuss the risk of death in children with epilepsy and support families following a loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychology of democracy and democratization: Experience from Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Supplement (2012), s. 694-694 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : political psychology * democratization * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  19. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Matias, Luís.; Haberland, Christian; Silveira, Graça.; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Dias, Nuno

    2010-05-01

    The Cape Verde Archipelago ((15-17°N, 23-26°W) is located within the African plate, about 500km west of Senegal, in the African coast. The islands are located astride the Cape Verde mid-plate topographic swell, one of the largest features of its type in the world's ocean basins. The origin of this Cape Verde swell is still in debate. Previous determinations of the elastic thickness (Te) reveal a normal Te and a modest heat flow anomaly which suggest that the swell cannot be fully explained by uplift due to thermal reheating of the lithosphere by an underlying ‘‘hot spot'' and that other, deep-seated, mantle processes must be involved. The CV-PLUME (An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume) project intends to shape the geometry and deep origin of the Cape Verde mantle plume, via a combined study of seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and geochemical observations. Through this study we intend to characterize the structure beneath the archipelago from the surface down to the deep mantle. The core of this 3-year project was a temporary deployment of 39 Very Broad Band seismometers, across all the inhabited islands, to recorder local and teleseismic earthquakes. These instruments were operational from November 2007 to September 2008. In this work we report on the preliminary results obtained from the CV-PLUME network on the characterization of the local and regional seismicity. To detect the small magnitude seismic events the continuous data stream was screened using spectrograms. This proved to be a very robust technique in the face of the high short-period noise recorded by many of the stations, particularly during day time. The 10 month observation time showed that the background seismic activity in the Archipelago and surrounding area is low, with only a very few events recorded by the complete network. However, two clusters of earthquakes were detected close to the Brava Island, one to the NW and a second one, more active

  20. Preventing cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Kees P J

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments are common in children with epilepsy. They may already be present before the onset of epilepsy or occur – and even progress – during its course. Many variables contribute to cognitive dysfunction. Those that can be targeted to prevent (further) cognitive

  1. Spectrum of neurosurgeon's role in epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-ik Son

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is high quality evidence of epilepsy surgery as an effective and safe option for patients with drug refractory epilepsy by advanced imaging technology and computerized electrophysiological facilities during recent three decades. However, it still remains debate regarding necessities of epilepsy surgery in terms of less satisfactory surgical outcome, especially in non-lesional neocortical epilepsies. This review is for the role of epileptic neurosurgeon rather than the role of epilepsy surgery, namely, the necessity of neurosurgeon's positive participation starting from the first visit of epilepsy patients followed by pertaining process by stages and its degree of contribution. All experienced epilepsy centers also need innovative or challenging trial absolutely through this kind of standpoint, because all of the present protocols and techniques are coming from the past. In any event, the interdepartmental and interpersonal cooperation is inevitable especially for improving patient's quality of life. Serious neurosurgical considerations are needed for patients with intractable epilepsies, especially in referred cases from other center for the purpose of double check, and incongruent cases with contrary opinions by epileptologist.

  2. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  3. Electroencephalographic patterns in Ethiopian patients with epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    Conclusion: The most common EEG abnormalities in Ethiopian patients with epilepsy are focal interictal epileptiform discharges, typically ..... EEG is a valuable investigative tool. In the advent of more sophisticated neuroimaging methods, epilepsy remains one of the few common clinical problems routinely demanding EEG.

  4. The representation of epilepsy in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2008-01-01

    Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century.

  5. Epilepsy as an Analogue of Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVellis, Robert F.; And Others

    The occurrence of unpredictable and often unavoidable aversive seizures in epilepsy bears a striking resemblance to the conditions known to induce learned helplessness. Additionally, depression and other characteristics associated with helplessness seem to occur more frequently among persons with epilepsy. Data from a national survey of…

  6. Monocarboxylate transporters in temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Eid, Tore; Bergersen, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 % of the general population, making it one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Furthermore, up to 40 % of all patients with epilepsy cannot control their seizures with current medications. More effica...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: epilepsy-aphasia spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Szepetowski P, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC. GRIN2A mutations cause epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorders. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45( ... Neubauer BA, Biskup S, von Spiczak S. Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45( ...

  8. Management of Antiepileptic Treatment After Epilepsy Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubboli, Guido; Sabers, Anne; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although epilepsy surgery is a recognized treatment option for drug-resistant epilepsies since several decades, the management of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) after successful surgery still remains one of the most difficult and unsolved therapeutic challenges. Indeed, no systematic cont...

  9. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum

  10. Diagnosis of Epilepsy and Related Episodic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    This review identifies the diverse and variable clinical presentations associated with epilepsy that may create challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsy has recently been redefined as a disease characterized by one or more seizures with a relatively high recurrence risk (ie, 60% or greater likelihood). The implication of this definition for therapy is that antiepileptic drug therapy may be initiated following a first seizure in certain situations.EEG remains the most commonly used study in the evaluation of people with epilepsy. Routine EEG may assist in diagnosis, classification of seizure type(s), identification of treatment, and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Video-EEG monitoring permits seizure classification, assessment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and evaluation of candidacy for epilepsy surgery. MRI is pivotal in elucidating the etiology of the seizure disorder and in suggesting the localization of seizure onset. This article reviews the new International League Against Epilepsy practical clinical definition for epilepsy and the differential diagnosis of other physiologic paroxysmal spells, including syncope, parasomnias, transient ischemic attacks, and migraine, as well as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. The initial investigational approaches to new-onset epilepsy are considered, including neuroimaging and neurophysiologic investigations with interictal and ictal video-EEG. Neurologists should maintain a high index of suspicion for epilepsy when children or adults present with a single paroxysmal spell or recurrent episodic events.

  11. Effect of Seizure Clustering on Epilepsy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, long-term population-based study was performed to determine whether seizure clustering (3 or more afebrile seizures during a 24 hour period is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, in a study at University of Turku, Finland, and the Epilepsy Research Group, Berlin, Germany.

  12. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  13. Epilepsy and Persian culture: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzan, A; Paladin, F

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the manner in which Persian culture viewed the problem of epilepsy. Beginning with the Avesta, the earliest Persian text on health and sickness, the medical literature on treatments of epilepsy common in Iran are reviewed. The article also explores popular Persian concepts that try to explain the causes of the morbus sacer.

  14. Translational approach for gene therapy in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou; Melin, Esbjörn; Christiansen, Søren H.

    2016-01-01

    clinical trial for gene therapy of temporal lobe epilepsy was explored: We investigated (i) whether the post intrahippocampal kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of chronic epilepsy in rats could be clinically relevant; and (ii) whether a translationally designed neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Y2 receptor...

  15. Epilepsy classification and additional definitions in occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Karatoprak, Elif Yüksel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate epileptic children with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) in the light of the characteristics of Panayiotopoulos syndrome and late-onset occipital lobe epilepsy of Gastaut (OLE-G). Patients were categorized into six groups: primary OLE with autonomic symptoms (Panayiotopoulos syndrome), primary OLE with visual symptoms (OLE-G), secondary OLE with autonomic symptoms (P-type sOLE), secondary OLE with visual symptoms (G-type sOLE), and non-categorized primary OLE and non-categorized secondary OLE according to characteristic ictal symptoms of both Panayiotopoulos syndrome and OLE-G, as well as aetiology (primary or secondary). Patients were compared with regards to seizure symptoms, aetiology, cranial imaging, EEG, treatment and outcome. Of 108 patients with OLE (6.4±3.9 years of age), 60 patients constituted primary groups (32 with Panayiotopoulos syndrome, 11 with OLE-G, and 17 with non-categorized primary OLE); the other 48 patients constituted secondary groups (eight with P-type sOLE, three with G-type sOLE, and 37 with non-categorized sOLE). Epileptiform activity was restricted to the occipital area in half of the patients. Generalized epileptiform activity was observed in three patients, including a patient with Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS). Only one patient had refractory epilepsy in the primary groups while such patients made up 29% in the secondary groups. In OLE, typical autonomic or visual ictal symptoms of Panayiotopoulos syndrome and OLE-G do not necessarily indicate primary (i.e. genetic or idiopathic) aetiology. Moreover, primary OLE may not present with these symptoms. Since there are many patients with OLE who do not exhibit the characteristics of Panayiotopoulos syndrome or OLE-G, additional definitions and terminology appear to be necessary to differentiate between such patients in both clinical practice and studies.

  16. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  17. Maternal Mortality in Women with Epilepsy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holohan, M

    2016-10-01

    It is estimated that, in Ireland, there are 10,000 women with epilepsy of childbearing potential1. In this paper the maternal mortality rate for women with epilepsy attending the Rotunda Hospital Epilepsy Clinic 2004 - 2013 was determined. There were 3 maternal deaths in women with epilepsy during this time, which represents a mortality rate of 0.8%. In those women who died, there were concerns in relation to risks to the foetus by taking Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED) and also issues with access to neurology services before pregnancy, acceptance of specialist support and lack of consistency in advice from health care professionals outside of Ireland. Implementing the nationally agreed care plan for women with epilepsy will improve the quality of care given and potentially we will see a reduction in maternal mortality in these women.

  18. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...

  19. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...

  20. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  1. Epilepsy and Sleep Disorders: a Clinical Review | Sunmonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with epilepsy (PWE) are at risk of developing sleep disorders and there is a complex inter-relationship between sleep disorders and epilepsy. Sleep disorders could be misdiagnosed as epilepsy and also worsen epilepsy. We searched Medline and Pubmed between 1962-2012, using the following search terms ...

  2. Language recovery after epilepsy surgery of the Broca's area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Mnatsakanyan

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is indicated in select patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Seizure freedom or significant reduction of seizure burden without risking new neurological deficits is the expected goal of epilepsy surgery. Typically, when the seizure onset zone overlaps with eloquent cortex, patients are excluded from surgery.We present a patient with drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent successful surgery with resection of Broca's area, primarily involving the pars triangularis (BA 45. We report transient expressive aphasia followed by recovery of speech. This case provides new insights into adult neuroplasticity of the language network. Keywords: Epilepsy surgery, Eloquent cortex, Language and epilepsy, Refractory epilepsy, Electrocorticography

  3. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  4. Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is recognized as the commonest serious neurological disorder in the world. Women with epilepsy (WWE experience several gender-related physical and social problems. They constitute high obstetric risk because of reduced fertility, risk of seizures during pregnancy, and complications of pregnancy. Hormonal and other factors can alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AED during pregnancy and puerperium. Antenatal exposure to AEDs, particularly at higher dosage and in polytherapy, increases the risk of fetal malformation. Recent reports raise the possibility of selective developmental language deficits and neurocognitive deficits with antenatal exposure to AEDs. There are concerns regarding the effect of traces of AEDs that pass to the infant during breast-feeding. The pre conception management is the cornerstone for epilepsy care in WWE. A careful reappraisal of each case should ascertain the diagnosis, the need for continued AED therapy, selection of appropriate AEDs, optimization of the dosage, and prescription of folic acid. During pregnancy, the fetal status needs to be monitored with estimation of serum a-feto-protein and ultrasound screening for malformations. The dosage of AEDs can be adjusted according to clinical requirement and blood levels of AEDs. Several institutions recommend oral vitamin K toward the end of pregnancy when enzyme-inducing AEDs are prescribed because the latter may potentially predispose the new born to hemorrhagic disease, but recent reports indicate that such a risk is practically negligible. WWE who are using enzyme-inducing AEDs (phenobarbitone, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine need to know that these AEDs may lead to failure of oral contraception.

  5. Musical and poetic creativity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Associations between epilepsy and musical or poetic composition have received little attention. We reviewed the literature on links between poetic and musical skills and epilepsy, limiting this to the Western canon. While several composers were said to have had epilepsy, John Hughes concluded that none of the major classical composers thought to have had epilepsy actually had it. The only composer with epilepsy that we could find was the contemporary composer, Hikari Oe, who has autism and developed epilepsy at age 15years. In his childhood years, his mother found that he had an ability to identify bird sound and keys of songs and began teaching him piano. Hikari is able to compose in his head when his seizures are not severe, but when his seizures worsen, his creativity is lost. Music critics have commented on the simplicity of his musical composition and its monotonous sound. Our failure to find evidence of musical composers with epilepsy finds parallels with poetry where there are virtually no established poets with epilepsy. Those with seizures include Lord George Byron in the setting of terminal illness, Algernon Swinburne who had alcohol-related seizures, Charles Lloyd who had seizures and psychosis, Edward Lear who had childhood onset seizures, and Vachel Lindsay. The possibility that Emily Dickinson had epilepsy is also discussed. It has not been possible to identify great talents with epilepsy who excel in poetic or musical composition. There are few published poets with epilepsy and no great composers. Why is this? Similarities between music and poetry include meter, tone, stress, rhythm, and form, and much poetry is sung with music. It is likely that great musical and poetic compositions demand a greater degree of concentration and memory than is possible in epilepsy, resulting in problems retaining a musical and mathematical structure over time. The lack of association between recognizable neuropsychiatric disorders and these skills is a gateway to

  6. Temporal plus epilepsy: Anatomo-electroclinical subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Machado, René; Benjumea-Cuartas, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a remediable epileptic syndrome. About 40% of patients continue to have seizures after standard temporal lobectomy. It has been suggested that some of these patients could actually suffer from a more complex epileptogenic network. Because a few papers have been dedicated to this topic, we decided to write an article updating this theme. Methods: We performed a literature search using the following terminology: “temporal plus epilepsy and networks,” “temporal plus epilepsy,” “orbito-temporal epilepsy,” “temporo-insular epilepsy,” “temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) epilepsy,” “parieto-temporal epilepsy,” “intracortical evoked potential and temporal plus epilepsy,” “temporal lobe connectivity and epilepsy,” “intracortical evoked potential and epilepsy surgery,” “role of extratemporal structures in TLE,” “surgical failure after temporal lobectomy,” “Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and temporal epilepsy,” and “positron emission tomography (PET) in temporal plus lobe epilepsy” in the existing PubMed databases. We searched only English and Spanish literature. Only papers that fit with the above-mentioned descriptors were included as part of the evidence. Other articles were used to reference some aspects of the temporal plus epilepsy. Results: A total of 48 papers from 2334 were revised. The most frequently reported auras in these groups of patients are gustatory hallucinations, vestibular illusions, laryngeal and throat constriction, atypical distribution of somatosensory symptoms (perioral and hands, bilaterally hands paresthesias, trunk and other). The most common signs are tonic posturing, hemifacial twist, and frequent bilateral clonic movements. Interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns exhibit regional and frequently bilateral spikes and/or slow waves. The first ictal electrographic change is mostly regional. It is important to note that the evidence is

  7. Towards the development of integrated epilepsy services: an audit of documented epilepsy care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2011-11-17

    Effective chronic disease management (CDM) requires the ready availability and communication of accurate, clinical disease specific information. Using epilepsy as a probe into CDM, we report on the availability and reliability of clinical information in the primary care records of people with epilepsy (PWE). The medical records of 374 PWE from 53 general practices in the Mid-West region of Ireland were examined. Confirmation of an epilepsy diagnosis by a neurologist was documented for 132 (35%) patients. 282 (75%) patients had no documented evidence of receiving specialist neurology review while 149 (40%) had not been reviewed by their GP in the previous two years for their epilepsy. Significant variation in documentation of epilepsy specific information together with an inadequacy and inconsistency of existing epilepsy services was highlighted.

  8. Towards the development of integrated epilepsy services: an audit of documented epilepsy care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2012-02-01

    Effective chronic disease management (CDM) requires the ready availability and communication of accurate, clinical disease specific information. Using epilepsy as a probe into CDM, we report on the availability and reliability of clinical information in the primary care records of people with epilepsy (PWE). The medical records of 374 PWE from 53 general practices in the Mid-West region of Ireland were examined. Confirmation of an epilepsy diagnosis by a neurologist was documented for 132 (35%) patients. 282 (75%) patients had no documented evidence of receiving specialist neurology review while 149 (40%) had not been reviewed by their GP in the previous two years for their epilepsy. Significant variation in documentation of epilepsy specific information together with an inadequacy and inconsistency of existing epilepsy services was highlighted.

  9. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...... to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification...

  10. Epilepsy, Cognition, and Behavior: The clinical picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.

    2010-01-01

    Although epilepsy is defined by the occurrence of spontaneous epileptic seizures, a large body of evidence indicates that epilepsy is linked to a spectrum behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders as well as to sudden death. Explanations for these associations include: (1) The effects of structural lesions which may impair the functions subserved by the regions of the brain involved in the lesion. (2) The effects of seizure activity which may begin well before a clinical seizure occurs and may persist long after it is over raising questions about what truly constitutes “interictal.” In addition, encephalopathic effects of epilepsy in infancy during critical periods in development may be particularly severe and potentially irreversible. (3) Shared mechanisms underlying seizures as well as these other disorders in the absence of structural lesions or separate diseases of the CNS. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate the elevated risk of cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders not just during but also prior to the onset of epilepsy (seizures) itself. These may outlast the active phase of epilepsy as well. The mounting evidence argues strongly for the recognition of epilepsy as part of a spectrum of disorders and against the notion that even uncomplicated epilepsy can a priori be considered benign. PMID:21214534

  11. Reduced Language Connectivity in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh N., Sepeta; Louise J., Croft; Lauren A., Zimmaro; Elizabeth S., Duke; Virginia K., Terwilliger; Benjamin E., Yerys; Xiaozhen., You; Chandan J., Vaidya; William D., Gaillard; Madison M., Berl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Functional connectivity (FC) among language regions is decreased in adults with epilepsy compared to controls, but less is known about FC in children with epilepsy. We sought to determine if language FC is reduced in pediatric epilepsy, and examined clinical factors that associate with language FC in this population. Methods We assessed FC during an age-adjusted language task in children with left-hemisphere focal epilepsy (n=19) compared to controls (n=19). Time series data were extracted for three left ROIs and their right homologues: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and Wernicke's area (WA) using SPM8. Associations between FC and factors such as cognitive performance, language dominance, and epilepsy duration were assessed. Results Children with epilepsy showed decreased interhemispheric connectivity compared to controls, particularly between core left language regions (IFG, WA) and their right hemisphere homologues, as well as decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. Increased intrahemispheric FC between left IFG and left WA was a positive predictor of language skills overall, and naming ability in particular. FC of language areas was not affected by language dominance, as the effects remained when only examining study participants with left language dominance. Overall FC did not differ according to duration of epilepsy or age of onset. Significance FC during a language task is reduced in children, similar to findings in adults. In specific, children with left focal epilepsy demonstrated decreased interhemispheric FC in temporal and frontal language connections and decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. These differences were present near the onset of epilepsy. Greater FC between left language centers is related to better language ability. Our results highlight that connectivity of language areas has a developmental pattern and is related to cognitive ability. PMID:25516399

  12. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Im, Jae Yung; Joo, Yang Goo; Park, Sam Kyoon

    1982-01-01

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  13. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  14. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1 Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL, (2 Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3 Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association.

  15. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association. PMID:24791092

  16. Neurostimulation as a promising epilepsy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yicong; Wang, Yuping

    2017-12-01

    The revolution in theory, swift technological developments, and invention of new devices have driven tremendous progress in neurostimulation as a third-line treatment for epilepsy. Over the past decades, neurostimulation took its place in the field of epilepsy as an advanced treatment technique and opened up a new world. Numerous animal studies have proven the physical efficacy of stimulation of the brain and peripheral nerves. Based on this optimistic fundamental research, new advanced techniques are being explored in clinical practice. Over the past century, drawing on the benefits brought about by vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy, various new neurostimulation modalities have been developed to control seizures. Clinical studies including case reports, case series, and clinical trials have been booming in the past several years. This article gives a comprehensive review of most of these clinical studies. In addition to highlighting the advantages of neurostimulation for the treatment of epilepsy, concerns with this modality and future development directions are also discussed. The biggest advantage of neurostimulation over pharmacological treatments for epilepsy is the modulation of the epilepsy network by delivering stimuli at a specific target or the "hub." Conversely, however, a lack of knowledge of epilepsy networks and the mechanisms of neurostimulation may hinder further development. Therefore, theoretical research on the mechanism of epileptogenesis and epilepsy networks is needed in the future. Within the multiple modalities of neuromodulation, the final choice should be made after full discussion with a multidisciplinary team at a presurgical conference. Furthermore, the establishment of a neurostimulation system with standardized parameters and rigorous guidelines is another important issue. To achieve this goal, a worldwide collaboration of epilepsy centers is also suggested in the future.

  17. Occipital lobe seizures and epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Jane E; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2012-10-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsies (OLEs) manifest with occipital seizures from an epileptic focus within the occipital lobes. Ictal clinical symptoms are mainly visual and oculomotor. Elementary visual hallucinations are common and characteristic. Postictal headache occurs in more than half of patients (epilepsy-migraine sequence). Electroencephalography (EEG) is of significant diagnostic value, but certain limitations should be recognized. Occipital spikes and/or occipital paroxysms either spontaneous or photically induced are the main interictal EEG abnormalities in idiopathic OLE. However, occipital epileptiform abnormalities may also occur without clinical relationship to seizures particularly in children. In cryptogenic/symptomatic OLE, unilateral posterior EEG slowing is more common than occipital spikes. In neurosurgical series of symptomatic OLE, interictal EEG abnormalities are rarely strictly occipital. The most common localization is in the posterior temporal regions and less than one-fifth show occipital spikes. In photosensitive OLE, intermittent photic stimulation elicits (1) spikes/polyspikes confined in the occipital regions or (2) generalized spikes/polyspikes with posterior emphasis. In ictal EEG, a well-localized unifocal rhythmic ictal discharge during occipital seizures is infrequent. A bioccipital field spread to the temporal regions is common. Frequency, severity, and response to treatment vary considerably from good to intractable and progressive mainly depending on underlying causes.

  18. Neurostimulation, neuromodulation, and the treatment of epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolden Lauren B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurostimulation and neuromodulation are techniques that may be able to affect the course of epilepsy. In the last 20 years, since the approval of VNS, we have observed a surge of studies assessing the potential of other devices and techniques for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsies including deep brain stimulation (DBS, responsive neurostimulation (RNS, trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Are these devices and techniques simply another treatment option that can be offered to patients with epilepsy or do they offer specific advantages when compared to the standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs?

  19. Quality of life in children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Nadkarni, Jayashree; Jain, Arti; Dwivedi, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic medical condition with many co-morbid features. It has been observed that children with epilepsy (CWE) have a compromised quality of life (QOL). Objective: To assess the QOL in CWE and to study the various factors affecting QOL among CWE. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 102 CWE aged 5-15 years of either sex. QOL was measured by Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, a 76-item, parent-reported questionnaire. Cronbach alpha ...

  20. Efficacy of the Danish epilepsy surgery programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, E; Foged, M T; Beniczky, S

    2018-01-01

    lobe after ICR were free of disabling seizures. 12% of MTLE patients developed de novo depression after epilepsy surgery despite good surgical outcome. Three patients required rehabilitation due to post-operative hemiplegia. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of the Danish epilepsy surgery programme align...... epilepsy surgery programme from 2009 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 169 consecutive patients, operated at Rigshospitalet, were included. Information was gathered from digital patient records. Before 1-year follow-up, two patients were lost to follow-up and three were referred to new surgery...

  1. Managing Epilepsy Well: Emerging e-Tools for epilepsy self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Patel, Archna; Kakacek, Jody; Escoffery, Cam; Johnson, Erica K; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O

    2013-10-01

    The Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network was established in 2007 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epilepsy Program to expand epilepsy self-management research. The network has employed collaborative research strategies to develop, test, and disseminate evidence-based, community-based, and e-Health interventions (e-Tools) for epilepsy self-management for people with epilepsy, caregivers, and health-care providers. Since its inception, MEW Network collaborators have conducted formative studies (n=7) investigating the potential of e-Health to support epilepsy self-management and intervention studies evaluating e-Tools (n=5). The MEW e-Tools (the MEW website, WebEase, UPLIFT, MINDSET, and PEARLS online training) and affiliated e-Tools (Texting 4 Control) are designed to complement self-management practices in each phase of the epilepsy care continuum. These tools exemplify a concerted research agenda, shared methodological principles and models for epilepsy self-management, and a communal knowledge base for implementing e-Health to improve quality of life for people with epilepsy. © 2013.

  2. Semiquantitative analysis of interictal glucose metabolism between generalized epilepsy and localization related epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikima, Akio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to detect seizure foci and evaluate surgical resection with localization related epilepsies. However, few investigations have focused on generalized epilepsy in children. To reveal the pathophysiology of generalized epilepsy, we studied 11 patients with generalized epilepsy except West syndrome, and 11 patients with localization related epilepsy without organic disease. The FDG PET was performed by simultaneous emission and transmission scanning. We placed regions of interest (ROI) on bilateral frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured and normalized to SUV of ipsilateral cerebellum. Then, we compared the data of generalized epilepsy to those of localization related epilepsy. FDG PET revealed significant interictal glucose hypometabolism in bilateral basal ganglia in generalized epilepsy compared to that in localization related epilepsy (right side: p=0.0095, left side: p=0.0256, Mann-Whitney test). No other region showed any significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. These findings indicate that the basal ganglia is involved in the outbreak of generalized seizures or is affected secondarily by the epileptogenicity itself. (author)

  3. Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Plant species have accumulated in the Cape region of southern Africa to a much greater degree than in areas of equivalent size in the rest of the subcontinent. Although this could be a consequence simply of lower extinction rates in the Cape, most researchers have invoked high rates of ecological speciation, driven by unique aspects of the Cape environment, as the primary explanation for this richness. To assess these ideas, we analyzed the frequencies of ecological shifts among 188 sister species pairs obtained from molecular phylogenies of eight Cape clades. Ecological shifts were evident in 80% of sister species pairs, with general habitat, pollinator, and fire-survival strategy shifts being especially frequent. Contrary to an established idea that shifts in soil type are frequently associated with speciation of Cape taxa, these shifts were relatively rare, occurring in just 17% of species pairs. More cases of sister species divergence are accompanied solely by floral than by vegetative diversification, suggesting an important role for pollinator-driven speciation. In an analysis of two large orchid genera that have radiated in both the Cape and the rest of southern Africa, the frequency of ecological shifts (general habitat, soil type, altitude and flowering time), did not differ between sister species pairs in the Cape region and those outside it. Despite suggestions that Cape plants tend to have small range sizes and show fine-scale patterns of speciation, range size did not differ significantly between species in the Cape and those outside it. We conclude that ecological speciation is likely to have been important for radiation of the Cape flora, but there is no evidence as yet for special "Cape" patterns of ecological speciation.

  4. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-10-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter. 

  5. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  6. Validation of epilepsy diagnoses in the Danish National Hospital Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate the diagnosis of epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register. METHODS: We randomly selected 200 patients registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register between 1977 and 2002 and validated the diagnosis according to the guidelines developed...... by the International League Against Epilepsy. RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of 188 (94%) persons from 57 departments at 41 hospitals. The epilepsy diagnoses were confirmed in 153 patients, providing a positive predictive value for epilepsy of 81% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 75-87%). Among the 35...... for syndrome classification was 60% (95% CI: 44-74%) for epilepsy with complex focal seizures and 35% (95% CI: 22-51%) for primary generalized epilepsy. CONCLUSION: The validity of the epilepsy diagnoses in the Danish National Hospital Register has a moderate to high positive predictive value for epilepsy...

  7. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on measurements of longshore wind from a 35-year time-series. AS Johnson, G Nelson. Abstract. Cape Columbine is a prominent headland on the south-west coast of Africa at approximately 32°50´S, where there is a substantial upwelling tongue, enhancing the ...

  9. Knowledge and attitudes in the rural Western Cape towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that farm residents in the Western Cape are potentially exposed to pesticides through various environmental routes including water. This emphasises the need to monitor water for pesticides in the Western Cape, but in order to do this, human and laboratory resources and capacities to conduct routine ...

  10. cutaneous manifestatio s of tuberculosis i the wester cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lEA WALKER, M.B., CH.B. (CAPE TOWN). Department of Dermatology, University of Cape Town and Croote Schuur Ho pital. Skin tuberculosis has been chosen as the subject of ... are fairly representative of the total number of skin cases seeking advice. .... results of vitamin D2 in the treatment of lupus."5-7. At -about the ...

  11. Comparison of age determination techniques for known-age Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Known-age teeth were used to validate age determination techniques for the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus ... The reliability with which age can be estimated for the Cape fur seal has also been improved. ... The acid solution, with a volume at least 10 times that of ... old female [0 show (he absence of GLGs in the cemenlUnl.

  12. The Cape commercial linefishery consists of about 2 500 vessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    assessing the ecosystem effects of fishing and evaluating the benefits of ... Such information would assist in the ... Traditional Cape linefish may be broadly divided into ... gressively farther offshore (and into deeper. Griffiths: ... (Griffiths 1997c); this process controls avail- ... of shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis,.

  13. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  14. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  15. Aspects of the digestion in the Cape porcupine | van Jaarsveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive capabilities of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) were studied using captive and field animals. The stomach contents comprised 6,47% of the body mass and had a low pH (2,0).The Cape porcupine also has a long small intestine (670 em). The large stomach and small intestine form a very efficient ...

  16. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  17. The "Cape Times"'s Portrayal of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the "Cape Times"'s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the…

  18. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  19. Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this video dated June 1, 2017, UCLA pediatric neurosurgeon Aria Fallah, MD, discusses the surgical treatment of ... the epilepsy surgery team, which includes the epileptologist, neurosurgeon, neuroradiologists and neuropsychologists, reviews all the collected data ...

  20. [Epilepsy treatment in Serbian medieval monastery hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić-Tasić, Slobodanka; Pantović, Mihailo; Jović, Nebojsa; Ravanić, Dragan; Obradović, Dejan; Sretenović, Srdjan; Pantović, Maja; Pantović, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Emperor John III Ducas Vatatzes (ruled from 1222-1254) and his son Theodore II Lascaris (ruled from 1254-1258) both suffered from epilepsy. On his journeys to Nicaea, St Sava visited emperors Theodore I Lascaris (ruled from 1204-1222) and John II Vatatzes, who richly rewarded him, which was probably of crucial importance for the foundation of hospitals in the Monastery of Hilandar and the Monastery of Studenica These hospitals had special departments for the treatment of patints with epilepsy. According to researches conducted up-to-date, these departments are considered to be the oldest institutions for epilepsy treatment. Monastery hospitals in the West served primarily as a shelter for the poor and patients with chronic incurable diseases. The development of Serbian monastery hospitals was a long process and it included institutions that lasted for a long time (for over two centuries) in which, among others, those affected by epilepsy were cured.