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Sample records for epididymal clear cells

  1. Epididymitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Sometimes, a testicle also becomes inflamed — ... you urinate. Causes Causes of epididymitis include: STIs. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common causes of ...

  2. Ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) perturbs epididymal epithelial cell function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinefelter, G.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of sperm granulomas in the epididymis following exposure to EDS, a Leydig cell toxicant, was reported by Cooper and Jackson in 1970. Recent work suggests that EDS may effect the epididymis directly. An in vitro system was developed to determine the nature of any direct effect. The caput epididymis from adult rats was dissected free of connective tissue and small pieces of the tissue were enzymatically digested until plaques of epididymal epithelial cells were obtained. Plaques were cultured on an extracellular matrix gelled on top of a semipermeable filter creating dual-compartment environments. The epithelial cells maintained typical morphology and protein secretion in this culture system for several days. Beginning on day 3, EDS (1 mM) was added to the basal compartment, with or without 35 S-methionine. After 24 hours, 35 S-labelled culture medium was taken from the apical compartment and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. EDS caused decreased secretion of several proteins, including a 39 Kd molecule. Interestingly, a 39 Kd protein was also shown to disappear from sperm taken from the caput epididymidis following in vivo exposure to EDS. Unlabelled cultures were fixed and processed for light microscopy. No alterations in morphological integrity were observed. Thus, epididymal epithelial cell function is directly altered by EDS exposure

  3. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

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    Kumar, R.; David, R.; Cierney, G. III

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of three cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma are described. On radiographs, this rather benign-appearing tumor resembles a chondroblastoma when it occurs at the end of a long bone, and may occasionally show a calcified matrix. However, it has distinctive tumor cells with a centrally placed vesicular nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm. The lesion has a low-grade malignancy and is amenable to en bloc surgical resection, which results in a much better prognosis than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.

  4. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma:

    OpenAIRE

    Lamovec, Janez; Pohar-Marinšek, Živa

    2003-01-01

    A case of eccrine clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of sweat gland origin is presented, disclosing its clinical behavior and morphologic characteristics asevidenced by fine needle aspiration biopsy and tissue section histology. Thepatient was a 53-years old male who had a tumor on his fifth toe for 16 years. The tumor recurred 18 months after excision and metastasized widely 17 months following the amputation of the toe due to the recurrence. In spite of chemotherapy the patient died 37 months af...

  5. Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on [3H]thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orgebin-Crist, M.C.; Jonas-Davies, J.; Storey, P.; Olson, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Epithelial cell enriched primary cultures were established from the rat and the rabbit epididymis. Epithelial cell aggregates, obtained after pronase digestion of minced epididymis, attached to the culture dish and after 72 h in vitro spread out to form discrete patches of cells. These cells have an epithelioid morphology and form a monolayer of closely apposed polygonal cells where DNA synthesis, as judged by [ 3 H]thymidine uptake, is very low. In L-valine medium the nonepithelial cell contamination was no more than 10% in rat and rabbit epididymal primary cultures. The labeling index of rat epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly lower than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. In contrast, the labeling index of rabbit epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly higher than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. Cytosine arabinoside decreased the number of labeled cells in both L-valine and D-valine cultures. From these results, it appears that D-valine is a selective agent for rat epididymal epithelial cells, but not for rabbit epithelial cells, and that cytosine arabinoside is a simple and effective means to control the proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in both rat and rabbit epididymal cell cultures

  6. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Gu, M.J.; Kim, M.J.; Bae, Y.K.; Choi, W.H.; Shin, D.S.; Cho, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  7. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N.; Bircan, Sema; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  8. [Effects of L-carnitine on the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and epididymal sperm count and motility in rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; Ma, Jie-hua; Zhou, Xin; Fan, Xiao-bo; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2011-05-01

    To explore the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and on the count and motility of epididymal sperm in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty-four SD rats (200-230 g) were randomly divided into a control group, a DM model group and an LC group. After the establishment of DM models in the latter two groups by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg, the controls and DM models were treated intragastrically with physiological saline, while the rats in the LC group with LC at 300 mg/kg, all for 6 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, all the rats were killed for the detection of the count and motility of epididymal sperm and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells. The motilities of caput and cauda epididymal sperm were (53.7 +/- 1.8)% and (60.3 +/- 1.6)% in the LC group, significantly higher than in the DM model group ([32.2 +/- 2.0]% and [40.5 +/- 1.4]%, P count of cauda epididymal sperm was (25.5 +/- 1.1) x 10(6)/100 mg in the DM models, and was increased to (32.0 +/- 1.5) x 10(6)/100 mg after LC treatment (P sperm count, improved sperm motility, and reduced the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in rats with DM.

  9. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with clear cell changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT has a limited biological profile and been an attention-grabbing tumor for a century for its origin. Though described earlier, it was widely accepted after Harbitz from Norway reported about this uncommon benign tumor in 1915. There has been a long debate as whether this tumor is a hamartoma or a neoplasm. Here, we present a case of AOT in a 20-year-old female with details of clinical, radiological and histological features along with clear cell changes, signifying AOT to be more aggressive in nature than assessed from earlier literature. Thus, we did an extensive search of PubMed literature on AOT with all its histopathological features associated until date to find the report of clear cell changes yet.

  10. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  11. A case of clear cell sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...... this designation obsolete. The true incidence remains unknown, but CCS is believed to represent less than one percent of all sarcomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 22-year-old patient presented with a mass sized 2.6×2.7×2.7cm of the left gluteal region, pain, and malaise. Initially, the symptoms were interpreted...

  12. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma developing in pacemaker pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2008-11-01

    An octagenerian woman developed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm of eccrine sweat gland origin, 4 years following pacemaker implantation in her right lateral chest. The tumor immunohistochemically mimicked a metastatic lobular breast carcinoma, for example, strongly positive estrogen, weakly positive progesterone, and weakly reactive mammoglobin. A complete surgical excision of the tumor was complemented with ipsilateral dissection of involved adjacent axillary lymph nodes. Recommended irradiation was refused by the patient. Retrospective 3-year mammogram review, 2-year postsurgery follow-up, and complete postmortem evaluation failed to prove a primary breast malignancy or other metastatic lesion elsewhere.

  13. Bilateral clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, W.; Yehia, D.; Alfaar, A.S.; Elshafie, M.M.; Younes, A.A.; Zaghloul, M.S.; El-Kinaai, N.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Zekri, W.; Elshafie, M.M.; Zaghloul, M.S.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Younes, A.A.; Alfaar, A.S.; Yehia, D.

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) accounts for 2-5% of all pediatric renal malignancies, and is known for its propensity to metastasize to bone and other sites. We are reporting two cases with bilateral CCSK that were diagnosed at our institution. One patient initially presented with bilateral renal masses, as well as pulmonary, hepatic and bone metastasis; while other present only with bilateral masses with no evident distant metastasis. Both patients received aggressive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor size. One patient completed his designated treatment and initially showed complete remission (CR); eventually suffering from relapse. The other patient’s tumor progressed during the course of chemotherapy. Both cases manifested brain dissemination at the time of relapse or progression. This emphasizes the importance of staging stratification in CCSK. This also illustrates CCSK’s ability to metastasize to bone and other sites including the brain (a primary relapse site in our cases)

  14. [Epididymis in an experimental model of DHT deficiency: immunolocalization of ERalpha and ERbeta in rat epididymal epithelial cells. In vivo and in vitro studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reduced availability of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta) in the epididymis in vivo and in vitro. Expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) is interesting because of the fact that the male reproductive system is controlled not only by androgens but also, in a far-reaching and complex manner, by estrogens. Control by estrogens is exercised through activation of ERs widely distributed in the epididymal epithelium. Epididymal epithelial cells contain a 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-red) which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of testosterone (T) into the most potent and chief androgen of the epididymis, dihydrotestosterone, known to maintain and regulate the structure and functions of the epididymis. Two isoforms of the 5alpha-red were identified: type 1 (5alpha-redl) and type 2 (5alpha-red2). 5alpha-reductase type 2 is more widely expressed in the epididymis than 5alpha-redl. DHT deficit was produced by inhibition of 5alpha-red2 using finasteride (Proscar, MSD Sweden), a steroid inhibitor of this enzyme. The study was performed in the adult, male Wistar rats randomly divided into control (K) and study (Fin56) groups (5 animals in each). Animals in the study group received 5mg finasteride/kg b.w., orally during 56 days (duration of one spermatogenesis). Immunoexpression of ERs was also studied in epididymal epithelial cells cultured with or without finasteride. It was shown that DHT deficiency, both in vivo and in vitro condition, modulated ERs expression in comparison to the epididymis from control rats and to epididymal cells cultured without finasteride. Distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in epididymal cells changed (from nucleus to cytoplasm) and the level of ERs expression was markedly decreased. The present findings show that the DHT deficiency caused by finasteride altered the expression of ERalpha and ERbeta in the epididymis and possibly may

  15. The Immunoexpression of FSH-R in the Ductuli Efferentes and the Epididymis of Men and Rat: Effect of FSH on the Morphology and Steroidogenic Activity of Rat Epididymal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Świder-Al-Amawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells were regarded as the only target for FSH in male reproductive system. The expression of FSH receptor (FSH-R was detected also in epithelial cells of the caput epididymis of rat and monkey. We showed in the immunohistochemistry study the expression of FSH-R in rat and human ductuli efferentes and the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis, moreover, by Western blot analysis in the caput and cauda epididymis of rat. Additionally, we presented that the morphology of rat epididymal epithelial cells in vitro was affected by FSH, and FSH stimulation resulted in the increase of 17β-estradiol synthesis by rat caput epididymal cells in dose-depended manner. In conclusion, the identification of FSH receptors in human and rat epididymides supports our results that the epididymis is a target organ not only for LH but additionally for FSH. On the basis of the results we showed for the first time that morphology of epididymal epithelial cells and epididymal steroidogenesis can be regulated by FSH.

  16. Epididymal expression of the forkhead transcription factor Foxi1 is required for male fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Sandra Rodrigo; Vidarsson, Hilmar; Söder, Olle; Enerbäck, Sven

    2006-01-01

    An essential aspect of male reproductive capacity is the immediate availability of fertilization-ready spermatozoa. To ensure this, most mammals rely on post-testicular sperm maturation. In epididymis, germ cells are matured and stored in a quiescent state that readily can be altered to produce active spermatozoa. This depends on active proton secretion into the epididymal lumen. We have identified Foxi1 as an important regulator of gene expression in narrow and clear cells—the major proton s...

  17. Clear cell HCC: an imitator of hepatic adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A 60-year old male patient was complaining of a postprandial heartburn and of abdominal distension. Physical examination was normal except for nodular, painless hepatomegaly. Ultrasonographic examination of the liver showed diffuse increased echogenicity and coarse echotexture. A large mixed echogenic mass is seen in the right hepatic lobe. Computerized tomography showed heterogeneously hypodense mass lesions with fatty change on non-contrast scans and enhance heterogeneously on both arterial phase and venous phase postcontrast scans. Following true-cut biopsy, it was ascertained to be a clear cell HCC. Clear cell HCC may include large fatty areas and this is often misdiagnosed to be an adenoma. Clear cell HCC is characterized by high female prevalence, high rate of association with liver cirrhosis and has no significant difference in prognosis compared with non-clear cell HCC

  18. Two cases of seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Kimura, Tetsunori

    2017-03-01

    Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells (SKBCC) is an extremely rare histopathological variant of seborrheic keratosis that has histological similarities to melanoma in situ. We herein report two cases of SKBCC and provide the first description of the dermoscopic features of this condition, in addition to the histopathological findings. Both of the two lesions showed typical histological architectures of seborrheic keratosis with rows or focal clusters of monomorphic clear cells with abundant pale cytoplasm and small round nucleus in the basal layer. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that most clear cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE12) in a peripheral pattern but were negative tor Melan-A. Dermoscopy revealed typical features of ordinary seborrheic keratosis, while unfortunately did not reflect the presence of basal clear cells. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Origin of clear cell carcinoma: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolin, David L; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Crum, Christopher P

    2018-02-01

    A rare but serious complication of endometriosis is the development of carcinoma, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are the two most common malignancies which arise from endometriosis. They are distinct diseases, characterized by unique morphologies, immunohistochemical profiles, and responses to treatment. However, both arise in endometriosis and can share common mutations. The overlapping mutational profiles of clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas suggest that their varied histologies may be due to a different cell of origin which gives rise to each type of cancer. Cochrane and colleagues address this question in a recent article in this journal. They show that a marker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, cystathionine gamma lyase, is expressed in ciliated cells. Similarly, they show that markers of secretory cells (estrogen receptor and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) are expressed in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Taken together, they suggest that endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas arise from cells related to secretory and ciliated cells, respectively. We discuss Cochrane et al's work in the context of other efforts to determine the cell of origin of gynecological malignancies, with an emphasis on recent developments and challenges unique to the area. These limitations complicate our interpretation of tumor differentiation; does it reflect nature imposed by a specific cell of origin or nurture, by either mutation(s) or environment? Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Treatment results and prognostic factors of clear cell ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmedova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important prognostic factors for clear cell carcinoma (CCC are clinical and morphological signs and clinical stage of the disease. Analyses of 5-year survival in patients with I stage of CCC is 69 %, in II stage – 55 %, in III stage – 14 % and in IV stage – 4 % patients. We analyzed distant results of treatment of 71 patients with CCC and of 25 patients with mixed malignant ovaries neoplasm with obligatory clear cell component taking into consideration main clinical and morphological sings of disease. On the base of performed reseal we revealed that morphological structure of the tumors and stage of the disease exerted heist influence on the exponent of survival of the patients with clear CCC ovaries neoplasm. Besides, there is a correlation between exponent of patients’ survival and radicalized of surgery, character of tumor growth, differentiation degree, cell anaplasia and mitotic activity of tumor cells.

  1. A case of clear cell sarcoma-A rare malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...

  2. Metastatic clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, M J; Richardson, M S; Smith, M T; King, L; Gallup, D G

    1993-02-01

    Clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of sweat gland origin. It is most often found on the trunk, head, and extremities. This case report describes a rare occurrence of this tumor on the vulva of a young woman. The discovery of metastatic disease reflects the potentially aggressive nature of this tumor.

  3. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Atis, Guldehan; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2011-10-05

    Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon variant of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. They occur most frequently on the scalp, face abdomen and extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45-year-old woman presented with a nodule which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion and had a central ulceration and a minimal hemorrhagic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall. On dermatologic examination there was a 6.5×5×4 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule, with lobular appearance and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a cystic tumor with lobulated contour with contrast enhancement. The lesion was excised totally. In histopathological examination, the tumor was composed of biphasic smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clear cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and of duct like structures showed PAS-positive and d-PAS resistant staining. There was a positive reaction to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign CCH.

  4. Sclerotherapy for hydrocoele and epididymal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J R

    1979-04-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the efficacy of sclerotherapy for the treatment of hydrocoeles and epididymal cysts. Thirty-six hydrocoeles and 13 epididymal cysts were treated and followed up for between 1 and 2 years. Thirty-four hydrocoeles were cured, 1 failed to respond to treatment and 1 recurred after treatment. All 13 epididymal cysts were cured.

  5. Cerebellar clear cell ependymoma in a 10 year old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinzar Aye Nyein; Moon, Ah Rim; Hwang, Sun Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Chin, Su Sie [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Sang [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Clear cell ependymoma (CCE) is a histological rare variant (1–5%) of ependymoma, which is distinguished from other histological subtypes by the presence of fusiform cells arrayed radially around small blood vessels. These alleged perivascular pseudorosettes are significant characteristic features of ependymomas. About 95% of infratentorial ependymomas are found in the fourth ventricle and the remainder occurs as cerebellopontine angle lesions. In previous reports, the cerebellum is found to be a rare location for ependymoma. In this study we report one case of CCE originating from the cerebellar hemisphere, showing unusual morphology on 3T MRI.

  6. HMB-45 negative clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Zorzi, Maria Grazia; Dario, Surace

    2012-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with negative HMB-45 marker is presented. The tumor was a nodule 3x2 cm in size, located on the right foot in a 60-year-old man. The lesion consisted of large irregularly shaped cells with clear cytoplasm, negative for S-100 protein, HMB-45, Melan-A, pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and CAM5.2. Multifocal positivity for desmin, microphthalmia transcription factor and tyrosinase was found. The diagnosis of cutaneous PEComa of clear cell type was made. Clear cell change is a very unusual finding in PEComa and may pose problems in diagnostic differentiation from other clear cell cutaneous lesions that may be excluded with immunohistochemistry. In our case, the HMB-45 negativity may be explained by extensive clear cell change. Additional studies are necessary to accept the clear cell cutaneous HMB-45 negative PEComa as a new variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor.

  7. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damlanur Sakiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell hidroadenoma (CCA is a uncommon variant of bening cutaneous adnexial tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. they occur most frequently on the scalp, face, abdomen and the extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45- year-old woman presented us with a nodule with a central ulceration and a minimal hemoragic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion. On dermatological examination there was a 6.5x4x5 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule with lobular appearence and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all the hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A CT scan demonstrated a cyctic tumor with lobulated countour with contrast enhancement. The lesion excised totally. In histopathological examination the tumor was composed of biphasic  smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clera cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and duct like structures showed PAS positive and d-Pas resistant staining. There was a positive reactivity to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembrionic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of bening CCA. 

  8. Timing the Landmark Events in the Evolution of Clear Cell Renal Cell Cancer: TRACERx Renal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Thomas J.; Turajlic, Samra; Rowan, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by near-universal loss of the short arm of chromosome 3, deleting several tumor suppressor genes. We analyzed whole genomes from 95 biopsies across 33 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We find hotspots of point mutations in the...

  9. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  10. SETD2 and PBRM1 inactivation in the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidney cancer of the clear cell type is often lethal and causes more than 100,000 deaths worldwide every year. Understanding the biology of this cancer type may help to develop better ways to diagnose and treat it. Damage in DNA (genes) is present in all cancer cells and clear cell kidney cancer is

  11. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  12. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Christopher P.; Nelson, Scott D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  13. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  14. Role of WNT signaling in epididymal sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ji-Xin; Li, Jian; Wang, Yu-Qian; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Su-Ren; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2018-02-01

    Spermatozoa maturation, a process required for spermatozoa to acquire progressive motility and the ability to fertilize ova, primarily occurs in the caput and corpus of the epididymis. Despite considerable efforts, the factor(s) promoting epididymal sperm maturation remains unclear. Recently, WNT signaling has been implicated in epididymal sperm maturation. To further investigate WNT signaling function in epididymal sperm maturation, we generated Wntless conditional knockout mice (Wls cKO), Wls flox/flox ; Lcn5-Cre. In these mice, WNTLESS (WLS), a conserved membrane protein required for all WNT protein secretion, was specifically disrupted in the principal cells of the caput epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that WLS was significantly reduced in the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice. In the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice, WNT 10A and WNT 2b, which are typically secreted by the principal cells of the caput epididymis, were not secreted. Interestingly, sperm motility analysis showed that the WLS deficiency in the caput epididymidis had no effect on sperm motility. Moreover, fertility tests showed that Wls cKO male mice had normal fertility. These results indicate that the disruption of WLS in principal cells of the caput epididymidis inhibits WNT protein secretion but has no effect on sperm motility and male fertility, suggesting that WNT signaling in the caput epididymidis may be dispensable for epididymal sperm maturation in mice.

  15. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the mandible: a treatment strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina FERREIRA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC is a rare odontogenic tumor of the jaws, histologically characterized by the presence of agglomerates of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. The patient, a 62-year-old Caucasian woman, presented an intraosseous lesion in the mandibular symphysis. A clinical examination revealed a discrete volumetric increase with a hard consistency, palpable to extraoral and intraoral examinations. Imaging studies revealed an extensive radiolucent area, without defined limits, extending from the region of the right second premolar to the left canine. Incisional biopsy analysis indicated a diagnosis of CCOC. The treatment proposed was segmental resection of the mandible with a safety margin. After six months without recurrence, definitive mandibular reconstruction was performed using an iliac crest graft, followed by rehabilitation with implant-supported denture after five months. After three years of post-resection follow-up, the patient has shown no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. She continues to be under follow-up. To conclude, CCOC must be considered a malignant tumor with aggressive behavior. Previous studies have shown that resection with free margins is a treatment with a lower rate of recurrence. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up is necessary for such patients.

  16. MR imaging of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yujiro; Kojima, Kaoru; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoshikawa, Wataru; Fuwa, Sokun; Araki, Tsutomu

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings are reported for 12 pathologically proven lesions of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary in 11 women (mean age 50 years). T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in all patients, and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were obtained in 9. The mean diameter of the tumors was 13 cm. Seven patients presented with stage-I tumors. All 12 lesions consisted of cystic masses with solid protrusions occurring in 10 and solid masses in 2. The cysts were unilocular in 9 lesions and multilocular in 1. In four lesions, the cysts displayed with high intensity on T1-weighted images. Round solid protrusions were identified in 8 lesions. In 5 lesions, the number of protrusions was only a few. The solid portions of 5 masses had slightly high-intensity regions on T1-weighted images. The number of patients with ascites was three. Magnetic resonance imaging of CCC usually shows a unilocular large cyst with solid protrusions, which are often round and few in number. Such MR imaging findings suggest malignant tumor but are not specific. (orig.)

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Xiao, Qungen; Büchele, Fabian; Zhang, Suojun; Jiang, Wei; Lei, Ting

    2012-12-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma (CCH) is an exceedingly rare and highly malignant tumor of the eccrine sweat glands. Its treatment is extremely difficult due to the characteristically aggressive clinical course including repeated local recurrence and uncontrollable distal metastasis coming along with a very poor prognosis. Most published case studies recommend a wide surgical excision followed by adjuvant conservative therapy, which is generally considered to be the standard treatment. Two cases of nodular CCH of the scalp either presenting as a singular primary lesion or at an already metastatic stage were analyzed retrospectively. Wide local excision of the tumor couldn't prevent the primary carcinoma from recurring and metastasizing. Both cases received various therapies but the results were unsatisfactory. Although most authors have recommended that early wide surgical excision of the tumor is a feasible therapeutic measurement, our results raise doubts on the efficacy of this treatment strategy. As alternative approaches (i.e. chemotherapy, radiotherapy) are similarly controversial, further studies and a wide exchange of clinical experiences are crucial.

  18. Epididymitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat the infection. Sexually transmitted infections need antibiotics. Your sexual partners should also be treated. You may need pain medicines and anti-inflammatory medicines. If you are taking amiodarone, you may ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To probe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC.This study retrospectively collected MRI data for 21 pathology-confirmed OCCCs from 19 female patients. The MRI findings were analyzed to determine the tumor size, shape/edge, shape and number of protrusions within the cyst, cystic or necrotic components, signal intensity (SI and enhancement features.The age of the 19 patients ranged from 28 to 63 years (mean age: 53 years. Unilateral tumors were found in 17 patients (17/19, 89%; the average size of all tumors was 10.8 cm. The tumors on MRI were classified into two categories: (a "cystic adnexal mass with solid protrusions" in 12 (57% and (b "solid adnexal mass with cystic areas or necrosis" in 9 (43%. For group a, high to very high SI was observed for most tumors (10/12, 83% on T1-weighted images (T1WIs, and very high SI was observed on T2-weighted images (T2WIs for all 12 tumors. Most solid protrusions were irregular and few in number and exhibited heterogeneous intermediate SI on T1WIs and T2WIs and prolonged enhanced SI in the contrast study. All 9 OCCCs in group b were predominantly solid masses with unequally sized necrotic or cystic areas in which some cysts were located at the periphery of the tumor (4/9, 44%. The solid components in all 9 tumors showed iso- or slightly high SI on T1WIs, heterogeneous iso-high SI on T2WIs and heterogeneous prolonged enhancement. According to FIGO classification, 14 tumors (14/19, 74% were stages I-II, and 5 (5/19, 26% were stages III-IV.On MRI, OCCCs present as large unilateral multilocular or unilocular cystic masses with irregular intermediate SI solid protrusions or predominantly solid masses with cysts or necrosis at an early FIGO stage.

  20. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  1. IL-15 STIMULATED NATURAL KILLER CELLS CLEAR HIV-1 INFECTED CELLS FOLLOWING LATENCY REVERSAL EX VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Carolina; Abad-Fernandez, Maria; Tuyishime, Marina; Pollara, Justin J; Ferrari, Guido; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M

    2018-03-28

    Current efforts towards HIV eradication include approaches to augment immune recognition and elimination of persistently infected cells following latency reversal. Natural killer (NK) cells, the main effectors of the innate immune system, recognize and clear targets using different mechanisms than CD8 + T cells, offering an alternative or complementary approach for HIV clearance strategies. We assessed the impact of IL-15 treatment on NK cell function and the potential of stimulated NK cells to clear the HIV reservoir. We measured NK cell receptor expression, antibody-dependent cell-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and antiviral activity in autologous HIV replication systems. All NK cell functions were uniformly improved by IL-15, and more importantly, IL-15-treated NK cells were able to clear latently HIV infected cells after exposure to vorinostat, a clinically relevant latency reversing agent. We also demonstrate that NK cells from HIV infected individuals aviremic on antiretroviral therapy can be efficiently stimulated with IL-15. Our work opens a promising line of investigation towards future immunotherapies to clear persistent HIV infection using NK cells. IMPORTANCE In the search for an HIV cure, strategies to enhance immune function to allow recognition and clearance of HIV infected cells following latency reversal are being evaluated. Natural killer (NK) cells possess characteristics that can be exploited for immunotherapy against persistent HIV infection. We demonstrate that NK cells from HIV-positive donors can be strongly stimulated with IL-15, improving their antiviral and cytotoxic potential, and more importantly, clearing HIV infected cells after latency reversal with a clinically relevant drug. Our results encourage further investigation to design NK cell-based immunotherapies to achieve HIV eradication. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas: are their differences attributable to distinct cells of origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Dawn R; Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Lawrence, Katherine M; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N; Salamanca, Clara; Cheng, Angela S; McAlpine, Jessica N; Hoang, Lien N; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial epithelium is the presumed tissue of origin for both eutopic and endometriosis-derived clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas. We had previously hypothesized that the morphological, biological and clinical differences between these carcinomas are due to histotype-specific mutations. Although some mutations and genomic landscape features are more likely to be found in one of these histotypes, we were not able to identify a single class of mutations that was exclusively present in one histotype and not the other. This lack of genomic differences led us to an alternative hypothesis that these cancers could arise from distinct cells of origin within endometrial tissue, and that it is the cellular context that accounts for their differences. In a proteomic screen, we identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) as a marker for clear cell carcinoma, as it is expressed at high levels in clear cell carcinomas of the ovary and endometrium. In the current study, we analysed normal Müllerian tissues, and found that CTH is expressed in ciliated cells of endometrium (both eutopic endometrium and endometriosis) and fallopian tubes. We then demonstrated that other ciliated cell markers are expressed in clear cell carcinomas, whereas endometrial secretory cell markers are expressed in endometrioid carcinomas. The same differential staining of secretory and ciliated cells was demonstrable in a three-dimensional organoid culture system, in which stem cells were stimulated to differentiate into an admixture of secretory and ciliated cells. These data suggest that endometrioid carcinomas are derived from cells of the secretory cell lineage, whereas clear cell carcinomas are derived from, or have similarities to, cells of the ciliated cell lineage. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Computer approach to recognition of Fuhrman grade of cells in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Michal; Osowski, Stanislaw; Markiewicz, Tomasz; Slodkowska, Janina; Koktysz, Robert; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Swiderski, Bartosz

    2014-06-01

    To present a computerized system for recognition of Fuhrman grade of cells in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma on the basis of microscopic images of the neoplasm cells in application of hematoxylin and eosin staining. The applied methods use combined gradient and mathematical morphology to obtain nuclei and classifiers in the form of support vector machine to estimate their Fuhrman grade. The starting point is a microscopic kidney image, which is subject to the advanced methods of preprocessing, leading finally to estimation of Fuhrman grade of cells and the whole analyzed image. The results of the numerical experiments have shown that the proposed nuclei descriptors based on different principles of generation are well connected with the Fuhrman grade. These descriptors have been used as the diagnostic features forming the inputs to the classifier, which performs the final recognition of the cells. The average discrepancy rate between the score of our system and the human expert results, estimated on the basis of over 3,000 nuclei, is below 10%. The obtained results have shown that the system is able to recognize 4 Fuhrman grades of the cells with high statistical accuracy and agreement with different expert scores. This result gives a good perspective to apply the system for supporting and accelerating the research of kidney cancer.

  4. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone: a unique site of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelczer, R.K.; Wenger, D.E.; Wold, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of soft tissue sarcomas. We are presenting a case of a clear cell sarcoma of bone which, to our knowledge, is the only report of a primary clear cell sarcoma of bone. (orig.)

  5. Water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid. A case report with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenko, R T; Anderson, K M; Kauffman, G; Abt, A B

    1995-11-01

    We report a water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland, a lesion which to our knowledge has not been described previously. Like its rare but well-described hyperplastic counterpart, water-clear cell hyperplasia, this adenoma is composed of cells with abundant foamy-to-granular cytoplasm and mild nuclear pleomorphism. The cells form glandular structures and cell nests separated by fine fibrovascular septae. The tumor cells stain positively with anti-parathyroid hormone and show characteristic glassy and flocculate material by electron microscopy. Unlike water-clear cell hyperplasia, water-clear cell adenoma is a solitary lesion that compresses the residual nonneoplastic parathyroid gland.

  6. HDAC 1 and 6 modulate cell invasion and migration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ku, ShengYu; Ciamporcero, Eric; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Attwood, Kris; Chintala, Sreenivasulu; Shen, Li; Ellis, Leigh; Sotomayor, Paula; Swetzig, Wendy; Huang, Ray; Conroy, Dylan; Orillion, Ashley; Das, Gokul; Pili, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been reported to be overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), whereas the expression of class II HDACs is unknown. Four isogenic cell lines C2/C2VHL and 786-O/786-OVHL with differential VHL expression are used in our studies. Cobalt chloride is used to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-2α knockdowns in C2 and 786-O cells is used to evaluate the effect on HDAC 1 expression and activity. Invasion and migration assays are used to investigate the role of HDAC 1 and HDAC 6 expression in ccRCC cells. Comparisons are made between experimental groups using the paired T-test, the two-sample Student’s T-test or one-way ANOVA, as appropriate. ccRCC and the TCGA dataset are used to observe the clinical correlation between HDAC 1 and HDAC 6 overexpression and overall and progression free survival. Our analysis of tumor and matched non-tumor tissues from radical nephrectomies showed overexpression of class I and II HDACs (HDAC6 only in a subset of patients). In vitro, both HDAC1 and HDAC6 over-expression increased cell invasion and motility, respectively, in ccRCC cells. HDAC1 regulated invasiveness by increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Furthermore, hypoxia stimulation in VHL-reconstituted cell lines increased HIF isoforms and HDAC1 expression. Presence of hypoxia response elements in the HDAC1 promoter along with chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggests that HIF-2α is a transcriptional regulator of HDAC1 gene. Conversely, HDAC6 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were co-localized in cytoplasm of ccRCC cells and HDAC6 enhanced cell motility by decreasing acetylated α-tubulin expression, and this biological effect was attenuated by either biochemical or pharmacological inhibition. Finally, analysis of human ccRCC specimens revealed positive correlation between HIF isoforms and HDAC. HDAC1 mRNA upregulation was associated with worse overall survival in the TCGA dataset. Taking together, these results

  7. Circulating aldosterone induces the apical accumulation of the proton pumping V-ATPase and increases proton secretion in clear cells in the caput epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jeremy W; Hill, Eric; Ruan, Ye Chun; Vedovelli, Luca; Păunescu, Teodor G; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

    2013-08-15

    Clear cells express the vacuolar proton-pumping H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and acidify the lumen of the epididymis, a process that is essential for male fertility. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the epididymis, and a previous study showed binding of aldosterone exclusively to epididymal clear cells (Hinton BT, Keefer DA. Steroid Biochem 23: 231-233, 1985). We examined here the role of aldosterone in the regulation of V-ATPase in the epididymis. RT-PCR showed expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor [MR; nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C member 2 (NR3C2)] and 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 (HSD11β2) mRNAs specifically in clear cells, isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from B1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mice. Tail vein injection of adult rats with aldosterone, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (cpt-cAMP) induced V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation and extension of V-ATPase-labeled microvilli in clear cells in the caput epididymis but not in the cauda. V-ATPase activity was measured in EGFP-expressing clear cells using the intracellular pH (pHi)-sensing dye seminaphthorhodafluor-5F-5-(and 6)-carboxylic acid, acetoxymethyl ester acetate (SNARF-5F). Aldosterone induced a rapid increase in the rate of Na(+)- and bicarbonate-independent pHi recovery following an NH4Cl-induced acid load in clear cells isolated from the caput but not the cauda. This effect was abolished by concanamycin A, spironolactone, and chelerythrine but not myristoylated-protein kinase inhibitor (mPKI) or mifepristone. Thus aldosterone increases V-ATPase-dependent proton secretion in clear cells in the caput epididymis via MR/NR3C2 and PKC activation. This study, therefore, identifies aldosterone as an active member of the RAAS for the regulation of luminal acidification in the proximal epididymis.

  8. Acetylcarnitine metabolism and the partial purification and characterization of an acetylcarnitine hydrolase from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Epididymal spermatozoa are capable of utilizing extracellular substrates for energy, but carbohydrates and free or esterified fatty acids are present in only very low concentrations in epididymal fluid. Acetyl-L-carnitine has been identified in epididymal fluid in low mM concentrations in several mammalian species and could possibly be an energy substrate for epididymal spermatozoa. Evidence that extracellular acetyl-L-carnitine can be used by intact caudal epididymal spermatozoa for energy, and a model for the metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine by epididymal spermatozoa are presented here. Intact bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa oxidized [1- 14 C] acetyl-L-carnitine to 14 CO 2 in a time-, cell number-, and substrate concentration-dependent manner. No concomitant uptake of acetyl-D,L-[N-methyl- 3 H] carnitine was observed by cells from the same preparations. Half-maximal rates of oxidation were observed at 8 mM and 4.5 mM acetyl-L-carnitine for the two species, respectively; the rates of oxidation at these concentrations were 15.3 nmol/10 8 cells·h and 2.9 nmol/10 7 cells·h. Intact spermatozoa in incubation with [ 3 H] acetyl-L-carnitine were observed to produce [ 3 H] acetate in the medium, and addition of sodium acetate competed for the uptake of radioactive acetate by these cells

  9. Histomorphological changes by epididymal lithiasis in roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Geraldo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epididymal lithiasis (EL histopathology is described using light and electronic microscopy in roosters (Gallus gallus domesticus naturally affected by EL in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The histologic and morphological changes by EL in roosters was performed regarding cellular and subcellular details through light and electron microscopy. Efferent ductules epithelium lysosomal increase in size and numbers, membrane rupture, cellular vacuolation, ciliary loss, basal membrane degeneration, inflammatory reaction with mononuclear infiltrations, edema, epithelial and vascular endothelium losses were described. All industrial and freerange chickens showed EL in varying degrees in the efferent ductules (ED. However, ED altered areas did not correlate with the presence of luminal stones. Non-ciliated ED epithelium cells presented several atypically large lysosomes. Plicae loss and basal vacuoles were observed in the epithelium of dilated regions. Cellular cilia loss and apical cytoplasmic membrane rupture resulted in leakage of the cytoplasmic contents to the ED lumen, and ED epithelium desquamation occurred with or without lesion to the basal membrane. Basal membrane alterations were associated with profound sub-epithelial connective tissue damage. Aggregations of desquamated epithelium and spermatozoa were seen in the lumen of ED and compact aggregates were considered the basis for calculi formation. The widespread occurrence and high severity of EL lesions are indicative of the importance of EL as a cause of infertility in male chickens.

  10. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G

    2014-08-14

    The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diagnosis are tumors of Müllerian origin and metastatic lesions, such as renal cell carcinoma, clear cell sarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with only nine clinical cases described in the literature. We report the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man who presented with intermittent hematuria, in whom a bladder tumor was identified. A final histopathology examination of a cystoprostatectomy specimen revealed a pT3b, G3 urothelial carcinoma of clear cell type (>90% clear cells) and a prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason grade 3+3 (score=6). The bladder tumor consisted of sheets of malignant cells with severe nuclear atypia and abundant clear cytoplasm; no glandular or tubular structures were identified. Tumor cells were periodic acid-Schiff positive and negative after diastase treatment; additional mucicarmine and oil red O stains were negative. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor cells positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7), p63 (>80% nuclei), p53 (about 30% nuclei), vimentin, E-cadherin, cluster of differentiation (CD10), and Ki-67 (>70% nuclei). Stains for cell adhesion molecule 5.2 (CAM 5.2), CD117, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), human melanoma black 45 (HMB-45), paired box protein (PAX 8), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), prostate specific antigen (PSA), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cancer antigen 25 (CA25), leukocyte common antigen (LC), S-100 protein, and uroplakin III were all negative. The tumor marker profile was consistent with clear

  11. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in microdissected clear cell ovarian cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Stany

    Full Text Available Clear cell ovarian cancer is an epithelial ovarian cancer histotype that is less responsive to chemotherapy and carries poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid histotypes. Despite this, patients with these tumors are treated in a similar fashion as all other ovarian cancers. Previous genomic analysis has suggested that clear cell cancers represent a unique tumor subtype. Here we generated the first whole genomic expression profiling using epithelial component of clear cell ovarian cancers and normal ovarian surface specimens isolated by laser capture microdissection. All the arrays were analyzed using BRB ArrayTools and PathwayStudio software to identify the signaling pathways. Identified pathways validated using serous, clear cell cancer cell lines and RNAi technology. In vivo validations carried out using an orthotopic mouse model and liposomal encapsulated siRNA. Patient-derived clear cell and serous ovarian tumors were grafted under the renal capsule of NOD-SCID mice to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the identified pathway. We identified major activated pathways in clear cells involving in hypoxic cell growth, angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism not seen in other histotypes. Knockdown of key genes in these pathways sensitized clear cell ovarian cancer cell lines to hypoxia/glucose deprivation. In vivo experiments using patient derived tumors demonstrate that clear cell tumors are exquisitely sensitive to antiangiogenesis therapy (i.e. sunitinib compared with serous tumors. We generated a histotype specific, gene signature associated with clear cell ovarian cancer which identifies important activated pathways critical for their clinicopathologic characteristics. These results provide a rational basis for a radically different treatment for ovarian clear cell patients.

  12. Clinical Relevance of Gene Copy Number Variation in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-02-23

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epididymal research: more warp than weft?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From a review of some aspects of epididymal structure, function and research done largely in my research area over the last 50 years, I conclude that more is known than is understood of sperm maturation and storage in the epididymis. Highly qualified technicians have not always applied sophisticated modern techniques in well-considered experiments to physiologically relevant and properly-prepared samples, so that our understanding of the biological problem of the nature of the epididymal epithelial influence on maturing epididymal spermatozoa has not kept pace with the outpouring of data generated, much of which is difficult to interpret. We stand at a crossroads of where to aim our limited resources and personnel: should we continue new technology-led studies in many directions, backtrack to test hypotheses and fill in gaps in our knowledge, or consider more biological directions to our research?

  14. Evaluation of epididymal function through specific protein on spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, A G; De Sánchez, L Z; Sirena, A

    1984-01-01

    Investigations were focused on the characterization of specific epididymal proteins on the human spermatozoa as a representative parameter for epididymal function. An easy and attainable method, suitable for investigators and clinical use, is proposed in this article.

  15. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Uz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  16. Oncology Gold Standard™ practical consensus recommendations 2016 for treatment of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, U; Parikh, P M; Prabhash, K; Tongaonkar, H B; Chibber, P; Dabkara, D; Deshmukh, C; Ghadyalpatil, N; Hingmire, S; Joshi, A; Raghunath, S K; Rajappa, S; Rajendranath, R; Rawal, S K; Singh, Manisha; Singh, R; Somashekhar, S P; Sood, R

    2016-01-01

    The Oncology Gold Standard (OGS) Expert Group on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) developed the consensus statement to provide community oncologists practical guidelines on the management of advanced clear cell (cc) RCC using published evidence, practical experience of experts in real life management, and results of a nationwide survey involving 144 health-care professionals. Six broad question categories containing 33 unique questions cover major situations in the routine management of RCC. This document serves as a ready guide for the standard of care to optimize outcome. The table of "Take Home Messages" at the end is a convenient tool for busy practitioners.

  17. Oncology Gold Standard™ practical consensus recommendations 2016 for treatment of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Batra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oncology Gold Standard (OGS Expert Group on renal cell carcinoma (RCC developed the consensus statement to provide community oncologists practical guidelines on the management of advanced clear cell (cc RCC using published evidence, practical experience of experts in real life management, and results of a nationwide survey involving 144 health-care professionals. Six broad question categories containing 33 unique questions cover major situations in the routine management of RCC. This document serves as a ready guide for the standard of care to optimize outcome. The table of "Take Home Messages" at the end is a convenient tool for busy practitioners.

  18. Tumor signatures of PTHLH overexpression, high serum calcium, and poor prognosis were observed exclusively in clear cell but not non clear cell renal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Shioi, Koichi; Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Ito, Hiroki; Kondo, Keiichi; Hasumi, Hisashi; Sano, Futoshi; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Kishida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yamanaka, Shoji; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    High serum calcium (Ca) due to aberrant secretion of tumor parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is a well-known paraneoplastic sign and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the status of serum Ca and tumor PTHLH expression have not been verified using the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) renal tumor classification. We retrospectively reviewed corrected serum Ca levels at initial onset (n = 683) and/or as of recurrence (n = 71) in patients with RCC. We also examined a total of 623 renal parenchymal tumor samples for PTHLH mRNA expressions by quantitative real-time PCR. High serum Ca concomitant with PTHLH overexpression in tumors was observed exclusively in clear cell RCC but not in other non clear cell subtype tumors, including papillary, chromophobe, collecting-duct, unclassified, and other rare subtype RCCs or in benign oncocytomas and angiomyolipomas. In clear cell RCC, PTHLH expression was significantly high in male patients, and was associated with a symptomatic presentation, higher grade, and higher stage cases, whereas it was not associated with VHL gene status. Univariate analyses demonstrated that high PTHLH expression was strongly associated with poor outcome both in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients who underwent standard nephrectomy. Further multivariate Cox analyses revealed that the PTHLH expressions remained as independent prognostic parameters for OS but not for DFS. These data suggest that the previously characterized tumor signatures of high serum Ca due to high PTHLH expression and poor prognosis are clear cell RCC-specific features, whereas these characteristics are rare in non clear cell RCCs

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  1. Differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Tumor size versus CT perfusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Kang, Qinqin; Xu, Bing; Guo, Hairuo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Tiegong; Ye, Hui; Wu, Xinhuai

    To compare the utility of tumor size and CT perfusion parameters for differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor size, Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS), blood flow (BF), and Fuhrman pathological grading of clear cell RCC were retrospectively analyzed. High-grade clear cell RCC had significantly higher tumor size and lower PS than low grade. Tumor size positively correlated with Fuhrman grade, but PS negatively did. Tumor size and PS were significantly independent indexes for differentiating high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clear-cell chondrosarcoma of the maxilla Report of a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.

    Clear-cell chondrosarcoma is a variant of chondrosarcoma which is characterized by a typical histomorphology and a very slow rate of growth. A case is presented in which the tumor was located in the maxilla.

  3. Chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiological and MRI characteristics with histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaim, Achim H.; Huegli, Rolf; Bonel, Harald M.; Jundt, Gernot

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the radiological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma with histopathological correlation. Design and patients: Twelve patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma and of another four patients with clear cell chondrosarcoma were investigated by radiographs and MRI (T1-, T2-weighted sequences, intravenous gadolinium application). Additionally, the clinical and radiologic data of seven cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma without available MRI were considered. The localization, calcification of tumor matrix, periosteal reaction, cortical bone and patterns of bone destruction were analyzed according to the Lodwick radiological grading system (LRGS). The signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, characteristics of contrast enhancement, associated bone marrow edema, soft tissue reaction and joint involvement were evaluated. Histopathological specimens were available in all cases. Results: The age of patients with chondroblastoma (range 15-59 years, mean 22.3 years) was lower than that of those with clear cell chondrosarcoma (range 19-61 years, mean 36.6 years), and the lesions were smaller in the chondroblastoma group (range 1-4 cm, mean 2.3 cm) than in patients with clear cell chondrosarcoma (range 3-7.5 cm, mean 5.2 cm). The chondroblastomas were more confined to the epiphysis (10/12) than the clear cell chondrosarcomas. All chondroblastomas and clear cell chondrosarcomas except one were classified as grade 1A or 1B according to the LRGS; one clear cell chondrosarcoma was judged as grade 2. Signal intensity of the tumors on MRI was very heterogeneous in both groups. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images in chondroblastoma mostly corresponded to areas with aneurysmal bone cyst components and in clear cell chondrosarcoma to islands of hyaline cartilage. Contrast enhancement occurred in all tumors and tended to be more intense with clear cell

  4. Chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiological and MRI characteristics with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaim, Achim H.; Huegli, Rolf [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Basle (Switzerland); Bonel, Harald M. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital, Munich-Grosshadern (Germany); Jundt, Gernot [Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basle (Switzerland)

    2002-02-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the radiological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma with histopathological correlation. Design and patients: Twelve patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma and of another four patients with clear cell chondrosarcoma were investigated by radiographs and MRI (T1-, T2-weighted sequences, intravenous gadolinium application). Additionally, the clinical and radiologic data of seven cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma without available MRI were considered. The localization, calcification of tumor matrix, periosteal reaction, cortical bone and patterns of bone destruction were analyzed according to the Lodwick radiological grading system (LRGS). The signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, characteristics of contrast enhancement, associated bone marrow edema, soft tissue reaction and joint involvement were evaluated. Histopathological specimens were available in all cases. Results: The age of patients with chondroblastoma (range 15-59 years, mean 22.3 years) was lower than that of those with clear cell chondrosarcoma (range 19-61 years, mean 36.6 years), and the lesions were smaller in the chondroblastoma group (range 1-4 cm, mean 2.3 cm) than in patients with clear cell chondrosarcoma (range 3-7.5 cm, mean 5.2 cm). The chondroblastomas were more confined to the epiphysis (10/12) than the clear cell chondrosarcomas. All chondroblastomas and clear cell chondrosarcomas except one were classified as grade 1A or 1B according to the LRGS; one clear cell chondrosarcoma was judged as grade 2. Signal intensity of the tumors on MRI was very heterogeneous in both groups. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images in chondroblastoma mostly corresponded to areas with aneurysmal bone cyst components and in clear cell chondrosarcoma to islands of hyaline cartilage. Contrast enhancement occurred in all tumors and tended to be more intense with clear cell

  5. Clear cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall with peritoneal sarcomatosis: CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, J.M.; Fernandez, A.; Torrubia, S.; Villanueva, A.; Monill, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma, also called malignant melanoma of soft parts, is an uncommon neoplasm that involves tendons or aponeuroses of the lower extremity. The CT features of a clear cell sarcoma arising from the abdominal wall with later peritoneal dissemination are described. Peritoneal sarcomatosis from soft tissue sarcomas is a very rare condition previously unreported in the radiologic literature. Metastases to peritoneal surfaces must therefore be considered a possible site for systemic dissemination of soft tissue sarcomas. (orig.)

  6. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary mimicking struma ovarii and carcinoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduaij, Ahmad; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2011-04-01

    Clear cell carcinomas are considered as high-grade tumor often with poor prognosis. We describe 2 cases of clear cell carcinomas of the ovary mimicking benign or less aggressive tumors encountered in the female genital track. The first case is mimicking a benign monodermal teratoma, the so-called struma ovarii, and the second mimicking a carcinoid tumor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the eyelid: a case report with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurcharan; Narasimha, Aparna; Kumar, Harendra; Datti, Narendra

    2013-04-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinomas are extremely rare neoplasms, with very few well-documented cases reported in the literature. The most common sites are the head and neck regions. These tumors are histologically malignant but are not always aggressive. They are known for recurrence and may metastasize widely. Treatment is wide local resection. We report on a case of clear cell hidradenocarcinoma occurring over the eyelid together with a review of the literature.

  8. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  10. Implication of PHF2 Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is presumed to be associated with adipogenic differentiation. Histone modification is known to be important for adipogenesis, and the function of histone demethylase plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2 has been noted. In addition, PHF2 may act as a tumor suppressor via epigenetic regulation of p53 and is reported to be reduced in colon cancer and stomach cancer tissues. In this study, we examined PHF2 expression in CCRCC specimens by immunohistochemistry. Methods We studied 254 CCRCCs and 56 non-neoplastic renal tissues from patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 2000 and 2003 at the Seoul National University Hospital. Tissue microarray blocks were prepared, and immunohistochemical staining for PHF2 was performed. Results Among 254 CCRCC cases, 150 cases (59.1% showed high expression and 104 cases (40.1% showed low expression. High expression of PHF2 was significantly correlated with a low Fuhrman nuclear grade (p < .001, smaller tumor size (p < .001, low overall stage (p = .003, longer cancer-specific survival (p = .002, and progression-free survival (p < .001 of the patients. However, it was not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis adjusted for Fuhrman nuclear grade and overall stage. Conclusions Our study showed that low expression of PHF2 is associated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis of CCRCC.

  11. A CpG-methylation-based assay to predict survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-Huan; Haddad, Ahmed; Wu, Kai-Jie; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Kapur, Payal; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhao, Liang-Yun; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Yun-Yun; Zhou, Jian-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Cai, Mu-Yan; Xie, Dan; Liao, Bing; Li, Cai-Xia; Li, Pei-Xing; Wang, Zong-Ren; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Shi, Lei; Liu, Qing-Zuo; Gao, Zhen-Li; He, Da-Lin; Chen, Wei; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Li, Quan-Zhen; Margulis, Vitaly; Luo, Jun-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) display divergent clinical behaviours. Molecular markers might improve risk stratification of ccRCC. Here we use, based on genome-wide CpG methylation profiling, a LASSO model to develop a five-CpG-based assay for ccRCC prognosis that can be used with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. The five-CpG-based classifier was validated in three independent sets from China, United States and the Cancer Genome Atlas data set. The classifier predicts the overall survival of ccRCC patients (hazard ratio=2.96−4.82; P=3.9 × 10−6−2.2 × 10−9), independent of standard clinical prognostic factors. The five-CpG-based classifier successfully categorizes patients into high-risk and low-risk groups, with significant differences of clinical outcome in respective clinical stages and individual ‘stage, size, grade and necrosis' scores. Moreover, methylation at the five CpGs correlates with expression of five genes: PITX1, FOXE3, TWF2, EHBP1L1 and RIN1. Our five-CpG-based classifier is a practical and reliable prognostic tool for ccRCC that can add prognostic value to the staging system. PMID:26515236

  12. Screening disrupted molecular functions and pathways associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using Gibbs sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ning; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yu; Zhai, Xu; Yang, Chuan-Ce; Cao, Bin; Chong, Tie

    2017-10-01

    To explore the disturbed molecular functions and pathways in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using Gibbs sampling. Gene expression data of ccRCC samples and adjacent non-tumor renal tissues were recruited from public available database. Then, molecular functions of expression changed genes in ccRCC were classed to Gene Ontology (GO) project, and these molecular functions were converted into Markov chains. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was implemented to perform posterior inference and identify probability distributions of molecular functions in Gibbs sampling. Differentially expressed molecular functions were selected under posterior value more than 0.95, and genes with the appeared times in differentially expressed molecular functions ≥5 were defined as pivotal genes. Functional analysis was employed to explore the pathways of pivotal genes and their strongly co-regulated genes. In this work, we obtained 396 molecular functions, and 13 of them were differentially expressed. Oxidoreductase activity showed the highest posterior value. Gene composition analysis identified 79 pivotal genes, and survival analysis indicated that these pivotal genes could be used as a strong independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Pathway analysis identified one pivotal pathway - oxidative phosphorylation. We identified the differentially expressed molecular functions and pivotal pathway in ccRCC using Gibbs sampling. The results could be considered as potential signatures for early detection and therapy of ccRCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma versus malignant transformation of endometriosis: a vexing issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insabato, Luigi; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Persico, Marcello; Camera, Luigi; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Masone, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Peritoneum is a site for both primary and secondary tumors. Primary peritoneal tumors are fairly rare. The most common primary tumors of the peritoneum are malignant mesothelioma and serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum is extremely rare and often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma, serous carcinoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, so it represents a diagnostic challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Up to date, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma have been reported in the English literature. Distinguishing this tumor of the peritoneum versus ovarian carcinoma can be problematic. Herein, we report a rare case of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma occurring in a 49-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  15. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  16. An Unusual Case of Locally Advanced Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martín-Martín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen-rich clear cell (GRCC is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma characterized by carcinoma cells containing an optically clear cytoplasm and intracytoplasmic glycogen. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast and clinical signs of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. The diagnosis of GRCC carcinoma was based on certain histopathological characteristics of the tumor and immunohistochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of GRCC LABC with intratumoral calcifications. There is no evidence of recurrence or metastatic disease after 14 months’ follow-up.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Sudo, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Epstein, Alan L.; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  18. EGFR kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Muroni, Maria R; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Asunis, Anna; Tanca, Luciana; Onnis, Daniela; Pira, Giovanna; Manca, Alessandra; Dore, Simone; Uras, Maria G; Ena, Sara; De Miglio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with progression of many epithelial malignancies and represents a significant therapeutic target. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) has been widely investigated for EGFR molecular alterations, genetic evidences of EGFR gene activating mutations and/or gene amplification have been rarely confirmed in the literature. Therefore, until now EGFR-targeted therapies in clinical trials have been demonstrated unsuccessful. New evidence has been given about the interactions between EGFR and the sodium glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) in maintaining the glucose basal intracellular level to favour cancer cell growth and survival; thus a new functional role may be attributed to EGFR, regardless of its kinase activity. To define the role of EGFR in CCRCC an extensive investigation of genetic changes and functional kinase activities was performed in a series of tumors by analyzing the EGFR mutational status and expression profile, together with the protein expression of downstream signaling pathways members. Furthermore, we investigated the co-expression of EGFR and SGLT1 proteins and their relationships with clinic-pathological features in CCRCC. EGFR protein expression was identified in 98.4% of CCRCC. Furthermore, it was described for the first time that SGLT1 is overexpressed in CCRCC (80.9%), and that co-expression with EGFR is appreciable in 79.4% of the tumours. Moreover, the activation of downstream EGFR pathways was found in about 79.4% of SGLT1-positive CCRCCs. The mutational status analysis of EGFR failed to demonstrate mutations on exons 18 to 24 and the presence of EGFR-variantIII (EGFRvIII) in all CCRCCs analyzed. FISH analysis revealed absence of EGFR amplification, and high polysomy of chromosome 7. Finally, the EGFR gene expression profile showed gene overexpression in 38.2% of CCRCCs. Our study contributes to define the complexity of EGFR role in CCRCC, identifying its bivalent kinase

  19. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ravi; Cave, Christo; Sarran, Kevin; Bascombe, Nigel; Dan, Dilip; Greaves, Wesley; Warner, Wayne A

    2017-01-01

    Clear cell gallbladder carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all gallbladder malignancies and demonstrates its unique histopathological characteristics in patients with no prior medical illness or familial predisposition. Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female, with no prior medical conditions presented with a 2-month history of upper abdominal pain. Routine hematological and biochemical tests were unremarkable. An abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of a gallbladder calculi, and a fundic mass while magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 8.0cm×3.5cm gallbladder mass. Computed tomography imaging excluded any distant haematogenous metastases. An open cholecystectomy with lymphadenectomy was proceeded by staging laparoscopy. Upon pathologic investigation, the morphologic and immunophenotypic features supported a diagnosis of clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma. Pathological prognostications for primary clear cell gall bladder carcinomas are not well defined due to the rarity of cases and possible misidentification as secondary metastases. Foci of adenocarcinoma within the tumor along with immunohistochemical staining probes can be informative in consideration of differential diagnosis. In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Metastatic clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva: survival after primary surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L S; Bitterman, P; Clarke-Pearson, D L

    1996-05-01

    A case of clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva metastatic to regional lymph nodes with long survival after surgical resection is presented. Like the only other case reported to date, this suggests that surgical therapy alone may be adequate, even when metastasis is present.

  1. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges.

  2. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wysocki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient’s poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas.

  3. Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell myomelanocytic tumors (CCMTs of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres are extremely rare. CCMTs are a variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors. We present a case of hepatic CCMT in a 54-year-old woman with abdominal pain. The patient had an 8.8 cm well-demarcated tumor in the right lobe of the liver. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a heterogeneous mass that enhanced significantly in the arterial and portal venous phases, and was less enhanced in the delayed phase. The patient underwent a right hemihepatectomy and cholecystectomy. The tumor cells had clear to slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, and were positive for HMB-45 and smooth muscle actin. The patient had no recurrence after 36 months follow-up. A review of the literature identified 10 hepatic CCMTs. Hepatic CCMTs are usually benign tumors of young women that present as large masses located in the right lobe of the liver.

  4. A case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for recurrent clear cell ovarian cancer

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    Morgan Burke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent clear cell ovarian carcinoma is a difficult to treat condition and early trial data has suggested a possible role for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 immunotherapy that has been used in this setting. While immune related toxicity of these agents has been well described, the occurrence of immune specific neurotoxicity is thought to be rare. We present a case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for a recurrent ovarian clear cell cancer and we believe this to be the first such reported case associated with the use of PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy. In this case, a 64-year-old woman with persistent clear cell ovarian cancer on Nivolumab presented with a severe fever of unknown origin and delirium; initial imaging and diagnostic work-up suggested a neurological etiology, but with no clear source. We concluded that this was a severe case of immune related encephalitis, thought to be brought about by the anti-PD-1 immunotherapy which responded well to systemic corticosteroids and plasmapheresis and the patient able to make a full recovery. We present a summary of the case and its management as well as a review of the literature on the previously reported neurotoxicity's of PD-1 inhibitors.

  5. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaoki, Yasuhisa; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Nanba, Koji.

    1992-01-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 μm. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author)

  6. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaoki, Yasuhisa; Katsube, Yasuhiro (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)); Nanba, Koji

    1992-01-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 {mu}m. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author).

  7. Stage-dependent prognostic impact of molecular signatures in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

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    Weber T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Weber,1,2 Matthias Meinhardt,3 Stefan Zastrow,1 Andreas Wienke,4 Kati Erdmann,1 Jörg Hofmann,1 Susanne Fuessel,1 Manfred P Wirth11Department of Urology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 2Department of Oncology and Hematology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 4Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, GermanyPurpose: To enhance prognostic information of protein biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs, we analyzed them within prognostic groups of ccRCC harboring different tumor characteristics of this clinically and molecularly heterogeneous tumor entity.Methods: Tissue microarrays from 145 patients with primary ccRCC were immunohistochemically analyzed for VHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, Ki67 (marker of proliferation 1, p53 (tumor protein p53, p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, survivin (baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5, and UEA-1 (ulex europaeus agglutinin I to assess microvessel-density.Results: When analyzing all patients, nuclear staining of Ki67 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.12 and nuclear survivin (nS; HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.08 were significantly associated with disease-specific survival (DSS. In the cohort of patients with advanced localized or metastasized ccRCC, high staining of Ki67, p53 and nS predicted shorter DSS (Ki67: HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02–1.11; p53: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09; nS: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14. In organ-confined ccRCC, patients with high p21-staining had a longer DSS (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.99. In a multivariate model with stepwise backward elimination, tumor size and p21-staining showed a significant association with DSS in patients with "organ-confined" ccRCCs. The p21-staining increased the concordance index of tumor size from

  8. Pentoxifylline effects on capacitation and fertility of stallion epididymal sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasti, P. N.; Monteiro, G. A.; Maziero, R. R.D.; Carmo, M. T.; Dell'Aqua, J. A.; Crespilho, A. M.; Rifai, E. A.; Papa, F. O.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the

  9. Pathological significance and prognostic roles of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Yasuda, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuichiro; Araki, Kyohei; Sagara, Yuji; Matsuo, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kojiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2018-05-19

    The immune system is closely associated with malignant behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, understanding the pathological roles of immune cells in tumor stroma is essential to discuss the pathological characteristics of RCC. In this study, the clinical significance of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios were investigated in patients with clear cell RCC. The densities of CD57+, CD68+, and mast cells were evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques in 179 patients. Proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and microvessel density (MVD) were evaluated by using anti-Ki-67, anti-cleaved caspase-3, and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. The density of CD57+ cell was negatively correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis, although densities of CD68+ cell and mast cell were positively correlated. Ratios of CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell and mast cell/CD57+ cell were significantly correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis. Survival analyses showed that the CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was a significant predictor for cause-specific survival by multi-variate analyses (hazard ratio=1.41, 95% confidential interval=1.03-1.93, P=.031), and was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and MVD (r=.47; P <. 001, r=-.31, P<.001, and r=.40, P<.001, respectively). In conclusion, CD57+ cell, CD68+ cell, and mast cell played important roles in malignancy in clear cell RCC. The CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was strongly correlated with pathological features and prognosis in these patients because this ratio reflected the status of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Opposite prognostic roles of HIF1β and HIF2β expressions in bone metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szendroi, Attila; Szász, A. Marcell; Kardos, Magdolna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognostic markers of bone metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) are poorly established. We tested prognostic value of HIF1β/HIF2β and their selected target genes in primary tumors and corresponding bone metastases. RESULTS: Expression of HIF2β was lower in mRCC both at m...

  11. Frequent mutations of genes encoding ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway components in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Guangwu; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Shengjie

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations in the u...

  12. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

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    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of female urethral diverticulum—A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Weng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignancies of female urethral diverticulum are rare. A well-documented female patient with primary clear cell carcinoma of the urethral diverticulum is presented here. A 65-year-old woman presented with frequency and voiding difficulty for 2 months. Physical examination showed a 4-cm mass protruding from anterior vaginal wall. Intravenous urography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cystoscopy showed a polypoid mass in urethral diverticulum. She then underwent anterior exenteration with ileal conduit diversion and urethrectomy. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma with bladder neck invasion. She had no disease recurrence at 2-year follow-up. Careful clinical examination and image studies are helpful in making the preoperative diagnosis for the rare disease. Early radical surgery can achieve better survival.

  14. Clear cell chondrosarcoma of the pelvis in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Motoi; Machinami, Rikuo; Goto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Aiichiro

    1999-01-01

    We report on a case of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) of the left iliac bone in a 12-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed an aggressive osteolytic lesion with areas of mineralization. Fluid-fluid levels were seen on T2-weighted MR images. Laboratory data showed slight elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. The biopsy specimen showed histological features of CCCS with some resemblance to osteosarcoma, such as prominent irregular osteoid formation among clear tumor cells. Surgical treatment was accomplished without pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Because of the patient's age, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and histopathology with prominent osteoid production, this case could be confused with osteosarcoma. Although CCCS is an extremely rare bone tumor in children, it is important to be aware that it may arise in a skeletally immature patient. CCCS, unlike osteosarcoma, is not treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  15. Demographic, Clinical, and Prognostic Factors of Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinomas According to Endometriosis Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Høgdall, Estrid; Thomsen, Lotte Nedergaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with endometriosis carry an increased risk for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCCs). Clear cell adenocarcinoma may develop from endometriosis lesions. Few studies have compared clinical and prognostic factors and overall survival in patients diagnosed as having CCC according...... to endometriosis status. METHODS: Population-based prospectively collected data on CCC with coexisting pelvic (including ovarian; n = 80) and ovarian (n = 46) endometriosis or without endometriosis (n = 95) were obtained through the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. χ Test, independent-samples t test, logistic...... regression, Kaplan-Meier test, and Cox regression were used. Statistical tests were 2 sided. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Patients with CCC and pelvic or ovarian endometriosis were significantly younger than CCC patients without endometriosis, and a higher...

  16. Serum microRNAs in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Chen, Hua-Chien; Lin, Chiao-Yun; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Tang, Yun-Hsin; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lin, Chen-Tao; Chen, Min-Yu; Huang, Kuang-Gen; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2014-12-01

    To identify candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum of patients with clear cell carcinomas in monitoring disease progression. The sera of patients with diagnosed ovarian clear cell carcinoma were collected from 2009 to 2012. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for 270 miRNAs was performed. To offset the potential extraction bias, an equal amount of Caenorhabditis elegans cel-miR-238 was added to each serum specimen before miRNA isolation. miRNA expression was analyzed using the ΔCt method, with cel-miR-238 as controls. Twenty-one patients with clear cell carcinoma were included. In the discovery phase on four pairs of pre- and postoperative sera, 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were selected from 270 miRNAs. In the validation phase on an independent set of 11 pairs of pre- and postoperative sera, 4 miRNAs (hsa-miR-130a, hsa-miR-138, hsa-miR-187, and hsa-miR-202) were confirmed to be higher in the preoperative sera. In the application phase, hsa-miR-130a remained consistent with the different time points in seven of the 10 patients during clinical follow-up periods. More importantly, in three patients, hsa-miR-130a levels were elevated in early disease recurrences before CA125 was found to be elevated. Hsa-miR-130a may be a useful serum biomarker for detecting recurrence of ovarian clear cell cancer, and warrants further studies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparison of two different extenders for cryopreservation of epididymal dog sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mim; Justino, R C; Sant'anna, M C; Trautwein, L G C; Souza, F F

    2012-12-01

    The collection of epididymal sperm is an option for preservation of germplasm of genetically superior animals that need to be orchiectomized or have died. The extender type used to freeze sperm is important to avoid spermatozoal membrane damage and to preserve semen quality after cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of a commercial bovine extender (Bovimix(®); Nutricell, Campinas) and a traditional TRIS-citric acid-glucose-egg yolk-7% glycerol extender on cryopreservation of canine epididymal sperm. The testes of 13 adult dogs were kept at 5 °C for 24 h in saline solution, and epididymal sperm was recovered in Ringers solution without lactate and were evaluated for motility. Samples with ≥ 80% motility were pooled and then divided before dilution and packaging in 0.5 ml plastic straws, equilibration at 4 °C for 1 h, freezing in nitrogen vapour for 20 min and storing at -196 °C. The straws were thawed at 56 °C for 10 s and were evaluated for motility by computer assisted analysis (CASA). The semen parameters, sperm movement index, linearity, total motility and rapid progressive motility were statistically higher in Bovimix(®) than TRIS. In contrast, amplitude of lateral head displacement, slow sperm and static sperm were lower in Bovimix(®). Despite the high percentage of sperm defects in epididymal cells, regardless of the extender, we concluded that Bovimix(®) is a viable alternative for the freezing of canine epididymal sperm. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. LCN6, a novel human epididymal lipocalin

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    Soundararajan Rama

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipocalin (LCN family of structurally conserved hydrophobic ligand binding proteins is represented in all major taxonomic groups from prokaryotes to primates. The importance of lipocalins in reproduction and the similarity to known epididymal lipocalins prompted us to characterize the novel human epididymal LCN6. Methods and Results LCN6 cDNA was identified by database analysis in a comprehensive human library sequencing program. Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey cDNA was obtained from an epididymis cDNA library and is 93% homologous to the human. The gene is located on chromosome 9q34 adjacent LCN8 and LCN5. LCN6 amino acid sequence is most closely related to LCN5, but the LCN6 beta-barrel structure is best modeled on mouse major urinary protein 1, a pheromone binding protein. Northern blot analysis of RNAs isolated from 25 human tissues revealed predominant expression of a 1.0 kb mRNA in the epididymis. No other transcript was detected except for weak expression of a larger hybridizing mRNA in urinary bladder. Northern hybridization analysis of LCN6 mRNA expression in sham-operated, castrated and testosterone replaced rhesus monkeys suggests mRNA levels are little affected 6 days after castration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that LCN6 protein is abundant in the caput epithelium and lumen. Immunofluorescent staining of human spermatozoa shows LCN6 located on the head and tail of spermatozoa with the highest concentration of LCN6 on the post-acrosomal region of the head, where it appeared aggregated into large patches. Conclusions LCN6 is a novel lipocalin closely related to Lcn5 and Lcn8 and these three genes are likely products of gene duplication events that predate rodent-primate divergence. Predominant expression in the epididymis and location on sperm surface are consistent with a role for LCN6 in male fertility.

  19. A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chengsheng Zhang,1,2 Wei Zhang,1,2 Dianbin Mu,1 Xuetao Shi,1 Lei Zhao1,2 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: An 80-year-old male was referred to our department for a gallbladder mass. He denied any history of alcohol consumption or cholecystitis and smoking. Hepatitis B surface antigen test and antihepatitis C antibody test were found to be negative. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were elevated (CA19-9 was 59.92 U/mL and carcinoembryonic antigen was 12.64 ng/mL, whereas alpha-fetoprotein was below the normal limit (2.46 ng/mL. Computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass with measurements of 4.6×5.6×7.1 cm, which nearly filled the whole gallbladder space. Radical cholecystectomy, including segments IV B and V of the liver and lymphadenectomy, was performed. The neoplasm in gallbladder was completely resected, and the patient obtained a negative margin. Histological and immunohistochemical profile suggested a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation. After reviewing the literature, we reported that this case is the first identified case of cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extensive hepatoid differentiation. However, clinical features of clear cell adenocarcinoma with hepatoid differentiation remain unclear due to the extremely rare incidence. There was no indication of adjuvant chemotherapy and no literature has been reported on the application of chemotherapy. This case showed a promising clinical outcome after curative resection, which indicated that surgical treatment could be potentially considered for suitable patients. Keywords: gallbladder, clear cell adenocarcinoma, hepatoid differentiation 

  20. Urinary collecting system invasion is associated with poor survival in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, George C; Boorjian, Stephen A; Ziegelmann, Matthew J; Westerman, Mary E; Lohse, Christine M; Leibovich, Bradley C; Cheville, John C; Thompson, R Houston

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of urinary collecting system invasion (UCSI) in a large series of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with clear-cell RCC treated with nephrectomy between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed from a prospectively maintained registry. One urological pathologist re-reviewed all slides. Cancer-specific survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and associations of UCSI with death from RCC were evaluated using Cox models. Of the 859 patients with clear-cell RCC, 58 (6.8%) had UCSI. At last follow-up, 310 patients had died from RCC at a median of 1.8 years after surgery. The median follow-up for patients alive at last follow-up was 8.2 years. The estimated cancer-specific survival at 10 years after surgery for patients with UCSI was 17%, compared with 60% for patients without UCSI (P system invasion is associated with poor prognosis among patients with clear-cell RCC. If validated, consideration should be given to including UCSI in future staging systems. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0; however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1 cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1 cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease.

  2. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  3. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  4. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma--a case report with unusual in situ malignant changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Irhayim, B

    1984-05-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumour, the histogenesis of which has been much debated in the past. However, it is now considered a tumour of sweat gland origin. Presented herewith is a report of a case with unusual histological features of in situ malignant changes within sweat glands. These changes very closely simulate lobular cancerisation of the breast. On reviewing the English literature on the histopathology of sweat gland tumours, we have not found similar histological findings. These histological findings provide supportive evidence of the sweat gland origin of these tumours.

  5. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed

  6. Inhibition of IGF-1-Mediated Cellular Migration and Invasion by Migracin A in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Banno, Kouji; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Previously we isolated migracin A from a Streptomyces culture filtrate as an inhibitor of cancer cell migration. In the present research, we found that migracin A inhibited migration and invasion of ovarian clear cell carcinoma ES-2 cells. In the course of our mechanistic study, migracin A was shown to enhance vasohibin-1 expression in an angiogenesis array. We also confirmed that it increased the mRNA expression of this protein. Moreover, overexpression of vasohibin-1 lowered the migration but not the invasion of ES-2 cells. Then, we looked for another target protein employing a motility array, and found that migracin A lowered the IGF-1 expression. Knockdown of IGF-1 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion of ES-2 cells. Migracin A also decreased Akt phosphorylation involved in the downstream signaling. Crosstalk analysis indicated that overexpression of vasohibin-1 decreased the IGF-1 expression. On the other hand, it showed no direct anticancer activity in terms of the ES-2 growth in agar. Migracin A inhibited the migration and IGF-1 expression in not only ES-2 but also another ovarian clear cell carcinoma JHOC-5 cells. In addition, it also inhibited capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Since its cytotoxicity is very low, migracin A may be a candidate for an anti-metastasis agent not exhibiting prominent toxicity.

  7. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Foamy Histiocyte-Like Appearance: A Deceptively Clear Cell Carcinoma Appearing Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Noro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC shows many pathological features, and it varies architecturally and cytologically. There have been many reports and discussions of the morphological features of HCC. A 63-year-old man was found to have a solitary tumor in liver segment 7 that was diagnosed as HCC. A partial resection of liver segment 7 was performed. Microscopically, the tumor lesion showed a moderately differentiated HCC. There was also a lesion with foamy histiocyte-like cells corresponding to the white lesion in the face of the cut tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that they were negative for CD68, S-100, vimentin, and HMB-45. The cytoplasm itself was negative on periodic acid Schiff (PAS and Sudan staining. Without immunohistological analysis, it is difficult to distinguish this HCC variant from clear cell carcinoma or metastases of renal cell carcinoma. It is important to recognize this type as a specific cytological variant of HCC that requires confirmation by immunohistochemistry. This report describes the case of a patient with a morphologically distinctive pattern of HCC with prominent cell cytoplasm that had a foamy histiocyte-like appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this HCC variant.

  8. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  9. The autophagoproteasome a novel cell clearing organelle in baseline and stimulated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lenzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein clearing pathways named autophagy (ATG and ubiquitin proteasome (UP control homeostasis within eukaryotic cells, while their dysfunction produces neurodegeneration. These pathways are viewed as distinct biochemical cascades occurring within specific cytosolic compartments owing pathway-specific enzymatic activity.Recent data strongly challenged the concept of two morphologically distinct and functionally segregated compartments. In fact, preliminary evidence suggests the convergence of these pathways to form a novel organelle named autophagoproteasome. This is characterized in the present study by using a cell line where, mTOR activity is upregulated and autophagy is suppressed. This was reversed dose-dependently by administering the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Thus, we could study autophagoproteasomes when autophagy was either suppressed or stimulated. The occurrence of autophagoproteasome was shown also in non-human cell lines. Ultrastructural morphometry, based on the stochiometric binding of immunogold particles allowed the quantitative evaluation of ATG and UP component within autophagoproteasomes. The number of autophagoproteasomes increases following mTOR inhibition. Similarly, mTOR inhibition produces overexpression of both LC3 and P20S particles. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio of free vs autophagosome-bound LC3 is similar to that measured for P20S, both in baseline conditions and following mTOR inhibition. Remarkably, within autophagoproteasomes there is a slight prevalence of ATG compared with UP components for low rapamycin doses, whereas for higher rapamycin doses UP increases more than ATG. While LC3 is widely present within cytosol, UP is strongly polarized within autophagoproteasomes. These fine details were evident at electron microscopy but could not be deciphered by using confocal microscopy. Despite its morphological novelty autophagoproteasomes appear the natural site where clearing pathways (once believed

  10. The Autophagoproteasome a Novel Cell Clearing Organelle in Baseline and Stimulated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Paola; Lazzeri, Gloria; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gambardella, Stefano; Salvetti, Alessandra; Fornai, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Protein clearing pathways named autophagy (ATG) and ubiquitin proteasome (UP) control homeostasis within eukaryotic cells, while their dysfunction produces neurodegeneration. These pathways are viewed as distinct biochemical cascades occurring within specific cytosolic compartments owing pathway-specific enzymatic activity. Recent data strongly challenged the concept of two morphologically distinct and functionally segregated compartments. In fact, preliminary evidence suggests the convergence of these pathways to form a novel organelle named autophagoproteasome. This is characterized in the present study by using a cell line where, mTOR activity is upregulated and autophagy is suppressed. This was reversed dose-dependently by administering the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Thus, we could study autophagoproteasomes when autophagy was either suppressed or stimulated. The occurrence of autophagoproteasome was shown also in non-human cell lines. Ultrastructural morphometry, based on the stochiometric binding of immunogold particles allowed the quantitative evaluation of ATG and UP component within autophagoproteasomes. The number of autophagoproteasomes increases following mTOR inhibition. Similarly, mTOR inhibition produces overexpression of both LC3 and P20S particles. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio of free vs. autophagosome-bound LC3 is similar to that measured for P20S, both in baseline conditions and following mTOR inhibition. Remarkably, within autophagoproteasomes there is a slight prevalence of ATG compared with UP components for low rapamycin doses, whereas for higher rapamycin doses UP increases more than ATG. While LC3 is widely present within cytosol, UP is strongly polarized within autophagoproteasomes. These fine details were evident at electron microscopy but could not be deciphered by using confocal microscopy. Despite its morphological novelty autophagoproteasomes appear in the natural site where clearing pathways (once believed to be

  11. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Bukowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ronald M BukowskiCleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, CCF Lerner College of Medicine of CWRU Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed.Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma, bevacizumab, interferon-α

  12. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Minamoto, Toshiko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ohnishi, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Ono, Ruriko; Sasamori, Hiroki; Razia, Sultana; Hossain, Mohammad Mahmud; Kamrunnahar, Shanta; Ishikawa, Masako; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1), MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2), MutS Homolog 6 (MSH6), and PMS1 Homolog 2 (PMS2)). The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers. PMID:29587389

  13. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nakamura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1, MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2, MutS Homolog 6 (MSH6, and PMS1 Homolog 2 (PMS2. The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers.

  14. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Minamoto, Toshiko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ohnishi, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Ono, Ruriko; Sasamori, Hiroki; Razia, Sultana; Hossain, Mohammad Mahmud; Kamrunnahar, Shanta; Ishikawa, Masako; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-03-25

    Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 ( MLH1 ), MutS Homolog 2 ( MSH2 ), MutS Homolog 6 ( MSH6 ), and PMS1 Homolog 2 ( PMS2 )). The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers.

  15. Ultrasound guided electrochemotherapy for the treatment of a clear cell thymoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A twelve-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for rapidly progressing respiratory distress. The cat was depressed, tachypneic and moderately responsive. Ultrasonography showed a mediastinal mass associated with a significant pleural effusion that needed tapping every five to seven days. Ultrasound guided biopsy yielded a diagnosis of clear cell thymoma upon histopathology. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the cat with electrochemotherapy (ECT using systemic bleomycin. Two sessions of ultrasound guided ECT were performed at two week intervals with trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using needle electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in partial remission (PR. Additional sessions were performed on a monthly basis. The cat is still in PR after fourteen months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in pets carrying visceral tumors.

  16. The effect of adjuvant radiation on survival in early stage clear cell ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogen, Liat; Thomas, Gillian; Bernardini, Marcus; Bassiouny, Dina; Brar, Harinder; Gien, Lilian T; Rosen, Barry; Le, Lisa; Vicus, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on survival in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Data collection and analysis of stage I and II OCCC patients treated at two tertiary centers in Toronto, between 1995 and 2014, was performed. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were completed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. 163 patients were eligible. 44 (27%) patients were treated with adjuvant RT: 37 of them received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), and 7 had RT only. In the no-RT group, there were 119 patients: 83 patients received adjuvant CT and 36 had no adjuvant treatment. The 10year progression free survival (PFS) was 65% for patients treated with RT, and 59% no-RT patients. There were a total of 41 (25%) recurrences in the cohort: 12 (27.2%) patients in RT group and 29 (24.3%) in the no-RT group. On multivariable analysis, adjuvant RT was not significantly associated with an increased PFS (0.85 (0.44-1.63) p=0.63) or overall survival (OS) (0.84 (0.39-1.82) p=0.66). In the subset of 59 patients defined as high-risk: stage IC with positive cytology and/or surface involvement and stage II: RT was not found to be associated with a better PFS (HR 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55-2.54) or O S(HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.40-2.69)). Adjuvant RT was not found to be associated with a survival benefit in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma or in a high risk subset of patients including stage IC cytology positive/surface involvement and stage II patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear localization of the CK2α-subunit correlates with poor prognosis in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Guerra, Barbara; Oliván-Viguera, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2a, one of the two catalytic isoforms of the protein kinase CK2 has been shown to contribute to tumor development, tumor proliferation and suppression of apoptosis in various malignancies. We conducted this study to investigate CK2 expression in different subtypes of Renal Cell...... Carcinoma (RCC) and in the benign oncocytoma. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that CK2a expression was significantly increased at the mRNA and protein levels in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Also the kinase activity of CK2 was significantly increased in ccRCC compared to normal...... renal cortex. Nuclear protein expression of CK2a correlated in univariate analysis with poor Progression Free Survival (HR = 8.11, p = 0.016). Functional analyses (cell proliferation assay) revealed an inhibitory effect of Caki-2 cell growth following CK2 inhibition with CX-4945. Our results suggest...

  18. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma with fetal gut differentiation: a rare case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Chia-Hao; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2018-06-22

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a useful tumor marker for ovarian germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST). It is valuable for both diagnosis and further follow-up. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) rarely secretes AFP, especially for clear cell type and in the postmenopausal women. Based on the limited knowledge about AFP-producing clear cell type EOC, a case and literature review on this topic is extensively reviewed. We report a 55-year-old postmenopausal woman experienced vaginal spotting for one month, and serum level of AFP was 60,721 ng/ml initially. Histological examination was clear cell type EOC. Tumor cells revealed strong immunoreactivity for glypican-3 (GPC3) and AFP and weak for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF-1 beta), but negative for CD30, making the diagnosis of AFP-producing clear cell type EOC with fetal gut differentiation in focal areas, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) IIIc. Although the patient underwent an intensive treatment, including optimal debulking surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy, the patient died of disease. To provide a better understanding of clinical and molecular characteristics of the AFP-producing clear cell type EOC, we conducted a systematic literature review. A total of three papers described the AFP-producing clear cell type EOC are available. The overall survival rate of these cases, including the current case is 50%. Although immunohistochemical examination is not always needed in routine for the diagnosis of clear cell type EOC, to distinguish from other tumors, especially germ cell tumors, or to provide the better way to monitor therapeutic response or to evaluate the disease status, immunostaining, including GPC3, HNF-1 beta, CD30, cytokeratin 7 or 20, and AFP is taken into account. Due to rarity, the appropriate chemotherapy regimen and the biological behavior of AFP-producing clear cell type EOC are still unclear.

  19. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tezval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotomy which showed massive tumor burden within the pelvis and peritoneal carcinosis. This case demonstrated an extremely fast tumor growth. Therefore, patients with clear cell urothelial carcinoma should be treated vigorously and without time delay. We present a case of clear cell variant of TCC which exhibited an extremely aggressive behavior. To our knowledge this is the fifth report of this rare disease.

  20. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Jiang, Ying Jin, Yan Li, Hui-Fang Huang, Ming Wu, Keng Shen, Ling-Ya Pan Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4% were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3% after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2% were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6% presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003. The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine

  1. Alveolar architecture of clear cell renal carcinomas (≤5.0 cm) show high attenuation on dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Tobisu, Kenichi; Kakizoe, Tadao; Sakamoto, Michiie

    1999-01-01

    To establish the correlation between tumor appearance on CT and tumor histology in renal cell carcinomas. The density and attenuation patterns of 96 renal cell carcinomas, each ≤5 cm in greatest diameter, were studied by non-enhanced CT and early and late after bolus injection of contrast medium using dynamic CT. The density and attenuation patterns and pathological maps of each tumor were individually correlated. High attenuated areas were present in 72 of the 96 tumors on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. All 72 high attenuated areas were of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and had alveolar architecture. The remaining 24 tumors that did not demonstrate high attenuated foci on early enhanced scanning included three clear cell, nine granular cell, six papillary, five chromophobe and one collecting duct type. With respect to tumor architecture, all clear cell tumors of alveolar architecture demonstrated high attenuation on early enhanced scanning. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas of alveolar architecture show high attenuation on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. A larger number of patients are indispensable to obtaining clear results. However, these findings seem to be an important clue to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas as having an alveolar structure. (author)

  2. The entire miR-200 seed family is strongly deregulated in clear cell renal cell cancer compared to the proximal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duns, Gerben; van den Berg, Anke; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; van Duivenbode, Inge; Giezen, Cor; Kluiver, Joost; van Goor, Harry; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; van den Berg, Eva; Kok, Klaas

    Despite numerous studies reporting deregulated microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression patterns in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), no direct comparisons have been made to its presumed normal counterpart: the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The aim of this study was to

  3. Clear Cell Sarcoma (Malignant Melanoma of Soft Parts: A Clinicopathologic Study of 52 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hocar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcomas are aggressive, rare soft tissue tumors and their classification among melanoma or sarcoma is still undetermined due to their clinical, pathologic, and molecular properties found in both types of tumors. This is a retrospective study of 52 patients with CCS seen between April 1979 and April 2005 in two institutions. The EWS-ATF-1 fusion transcript was studied in 31 patients and an activating mutation of the BRAF or NRAS gene was researched in 22 patients. 30 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 33 were studied. Forty-three tumors (82.69% were located in the extremities, specially the foot (19 tumors. Median initial tumor size was 4.8 cm (1 to 15 cm. Necrosis involving more than 50% of the tumor cells was found in 14 cases (26.92%. High mitotic rate (>10 was found in 25 cases (48.07%. The EWS/ATF-1 translocation was found in 28 (53.84% of 31 patients studied, and mutation of BRAF or NRAS was found in only 2 of 22 patients analyzed cases (3.84%. Among the tumor-associated parameters, only tumor size (>4 cm emerged as a significant prognostic factor. Forty-nine patients had a localized disease at diagnosis (94.23% and underwent surgical resection immediately (90% or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT (10%. Various CT regimens were used in 37 patients (71.15% with no significant efficacy. The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 59% and 41%, respectively. Tumor size was the only emerging prognosis factor in our series. Complete surgical resection remains the optimal treatment for this aggressive chemoresistant tumor.

  4. Recurrent internal tandem duplications of BCOR in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Angshumoy; Kumar, Vijetha; Zorman, Barry; Fang, Erica; Haines, Katherine M.; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Hampton, Oliver A.; White, Simon; Bavle, Abhishek A.; Patel, Nimesh R.; Eldin, Karen W.; John Hicks, M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Leavey, Patrick J.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Amatruda, James F.; Nuchtern, Jed G.; Chintagumpala, Murali M.; Wheeler, David A.; Plon, Sharon E.; Sumazin, Pavel; Parsons, D. Williams

    2015-01-01

    The X-linked BCL-6 co-repressor (BCOR) gene encodes a key constituent of a variant polycomb repressive complex (PRC) that is mutated or translocated in human cancers. Here we report on the identification of somatic internal tandem duplications (ITDs) clustering in the C terminus of BCOR in 23 of 27 (85%) pediatric clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) from two independent cohorts. We profile CCSK tumours using a combination of whole-exome, transcriptome and targeted sequencing. Identical ITD mutations are found in primary and relapsed tumour pairs but not in adjacent normal kidney or blood. Mutant BCOR transcripts and proteins are markedly upregulated in ITD-positive tumours. Transcriptome analysis of ITD-positive CCSKs reveals enrichment for PRC2-regulated genes and similarity to undifferentiated sarcomas harbouring BCOR–CCNB3 fusions. The discovery of recurrent BCOR ITDs defines a major oncogenic event in this childhood sarcoma with significant implications for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this tumour. PMID:26573325

  5. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: patients' characteristics and improved outcome in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Wael; Alfaar, Ahmad Samir; Yehia, Dina; Elshafie, Maged M; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saad; El-Kinaai, Naglaa; Taha, Hala; Refaat, Amal; Younes, Alaa A

    2014-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare and aggressive tumor accounting for 5% of pediatric renal tumors with an incidence of 20 patients per year in the USA. It is bone metastasizing with poor prognosis. Our aim was to show characteristics of patients in relation to improved outcome in one of the developing countries. We included all patients diagnosed as CCSK in the period between July 2007 and March 2012 at Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, pathology, and management were reviewed. Follow up was continued until April 2013. Twenty-five patients were identified in the defined time interval, accounting for 7% all renal tumors diagnosed at the hospital. Mean age was 36 months. Abdominal swelling and hematuria were the most common presentations. Stages I, II, III, IV, and V represented 9 (36%), 3 (12%), 8 (32%), 3 (12%), and 2 (8%), respectively. Twenty-four patients had radical nephrectomy either upfront or after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Surgery was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Abdominal radiotherapy was given for local stages II and III. Twenty-two patients reached complete remission, while one patient had stationary disease and two patients died due to progression and relapse. Overall survival was 88.5% and event-free survival was 87.8% at 45 months. Although previous studies indicate poor prognosis of CCSK, our experience shows that those patients can be treated using extensive chemotherapy combined with proper local control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Integrative analysis of copy number alteration and gene expression profiling in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chang Ohk; Choi, Chel Hun; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Ju, Hyunjeong; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Nyunsu; Kang, So Young; Ha, Sang Yun; Choi, Kyusam; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joong; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-05-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (Ov-CCA) is a distinctive subtype of ovarian epithelial carcinoma. In this study, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and paired gene expression microarray of 19 fresh-frozen samples and conducted integrative analysis. For the copy number alterations, significantly amplified regions (false discovery rate [FDR] q genes demonstrating frequent copy number alterations (>25% of samples) that correlated with gene expression (FDR genes were mainly located on 8p11.21, 8p21.2-p21.3, 8q22.1, 8q24.3, 17q23.2-q23.3, 19p13.3, and 19p13.11. Among the regions, 8q24.3 was found to contain the most genes (30 of 94 genes) including PTK2. The 8q24.3 region was indicated as the most significant region, as supported by copy number, GISTIC, and integrative analysis. Pathway analysis using differentially expressed genes on 8q24.3 revealed several major nodes, including PTK2. In conclusion, we identified a set of 94 candidate genes with frequent copy number alterations that correlated with gene expression. Specific chromosomal alterations, such as the 8q24.3 gain containing PTK2, could be a therapeutic target in a subset of Ov-CCAs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. DNA methylation profile distinguishes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney from other pediatric renal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Ueno

    Full Text Available A number of specific, distinct neoplastic entities occur in the pediatric kidney, including Wilms' tumor, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK, congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN, rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK, and the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT. By employing DNA methylation profiling using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27, we analyzed the epigenetic characteristics of the sarcomas including CCSK, RTK, and ESFT in comparison with those of the non-neoplastic kidney (NK, and these tumors exhibited distinct DNA methylation profiles in a tumor-type-specific manner. CCSK is the most frequently hypermethylated, but least frequently hypomethylated, at CpG sites among these sarcomas, and exhibited 490 hypermethylated and 46 hypomethylated CpG sites in compared with NK. We further validated the results by MassARRAY, and revealed that a combination of four genes was sufficient for the DNA methylation profile-based differentiation of these tumors by clustering analysis. Furthermore, THBS1 CpG sites were found to be specifically hypermethylated in CCSK and, thus, the DNA methylation status of these THBS1 sites alone was sufficient for the distinction of CCSK from other pediatric renal tumors, including Wilms' tumor and CMN. Moreover, combined bisulfite restriction analysis could be applied for the detection of hypermethylation of a THBS1 CpG site. Besides the biological significance in the pathogenesis, the DNA methylation profile should be useful for the differential diagnosis of pediatric renal tumors.

  8. Management of acute epididymitis: are European guidelines being followed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Dyer, Jonathan P; Breitenfeldt, Nicole; Adamson, Andrew S; Harrison, G S M

    2004-10-01

    Acute epididymitis is increasing in men aged 35 years or under due to sexually-transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis. This study examines whether Urological surgeons are following European guidelines for the management of acute epididymitis in these patients. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted of specialists in Urology in two regions of the UK. Of 79 completed replies, 41 (52%) take a detailed sexual history but only 34 (43%) refer patients to a Genitourinary medicine clinic. Quinolones are the most commonly prescribed first-line antibiotic by 56 (71%) respondents, principally ciprofloxacin. The current management of acute epididymitis in young men must be improved. Ciprofloxacin is not the optimal antimicrobial for the treatment of urogenital chlamydial infection. We recommend that all such patients be referred to local Genitourinary medicine services for contact-tracing and treatment of their sexual partners.

  9. The notch and TGF-β signaling pathways contribute to the aggressiveness of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Sjölund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite recent progress, therapy for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is still inadequate. Dysregulated Notch signaling in CCRCC contributes to tumor growth, but the full spectrum of downstream processes regulated by Notch in this tumor form is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that inhibition of endogenous Notch signaling modulates TGF-β dependent gene regulation in CCRCC cells. Analysis of gene expression data representing 176 CCRCCs showed that elevated TGF-β pathway activity correlated significantly with shortened disease specific survival (log-rank test, p = 0.006 and patients with metastatic disease showed a significantly elevated TGF-β signaling activity (two-sided Student's t-test, p = 0.044. Inhibition of Notch signaling led to attenuation of both basal and TGF-β1 induced TGF-β signaling in CCRCC cells, including an extensive set of genes known to be involved in migration and invasion. Functional analyses revealed that Notch inhibition decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of CCRCC cells. CONCLUSION: An extensive cross-talk between the Notch and TGF-β signaling cascades is present in CCRCC and the functional properties of these two pathways are associated with the aggressiveness of this disease.

  10. Progression of Epididymal Maldevelopment Into Hamartoma-like Neoplasia in VHL Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam U. Mehta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL gene and activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF in susceptible cells precedes formation of tumorlets and frank tumor in the epididymis of male VHL patients. We performed detailed histologic and molecular pathologic analysis of tumor-free epididymal tissues from VHL patients to obtain further insight into early epididymal tumorigenesis. Four epididymides from two VHL patients were serially sectioned to allow for three-dimensional visualization of morphologic changes. Areas of interest were genetically analyzed by tissue microdissection, immunohistochemistry for HIF and markers for mesonephric differentiation, and in situ hybridization for HIF downstream target vascular endothelial growth factor. Structural analysis of the epididymides revealed marked deviations from the regular anatomic structure resulting from impaired organogenesis. Selected efferent ductules were represented by disorganized mesonephric cells, and the maldeveloped mesonephric material was VHL-deficient by allelic deletion analysis. Furthermore, we observed maldeveloped mesonephric material near cystic structures, which were also VHL-deficient and were apparent derivatives of maldeveloped material. Finally, a subset of VHL-deficient cells was structurally integrated in regular efferent ductules; proliferation of intraductular VHL-deficient cells manifests itself as papillary growth into the ductular lumen. Furthermore, we clarify that that there is a pathogenetic continuum between microscopic tumorlets and formation of tumor. In multiple locations, three-dimensional reconstruction revealed papillary growth to extend deeply into ductular lumina, indicative of progression into early hamartoma-like neoplasia. We conclude epididymal tumorigenesis in VHL disease to occur in two distinct sequential steps: maldevelopment of VHL-deficient mesonephric cells, followed by neoplastic papillary proliferation.

  11. Renal cell tumors with clear cell histology and intact VHL and chromosome 3p: a histological review of tumors from the Cancer Genome Atlas database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Laura; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Barod, Ravi; Rogers, Craig G; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Gupta, Nilesh S; Williamson, Sean R

    2017-11-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is by far the most common form of kidney cancer; however, a number of histologically similar tumors are now recognized and considered distinct entities. The Cancer Genome Atlas published data set was queried (http://cbioportal.org) for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumors lacking VHL gene mutation and chromosome 3p loss, for which whole-slide images were reviewed. Of the 418 tumors in the published Cancer Genome Atlas clear cell renal cell carcinoma database, 387 had VHL mutation, copy number loss for chromosome 3p, or both (93%). Of the remaining, 27/31 had whole-slide images for review. One had 3p loss based on karyotype but not sequencing, and three demonstrated VHL promoter hypermethylation. Nine could be reclassified as distinct or emerging entities: translocation renal cell carcinoma (n=3), TCEB1 mutant renal cell carcinoma (n=3), papillary renal cell carcinoma (n=2), and clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (n=1). Of the remaining, 6 had other clear cell renal cell carcinoma-associated gene alterations (PBRM1, SMARCA4, BAP1, SETD2), leaving 11 specimens, including 2 high-grade or sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas and 2 with prominent fibromuscular stroma (not TCEB1 mutant). One of the remaining tumors exhibited gain of chromosome 7 but lacked histological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Two tumors previously reported to harbor TFE3 gene fusions also exhibited VHL mutation, chromosome 3p loss, and morphology indistinguishable from clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the significance of which is uncertain. In summary, almost all clear cell renal cell carcinomas harbor VHL mutation, 3p copy number loss, or both. Of tumors with clear cell histology that lack these alterations, a subset can now be reclassified as other entities. Further study will determine whether additional entities exist, based on distinct genetic pathways that may have implications for treatment.

  12. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: validation of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Julien; Delahunt, Brett; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dunglinson, Nigel; Gianduzzo, Troy; Kua, Boon; Malone, Greg; Martin, Ben; Preston, John; Pokorny, Morgan; Wood, Simon; Yaxley, John; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. This system is incorporated into the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading. This study was undertaken to compare WHO/ISUP and Fuhrman grading and to validate WHO/ISUP grading as a prognostic parameter in a series of clear cell RCC. Analysis of 681 cases of ccRCC showed that 144 tumours could not be assigned a Fuhrman grade on the basis of ambiguous grading features. The application of WHO/ISUP grading resulted in a general down-grading of cases when compared with Fuhrman grading. In a sub-group of 374 cases, for which outcome data were available, 9.3% were WHO/ISUP grade 1, 50.3% were grade 2, 24.1% grade 3 and 16.3% grade 4, while the distribution of Fuhrman grades was 0.4% grade 1, 48.7% grade 2, 29.4% grade 3 and 21.5% grade 4. There were no recurrence/metastases amongst patients with WHO/ISUP grade 1 tumours and there was a significant difference in outcome for WHO/ISUP grades 2, 3 and 4. For Fuhrman grading the cancer-free survival was not significantly different for grade 2 and grade 3 tumours. On multivariate analysis WHO/ISUP grade and pT staging category were found to retain prognostic significance. The study demonstrates that FG cannot be applied in >20% of cases of ccRCC and the WHO/ISUP provides superior prognostic information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in c...

  14. Clinical outcomes of patients with clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, E Sun; Kim, Tae Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Lee, Jeong Won

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this investigation is to compare outcomes of patients according to the presence of cancer arising from endometriosis in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and endometrioid carcinoma (EC). This study retrospectively investigated 224 CCC and EC patients treated in Samsung Medical Center from 2001 to 2015 to identify cancer arising from endometriosis according to Sampson and Scott criteria. Propensity score matching was performed to compare patients arising from endometriosis to patients without endometriosis (ratio 1:1) according to stage, age, lymph node metastasis (LNM), cancer antigen (CA)-125 level, and residual status after debulking surgery. Forty-five cases arising from endometriosis were compared with 179 cases without endometriosis. CCC and EC arising from endometriosis tended to present with early age (mean, 45.2 vs. 49.2 years; p=0.003), early-stage (stages I and II, 92.7% vs. 62.3%; p<0.001), lower CA-125 level (mean, 307.1 vs. 556.7; p=0.041), higher percentages of no gross residual disease after surgery (87.8% vs.56.8%; p=0.001), and higher percentages of negative LNM (82.9% vs. 59.0%; p=0.008) compared to cases without endometriosis. Kaplan-Meier curves for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) showed better outcomes for groups with cancer arising from endometriosis (p=0.014 for PFS; and p=0.010 for OS). However, the association with endometriosis was not significant in multivariate analysis. Also, after propensity score matching, survival differences between the 2 groups were not significant. CCC and EC arising from endometriosis are diagnosed at an earlier age and stage. However, cancer arising from endometriosis was not a significant prognostic factor. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  15. Genomic landscape of ovarian clear cell carcinoma via whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Ji Won; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong-Sang; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2018-02-01

    To analyze whole exome sequencing (WES) data on ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) in Korean patients via the technique of next generation sequencing (NGS). Genomic profiles were compared between endometriosis-associated OCCC (EMS-OCCC) and Non-EMS-OCCC. We used serum samples and cancer tissues, stored at the Seoul National University Hospital Human Biobank, that were initially collected from women diagnosed with OCCC between 2012 and 2016. In total, 15 patients were enrolled: 5 with pathologically confirmed EMS-OCCC and 10 with Non-EMS-OCCC. We performed NGS WES on 15 fresh frozen OCCC tissues and matched serum samples, enabling comprehensive genomic characterization of OCCC. OCCC was characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a median of 178 exonic mutations (range, 111-25,798) and a median of 343 somatic copy number variations (range, 43-1,820) per tumor sample. In all, 54 somatic mutations were discovered across 14 genes, including PIK3CA (40%), ARID1A (40%), and KRAS (20%) in the 15 Korean OCCCs. Copy number gains in NTRK1 (33%), MYC (40%), and GNAS (47%) and copy number losses in TET2 (73%), TSC1 (67%), BRCA2 (60%), and SMAD4 (47%) were frequent. The significantly altered pathways were associated with proliferation and survival (including the PI3K/AKT, TP53, and ERBB2 pathways) in 87% of OCCCs and with chromatin remodeling in 47% of OCCCs. No significant differences in frequencies of genetic alterations were detected between EMS-OCCC and Non-EMS-OCCC groups. We successfully characterized the genomic landscape of 15 Korean patients with OCCC. We identified potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this malignancy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Adenoma clear cell carcinoma of prostatic utricle. Report of a case. Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, S.; Castillo, L.; Rodrígue, R.

    2004-01-01

    The prostatic utricle (UP) is a rudimentary structure derived from the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric), which gives rise to the female genital tract in its portion flow and Wollfianos products (mesonephric), which causes the male seminal tubes urogenital sinus and in the caudal segment. It is located in the central portion of the prostatic urethra. UP pathology is rare in the literature and only few isolated cases have been reported and rare reviews. UP neoplasms are extremely rare. The first report on the literature is the year 1967 in a man 66 years in which the diagnosis was incidental in a piece of prostatectomy. Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on this rare condition from the report of a clinical case. Case report: Male patient, 15 years who presented with hematuria. the tomography showed right renal agenesis, hypertrophic left kidney and a solid mass retrovesical in prostate topography. The transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy remains informed embryonic kidney blastoma and immunohistochemical profile is specific to urothelial epithelium and glomerular (BPM CK7 strongly positive). It is involved, resecting the tumor whose pelvic pathology (AP) corresponded to clear cell adenocarcinoma UP. Pursuing a post-operative complications and remains without clinical tomographic control locoregional relapse was diagnosed 5 months after. Get chemotherapy type adriamycin-cisplatin with complete clinical response after the 2nd cycle of treatment and rapid lesion progression at the end of the 6th cycle. Was re hospitalized resecting one laterovesical mass right, leaving in situ a left laterovesical similar mass. the AP was similar to the original. Currently, the patient underwent a left nephrostomy is planned initiation of palliative chemotherapy of weekly Docetaxel type. Conclusions: Given the rarity of the disease, and little literature there is no data on evolution and sensitivity to treatment. In the case of this patient highlight the high

  17. PAI-1 expression and its regulation by promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Han; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young-Sik

    2011-10-01

    To characterise patients with high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression as oral PAI-1 antagonists are currently in preclinical trials, and to determine whether the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism regulates PAI-1 expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). PAI-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 69 CCRCC specimens. In addition, the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was investigated by both allele-specific PCR and direct DNA sequencing. PAI-1 was overexpressed in 25/69 (36.2%) patients with CCRCC. PAI-1 staining was intense in tumour cells with a high Fuhrman nuclear grade and in spindle-shaped tumour cells. PAI-1 expression was significantly associated with older age at diagnosis (p=0.027), high nuclear grade (p5G and 31.9% (22/69) 5G/5G. The homozygous 4G/4G or 5G/5G group showed a tendency for a high nuclear grade (p=0.05) but the 4G/5G polymorphism was not related to other prognostic parameters. PAI-1 expression was poorly correlated with its promoter 4G/5G polymorphism (Spearman ρ=0.088). CCRCC with high PAI-1 expression is characterised by older age, high nuclear grade, advanced stage, distant metastasis and/or shortened disease-free survival. PAI-1 expression is not affected by the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism.

  18. Percutaneous Cryoablation of Solitary, Sporadic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Outcome Analysis Based on Clear-Cell versus Papillary Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mustafa M; Schmit, Grant D; Kurup, A Nicholas; Schmitz, John J; Boorjian, Stephen A; Geske, Jennifer; Thompson, R Houston; Callstrom, Matthew R; Atwell, Thomas D

    2018-06-07

    To evaluate treatment outcomes with percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) based on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histology. Patients treated with PCA for a solitary, sporadic stage T1a RCC from 2003 to 2016 were identified from a single institution's renal ablation registry. Patients with multiple tumors, history of RCC, or genetic syndromes associated with RCC (n = 60); no specific RCC subtype determined from core biopsy (n = 66); RCC subtype other than clear-cell or papillary (n = 7); or less than 3 mo of follow-up imaging (n = 5) were excluded. In total, 173 patients met study inclusion criteria. Oncologic outcomes, clinical outcomes, and complications were evaluated based on tumor subtype. Of the 173 patients who underwent PCA for a stage T1a RCC, 130 (75%) had clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) and 43 (25%) had papillary RCC (pRCC). Median tumor size was 2.9 cm (range, 1.3-4.0 cm). Technically successful cryoablation was achieved in all 173 patients. Local tumor recurrence developed in 6 patients with ccRCC (4.6%), new renal tumors developed in 1 patient (0.8%), and metastatic RCC developed in 1 patient (0.8%) who also had local tumor recurrence. No patients with pRCC showed local tumor recurrence, new renal tumors, or metastatic disease. The 5-year disease-free survival rate in patients with ccRCC was 88%, compared with 100% in patients with pRCC (P = .48). Nine patients (5.2%), all with ccRCC, experienced major complications (P = .11). Percutaneous ablation is a viable treatment option for patients with clinical stage T1a pRCC and ccRCC. Percutaneous ablation may be a very favorable treatment strategy particularly for pRCC. Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-layer centrifugation through colloid selects improved quality of epididymal cat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, K; Thuwanut, P; Morrell, J M

    2010-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the: 1) extent of epithelial and red blood cell contamination in epididymal cat sperm samples recovered by the cutting method; 2) efficacy of simple washing, single-layer centrifugation (SLC), and swim-up for selecting epididymal cat sperm; and 3) effects of freezing and thawing on cat sperm selected by various techniques. Ten unit samples were studied; each contained sperm from the cauda epididymides of four cats (total, approximately 200 x 10(6) sperm) and was equally allocated into four treatments: 1) simple washing, 2) single-layer centrifugation through colloid prior to cryopreservation (SLC-PC), 3) single-layer centrifugation through colloid after cryopreservation (SLC-AC), and 4) swim-up. Centrifugation (300 x g for 20 min) was done for all methods. The SLC-PC had a better recovery rate than the SLC-AC and swim-up methods (mean+/-SD of 16.4+/-8.7, 10.7+/-8.9, and 2.3+/-1.7%, respectively; Pblood cell contamination than simple washed samples (0.02+/-0.01, 0.02+/-0.04, 0.03+/-0.04, and 0.44+/-0.22 x 10(6) cells/mL, respectively; P0.05), SLC-PC yielded the highest percentage of sperm with normal midpieces and tails (P0.05). In conclusion, both SLC-PC and swim-up improved the quality of epididymal cat sperm, including better morphology, membrane and DNA integrity, and removal of cellular contamination. However, SLC had a better sperm recovery rate than swim-up. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary KIM-1 and AQP-1 in patients with clear renal cell carcinoma: Potential noninvasive biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijušković Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1 are potential early urinary biomarkers of clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC. The aim of this study was to ascertain relationship between the urine concentrations KIM-1 and AQP-1 with tumor size, grade, pT stage and type of operation (radical or partial nephrectomy in patients with cRCC. Methods. Urinary concentrations of urinary KIM-1 (uKIM-1 and urinary AQP-1 (uAQP-1 were determined by commercially available ELISA kits. The analysis included 40 patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy for cRCC and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy adult volunteers. Results. The median preoperative concentrations of KIM-1 in the cRCC group [0.724 ± 1.120 ng/mg urinary creatinine (Ucr] were significantly greater compared with controls (healthy volunteers (0.210 ± 0.082 ng/mgUcr (p = 0.0227. Postoperatively, uKIM-1 concentration decreased significantly to control values (0.177 ± 0.099 ng/mgUcr vs 0.210 ± 0.082 ng/mgUcr, respectively. The size, grade and stage of tumor were correlated positively with preoperative uKIM-1 concentrations. Contrary to these results, concentrations of uAQP-1 in the cRCC group were significantly lower (0.111 ± 0.092 ng/mgUcr compared with the control group (0.202 ± 0.078 ng/mgUcr (p = 0.0014. Postoperatively, the concentrations of uAQP-1 increased progressively up to control values, approximately. We find no significant correlation between preoperative uAQP-1 concentrations and tumor size, grade and stage. Conclusion. uKIM-1 was found to be a reliable diagnostic marker of cRCC, based on its significantly increased values before and decreased values after the nephrectomy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41018

  1. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

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    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, MN 55905, Rochester (United States)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  2. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  3. A Patient Presenting with Concurrent Testis Torsion and Epididymal Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arpali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are the second most common tumors of epididymis. Patients with leiomyomas are sometimes misdiagnosed with testicular tumors. A Case of a patient with a scrotal mass presenting with testicular torsion is reported. Concurrent occurrence of testicular torsion and epididymal leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition.

  4. Alterations of the spindle checkpoint pathway in clinicopathologically aggressive CpG island methylator phenotype clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eri; Gotoh, Masahiro; Tian, Ying; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Ono, Masaya; Matsuda, Akio; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Chiku, Suenori; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kanai, Yae

    2015-12-01

    CpG-island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-positive clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are characterized by accumulation of DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands, clinicopathological aggressiveness and poor patient outcome. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular pathways participating in CIMP-positive renal carcinogenesis. Genome (whole-exome and copy number), transcriptome and proteome (two-dimensional image converted analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) analyses were performed using tissue specimens of 87 CIMP-negative and 14 CIMP-positive clear cell RCCs and corresponding specimens of non-cancerous renal cortex. Genes encoding microtubule-associated proteins, such as DNAH2, DNAH5, DNAH10, RP1 and HAUS8, showed a 10% or higher incidence of genetic aberrations (non-synonymous single-nucleotide mutations and insertions/deletions) in CIMP-positive RCCs, whereas CIMP-negative RCCs lacked distinct genetic characteristics. MetaCore pathway analysis of CIMP-positive RCCs revealed that alterations of mRNA or protein expression were significantly accumulated in six pathways, all participating in the spindle checkpoint, including the "The metaphase checkpoint (p = 1.427 × 10(-6))," "Role of Anaphase Promoting Complex in cell cycle regulation (p = 7.444 × 10(-6))" and "Spindle assembly and chromosome separation (p = 9.260 × 10(-6))" pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression levels for genes included in such pathways, i.e., AURKA, AURKB, BIRC5, BUB1, CDC20, NEK2 and SPC25, were significantly higher in CIMP-positive than in CIMP-negative RCCs. All CIMP-positive RCCs showed overexpression of Aurora kinases, AURKA and AURKB, and this overexpression was mainly attributable to increased copy number. These data suggest that abnormalities of the spindle checkpoint pathway participate in CIMP-positive renal carcinogenesis, and that AURKA and AURKB may be potential therapeutic targets in more aggressive CIMP-positive RCCs.

  5. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the ear helix: report of primary ear helix adnexal carcinoma with regional lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae Hui; Kang, Shin Hyuk; Kim, Han Koo; Kim, Woo Seob; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of eccrine sweat gland origin that has a predilection for the head and neck. It has an indolent growth pattern and a higher incidence of regional and distant metastases. Metastasizing adnexal carcinomas are rare; thus, currently there is no uniform treatment guideline. We report a case of an 89-year-old female patient with clear cell hidradenocarcinoma manifesting in the right ear helix that metastasized to the right parotid gland who was treated by wide local excision and radiation therapy.

  6. Prognostic significance of overexpressed long non-coding RNA TUG1 in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P-Q; Wu, Y-X; Zhong, X-D; Liu, B; Qiao, G

    2017-01-01

    The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) study has gradually become one of the hot topics in the field of RNA biology. However, little is known about the pathological role of lncRNA TUG1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. This study attempted to investigate the association of lncRNA TUG1 expression with progression and prognosis in ccRCC patients. Using qRT-PCR, the expression of TUG1 was measured in 203 ccRCC tissues and 45 adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Then, the relationships between TUG1 level and the clinicopathological factors of patients with ccRCC were analyzed. The prognostic significance was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The relative level of TUG1was significantly higher in ccRCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues (p TUG1 was associated significantly with histological grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (all p TUG1 expression levels were associated with a shorter overall survival (p TUG1 expression was an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome. These findings suggested that TUG1 may act as a tumor promoter in ccRCC and could serve as a potential therapeutic target for this tumor.

  7. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Shuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P=0.1. MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R=0.5 and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P=0.39. Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents.

  8. [Evaluation of signal noise ratio on analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using DWI with multi-b values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiule; Xing, Wei; Chen, Jie; Dai, Yongming; Sun, Jun; Li, Dengfa

    2014-01-21

    To explore the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR) on analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) using DWI with multi-b values. The images of 17 cases with CCRCC were analyzed, including 17 masses and 9 pure cysts. The signal intensity of the cysts and masses was measured separately on DWI for each b value. The minimal SNR, as the threshold, was recorded when the signal curve manifest as the single exponential line. The SNR of the CCRCC was calculated on DWI for each b value, and compared with the threshold by independent Two-sample t Test. The signal decreased on DWI with increased b factors for both pure cysts and CCRCC. The threshold is 1.29 ± 0.17, and the signal intensity of the cysts on DWI with multi-b values shown as a single exponential line when b ≤ 800 s/mm(2). For the CCRCC, the SNR is similar to the threshold when b = 1 000 s/mm(2) (t = 0.40, P = 0.69), and is lower when b = 1 200 s/mm(2) (t = -2.38, P = 0.03). The SNR should be sufficient for quantitative analysis of DWI, and the maximal b value is 1000 s/mm(2) for CCRCC.

  9. Disassembly of the lens fiber cell nucleus to create a clear lens: the p27 descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eye lens is unique among tissues: it is transparent, does not form tumors, and the majority of its cells degrade their organelles, including their cell nuclei. A mystery for over a century, there has been considerable recent progress in elucidating mechanisms of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFC...

  10. Two rare entities in the same palate lesion: hyalinizing-type clear cell carcinoma and necrotizing sialometaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Rabia Bozdoğan; Kara, Tuba; Porgali, Canan; Serinsoz, Ebru; Polat, Ayse; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2014-05-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a low-grade malignant epithelial neoplasm of the salivary glands. The tumor has epithelial cells and lacks myoepithelial cells. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limiting lesion of the salivary glands. The clinical and histologic features mimic those of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The importance of these entities are the rarity of both of them and their potential to be misdiagnosed as other lesions. Pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these entities to prevent misdiagnosis. This is the first clinical report of 2 rare and consecutive different entities of the same location on the hard palate to our knowledge.

  11. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Ghatalia

    Full Text Available Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T, matched normal kidney (N and metastatic tumor tissue (M may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79 compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187. Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001. The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation.

  12. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, Shaila; Montembault, Emilie; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster neuronal stem cells coordinate sister chromatid segregation with cleavage furrow ingression. Cells adapted to a dramatic increase in chromatid arm length by transiently elongating during anaphase/telophase. The degree of cell elongation correlated with the length of the trailing chromatid arms and was concomitant with a slight increase in spindle length and an enlargement of the zone of cortical myosin distribution. Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)–depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during development. These studies reveal a novel pathway linking trailing chromatid arms and cortical myosin that ensures the clearance of chromatids from the cleavage plane at the appropriate time during cytokinesis, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:23185030

  13. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Alessandra; Bonon, Anna; Volinia, Stefano; Lanza, Giovanni; Gambari, Roberto; Pinton, Paolo; Russo, Gian Rosario; del Senno, Laura; Dell’Atti, Lucio; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma. PMID:25426415

  14. Effects of concomitant diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism on testicular and epididymal histoarchitecture and steroidogenesis in male animals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Nazar Ali; Wei, Quan-wei; Shah, Atta Hussain; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of comorbid disorders of diabetes and hyperthyroidism in the adult male mice. In total, 32 ICR strain mice were equally distributed into four groups: control (C), diabetic (D), diabetic-plus-hyperthyroid (DH), and hyperthyroid (H). Mice allocated for diabetes received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 200 mg/kg body weight. At the onset of diabetes, one group of mice was concomitantly injected levothyroxine (LT4; 0.3 mg/kg body weight) and the other set of animals received the same treatment independently on a daily basis. The body weight, as well as the testicular and epididymal weights, was reduced markedly in D and DH mice. Higher trends of blood glucose levels were seen in the DH group, in comparison to euthyroid diabetic mice. Thyroid hormones could exert a transient effect on blood glucose homeostasis by altering the serum blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased luminal sizes of seminiferous tubules, along with decreased epithelial height and atrophic changes in germinal stem cells in the testis of DH and H mice. Caput epididymis of DH mice showed extensive compaction of principal cells, loss of stereocilia, lipid vacuolization, and inflammatory infiltrations; however, damaged tubular integrity, packed clear cells, exfoliated cells, and round spermatids were profoundly noticed in the cauda epididymis. Hyperthyroidism elevated the serum testosterone levels in H and DH mice and produced critical damages to the histoarchitecture of the epididymis. Collectively, this experiment endeavored to mimic the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, which will be helpful to better understand the reasons for male infertility in diabetic-cum-hyperthyroid patients. PMID:27819132

  15. Effects of concomitant diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism on testicular and epididymal histoarchitecture and steroidogenesis in male animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Nazar Ali; Wei, Quan-Wei; Shah, Atta Hussain; Shi, Fang-Xiong

    This study evaluated the effects of comorbid disorders of diabetes and hyperthyroidism in the adult male mice. In total, 32 ICR strain mice were equally distributed into four groups: control (C), diabetic (D), diabetic-plus-hyperthyroid (DH), and hyperthyroid (H). Mice allocated for diabetes received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 200 mg/kg body weight. At the onset of diabetes, one group of mice was concomitantly injected levothyroxine (LT4; 0.3 mg/kg body weight) and the other set of animals received the same treatment independently on a daily basis. The body weight, as well as the testicular and epididymal weights, was reduced markedly in D and DH mice. Higher trends of blood glucose levels were seen in the DH group, in comparison to euthyroid diabetic mice. Thyroid hormones could exert a transient effect on blood glucose homeostasis by altering the serum blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased luminal sizes of seminiferous tubules, along with decreased epithelial height and atrophic changes in germinal stem cells in the testis of DH and H mice. Caput epididymis of DH mice showed extensive compaction of principal cells, loss of stereocilia, lipid vacuolization, and inflammatory infiltrations; however, damaged tubular integrity, packed clear cells, exfoliated cells, and round spermatids were profoundly noticed in the cauda epididymis. Hyperthyroidism elevated the serum testosterone levels in H and DH mice and produced critical damages to the histoarchitecture of the epididymis. Collectively, this experiment endeavored to mimic the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, which will be helpful to better understand the reasons for male infertility in diabetic-cum-hyperthyroid patients.

  16. MCT4 surpasses the prognostic relevance of the ancillary protein CD147 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisel, Pascale; Stühler, Viktoria; Bedke, Jens; Winter, Stefan; Rausch, Steffen; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Nies, Anne T; Stenzl, Arnulf; Scharpf, Marcus; Fend, Falko; Kruck, Stephan; Schwab, Matthias; Schaeffeler, Elke

    2015-10-13

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147/BSG) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating oncogenic processes partly through its role as binding partner for monocarboxylate transporter MCT4/SLC16A3. As demonstrated for MCT4, CD147 is proposed to be associated with progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic relevance of CD147 in comparison to MCT4/SLC16A3 expression and DNA methylation. CD147 protein expression was assessed in two independent ccRCC-cohorts (n = 186, n = 59) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and subsequent manual as well as automated software-supported scoring (Tissue Studio, Definien sAG). Epigenetic regulation of CD147 was investigated using RNAseq and DNA methylation data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. These results were validated in our cohort. Relevance of prognostic models for cancer-specific survival, comprising CD147 and MCT4 expression or SLC16A3 DNA methylation, was compared using chi-square statistics. CD147 protein expression generated with Tissue Studio correlated significantly with those from manual scoring (P CD147 in ccRCC. Association of CD147 expression with patient outcome differed between cohorts. DNA methylation in the CD147/BSG promoter was not associated with expression. Comparison of prognostic relevance of CD147/BSG and MCT4/SLC16A3, showed higher significance for MCT4 expression and superior prognostic power for DNA methylation at specific CpG-sites in the SLC16A3 promoter (e.g. CD147 protein: P = 0.7780,Harrell's c-index = 53.7% vs. DNA methylation: P = 0.0076, Harrell's c-index = 80.0%). Prognostic significance of CD147 protein expression could not surpass that of MCT4, especially of SLC16A3 DNA methylation, corroborating the role of MCT4 as prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.

  17. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  18. Imprint cytology of clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract in the small intestine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takashi; Ichihara, Shin; Gotoda, Hiroko; Muraoka, Shunji; Kubo, Terufumi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2017-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLGT) is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm in the digestive tract. Its cytomorphologic features have never previously been reported. Here, we describe a case of CCSLGT, including its cytologic examination findings. A 47-year-old woman presented with a mass in the small intestine, which was resected and sent for imprint cytology. Imprint smears revealed tumor cells with light eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm in a necrotic background. Many of the tumor cells were arranged in a perivascular growth with a pseudopapillary formation, and there were some non-neoplastic osteoclast-like giant cells. Histological examination revealed solid nests and a pseudopapillary pattern of the tumor cells with clear or pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei with small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed positive for vimentin, S-100, and SOX-10, and negative for SMA, c-KIT, cytokeratin, HMB-45, and MelanA. The EWSR1 gene split signal was detected by reverse transcriptase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and EWSR1-CREB1 gene fusion was indicated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. From these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as CCSLGT. To best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the imprint cytology features of CCSLGT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An intraventricular clear cell meningioma revealed by an inflammatory syndrome in a male adult: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassereau, J; Lavigne, C; Michalak-Provost, S; Ghali, A; Dubas, F; Fournier, H D

    2008-07-01

    Intraventricular meningiomas are infrequent intracranial tumors. Clinical symptoms are mainly due to an increased intracranial pressure or a direct pressure on the surrounding brain structures. Inflammatory syndrome was described in some patients with chordoid meningiomas. Here we report a case of right intraventricular clear cell meningioma in a 50-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and inflammatory syndrome. Clinical and biological normalization was rapidly obtained after tumor removal. Immunohistochemical examination showed tumor cells and lymphocytes positivity for the pyrogenic cytokine interleukin-6, with a same intensity. To our knowledge, this is the first case described in the literature concerning an adult man with an intraventricular clear cell meningioma associated with a systemic inflammatory syndrome.

  20. Analyses of Potential Predictive Markers and Response to Targeted Therapy in Patients with Advanced Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents are standard treatments in advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, but biomarkers of activity are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL gene status, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR or stem cell factor receptor (KIT expression, and their relationships with characteristics and clinical outcome of advanced ccRCC. Methods: A total of 59 patients who received targeted treatment with sunitinib or pazopanib were evaluated for determination at Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between January 2010 and November 2012. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples were collected and status of the VHL gene and expression of VEGFR and KIT were determined by VHL sequence analysis and immunohistochemistry. Clinical-pathological features were collected and efficacy such as response rate and Median progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were calculated and then compared based on expression status. The Chi-square test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Lon-rank test were used for statistical analyses. Results: Of 59 patients, objective responses were observed in 28 patients (47.5%. The median PFS was 13.8 months and median OS was 39.9 months. There was an improved PFS in patients with the following clinical features: Male gender, number of metastatic sites 2 or less, VEGFR-2 positive or KIT positive. Eleven patients (18.6% had evidence of VHL mutation, with an objective response rate of 45.5%, which showed no difference with patients with no VHL mutation (47.9%. VHL mutation status did not correlate with either overall response rate (P = 0.938 or PFS (P = 0.277. The PFS was 17.6 months and 22.2 months in VEGFR-2 positive patients and KIT positive patients, respectively, which was significantly longer than that of VEGFR-2 or KIT negative patients (P = 0.026 and P = 0.043. Conclusion

  1. Cancer stem-like cells of ovarian clear cell carcinoma are enriched in the ALDH-high population associated with an accelerated scavenging system in reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Suzuki, N; Makino, H; Furui, T; Morii, E; Aoki, H; Kunisada, T; Yano, M; Kuji, S; Hirashima, Y; Arakawa, A; Nishio, S; Ushijima, K; Ito, K; Itani, Y; Morishige, K

    2015-05-01

    In ovarian cancer cases, recurrence after chemotherapy is frequently observed, suggesting the involvement of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The chemoresistance of ovarian clear cell carcinomas is particularly strong in comparison to other epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes. We investigated the relationship between a CSC marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), and clinical prognosis using ovarian clear cell carcinoma tissue samples. Furthermore, we investigated the antioxidant mechanism by which CSCs maintain a lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which provides protection from chemotherapeutic agents. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine the CSC markers (CD133, CD44, ALDH1) using ovarian clear cell carcinoma tissue samples (n=81). Clear cell carcinoma cell lines (KOC-7C, OVTOKO) are separated into the ALDH-high and ALDH-low populations by ALDEFLUOR assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the intracellular ROS level, mRNA level of the antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 expression of the two populations. High ALDH1 expression levels are related to advanced stage in clear cell carcinoma cases. ALDH1 expression significantly reduced progression free survival. Other markers are not related to clinical stage and prognosis. ALDH-high cells contained a lower ROS level than ALDH-low cells. Antioxidant enzymes were upregulated in ALDH-high cells. ALDH-high cells showed increased expression of Nrf2, a key transcriptional factor of the antioxidant system. ALDH-positive CSCs might have increased Nrf2-induced antioxidant scavengers, which lower ROS level relevant to chemoresistance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycoproteins of bovine epididymal spermatozoa--a cytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinowatz, F; Friess, A E; Wrobel, K H

    1984-01-01

    Modifications in bull sperm plasmamembrane during epididymal passage were investigated by the use of four different lectins: Concanavalin A (Con A); Ricinus communis I (RCA1); Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA); Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1). During sperm passage from caput to cauda epididymidis agglutination by RCA1 and WGA distinctly increased. Similar but somewhat less pronounced difference in the agglutinability was found for Con A. No agglutination was observed with UEA1. Ultrastructural examination of Con A binding sites on sperm plasma membrane with a Con A-horseradish peroxidase-gold technique (Con A-HRP-G) revealed a significant increase in the number of gold granules on the sperm tails during the epididymal passage of spermatozoa. No change in WGA-binding sites was observed between caput and cauda spermatozoa using a WGA-peroxidase method.

  3. Painless inter epididymal testicular torsion of the spermatic cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon V. Romano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter epididymal testicular torsion of the spermatic cord is extremely rare and usually diagnosed at surgery. We present an unusual case of spermatic cord torsion in a 14-year-old male patient. It is important to highlight that the torsion occurred only on the distal half of the epididymis leaving the head untwisted and edematous. In addition, the fact that this condition was painless made this case extremely rare and motivated our presentation.

  4. Painless inter epididymal testicular torsion of the spermatic cord

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon V. Romano; Haime S. Hernan; Norberto Fredotovich

    2007-01-01

    Inter epididymal testicular torsion of the spermatic cord is extremely rare and usually diagnosed at surgery. We present an unusual case of spermatic cord torsion in a 14-year-old male patient. It is important to highlight that the torsion occurred only on the distal half of the epididymis leaving the head untwisted and edematous. In addition, the fact that this condition was painless made this case extremely rare and motivated our presentation.

  5. Biochemical and binding characteristics of boar epididymal fluid proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Davidová, Nina; Jonáková, Věra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 879, č. 1 (2011), s. 100-106 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : epididymal proteins * RP HPLC * biotin-labeled ligands Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.888, year: 2011

  6. Synthesis and secretion of proteins by perifused caput epididymal tubules, and association of secreted proteins with spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinefelter, G.R.; Hamilton, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    We have used perifusion organ culture of proximal and distal caput epididymal tubules of the rat to study the secretion of proteins by epididymal epithelium and uptake of the luminal radioactive proteins by sperm. The amount of incorporation of L-[35S]methionine into luminal fluid proteins was time dependent and completely inhibited by cycloheximide. The association of labeled proteins with cultured sperm was also dependent on time and continuous, with sperm still acquiring labeled luminal proteins after protein synthesis was arrested. A Mr = 46,000 molecule was found to be heavily labeled in luminal fluid and sperm extracts. Fluorograms of all L-[35S]methionine extracts immunoprecipitated using an antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody (Klinefelter and Hamilton, 1984) showed labeling of an Mr = 18,000 molecule and, in addition, the Mr = 46,000 molecule, but immunostaining was specific only for the Mr = 18,000 molecule and the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. We suggest that the Mr = 46,000 molecule may be galactosyltransferase. Galactose oxidase-NaB[3H]4 labeling of the cultured caput sperm cell surface revealed a Mr = 23,000 molecule that was able to be immunoprecipitated with antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody. Our data suggest that this cell surface molecule is similar to one component of the fluid epididymal alpha-lactalbumin-like complex and, in addition, show that glycosylation of the sperm surface can occur in the caput epididymidis

  7. Methylation of 10 miRNA genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and their diagnostic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Loginov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is characterized by the high (30–40 % of cases frequency of lethal outcomes which at metastasis reaches 90 %. Lack of efficient diagnostics at early stages of a disease indicates the need of searching on new ccRCC markers.Objective: for definition of methylation role of some tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA genes in ccRCC pathogenesis and progression and marker identification for ccRCC diagnostics and metastasis predictions.Materials and methods. The alterations of methylation status of 10 miRNA genes were determined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction in tumor DNA samples and matched histologically unchanged tissues from 70 patients with ccRCC, as well as in DNA samples of kidney tissues from 19 post-mortal individuals without cancer history. Methylation of MIR MIR-107, -130b and -148a genes in ccRCC was studied for the first time.Results. It was shown that 8 miRNA genes (MIR-9-1/3, -34b/c, -124a-1/2/3, -129-2, -130b were methylated in ccRCC tumors with significantly higher frequency than in the matched histologically unchanged kidney tissues. It was established the association of methylation of 4 miRNA genes (MIR-107, -124a-3, -129-2, -130b with ccRCC progression (stage, tumor size, differentiation grade, including metastasis in the lymph nodes or distant organs, revealed for MIR-107 and -129-2. The association of MIR-107 and -130b methylation with progression of ccRCC is shown for the first time. Potential marker systems are made for ccRCC diagnostics using tumor biopsy; according to the ROC analysis, systems from 4 and 5 genes (MIR-9-1, -4b/c, -124a-3, -129-2/with addition of MIR-130b are characterized by high clinical sensitivity of 90 % and specificity of 94 % (area under ROC curve 0.93 and 0.94. Conclusion. The received results will form the basis of noninvasive ccRCC diagnostics further development. To conclude, it is shown the association of methylation of 9

  8. Stratification of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genomes by gene-directed copy number alteration (CNA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, H-J; Steinbeck, F; Maruschke, M; Koczan, D; Ziems, B; Hakenberg, O W

    2017-01-01

    Tumorigenic processes are understood to be driven by epi-/genetic and genomic alterations from single point mutations to chromosomal alterations such as insertions and deletions of nucleotides up to gains and losses of large chromosomal fragments including products of chromosomal rearrangements e.g. fusion genes and proteins. Overall comparisons of copy number alterations (CNAs) presented in 48 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genomes resulted in ratios of gene losses versus gene gains between 26 ccRCC Fuhrman malignancy grades G1 (ratio 1.25) and 20 G3 (ratio 0.58). Gene losses and gains of 15762 CNA genes were mapped to 795 chromosomal cytoband loci including 280 KEGG pathways. CNAs were classified according to their contribution to Fuhrman tumour gradings G1 and G3. Gene gains and losses turned out to be highly structured processes in ccRCC genomes enabling the subclassification and stratification of ccRCC tumours in a genome-wide manner. CNAs of ccRCC seem to start with common tumour related gene losses flanked by CNAs specifying Fuhrman grade G1 losses and CNA gains favouring grade G3 tumours. The appearance of recurrent CNA signatures implies the presence of causal mechanisms most likely implicated in the pathogenesis and disease-outcome of ccRCC tumours distinguishing lower from higher malignant tumours. The diagnostic quality of initial 201 genes (108 genes supporting G1 and 93 genes G3 phenotypes) has been successfully validated on published Swiss data (GSE19949) leading to a restricted CNA gene set of 171 CNA genes of which 85 genes favour Fuhrman grade G1 and 86 genes Fuhrman grade G3. Regarding these gene sets overall survival decreased with the number of G3 related gene losses plus G3 related gene gains. CNA gene sets presented define an entry to a gene-directed and pathway-related functional understanding of ongoing copy number alterations within and between individual ccRCC tumours leading to CNA genes of prognostic and predictive value.

  9. Development and confirmation of potential gene classifiers of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma using next-generation RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikrem, Oystein S; Strauss, Philipp; Beisland, Christian; Scherer, Andreas; Landolt, Lea; Flatberg, Arnar; Leh, Sabine; Beisvag, Vidar; Skogstrand, Trude; Hjelle, Karin; Shresta, Anjana; Marti, Hans-Peter

    2016-12-01

    A previous study by this group demonstrated the feasibility of RNA sequencing (RNAseq) technology for capturing disease biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and presented initial results for carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein-6 (TNFAIP6) as possible biomarkers of ccRCC (discovery set) [Eikrem et al. PLoS One 2016;11:e0149743]. To confirm these results, the previous study is expanded, and RNAseq data from additional matched ccRCC and normal renal biopsies are analyzed (confirmation set). Two core biopsies from patients (n = 12) undergoing partial or full nephrectomy were obtained with a 16 g needle. RNA sequencing libraries were generated with the Illumina TruSeq ® Access library preparation protocol. Comparative analysis was done using linear modeling (voom/Limma; R Bioconductor). The formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded discovery and confirmation data yielded 8957 and 11,047 detected transcripts, respectively. The two data sets shared 1193 of differentially expressed genes with each other. The average expression and the log 2 -fold changes of differentially expressed transcripts in both data sets correlated, with R²   =   .95 and R²   =   .94, respectively. Among transcripts with the highest fold changes were CA9, neuronal pentraxin-2 and uromodulin. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was highlighted by differential expression of, for example, transforming growth factor-β 1 and delta-like ligand-4. The diagnostic accuracy of CA9 was 100% and 93.9% when using the discovery set as the training set and the confirmation data as the test set, and vice versa, respectively. These data further support TNFAIP6 as a novel biomarker of ccRCC. TNFAIP6 had combined accuracy of 98.5% in the two data sets. This study provides confirmatory data on the potential use of CA9 and TNFAIP6 as biomarkers of ccRCC. Thus, next-generation sequencing expands the clinical application of tissue analyses.

  10. MeCP2 Expression and Promoter Methylation of Cyclin D1 Gene Are Associated with Cyclin D1 Expression in Developing Rat Epididymal Duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwanto, Agus; Kitazawa, Riko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2008-01-01

    Hypermethylation-dependent silencing of the gene is achieved by recruiting methyl-CpG binding proteins (MeCPs). Among the MeCPs, MeCP2 is the most abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in various types of cells. We first screened the distribution and expression pattern of MeCP2 in adult and developing rat tissues and found strong MeCP2 expression, albeit rather ubiquitously among normal tissues, in ganglion cells and intestinal epithelium in the small intestine, in Purkinje cells and neurons in the brain, in spermatogonia and in epithelial cells in the epididymal duct of the testis. We then assessed the expression and the methylation pattern of the promoter region of cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry and sodium bisulfite mapping, and found that cyclin D1 expression in the epididymal duct decreased rapidly during rat development: strong in newborn rats and very weak or almost negative in 7-day-old rats. Mirroring the decrease of cyclin D1 expression, methylated cytosine at both CpG and non-CpG loci in the cyclin D1 promoter was frequently observed in the epididymal duct of 7-day-old rats but not in that of newborn rats. Interestingly, MeCP2 expression also increased concomitant with the increase of methylation. Cyclin D1 expression in the epididymal duct may be efficiently regulated by the epigenetic mechanism of the cooperative increase of MeCP2 expression and promoter methylation

  11. Laboratory handling of epididymal and testicular spermatozoa: What can be done to improve sperm injections outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Varghese, Alex C

    2012-09-01

    Spermatozoa from azoospermic males can be retrieved from either the epididymis or the testis, depending on the type of azoospermia, using different surgical methods such as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro- TESE). After collecting the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue, laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, noxious microorganisms, and red blood cells. Processed spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection or eventually be cryopreserved. However, spermatozoa collected from either the epididymis or the testis are often compromised and more fragile than ejaculated ones. Therefore, sperm processing techniques should be used with great caution to avoid jeopardizing the sperm fertilizing potential in treatment cycles. In this review, we describe the current methods for processing surgically-retrieved specimens, either fresh or frozen- thawed, and provide the tips and pitfalls for facilitating the handling of such specimens. In addition, we present the available laboratory tools to aid in the identification of viable immotile spermatozoa to be used in conjunction with assisted reproductive techniques. Review of the literature was carried out using PubMed and Science Direct search engines.

  12. Laboratory handling of epididymal and testicular spermatozoa: What can be done to improve sperm injections outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa from azoospermic males can be retrieved from either the epididymis or the testis, depending on the type of azoospermia, using different surgical methods such as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA, testicular sperm aspiration (TESA, testicular sperm extraction (TESE, and microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro- TESE. After collecting the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue, laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, noxious microorganisms, and red blood cells. Processed spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection or eventually be cryopreserved. However, spermatozoa collected from either the epididymis or the testis are often compromised and more fragile than ejaculated ones. Therefore, sperm processing techniques should be used with great caution to avoid jeopardizing the sperm fertilizing potential in treatment cycles. In this review, we describe the current methods for processing surgically-retrieved specimens, either fresh or frozen- thawed, and provide the tips and pitfalls for facilitating the handling of such specimens. In addition, we present the available laboratory tools to aid in the identification of viable immotile spermatozoa to be used in conjunction with assisted reproductive techniques. Review of the literature was carried out using PubMed and Science Direct search engines.

  13. Comparison of Utility of Histogram Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and R2* for Differentiation of Low-Grade From High-Grade Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2* for differentiating low-grade from high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Forty-six patients with pathologically confirmed clear cell RCC underwent preoperative BOLD and DWI MRI of the kidneys. ADCs based on the entire tumor volume were calculated with b value combinations of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). ROI-based R2* was calculated with eight TE combinations of 6.7-22.8 milliseconds. Histogram analysis of tumor ADCs and R2* values was performed to obtain mean; median; width; and fifth, 10th, 90th, and 95th percentiles and histogram inhomogeneity, kurtosis, and skewness for all lesions. Thirty-three low-grade and 13 high-grade clear cell RCCs were found at pathologic examination. The TNM classification and tumor volume of clear cell RCC significantly correlated with histogram ADC and R2* (ρ = -0.317 to 0.506; p histogram ADC and R2* indexes, 10th percentile ADC had the highest accuracy (91.3%) in discriminating low- from high-grade clear cell RCC. R2* in discriminating hemorrhage was achieved with a threshold of 68.95 Hz. At this threshold, high-grade clear cell RCC had a significantly higher prevalence of intratumor hemorrhage (high-grade, 76.9%; low-grade, 45.4%; p Histogram analysis of ADC and R2* allows differentiation of low- from high-grade clear cell RCC with high accuracy.

  14. Strong vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses have cytolytic function in a chimpanzee clearing HCV infection.

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    Babs E Verstrepen

    Full Text Available A single correlate of effective vaccine protection against chronic HCV infection has yet to be defined. In this study, we analyzed T-cell responses in four chimpanzees, immunized with core-E1-E2-NS3 and subsequently infected with HCV1b. Viral clearance was observed in one animal, while the other three became chronically infected. In the animal that cleared infection, NS3-specific CD8 T-cell responses were observed to be more potent in terms of frequency and polyfunctionality of cytokine producing cells. Unique to this animal was the presence of killing-competent CD8 T-cells, specific for NS3 1258-1272, being presented by the chimpanzee MHC class I molecule Patr-A*03∶01, and a high affinity recognition of this epitope. In the animals that became chronically infected, T-cells were able to produce cytokines against the same peptide but no cytolysis could be detected. In conclusion, in the animal that was able to clear HCV infection not only cytokine production was observed but also cytolytic potential against specific MHC class I/peptide-combinations.

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

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    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  16. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship to...

  17. Evaluation of Lasting Effects of Heat Stress on Sperm Profile and Oxidative Status of Ram Semen and Epididymal Sperm

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    Thais Rose dos Santos Hamilton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperatures lead to an increase of testicular metabolism that results in spermatic damage. Oxidative stress is the main factor responsible for testicular damage caused by heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate lasting effects of heat stress on ejaculated sperm and immediate or long-term effects of heat stress on epididymal sperm. We observed decrease in motility and mass motility of ejaculated sperm, as well as an increase in the percentages of sperm showing major and minor defects, damaged plasma and acrosome membranes, and a decrease in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated group until one spermatic cycle. An increased enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of stressed cells were observed in ejaculated sperm of the treated group. A decrease in the percentage of epididymal sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in the treated group. However, when comparing immediate and long-term effects, we observed an increase in the percentage of sperm with low mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, testicular heat stress induced oxidative stress that led to rescuable alterations after one spermatic cycle in ejaculated sperm and also after 30 days in epididymal sperm.

  18. Identifying mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancer: with application to clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Liou Louis S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA regulate mRNA levels in a tissue specific way, either by inducing degradation of the transcript or by inhibiting translation or transcription. Putative mRNA targets of microRNA identified from seed sequence matches are available in many databases. However, such matches have a high false positive rate and cannot identify tissue specificity of regulation. Results We describe a simple method to identify direct mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancers from expression level measurements in patient matched tumor/normal samples. The word "direct" is used here in a strict sense to: a represent mRNA which have an exact seed sequence match to the microRNA in their 3'UTR, b the seed sequence match is strictly conserved across mouse, human, rat and dog genomes, c the mRNA and microRNA expression levels can distinguish tumor from normal with high significance and d the microRNA/mRNA expression levels are strongly and significantly anti-correlated in tumor and/or normal samples. We apply and validate the method using clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC and matched normal kidney samples, limiting our analysis to mRNA targets which undergo degradation of the mRNA transcript because of a perfect seed sequence match. Dysregulated microRNA and mRNA are first identified by comparing their expression levels in tumor vs normal samples. Putative dysregulated microRNA/mRNA pairs are identified from these using seed sequence matches, requiring that the seed sequence be conserved in human/dog/rat/mouse genomes. These are further pruned by requiring a strong anti-correlation signature in tumor and/or normal samples. The method revealed many new regulations in ccRCC. For instance, loss of miR-149, miR-200c and mir-141 causes gain of function of oncogenes (KCNMA1, LOX, VEGFA and SEMA6A respectively and increased levels of miR-142-3p, miR-185, mir-34a, miR-224, miR-21 cause loss of function of tumor suppressors LRRC2, PTPN13, SFRP1

  19. Iodine quantification to distinguish clear cell from papillary renal cell carcinoma at dual-energy multidetector CT: a multireader diagnostic performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether dual-energy multidetector row computed tomographic (CT) imaging with iodine quantification is able to distinguish between clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma ( RCC renal cell carcinoma ) subtypes. In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 88 patients (57 men, 31 women) with diagnosis of either clear cell or papillary RCC renal cell carcinoma at pathologic analysis, who underwent contrast material-enhanced dual-energy nephrographic phase study between December 2007 and June 2013, were included. Five readers, blinded to pathologic diagnosis, independently evaluated all cases by determining the lesion iodine concentration on color-coded iodine maps. The receiving operating characteristic curve analysis was adopted to estimate the optimal threshold for discriminating between clear cell and papillary RCC renal cell carcinoma , and results were validated by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. Interobserver agreement was assessed by using an intraclass correlation coefficient. The correlation between tumor iodine concentration and tumor grade was investigated. A tumor iodine concentration of 0.9 mg/mL represented the optimal threshold to discriminate between clear cell and papillary RCC renal cell carcinoma , and it yielded the following: sensitivity, 98.2% (987 of 1005 [95% confidence interval: 97.7%, 98.7%]); specificity, 86.3% (272 of 315 [95% confidence interval: 85.0%, 87.7%]); positive predictive value, 95.8% (987 of 1030 [95% confidence interval: 95.0%, 96.6%]); negative predictive value, 93.7% (272 of 290 [95% confidence interval: 92.8%, 94.7%]); overall accuracy of 95.3% (1259 of 1320 [95% confidence interval: 94.6%, 96.2%]), with an area under the curve of 0.923 (95% confidence interval: 0.913, 0.933). An excellent agreement was found among the five readers in measured tumor iodine concentration (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.9990 [95% confidence interval: 0. 9987, 0.9993). A

  20. Efficient generation of patient-matched malignant and normal primary cell cultures from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients: clinically relevant models for research and personalized medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Nazleen C.; Gedye, Craig; Apostoli, Anthony J.; Brown, Kevin R.; Paterson, Joshua; Stickle, Natalie; Robinette, Michael; Fleshner, Neil; Hamilton, Robert J.; Kulkarni, Girish; Zlotta, Alexandre; Evans, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Moffat, Jason; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Ailles, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have few therapeutic options, as ccRCC is unresponsive to chemotherapy and is highly resistant to radiation. Recently targeted therapies have extended progression-free survival, but responses are variable and no significant overall survival benefit has been achieved. Commercial ccRCC cell lines are often used as model systems to develop novel therapeutic approaches, but these do not accurately recapitulate primary ccRCC tumors at the genomic and transcriptional levels. Furthermore, ccRCC exhibits significant intertumor genetic heterogeneity, and the limited cell lines available fail to represent this aspect of ccRCC. Our objective was to generate accurate preclinical in vitro models of ccRCC using tumor tissues from ccRCC patients. ccRCC primary single cell suspensions were cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media or defined serum-free media. Established cultures were characterized by genomic verification of mutations present in the primary tumors, expression of renal epithelial markers, and transcriptional profiling. The apparent efficiency of primary cell culture establishment was high in both culture conditions, but genotyping revealed that the majority of cultures contained normal, not cancer cells. ccRCC characteristically shows biallelic loss of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene, leading to accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and expression of HIF target genes. Purification of cells based on expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a cell surface HIF target, followed by culture in FBS enabled establishment of ccRCC cell cultures with an efficiency of >80 %. Culture in serum-free conditions selected for growth of normal renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transcriptional profiling of ccRCC and matched normal cell cultures identified up- and down-regulated networks in ccRCC and comparison to The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed the clinical validity of our cell cultures. The ability

  1. The effect of citric acid and citrate on protoplasmic droplet of bovine epididymal sperms

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    Keivan Abdy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor evaluation of citric acid and citrate effects on bovine epididymal protoplasmic droplets, fifty bovine testes were collected in the October 2007 till June 2008 from Urmia slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory in a cool container filled with 5 °C ice pack. Caudal epididymis was incised and sperm cells were put into Petri dishes containing hams f10 media with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS, which were kept in 37 °C, CO2 incubator. Then sperm cells were counted and 50-milion per mL concentration was prepared. After this stage, three dilutions of citric acid (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 N and one dilution of citrate (1N, based on normal osmolarity and normal pH were added to a micro tube containing 25 milion per mL sperm. Then one-step eosin-nigrosin staining in 30-60-120-240-360 minutes was performed and slides were evaluated with 1000-x phase contrast microscope and 200 sperm cells per slide were counted. The results revealed significant difference between blank and citric acid 0.3 N. The proportion of protoplasmic droplet in group consisting of 0.3 N acid citric in 120-240-360 minutes, was significantly lower than that of blank (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference between citrate – blank and citric acid 0.1N-blank groups, but after 240 minutes significant difference was observed between blank & citric acid 0.2 N (P < 0.05. In conclusions citric acid based on dilution and time duration can reduce the proportion of bovine epididymal sperm cytoplasmic droplets.

  2. Potential role of mTORC2 as a therapeutic target in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Takeshi; Mabuchi, Seiji; Matsumoto, Yuri; Kawano, Mahiru; Sasano, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ryoko; Sawada, Kenjiro; Ito, Kimihiko; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Schilder, Russell J; Testa, Joseph R; Kimura, Tadashi

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) as a therapeutic target in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), which is regarded as an aggressive, chemoresistant histologic subtype. Using tissue microarrays of 98 primary ovarian cancers [52 CCCs and 46 serous adenocarcinomas (SAC)], activation of mTORC2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Then, the growth-inhibitory effect of mTORC2-targeting therapy, as well as the role of mTORC2 signaling as a mechanism for acquired resistance to the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor RAD001 in ovarian CCC, were examined using two pairs of RAD001-sensitive parental (RMG2 and HAC2) and RAD001-resistant CCC cell lines (RMG2-RR and HAC2-RR). mTORC2 was more frequently activated in CCCs than in SACs (71.2% vs. 45.7%). Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by AZD8055 markedly inhibited the proliferation of both RAD001-sensitive and -resistant cells in vitro. Treatment with RAD001 induced mTORC2-mediated AKT activation in RAD001-sensitive CCC cells. Moreover, increased activation of mTORC2-AKT signaling was observed in RAD001-resistant CCC cells compared with the respective parental cells. Inhibition of mTORC2 during RAD001 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of RAD001 and prevented CCC cells from acquiring resistance to RAD001. In conclusion, mTORC2 is frequently activated, and can be a promising therapeutic target, in ovarian CCCs. Moreover, mTORC2-targeted therapy may be efficacious in a first-line setting as well as for second-line treatment of recurrent disease developing after RAD001-treatment.

  3. Cutaneous Clear Cell Sarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 12 cases emphasizing its distinction from dermal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantschke, Markus; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Palmedo, Gabriele; Calonje, Eduardo; Lazar, Alexander J.; Kutzner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of tendons and aponeuroses / malignant melanoma of soft parts is a rare tumor and in the majority of cases presents a characteristic reciprocal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) that results in fusion of the EWS and ATF1 genes. Although the melanocytic differentiation of CCS is indisputable, its precise lineage remains unclear. Typically, the slowly growing tumor affects the extremities of adolescents or young adults, especially around the ankle and foot. CCS is classically regarded as a deep soft tissue tumor associated with tendons or aponeuroses. This traditional view is put into perspective by the description of primary CCS of the gastrointestinal tract, which may have a variant fusion gene EWSR1-CREB1. We describe 12 cases of cutaneous CCS and discuss the differential diagnoses. These 12 cases share an identical immunohistochemical profile with malignant melanoma (MM) and thus can easily be confused with a dermal variant of spindle cell MM or metastasis of MM. The patients' ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median: 25 y), and there was a female predominance (10 females, 2 males). Most tumors (n = 9) were located on the extremities, 2 tumors arose on the back, and 1 on the abdomen. The mean tumor size was 0,97 cm (range, 0,4 to 1,7 cm). Six cases showed invasion of the subcutis, the other 6 cases were entirely dermal. Tumor necrosis was evident in 2 cases, melanin pigment in 2 cases, and ulceration in 1 tumor. All cases showed uniform nests and fascicles of pale spindled or slightly epitheloid cells with finely granular eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. There was fair pleomorphism with plump spindled nuclei and significantly prominent nucleoli. Multinucleated wreath-like tumor giant cells were observed in two-thirds of cases, but were usually present only focally. The dense cellular aggregates were encased by delicate fibrous septa. The stroma showed a sclerotic reticulated pattern. Partly, the nests of spindle cells bordered the epidermis

  4. Induction of oxidative stress in rat epididymal sperm after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

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    Latchoumycandane, C.; Chitra, K.C.; Mathur, P.P. [School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University (India)

    2002-03-01

    The ability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to induce oxidative stress in various tissues of animals has been reported. The nature and mechanism of action of TCDD on the antioxidant system of sperm has not been studied. In the present study we have sought to investigate whether TCDD induces oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm of rats. Subchronic doses of TCDD (1, 10, and 100 ng/kg body weight per day) were administered orally to male Wistar strain rats for 45 days. After 24 h of the last treatment the rats were killed using diethyl ether. The epididymides were removed and cleared from the adhering tissues. Epididymal sperm were collected by cutting the epididymides into small pieces in Ham's F12 medium, and counted using a hemocytometer. The epididymal sperm counts in the TCDD-treated groups decreased in a dose-dependent manner from the control value of 8.2{+-}0.14 x 10{sup 8} to 5.31{+-}0.15 x 10{sup 8}. Since a positive correlation (r=0.95; n=24) was observed between sperm count and DNA content of the epididymal sperm, DNA content was routinely used as an indicator of sperm count, and the results were expressed in terms of both protein and DNA. There was a significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase (40{+-}2.17 to 27.1{+-}0.76/mg protein and 32.41 to 18.07{+-}0.76/mg DNA), catalase (2.49{+-}0.13 to 2.03{+-}0.05/mg protein and 2.01{+-}0.05 to 1.35{+-}0.05/mg DNA), glutathione reductase (71.2{+-}3.87 to 48{+-}1.79/mg protein and 57.58{+-}1.52 to 31.94/mg DNA) and glutathione peroxidase (22.4{+-}1.43 to 16.9{+-}1.57/mg protein and 18.08{+-}0.61 to 11.38{+-}1.22/mg DNA) while there were increases in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (20.8{+-}1.96 to 55.3{+-}0.88/ mg protein and 16.18{+-}1.88 to 36.87{+-}0.88/ mg DNA) and lipid peroxidation (2.17{+-}0.2 to 6.08/mg protein and 1.75{+-}0.12 to 4.05{+-}0.12/mg DNA) in the epididymal sperm. The results suggest that graded doses of TCDD elicit depletion of antioxidant defense system

  5. Carbonic Anhydrase IX is Not a Predictor of Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Digital Analysis of Tissue Microarray

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    Marcelo Zerati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge about the molecular biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is evolving, and Carbonic Anhydrase type IX (CA-IX has emerged as a potential prognostic marker in this challenging disease. However, most of the literature about CA-IX on ccRCC comes from series on metastatic cancer, with a lack of series on non-metastatic cancer. The objective is to evaluate the expression of CA-IX in a cohort of non-metastatic ccRCC, correlating with 1 overall survival, and 2 with established prognostic parameters (T stage, tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade, microvascular invasion and peri-renal fat invasion. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. We evaluated 95 patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, as to the expression of CA-IX. The analyzed parameters where: overall survival (OS, TNM stage, tumor size (TS, Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG, microvascular invasion (MVI, peri-renal fat invasion (PFI. We utilized a custom built tissue microarray, and the immunoexpression was digitally quantified using the Photoshop® software. Results: Th e mean follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 1.9 to 19.5 years. The analysis of CA-IX expression against the selected prognostic parameters showed no correlation. The results are as follows: Overall survival (p = 0.790; T stage (p = 0.179; tumor size (p = 0.143; grouped Fuhrman nuclear grade (p = 0.598; microvascular invasion (p = 0.685, and peri-renal fat invasion (p = 0.104. Conclusion Carbonic anhydrase type IX expression does not correlate with overall survival and conventional prognostic parameters in non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae.

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    Mateus R Beguelini

    Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.

  7. Radionuclide and Fluorescence Imaging of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Using Dual Labeled Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX Antibody G250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Rijpkema, Mark; Bos, Desirée L; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-08-01

    Tumor targeted optical imaging using antibodies labeled with near infrared fluorophores is a sensitive imaging modality that might be used during surgery to assure complete removal of malignant tissue. We evaluated the feasibility of dual modality imaging and image guided surgery with the dual labeled anti-carbonic anhydrase IX antibody preparation (111)In-DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW in mice with intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma. BALB/c nu/nu mice with intraperitoneal SK-RC-52 lesions received 10 μg DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW labeled with 15 MBq (111)In or 10 μg of the dual labeled irrelevant control antibody NUH-82 (20 mice each). To evaluate when tumors could be detected, 4 mice per group were imaged weekly during 5 weeks with single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography and the fluorescence imaging followed by ex vivo biodistribution studies. As early as 1 week after tumor cell inoculation single photon emission computerized tomography and fluorescence images showed clear delineation of intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma with good concordance between single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography and fluorescence images. The high and specific accumulation of the dual labeled antibody conjugate in tumors was confirmed in the biodistribution studies. Maximum tumor uptake was observed 1 week after inoculation (mean ± SD 58.5% ± 18.7% vs 5.6% ± 2.3% injected dose per gm for DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW vs NUH-82, respectively). High tumor uptake was also observed at other time points. This study demonstrates the feasibility of dual modality imaging with dual labeled antibody (111)In-DTPA-G250-IRDye800CW in a clear cell renal cell carcinoma model. Results indicate that preoperative and intraoperative detection of carbonic anhydrase IX expressing tumors, positive resection margins and metastasis might be feasible with this approach. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  8. Evaluation of the efficiency of combination palliative treatment in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

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    P. S. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experience with combination treatment, i.e. systemic therapy in combination with palliative surgery, in the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer is very rarely described in world literature.Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination treatment in combination with palliative cytoreductive surgery and targeted therapy and to define optimal indications for combination treatment.Subjects and methods. Data on 47 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC who received systemic (targeted therapy in combination or after incomplete cytoreduction (iCR were analyzed in this retrospective study. The proportion of men and women was 72.3 % and 27.7 %, respectively; their ratio was 2.6:1. All the patients (100% underwent surgical treatment as nephrectomy or kidney resection for primary tumor. In the patients who had received radical treatment in different periods, the median relapse-free survival was 25.3 (0-187 months; the mean follow-up duration in the study was 33.2 (27.4–39.0 months. Out of the histological characteristics of a primary tumor, its Fuhrman grade was studied. Prior to initiation of mRCC therapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognosis groups were assessed; the patients were divided into good (n = 9 (19.1 %, interim (n = 28 (59.6 %, and bad (n = 10 (21.3 % prognosis groups. Their total somatic status was separately rated using the ECOG scale: 0, (n = 10 (21.3%, 1 (n = 24 (51.1 %, and 2, (n = 13 (27.6 %. The sites of metastases were as follows: the lung (n = 29, bones (n = 18, adrenals (n = 11, recurrence in the removed kidney bed (n = 10, and liver (n = 10. Multiple organ involvements were detected in 22 (46.8 % patients. There were more than 5 metastases in one organ in 18 (40.0 % patients and only 15 (33.3 % were found to have a single focus in one organ. Whether iCR might be used as a separate line treatment was studied. A comparative analysis was made between 2 groups of

  9. C-reactive Protein in Patients with Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma: An Important Biomarker for Tumor-associated Inflammation

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    Albrecht Reichle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two consecutive multi-center phase II trials were designed to prove the hypothesis, whether therapeutic modeling of tumor-associated infl ammatory processes could result in improved tumor response. Therapy in both trials consisted of low-dose capecitabine 1g/m2 twice daily p.o. for 14 days, every 3 weeks, day 1+, and rofecoxib 25 mg daily p.o., day 1+ (from 11/04 etoricoxib 60 mg daily instead plus pioglitazone 60 mg daily p.o., day 1+. In study II low-dose IFN-a 4.5 MU sc. three times a week, week 1+, was added until disease progression. Eighteen, and 33 patients, respectively, with clear cell renal carcinoma and progressive disease were enrolled. Objective response (48% was exclusively observed in study II (PR 35%, CR 13%, and paralleled by a strong CRP response after 4 weeks on treatment, p = 0.0005, in all 29 pts (100% with elevated CRP levels. Median progression-free survival could be more than doubled from a median of 4.7 months (95% CI, 1.0 to 10.4 to 11.5 months (6.8 to 16.2 in study II, p = 0.00001. Median overall survival of population II was 26 months. Efficacious negative regulation of tumor-associated infl ammation by transcription modulators may result in a steep increase of tumor response and survival.

  10. Effects on survival of BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations in sporadic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis with independent validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Payal; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Christie, Alana; Zhrebker, Leah; Pavía-Jiménez, Andrea; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Xie, Xian-Jin; Brugarolas, James

    2013-02-01

    Clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas display divergent clinical behaviours. However, the molecular genetic events driving these behaviours are unknown. We discovered that BAP1 is mutated in about 15% of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma, and that BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations are largely mutually exclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of these molecular subtypes and to determine whether patients with BAP1-mutant and PBRM1-mutant tumours had different overall survival. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed 145 patients with primary clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma and defined PBRM1 and BAP1 mutation status from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW), TX, USA, between 1998 and 2011. We classified patients into those with BAP1-mutant tumours and those with tumours exclusively mutated for PBRM1 (PBRM1-mutant). We used a second independent cohort (n=327) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for validation. In both cohorts, more than 80% of patients had localised or locoregional disease at presentation. Overall both cohorts were similar, although the TCGA had more patients with metastatic and higher-grade disease, and more TCGA patients presented before molecularly targeted therapies became available. The median overall survival in the UTSW cohort was significantly shorter for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours (4·6 years; 95% CI 2·1-7·2), than for patients with PBRM1-mutant tumours (10·6 years; 9·8-11·5), corresponding to a HR of 2·7 (95% CI 0·99-7·6, p=0·044). Median overall survival in the TCGA cohort was 1·9 years (95% CI 0·6-3·3) for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours and 5·4 years (4·0-6·8) for those with PBRM1-mutant tumours. A HR similar to the UTSW cohort was noted in the TCGA cohort (2·8; 95% CI 1·4-5·9; p=0·004). Patients with mutations in both BAP1 and PBRM1, although a minority (three in UTSW cohort and four in TCGA cohort), had the worst overall survival (median 2·1 years, 95

  11. Lung Clear “Sugar” Cell Tumor and Jak V617f Positive Essential Thrombocythemia: A simple Coıncıdence?

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    Volkan Yazak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary clear cell tumor of the lung is an extremely rare benign tumor, which is called “sugar tumor”, because of the large content of glycogen. Here we are presenting essential thrombocythemia and lung clear cell tumor which was not reported before to the best of our knowledge. A 44 years old woman admitted to the clinic with complaint of lassitude lasting for 2 months. In her physical examination the spleen was 3 cm palpable from the costa arch In laboratory findings number of platelet was 1014000 mm³. A 3.5 cm in diameter pulmonary nodule is detected in right upper lobe in the graphy of the lungs. Subsequently  computed tomography  (CT of thorax was carried out. Due to the benign features in the display of  the detected nodule, a total excision with curative and diagnostic intentions was performed. Microscopically the tumor were composed of nests of rounded or oval cells with distinct cell borders and optically clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were small. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells expressed HMB-45, NSE and focal S100 antigen. It was diagnosed as clear  “sugar” cell tumor. In conclusion, in lung clear cell tumor, it is important to make evaluation in terms of myeloproliferative disease in adults whose thrombocytosis continue after the treatment.

  12. Primary clear cell renal carcinoma cells display minimal mitochondrial respiratory capacity resulting in pronounced sensitivity to glycolytic inhibition by 3-Bromopyruvate.

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    Nilsson, H; Lindgren, D; Mandahl Forsberg, A; Mulder, H; Axelson, H; Johansson, M E

    2015-01-08

    Changes of cellular metabolism are an integral property of the malignant potential of most cancer cells. Already in the 1930s, Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells preferably utilize glycolysis and lactate fermentation for energy production, rather than the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation dominating in normal cells, a phenomenon today known as the Warburg effect. Even though many tumor types display a high degree of aerobic glycolysis, they still retain the activity of other energy-producing metabolic pathways. One exception seems to be the clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma, ccRCC, where the activity of most other pathways than that of glycolysis has been shown to be reduced. This makes ccRCC a promising candidate for the use of glycolytic inhibitors in treatment of the disease. However, few studies have so far addressed this issue. In this report, we show a strikingly reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity of primary human ccRCC cells, resulting in enhanced sensitivity to glycolytic inhibition by 3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA). This effect was largely absent in established ccRCC cell lines, a finding that highlights the importance of using biologically relevant models in the search for new candidate cancer therapies. 3BrPA markedly reduced ATP production in primary ccRCC cells, followed by cell death. Our data suggest that glycolytic inhibitors such as 3BrPA, that has been shown to be well tolerated in vivo, should be further analyzed for the possible development of selective treatment strategies for patients with ccRCC.

  13. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, Brandon M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  14. Genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

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    Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Wei-Yang; Yang, Lan-Yang; Ku, Fei-Chun; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Chin-Jung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Wu, Ren-Chin

    2018-05-03

    We investigated whether genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), which include telomeric allelic imbalance (TAI), large-scale transition (LST), and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), can predict clinical outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). We enrolled patients with OCCC (n = 80) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC; n = 92) subjected to primary cytoreductive surgery, most of whom received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Genomic scar signatures based on genome-wide copy number data were determined in all participants and investigated in relation to prognosis. OCCC had significantly lower genomic scar signature scores than HGSC (p < 0.001). Near-triploid OCCC specimens showed higher TAI and LST scores compared with diploid tumors (p < 0.001). While high scores of these genomic scar signatures were significantly associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with HGSC, the opposite was evident for OCCC. Multivariate survival analysis in patients with OCCC identified high LOH scores as the main independent adverse predictor for both cancer-specific (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.22, p = 0.005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.54, p = 0.01). In conclusion, genomic scar signatures associated with HRD predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with OCCC. The LOH score was identified as the strongest prognostic indicator in this patient group. Genomic scar signatures associated with HRD are less frequent in OCCC than in HGSC. Genomic scar signatures associated with HRD have an adverse prognostic impact in patients with OCCC. LOH score is the strongest adverse prognostic factor in patients with OCCC.

  15. Treatment and outcome of patients with relapsed clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: a combined SIOP and AIEOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooskens, S L; Furtwängler, R; Spreafico, F; van Tinteren, H; de Kraker, J; Vujanic, G M; Leuschner, I; Coulomb-L'Herminé, A; Godzinski, J; Schleiermacher, G; Stoneham, S; Bergeron, C; Pritchard-Jones, K; Graf, N; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M

    2014-07-15

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is an uncommon paediatric renal tumour. Relapses occur in about 15% of the patients. Since detailed clinical information on relapsed CCSK is scarce, the current study aims to describe outcome of patients with relapsed CCSK treated according to recent European protocols. We analysed prospectively collected data of all CCSK patients who developed a relapse after complete remission at the end of primary treatment, entered onto SIOP and AIEOP trials between 1992 and 2012. Thirty-seven of 237 CCSK patients (16%) treated according to SIOP and AIEOP protocols developed a relapse. Median time from initial diagnosis to relapse was 17 months (range, 5.5 months - 6.6 years). Thirt-five out of thirty-seven relapses (95%) were metastatic; the most common sites of relapse were the brain (n=13), lungs (n=7) and bone (n=5). Relapse treatment consisted of chemotherapy (n=30), surgery (n=19) and/or radiotherapy (n=18), followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in 14 patients. Twenty-two out of thirty-seven patients (59%) achieved a second complete remission (CR); 15 of whom (68%) developed a second relapse. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) after relapse was 18% (95% CI: 4%-32%), and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 26% (95% CI: 10%-42%). In this largest series of relapsed CCSK patients ever described, overall outcome is poor. Most relapses are metastatic and brain relapses are more common than previously recognised. Intensive treatment aiming for local control, followed by high dose chemotherapy and ABMT, seems to be of benefit to enhance survival. Novel development of targeted therapy is urgently required.

  16. A Rare Case of Clear Cell Carcinoma, Müllerian Type in the Renal Pelvis of a 21-Year-Old Woman

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    Diandra Perez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear Cell Carcinomas of Müllerian origin are extremely rare within the upper urinary system. Their morphology is identical to that of the Clear Cell Carcinomas of the female genital tract. When they arise in the urinary tract, it is thought to be due to ectopic Müllerian embryogenesis. Here, we present a case of a 21-year-old woman with a Clear Cell Carcinoma, Müllerian type, arising from the renal pelvis. Histologically, it consisted of tubulopapillary architecture with associated foamy macrophages and a mucinous background. The neoplastic cells exhibited variably sized round nuclei with prominent nucleoli, eosinophilic to vacuolated cytoplasm with occasional intracytoplasmic mucin vacuoles, and a hobnail appearance. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the neoplastic cells were positive for Pax-8, p53, CK7, HMWK 903, and INI-1 and focally positive for p504s (AMACR. The neoplastic cells were negative for GATA-3, CK5/CK6, p63, CK20, and CDX-2 immunostains, ruling out urothelial or enteric phenotype. Additional immunostains performed by an outside institution showed that the neoplastic cells were positive for HNF-1β. The overall morphology and immunophenotype were consistent with Clear Cell Carcinoma of Müllerian origin arising from the renal pelvis. Follow-up revealed no metastasis or other tumor sites, supporting that this was the primary location.

  17. Unique protein expression signatures of survival time in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma through a pan-cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangchun; Zhao, Wei; Song, Xiaofeng; Kwok-Shing Ng, Patrick; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Zhongming; Ding, Zhiyong; Jia, Peilin

    2017-10-03

    In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 62,700 new cases of kidney cancer in the United States, and 14,240 patients will die from the disease. Because the incidence of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), the most common type of kidney cancer, is expected to continue to increase in the US, there is an urgent need to find effective diagnostic biomarkers for KIRC that could help earlier detection of and customized treatment strategies for the disease. Accordingly, in this study we systematically investigated KIRC's prognostic biomarkers for survival using the reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and the high throughput sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). With comprehensive data available in TCGA, we systematically screened protein expression based survival biomarkers in 10 major cancer types, among which KIRC presented many protein prognostic biomarkers of survival time. This is in agreement with a previous report that expression level changes (mRNAs, microRNA and protein) may have a better performance for prognosis of KIRC. In this study, we also identified 52 prognostic genes for KIRC, many of which are involved in cell-cycle and cancer signaling, as well as 15 tumor-stage-specific prognostic biomarkers. Notably, we found fewer prognostic biomarkers for early-stage than for late-stage KIRC. Four biomarkers (the RPPA protein IDs: FASN, ACC1, Cyclin_B1 and Rad51) were found to be prognostic for survival based on both protein and mRNA expression data. Through pan-cancer screening, we found that many protein biomarkers were prognostic for patients' survival in KIRC. Stage-specific survival biomarkers in KIRC were also identified. Our study indicated that these protein biomarkers might have potential clinical value in terms of predicting survival in KIRC patients and developing individualized treatment strategies. Importantly, we found many biomarkers in KIRC at both the mRNA expression level and the protein expression level. These

  18. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent predictor for survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tieshi; Wang, Wei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic indicator in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radiofrequency ablation from 2006 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves according to different categories of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Relationships between preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio or the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and survival were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A propensity score matching analysis was carried out to avoid confounding bias. A total of 185 patients were included in present study. When stratified by preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of 2.79, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio analysis, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ratio with the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, patients with both preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥2.79 and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥0.40 had the worst disease-free survival. Results of multivariable analysis showed that preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with cancer relapse remarkably. High preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and elevated postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are associated with significant increase in risk of local recurrence as well as distant metastasis. The combination of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with the other prognostic indicators can be applied in the evaluation of relapse risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

  19. The Effect of Anatomical Location of Lymph Node Metastases on Cancer Specific Survival in Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nini, Alessandro; Larcher, Alessandro; Cianflone, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Terrone, Carlo; Volpe, Alessandro; Regis, Federica; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto; Capitanio, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    Positive nodal status (pN1) is an independent predictor of survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. However, no study to date has tested whether the location of lymph node (LN) metastases does affect oncologic outcomes in a population submitted to radical nephrectomy (RN) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND). To describe nodal disease dissemination in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and to assess the effect of the anatomical sites and the number of nodal areas affected on cancer specific mortality (CSM). The study included 415 patients who underwent RN and eLND, defined as the removal of hilar, side-specific (pre/paraaortic or pre/paracaval) and interaortocaval LNs for ccRCC, at two institutions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict nodal dissemination in pN1 patients, stratified according to nodal site and number of involved areas. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to explore the relationship between pN1 disease features and survival outcomes. Median number of removed LN was 14 (IQR 9-19); 23% of patients were pN1. Among patients with one involved nodal site, 54 and 26% of patients were positive only in side-specific and interaortocaval station, respectively. The most frequent nodal site was the interaortocaval and side-specific one, for right and left ccRCC, respectively. Interaortocaval nodal positivity (HR 2.3, CI 95%: 1.3-3.9, p < 0.01) represented an independent predictor of CSM. When ccRCC patient harbour nodal disease, its spreading can occur at any nodal station without involving the others. The presence of interoartocaval positive nodes does affect oncologic outcomes. Lymph node invasion in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma is not following a fixed anatomical pattern. An extended lymph node dissection, during treatment for primary kidney tumour, would aid patient risk stratification and multimodality upfront treatment.

  20. Involvement of Chromatin Remodeling Genes and the Rho GTPases RhoB and CDC42 in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

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    Nicolai Skovbjerg Arildsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveOvarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCCs constitute a rare ovarian cancer subtype with distinct clinical features, but may nonetheless be difficult to distinguish morphologically from other subtypes. There is limited knowledge of genetic events driving OCCC tumorigenesis beyond ARID1A, which is reportedly mutated in 30–50% of OCCCs. We aimed to further characterize OCCCs by combined global transcriptional profiling and targeted deep sequencing of a panel of well-established cancer genes. Increased knowledge of OCCC-specific genetic aberrations may help in guiding development of targeted treatments and ultimately improve patient outcome.MethodsGene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue from a cohort of the major ovarian cancer subtypes (cohort 1; n = 67 was performed using whole-genome cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (WG-DASL bead arrays, followed by pathway, gene module score, and gene ontology analyses, respectively. A second FFPE cohort of 10 primary OCCCs was analyzed by targeted DNA sequencing of a panel of 60 cancer-related genes (cohort 2. Non-synonymous and non-sense variants affecting single-nucleotide variations and insertions or deletions were further analyzed. A tissue microarray of 43 OCCCs (cohort 3 was used for validation by immunohistochemistry and chromogenic in situ hybridization.ResultsGene expression analyses revealed a distinct OCCC profile compared to other histological subtypes, with, e.g., ERBB2, TFAP2A, and genes related to cytoskeletal actin regulation being overexpressed in OCCC. ERBB2 was, however, not overexpressed on the protein level and ERBB2 amplification was rare in the validation cohort. Targeted deep sequencing revealed non-synonymous variants or insertions/deletions in 11/60 cancer-related genes. Genes involved in chromatin remodeling, including ARID1A, SPOP, and KMT2D were frequently mutated across OCCC tumors.ConclusionOCCCs appear

  1. Differential expression of c-Met between primary and metastatic sites in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma and its association with PD-L1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Aly-Khan A; Gray, Kathryn P; Albiges, Laurence; Callea, Marcella; Pignon, Jean-Christophe; Pal, Soumitro; Gupta, Mamta; Bhatt, Rupal S; McDermott, David F; Atkins, Michael B; Woude, G F Vande; Harshman, Lauren C; Choueiri, Toni K; Signoretti, Sabina

    2017-11-28

    In preclinical models, c-Met promotes survival of renal cancer cells through the regulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). However, this relationship in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is not well characterized. We evaluated c-Met expression in ccRCC patients using paired primary and metastatic samples and assessed the association with PD-L1 expression and other clinical features. Areas with predominant and highest Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG) were selected. c-Met expression was evaluated by IHC using an anti-Met monoclonal antibody (MET4 Ab) and calculated by a combined score (CS, 0-300): intensity of c-Met staining (0-3) x % of positive cells (0-100). PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was previously assessed by IHC and PD-L1+ was defined as PD-L1 > 0% positive cells. Our cohort consisted of 45 pairs of primary and metastatic ccRCC samples. Overall, c-Met expression was higher in metastatic sites compared to primary sites (average c-Met CS: 55 vs. 28, p = 0.0003). Higher c-Met expression was associated with higher FNG (4 vs. 3) in primary tumors (average c-Met CS: 52 vs. 20, p = 0.04). c-Met expression was numerically greater in PD-L1+ vs. PD-L1- tumors. Higher c-Met expression in metastatic sites compared to primary tumors suggests that testing for biomarkers of response to c-Met inhibitors should be conducted in metastases. While higher c-Met expression in PD-L1+ tumors requires further investigation, it supports exploring these targets in combination clinical trials.

  2. Dioxin-induced changes in epididymal sperm count and spermatogenesis Mudanças induzidas por dioxina na contagem epididimal de esperma e espermatogênese

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    Warren G. Foster

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A single in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD on gestation day 15 decreased epididymal sperm count in adult rats and thus was used to establish a tolerable daily intake for TCDD. However, several laboratories have been unable to replicate these findings. Moreover, conflicting reports of TCDD effects on daily sperm production suggest that spermatogenesis may not be as sensitive to the adverse effects of TCDD as previously thought. We performed a PubMed search using relevant search terms linking dioxin exposure with adverse effects on reproduction and spermatogenesis. Developmental exposure to TCDD is consistently linked with decreased cauda epididymal sperm counts in animal studies, although at higher dose levels than those used in some earlier studies. However, the evidence linking in utero TCDD exposure and spermatogenesis is not convincing. Animal studies provide clear evidence of an adverse effect of in utero TCDD exposure on epididymal sperm count but do not support the conclusion that spermatogenesis is adversely affected. The mechanisms underlying decreased epididymal sperm count are unknown; however, we postulate that epididymal function is the key target for the adverse effects of TCDD.Uma única exposição in utero a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD no 15º dia de gestação diminuiu a contagem de esperma epididimal em ratos adultos e por isso foi utilizada para estabelecer uma dosagem diária tolerável para TCDD. No entanto, diversos laboratórios não conseguiram reproduzir esses resultados. Além disso, relatórios conflitantes dos efeitos de TCDD na produção diária de esperma sugere que espermatogênese pode não ser tão sensível aos efeitos adversos do TCDD como antes se pensava. Foi feita uma pesquisa no PubMed usando termos de pesquisa relevantes, relacionados à exposição à dioxina com efeitos adversos na reprodução e na espermatogênese. Exposição em desenvolvimento ao TCDD

  3. [Non-metastatic clear cell renal cancer: dependence of the tumour stage on clinico-anatomic and morphologic factors; prognostic value of macro- and karyometric characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurin, A G

    2010-01-01

    Non-metastatic clear-cell renal cancer: dependence of the tumour stage on clinico-anatomic and morphologic factors; prognostic value of macro- and karyometric characteristics Sankt Peterburg Pathology Bureau, Sankt Peterburg It was shown based on multivariate regression analysis that pT1a3bN0MO stages of non-metastatic clear-cell renal cancer significantly correlate not only with the tumor size and invasion into the fatty tissue and/or renal vein but also with the invasion into the renal capsule and with the mean maximum diameter and mean nucleus area of tumor cells. There was no correlation of clear-cell renal cancer stages with tumor proliferative activity, gene p53 mutation, oncosuppressor gene PTEN expression, fraction of tumour clear-cell component, and such clinical characteristics as patients' sex, age, and body mass index. Taking into account statistically significant differences between the patients' survival rates, the regression equations developed in this work may be used for the prediction of disease outcome.

  4. A rare case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the pubic bone resembling small round cell tumor: an unusual morphological variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shoko; Tsuji, Motomu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Yokote, Taiji; Iwaki, Kazuki; Akioka, Toshikazu; Miyoshi, Takuji; Hirata, Yuji; Takayama, Ayami; Nishiwaki, Uta; Masuda, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and malignant melanoma share overlapping immunohistochemistry with regard to the melanocytic markers HMB45, S100, and Melan-A. However, the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is specific to CCS. Therefore, although these neoplasms are closely related, they are now considered to be distinct entities. However, the translocation is apparently detectable only in 50%–70% of CCS cases. Therefore, the absence of a detectable EWS/AFT1 rearrangement may occasionally lead to erroneous exclusion of a translocation-negative CCS. Therefore, histological assessment is essential for the correct diagnosis of CCS. Primary CCS of the bone is exceedingly rare. Only a few cases of primary CCS arising in the ulna, metatarsals, ribs, radius, sacrum, and humerus have been reported, and primary CCS arising in the pubic bone has not been reported till date. We present the case of an 81-year-old man with primary CCS of the pubic bone. Histological examination of the pubic bone revealed monomorphic small-sized cells arranged predominantly as a diffuse sheet with round, hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cells had scant cytoplasm, and the biopsy findings indicated small round cell tumor (SRCT). Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumor cells to be positive for HMB45, S100, and Melan-A but negative for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary CCS of the pubic bone resembling SRCT. This ambiguous appearance underscores the difficulties encountered during the histological diagnosis of this rare variant of CCS. Awareness of primary CCS of the bone is clinically important for accurate diagnosis and management when the tumor is located in unusual locations such as the pubic bone and when the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is absent

  5. Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy with Preservation of Gastroduodenal Artery for Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Duodenal Metastasis by Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with Celiac Artery Stenosis

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    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare, and even rarer is a massive gastrointestinal bleeding from such tumours. Coeliac occlusive disease, although rarely symptomatic, can lead to ischaemic changes with anastomotic dehiscence and leaks when a patient undergoes pancreatoduodenectomy. A 41-year-old man with known metastasis to the adrenal glands and the second part of the duodenum close to the ampulla of Vater from clear cell renal cell carcinoma was admitted to our department due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding from the duodenal metastasis. Endoscopic control of the bleed was not possible, while the bleeding vessel embolization was able to control the haemorrhage only temporarily. An angiography during the embolization demonstrated the presence of stenosis of the coeliac artery and also hypertrophic inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplying the proper hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery (GDA. The patient underwent emergency pancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of the gastroduodenal artery. The patient had an uneventful recovery and did not experience further bleeding. Also the blood flow to the liver was compromised as shown by the normal liver function tests (LFTs postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a preservation of the GDA during an emergency pancreatoduodenectomy.

  6. Effects of HIF-1 and HIF2 on Growth and Metabolism of Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma 786-0 Xenografts

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    Swethajit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In cultured clear-cell renal carcinoma (CCRCC 786-0 cells transfected with HIF1 (HIF-1+, HIF-2 (HIF-2+, or empty vector (EV, no significant differences were observed in the growth rates in vitro, but when grown in vivo as xenografts HIF-2 significantly increased, and HIF-1 significantly decreased growth rates, compared to EV tumors. Factors associated with proliferation were increased and factors associated with cell death were decreased in HIF-2+ tumors. Metabolite profiles showed higher glucose and lower lactate and alanine levels in the HIF-2+ tumors whilst immunostaining demonstrated higher pyruvate dehydrogenase and lower pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, compared to control tumors. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpression of HIF-2 in CCRCC 786-0 tumors regulated growth both by maintaining a low level of glycolysis and by allowing more mitochondrial metabolism and tolerance to ROS induced DNA damage. The growth profiles observed may be mediated by adaptive changes to a more oxidative phenotype.

  7. Diagnosis value of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT combined with virtual non-enhanced images by dual-energy CT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhoupeng; Zhou Jianjun; Liu Xueling; Wang Chun; Zhang Shunzhuang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT combined with virtual non-enhanced images by dual-energy CT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Sixty patients who were suspected of clear cell renal cell carcinoma underwent non-enhanced CT and contrast enhancement CT of early interface-phase between cortex -medulla and parenchymal phase on a dual-energy CT. The true non-enhanced kidney CT (TNCT) was performed in a single-energy acquisition mode, but the dual-phase contrast enhancement CT were performed in a dual-energy mode of 80 kV and 140 kV respectively. The virtual non-enhanced CT (VNCT) images were derived from the data of early interface phase using liver virtual non-contrast software. The diagnose according to VNCT combined dual-phase contrast enhancement CT and dual-phase contrast enhancement CT only were made respectively and compared with χ 2 test. Between the true non-contrast CT and the virtual non-contrast CT, the image quality was compared with Wilcoxon test; The radiation dose of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product(DLP) in a single-phase and total examination, the mean CT HU values of the tumours were compared with t test. Results: The accuracy of VNCT combined dual-phase contrast enhancement CT was higher than that of dual-phase contrast enhancement CT only [93.3% (56/60) vs.78.3% (47/60); χ 2 =5.6, P<0.05]. The detective ability (score) of VNCT was near to that of TNCT and the difference was not obvious (Z=0.00, P>0.05). The radiation dose of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) in a single phase and total examination of VNCT [(8.85 ± 1.28) mGy, (196.45 ±21.12) mGy·cm, (17.69±2.35) mGy, (392.90±42.25) mGy · cm] were lower than that of TNCT [(10.20 ± 1.44) mGy,(218.29 ± 29.60) mGy · cm, (30.61 ± 3.27) mGy and (654.86 ± 88.81) mGy ·cm], t=4.21, 3.58, 23.63, 16.12 respectively, P<0.05. The mean CT HU values of tumours on VNCT images was higher than that

  8. A Rare Case of Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland from Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma 11 Years after Nephrectomy and Concurrent Primary Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saud Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is known to cause metastasis to unusual sites, which can be both synchronous or metachronous. Thyroid gland is a rare site for metastasis, but when it occurs, renal cell carcinoma is the most common primary neoplasm. We report the case of a 81-year-old female patient who had a significant medical history of right clear cell renal carcinoma with adrenal metastasis. She underwent right radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy followed by radiofrequency ablation of left adrenal metastasis and systemic chemotherapy with sunitinib. Eleven years later, she presented with dysphagia and was found to have distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. On imaging, there was incidental detection of a left renal mass lesion and a right thyroid nodule, which on histopathology and immunohistochemistry were confirmed to be clear cell carcinoma of renal origin.

  9. Annexin A4 fucosylation enhances its interaction with the NF-kB p50 and promotes tumor progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Deng, Lu; Cai, Mingbo; Zhuang, Huiyu; Zhu, Liancheng; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Jian; Liu, Juanjuan; Li, Xiao; Lin, Bei

    2017-12-08

    To study the structural relationship between annexin A4 and the Lewis y antigen and compare their expression and significance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and to explore how annexin A4 fucose glycosylation effects the interaction between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50, and how it promotes tumour progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Structural relationships between annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen were detected using immunoprecipitation. Annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen expression in various subtypes of ovarian cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relation between their expression was examined. Any interactions between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50 in ovarian clear cell carcinoma were detected by co-immunoprecipitation. Then looked for changes in expression of Lewis y antigen, annexin A4, NF-kB p50 and a number of downstream related molecules before and after transfection annexin A4 or FUT1, and also analyzed changes in biological processes. Lewis y antigen is a part of annexin A4 structure. The expression rate of both annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen was significantly higher in ovarian clear cell carcinoma than in other subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, and are associated with the clinical stages, chemotherapy resistance and poor prognostic. The interaction between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50 promoted cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, metastasis ability and autophagy, and inhibits apoptosis, Lewis y enhanced this interaction. Annexin A4 contains Lewis y structure, Lewis y antigen modification of annexin A4 enhances its interaction with NF-kB p50, which promotes ovarian clear cell carcinoma malignancy progression.

  10. On the proluminal movement of 3H-androgens across the rat epididymal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.T.; Jones, C.E.; Roddy, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    3H-Androgens in rat epididymal interstitium have previously been shown to move into the epididymal lumen against a concentration gradient. This is true especially in the caput epididymidis. The present investigation used the technique of in vivo epididymal perifusion and tubule micropuncture to demonstrate that the proluminal movement of 3H-androgens is subject to competitive inhibition (unlabeled testosterone in the perifusion fluid at 10 times and 100 times the concentration of 3H-testosterone significantly reduced proluminal movement of isotope) and is not energy-dependent (1 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol in perifusion fluid did not reduce the proluminal movement of isotope). Additionally, dry-mount autoradiography demonstrated high intraluminal concentrations of isotope relative to interstitial concentrations after caput tubule incubation in 3H-dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT), and showed that the high intraluminal concentrations of isotope were not dependent on the presence of spermatozoa, i.e. proluminal movement of 3H-androgens was not due to binding to intraluminal spermatozoa. Isolation of caput epididymidal sperm on filters followed by 3H-DHT binding experiments also failed to demonstrate the presence of specific binding of this androgen to spermatozoa. Finally, it was confirmed that electrophoresed epididymal lumen fluid contains a single 3H-DHT binding peak that is at its highest concentration in the caput epididymal fluid. These data are consistent with the conclusion that intraluminal androgen-binding protein is an important factor in transepithelial androgen movement

  11. Oxidative and antioxidative status in the testes of rats with acute epididymitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mete; Boleken, Mehmet Emin; Zeyrek, Fadile; Ozardali, Ilyas; Kanmaz, Turan; Erel, Ozcan; Yücesan, Selçuk

    2006-01-01

    Epididymitis is an inflammation or infection of the epididymis, a convoluted duct that lies on the posterior surface of the testicle. Oxidative stress due to excessive production of reactive oxygen species in epididymitis, impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms, or both, precipitates a range of pathologies that are currently believed to negatively affect the male reproductive function. How oxidative stress affects the testes is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the oxidative and antioxidative status of testes of rats with unilateral acute Escherichia coli epididymitis. The study included 36 male Wistar albino rats which were divided into three groups. In the epididymitis group (n = 12), an E. coli suspension was injected into the right ductus deferens of rats, and the same amount of saline was injected in the saline groups (n = 12). No surgery was performed in the control group (n = 12) for baseline values. Rats were sacrificed after 24 h and the epididymis and testes removed. The infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation and microbiological tests. The oxidative status of testes was evaluated by measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and antioxidative status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant response (TAR) and total antioxidant capacity levels (TAC). MPO activity in both the ipsilateral and contralateral testes of the epididymitis group was significantly higher than those of the saline and control groups (p antioxidants. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. ALDH1-high ovarian cancer stem-like cells can be isolated from serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma cells, and ALDH1 high expression is associated with poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Kuroda

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiating cells (CICs are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumorigenicity. Furthermore, CSCs/CICs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and CSCs/CICs are therefore thought to be responsible for cancer recurrence after treatment and distant metastasis. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cases, disease recurrence after chemotherapy is frequently observed, suggesting ovarian CSCs/CICs are involved. There are four major histological subtypes in EOC, and serous adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma are high-grade malignancies. We therefore analyzed ovarian CSCs/CICs from ovarian carcinoma cell lines (serous adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma and primary ovarian cancer cells in this study. We isolated ovarian CSCs/CICs as an aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high (ALDH1(high population from 6 EOC cell lines (3 serous adenocarcinomas and 3 clear cell adenocarcinomas by the ALDEFLUOR assay. ALDH1(high cells showed greater sphere-forming ability, higher tumorigenicity and greater invasive capability, indicating that ovarian CSCs/CICs are enriched in ALDH1(high cells. ALDH1(high cells could also be isolated from 8 of 11 primary ovarian carcinoma samples. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that higher ALDH1 expression levels in ovary cancer cases are related to poorer prognosis in both serous adenocarcinoma cases and clear cell adenocarcinoma cases. Taken together, the results indicate that ALDH1 is a marker for ovarian CSCs/CICs and that the expression level of ALDH1 might be a novel biomarker for prediction of poor prognosis.

  13. Expression of the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in the human kidney and renal clear cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Andersen, Claus B.; Nielsen, John E

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 are expressed in the human kidney, but the segmental expression of the 25-hydroxylases is unknown. A comprehensive analysis of CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1 expression in normal kidney and renal clear cell cancer (CCc) would reveal...

  14. Synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tubulocystic carcinoma: genetic evidence of independent ontogenesis and implications of chromosomal imbalances in tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga-Garza Gabriela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seven percent of renal cell carcinoma (RCC cases are diagnosed as "unclassified" RCC by morphology. Genetic profiling of RCCs helps define renal tumor subtypes, especially in cases where morphologic diagnosis is inconclusive. This report describes a patient with synchronous clear cell RCC (ccRCC and a tubulocystic renal carcinoma (TCRC in the same kidney, and discusses the pathologic features and genetic profile of both tumors. A 67 year-old male underwent CT scans for an unrelated medical event. Two incidental renal lesions were found and ultimately removed by radical nephrectomy. The smaller lesion had multiple small cystic spaces lined by hobnail cells with high nuclear grade separated by fibrous stroma. This morphology and the expression of proximal (CD10, AMACR and distal tubule cell (CK19 markers by immunohistochemistry supported the diagnosis of TCRC. The larger lesion was a typical ccRCC, with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 and confined to the kidney. Molecular characterization of both neoplasms using virtual karyotyping was performed to assess relatedness of these tumors. Low grade areas (Fuhrman grade 2 of the ccRCC showed loss of 3p and gains in chromosomes 5 and 7, whereas oncocytic areas displayed additional gain of 2p and loss of 10q; the high grade areas (Fuhrman grade 3 showed several additional imbalances. In contrast, the TCRC demonstrated a distinct profile with gains of chromosomes 8 and 17 and loss of 9. In conclusion, ccRCC and TCRC show distinct genomic copy number profiles and chromosomal imbalances in TCRC might be implicated in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Second, the presence of a ccRCC with varying degrees of differentiation exemplifies the sequence of chromosomal imbalances acquired during tumor progression. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1790525735655283

  15. Establishment of a novel clear cell sarcoma cell line (Hewga-CCS), and investigation of the antitumor effects of pazopanib on Hewga-CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outani, Hidetatsu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Wakamatsu, Toru; Imura, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kenichiro; Araki, Nobuhito; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Naka, Norifumi

    2014-06-19

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a therapeutically unresolved, aggressive, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that predominantly affects young adults. This sarcoma is defined by t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocation, which leads to the fusion of Ewing sarcoma gene (EWS) to activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) gene, producing a chimeric EWS-ATF1 fusion gene. We established a novel CCS cell line called Hewga-CCS and developed an orthotopic tumor xenograft model to enable comprehensive bench-side investigation for intensive basic and preclinical research in CCS with a paucity of experimental cell lines. Hewga-CCS was derived from skin metastatic lesions of a CCS developed in a 34-year-old female. The karyotype and chimeric transcript were analyzed. Xenografts were established and characterized by morphology and immunohistochemical reactivity. Subsequently, the antitumor effects of pazopanib, a recently approved, novel, multitargeted, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma, on Hewga-CCS were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Hewga-CCS harbored the type 2 EWS-ATF1 transcript. Xenografts morphologically mimicked the primary tumor and expressed S-100 protein and antigens associated with melanin synthesis (Melan-A, HMB45). Pazopanib suppressed the growth of Hewga-CCS both in vivo and in vitro. A phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array revealed phosphorylation of c-MET, but not of VEGFR, in Hewga-CCS. Subsequent experiments showed that pazopanib exerted antitumor effects through the inhibition of HGF/c-MET signaling. CCS is a rare, devastating disease, and our established CCS cell line and xenograft model may be a useful tool for further in-depth investigation and understanding of the drug-sensitivity mechanism.

  16. Maximum standardized uptake value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is a prognostic factor in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Haruhisa; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Atsumi; Okame, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Nogawa, Takayoshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi

    2014-09-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful for diagnosing malignant tumors. Intracellular FDG uptake is measured as the standardized uptake value (SUV), which differs depending on tumor characteristics. This study investigated differences in maximum SUV (SUVmax) according to histologic type in ovarian epithelial cancer and the relationship of SUVmax with prognosis. This study included 80 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer based on histopathologic findings at surgery and who had undergone PET/CT before treatment. Maximum SUV on PET/CT of primary lesions and histopathology were compared based on histologic type, and the prognosis associated with different SUVmax was evaluated. Clinical tumor stage was I in 35 patients, II in 8, III in 25, and IV in 12. Histologic type was serous adenocarcinoma (AC) in 33 patients, clear cell AC in 27, endometrioid AC in 15, and mucinous AC in 5. Median SUVmax was lower in mucinous AC (2.76) and clear cell AC (4.9) than in serous AC (11.4) or endometrioid AC (11.4). Overall, median SUVmax was lower in clinical stage I (5.37) than in clinical stage ≥II (10.3). However, in both clear cell AC and endometrioid AC, when histologic evaluation was possible, no difference was seen between stage I and stage ≥II. Moreover, in clear cell AC, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the low-SUVmax group (100%) than in the high-SUVmax group (43.0%, P = 0.009). Maximum SUV on preoperative FDG-PET/CT in ovarian epithelial cancer differs according to histologic type. In clear cell AC, SUVmax may represent a prognostic factor.

  17. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with risk of clear cell ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampras, S.S.; Sucheston-Campbell, L.E.; Cannioto, R.; Chang-Claude, J.; Modugno, F.; Dork, T.; Hillemanns, P.; Preus, L.; Knutson, K.L.; Wallace, P.K.; Hong, C.C.; Friel, G.; Davis, W.; Nesline, M.; Pearce, C.L.; Kelemen, L.E.; Goodman, M.T.; Bandera, E.V.; Terry, K.L.; Schoof, N.; Eng, K.H.; Clay, A.; Singh, P.K.; Joseph, J.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Anton-Culver, H.; Antonenkova, N.; Baker, H.; Bean, Y.; Beckmann, M.W.; Bisogna, M.; Bjorge, L.; Bogdanova, N.; Brinton, L.A.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Bruinsma, F.; Butzow, R.; Campbell, I.G.; Carty, K.; Cook, L.S.; Cramer, D.W; Cybulski, C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A.; Dennis, J.; Despierre, E.; Dicks, E.; Doherty, J.A.; Bois, A. du; Durst, M.; Easton, D.; Eccles, D.; Edwards, R.P.; Ekici, A.B.; Fasching, P.A.; Fridley, B.L.; Gao, Y.T.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Giles, G.G.; Glasspool, R.; Gronwald, J.; Harrington, P.; Harter, P.; Hasmad, H.N.; Hein, A.; Heitz, F.; Hildebrandt, M.A.T.; Hogdall, C.; Hogdall, E.; Hosono, S.; Iversen, E.S.; Jakubowska, A.; Jensen, A.; Ji, B.T.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kellar, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Klapdor, R.; Kolomeyevskaya, N.; Krakstad, C.; Kjaer, S.K.; Kruszka, B.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Lambrechts, D.; Lambrechts, S.; Le, N.D.; Lee, A.W.; Lele, S.; Leminen, A.; Lester, J.; Levine, D.A.; Liang, D.; Lissowska, J.; Liu, S.; Lu, K.; Lubinski, J.; Lundvall, L.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Matsuo, K.; McGuire, V.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and, thus, variants in genes encoding Treg cell immune molecules could be associated with ovarian cancer. METHODS: In a population of 15,596 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and

  18. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with risk of clear cell ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Cannioto, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and, thus, variants in genes encoding Treg cell immune molecules could be associated with ovarian cancer. METHODS: In a population of 15,596 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases a...

  19. Triphasic and epithelioid minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma: qualitative and quantitative CEUS characteristics and distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Cui-xian; Huang, Bei-jian; Xue, Li-yun; Wang, Wen-ping

    2015-02-01

    To determine the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics of minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma (AML) (triphasic and epithelioid) and compare them to each other and to clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) to explore their differential diagnostic clue. Qualitative and quantitative CEUS analyses were retrospectively conducted for epithelioid renal AMLs (EAMLs) (n = 15), triphasic minimal fat AMLs (TAMLs) (n = 25), and ccRCCs (n = 113). Enhancement patterns and features with CEUS were qualitatively evaluated. As for the quantitative parameters, rise times (RT), time to peak (TTP), and tumor-to-cortex enhancement ratio (TOC ratio) were compared among these renal tumor histotypes. No significant differences were detected on conventional ultrasound in the three histotypes of renal tumor. On qualitative CEUS analysis, centripetal enhancement in cortical phase (73.3% in EAMLs, 84.0% in TAMLs vs. 18.6% in ccRCCs, p qualitative and quantitative characteristics made no significant difference between EAMLs and TAMLs. In the differential diagnosis of EAMLs from TAMLs, pseudocapsule sign was valuable (40.0% in EAMLs vs. 0.0% in TAMLs, p 97.34% as the criteria to differentiate ccRCCs and EAMLs from TAMLs, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 87.5%, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative CEUS analyses are helpful in the differential diagnosis of ccRCCs, EAMLs, and TAMLs.

  20. CT prediction of the Fuhrman grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC): towards the development of computer-assisted diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhdanpaa, Hannu; Hwang, Darryl; Cen, Steven; Quinn, Brian; Nayyar, Megha; Zhang, Xuejun; Chen, Frank; Desai, Bhushan; Liang, Gangning; Gill, Inderbir; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2015-10-01

    There are distinct quantifiable features characterizing renal cell carcinomas on contrast-enhanced CT examinations, such as peak tumor enhancement, tumor heterogeneity, and percent contrast washout. While qualitative visual impressions often suffice for diagnosis, quantitative metrics if developed and validated can add to the information available from standard of care diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this study is to assess the use of quantitative enhancement metrics in predicting the Fuhrman grade of clear cell RCC. 65 multiphase CT examinations with clear cell RCCs were utilized, 44 tumors with Fuhrman grades 1 or 2 and 21 tumors with grades 3 or 4. After tumor segmentation, the following data were extracted: histogram analysis of voxel-based whole lesion attenuation in each phase, enhancement and washout using mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, standard deviation, and interquartile range. Statistically significant difference was observed in 4 measured parameters between grades 1-2 and grades 3-4: interquartile range of nephrographic attenuation values, standard deviation of absolute enhancement, as well as interquartile range and standard deviation of residual nephrographic enhancement. Interquartile range of nephrographic attenuation values was 292.86 HU for grades 1-2 and 241.19 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.02). Standard deviation of absolute enhancement was 41.26 HU for grades 1-2 and 34.66 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.03). Interquartile range was 297.12 HU for residual nephrographic enhancement for grades 1-2 and 235.57 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.02), and standard deviation of the same was 42.45 HU for grades 1-2 and 37.11 for grades 3-4 (p value 0.04). Our results indicate that absolute enhancement is more heterogeneous for lower grade tumors and that attenuation and residual enhancement in nephrographic phase is more heterogeneous for lower grade tumors. This represents an important step in devising a predictive non-invasive model to predict the

  1. Blood epididymal barrier to [3H]-inulin in intact and vasectomized hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.T.; D'Addario, D.A.; Howards, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The net transport of [ 3 H]-inulin into the fluids of the hamster seminiferous and caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal tubules was examined in both intact animals and those vasectomized 10 months previously. Mean isotope concentrations in reproductive tract tubule fluids did not exceeded 10 per cent of blood plasma isotope concentrations during the experiment. There were no significant differences in net transport of [ 3 H]-inulin into any of the tubule fluids sampled. Ten months after vasectomy, the seminiferous tubule, and all regions of the epididymal tubule retain the capacity to exclude [ 3 H]-insulin. Thus in the hamster 10 months after vasectomy, the blood testis and blood epididymal barriers to inulin are intact

  2. Integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in Czech Republic and in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena B Wozniak

    Full Text Available Gene expression microarray and next generation sequencing efforts on conventional, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC have been mostly performed in North American and Western European populations, while the highest incidence rates are found in Central/Eastern Europe. We conducted whole-genome expression profiling on 101 pairs of ccRCC tumours and adjacent non-tumour renal tissue from Czech patients recruited within the "K2 Study", using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips to explore the molecular variations underlying the biological and clinical heterogeneity of this cancer. Differential expression analysis identified 1650 significant probes (fold change ≥2 and false discovery rate <0.05 mapping to 630 up- and 720 down-regulated unique genes. We performed similar statistical analysis on the RNA sequencing data of 65 ccRCC cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project and identified 60% (402 of the downregulated and 74% (469 of the upregulated genes found in the K2 series. The biological characterization of the significantly deregulated genes demonstrated involvement of downregulated genes in metabolic and catabolic processes, excretion, oxidation reduction, ion transport and response to chemical stimulus, while simultaneously upregulated genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, response to hypoxia, stress, wounding, vasculature development and cell activation. Furthermore, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 317 TCGA ccRCC/adjacent non-tumour renal tissue pairs indicated that deregulation of approximately 7% of genes could be explained by epigenetic changes. Finally, survival analysis conducted on 89 K2 and 464 TCGA cases identified 8 genes associated with differential prognostic outcomes. In conclusion, a large proportion of ccRCC molecular characteristics were common to the two populations and several may have clinical implications when validated further through large clinical cohorts.

  3. Variants of SCARB1 and VDR Involved in Complex Genetic Interactions May Be Implicated in the Genetic Susceptibility to Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Pośpiech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current data are still inconclusive in terms of a genetic component involved in the susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. Our aim was to evaluate 40 selected candidate polymorphisms for potential association with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC based on independent group of 167 patients and 200 healthy controls. The obtained data were searched for independent effects of particular polymorphisms as well as haplotypes and genetic interactions. Association testing implied position rs4765623 in the SCARB1 gene (OR=1.688, 95% CI: 1.104–2.582, P=0.016 and a haplotype in VDR comprising positions rs739837, rs731236, rs7975232, and rs1544410 (P=0.012 to be the risk factors in the studied population. The study detected several epistatic effects contributing to the genetic susceptibility to ccRCC. Variation in GNAS1 was implicated in a strong synergistic interaction with BIRC5. This effect was part of a model suggested by multifactor dimensionality reduction method including also a synergy between GNAS1 and SCARB1 (P=0.036. Significance of GNAS1-SCARB1 interaction was further confirmed by logistic regression (P=0.041, which also indicated involvement of SCARB1 in additional interaction with EPAS1 (P=0.008 as well as revealing interactions between GNAS1 and EPAS1 (P=0.016, GNAS1 and MC1R (P=0.031, GNAS1 and VDR (P=0.032, and MC1R and VDR (P=0.035.

  4. Muellerian duct cyst as a cause of acute infantile-onset epididymitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donkol, Ragab H.; Moghazy, Khaled [Gulf Specialist Hospital, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1444, Qatif (Saudi Arabia); Monib, Sherif [Gulf Specialist Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-11-15

    Muellerian duct cyst is a congenital anomaly that originates from remnants of the muellerian duct that usually regresses in utero. It is most commonly detected in adult males during the third and fourth decades of life. Muellerian duct cyst is rarely reported in infants less than 1 year of age, in whom diagnosis is difficult because of immaturity of the genital tract. In this case report, we describe the sonographic and CT appearance of a large intrapelvic muellerian duct cyst presenting with acute epididymitis in a 9-month-old infant. The embryological basis, imaging findings and relation to epididymitis are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Muellerian duct cyst as a cause of acute infantile-onset epididymitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkol, Ragab H.; Moghazy, Khaled; Monib, Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Muellerian duct cyst is a congenital anomaly that originates from remnants of the muellerian duct that usually regresses in utero. It is most commonly detected in adult males during the third and fourth decades of life. Muellerian duct cyst is rarely reported in infants less than 1 year of age, in whom diagnosis is difficult because of immaturity of the genital tract. In this case report, we describe the sonographic and CT appearance of a large intrapelvic muellerian duct cyst presenting with acute epididymitis in a 9-month-old infant. The embryological basis, imaging findings and relation to epididymitis are discussed. (orig.)

  6. MiR-200a is involved in rat epididymal development by targeting β-catenin mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojiang Wu; Botao Zhao; Wei Li; Yue Chen; Ruqiang Liang; Lin Li; Youxin Jin; Kangcheng Ruan

    2012-01-01

    The expression of 350 microRNAs (miRNAs) in epididymis of rat from postnatal development to adult (from postnatal days 7-70) was profiled with home-made miRNA microarray.Among them,48 miRNAs changed significantly, in which the expression of miR-200a increased obviously with time,in a good agreement with that obtained from northern blot analysis.The real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction result indicated that temporal expression of rat β-catenin was exactly inversed to that of miR-200a during rat epididymal development,implying that miR-200a might also target β-catenin mRNA in rat epididymis as reported by Saydam et al.in humans.The bioinformatic analysis indicated that 3' untranslated region of rat β-catenin mRNA did contain a putative binding site for miR-200a.Meanwhile,it was found that the sequence of this binding site was different from that of human β-catenin mRNA with a deletion of two adjacent nucleotides (U and C).But the results of luciferase targeting assay in HEK 293T cells and the overexpression of miR-200a in rat NRK cells demonstrated that miR-200a did target rat β-catenin mRNA and cause the suppression of its expression.All these results show that miR-200a should be involved in rat epididymal development by targeting β-catenin mRNA of rat and suppressing its expression.

  7. High Expression of Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor Associates with Unfavorable Cancer-Specific Survival of Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Yidong; An, Huimin; Chang, Yuan; Zhang, Weijuan; Zhu, Yu; Xu, Le; Xu, Jiejie

    2016-03-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), a single-pass type III transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase, is mainly involved in inflammation and immune regulation to facilitate the progression of solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of CSF-1R expression on clinical outcome of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after surgery. We retrospectively enrolled 268 patients with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy between 2001 and 2004. Clinicopathologic features and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were collected. Western blot analysis was performed in the pairwise comparisons of CSF-1R expression in peritumor and tumor tissues of patients with ccRCC. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to determine CSF-1R expression level in tumor specimens. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the impact of prognostic factors on CSS. A concordance index was calculated to measure prognostic accuracy. A prognostic nomogram was constructed on the basis of the identified independent prognostic factors. CSF-1R expression in tumor tissues was higher than in peritumor tissues in 71.4% (5 of 7) patients. CSF-1R expression of tumor tissues was positively associated with metastasis, tumor, node, metastasis classification system (TNM) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score and poor CSS. CSF-1R expression was determined as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in patients with ccRCC. Furthermore, extension of the well-established prognostic models with CSF-1R expression presented significantly improved prognostic accuracy. An efficient prognostic nomogram was constructed on the basis of the independent prognostic factors. High CSF-1R expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic factor for CSS in patients with ccRCC.

  8. Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney cancer : frequent methylation of KEAP1 gene promoter in clear renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizio, Federico Pio; Costantini, Manuela; Copetti, Massimiliano; la Torre, Annamaria; Sparaneo, Angelo; Fontana, Andrea; Poeta, Luana; Gallucci, Michele; Sentinelli, Steno; Graziano, Paolo; Parente, Paola; Pompeo, Vincenzo; De Salvo, Laura; Simone, Giuseppe; Papalia, Rocco; Picardo, Francesco; Balsamo, Teresa; Flammia, Gerardo Paolo; Trombetta, Domenico; Pantalone, Angela; Kok, Klaas; Paranita, Ferronika; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2017-01-01

    The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is a master regulator of the cellular redox state through the induction of several antioxidant defence genes implicated in chemotherapeutic drugs resistance of tumor cells. An increasing body of evidence supports a key role for Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney diseases and renal

  9. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Endometriosis in the Groin: Wide Resection and Reconstruction with a Fascia Lata Tensor Muscle Skin Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from endometriosis in the groin in a 53-year-old woman. The findings of MRI and FDG/PET-CT indicated a malignant tumor, and surgical biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract. The tumor including a part of the abdominal rectus muscle and rectus sheath, subcutaneous fat, skin, and the right inguinal ligament was resected en bloc. The defect in the abdominal wall was reconstructed with a fascia lata tensor muscle skin flap. The tumor was composed of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from extrapelvic endometriosis. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin for 6 cycles and had no evidence of recurrence 7 months after the treatment. We herein described the diagnosis and surgical management of endometriosis-associated carcinoma in the groin.

  10. Air clearing pressure oscillation produced in a quenching tank by a prototype unit cell sparger of the APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seok; Song, Chul-Hwa; Park, Choon-Kyong; Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Baek, Won-Pil

    2008-01-01

    KAERI has performed a series of experiments to investigate the performance of a prototype sparger for the APR1400 in view of a dynamic load oscillation with a variation of the test conditions such as a discharged air mass, a submergence of the sparger, the valve opening time, and the pool temperature during an air clearing phase. The air mass and pool temperature are in the range of 0.8-1.5 kg and 20-90 o C, respectively. The valve opening time can be adjusted within the range of 0.6-1.8 s. The maximum positive pressure amplitude, which is observed at the bottom of the quenching tank, is increased with the maximum header pressure of the sparger. The valve opening time has a considerable effect on the maximum amplitude. As the opening time decreases, the maximum amplitude at the tank wall is increased. Air mass and pool temperature, however, have a weak effect on the maximum amplitude. Oscillation frequency is decreased with an increase of the air mass in the range of 2.5-4.5 Hz

  11. Combined effects of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3A polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic levels on the risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu-Mei [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Yi-Hsun; Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study showed that high urinary total arsenic levels were associated with higher odds ratio (OR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) might influence DNMT enzyme activity associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the association of five SNPs from DNMT1 (rs8101626 and rs2228611), DNMT3A (rs34048824 and rs1550117), and DNMT3B (rs1569686) with the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We also examined the combined effects of DNMT genotypes and urinary arsenic levels on ccRCC risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study, which included 293 subjects with ccRCC and 293 age- and gender-matched controls. The urinary arsenic species were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. We observed that the DNMT1 rs8101626 G/G genotype was significantly associated with reduced odds ratio (OR) of ccRCC [OR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.99]. Subjects with concurrent DNMT1 rs8101626 A/A + A/G and DNMT3A rs34048824 T/T + T/C genotypes had significantly higher OR for ccRCC [OR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.44–5.77]. Participants with the high-risk genotype of DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 with concurrently high urinary total arsenic levels had even higher OR of ccRCC in a dose-response manner. This is the first study to evaluate variant DNMT1 rs8101626 and DNMT3A rs34048824 genotypes that modify the arsenic-related ccRCC risk in a geographic area without significant arsenic exposure in Taiwan. - Highlights: • High urinary total arsenic level or polymorphism of DNMT1 increased the OR of ccRCC. • High risk genotypes of combination of DNMT1 and DNMT3A increased the OR of ccRCC. • A joint effect of urinary total arsenic level and DNMTs genotypes may affect ccRCC.

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, T; Fujimoto, T; Sudo, T; Fujita, I; Imabori, M; Moritake, H; Sugimoto, T; Sakuma, Y; Takeuchi, T; Kawabata, S; Kirihata, M; Akisue, T; Yayama, K; Kurosaka, M; Miyatake, S; Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H

    2011-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake l-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of (10)B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Sudo, T.; Fujita, I.; Imabori, M.; Moritake, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kirihata, M.; Akisue, T.; Yayama, K.; Kurosaka, M.; Miyatake, S.; Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of 10 B (45–74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  15. Osteomalacia-inducing renal clear cell carcinoma uncovered by 99mTc-Hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaona; Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-11-01

    Most osteomalacia-causing tumors are small, benign mesenchymal neoplasms, which are commonly located in the extremities or craniofacial regions. An 18-year-old male patient with suspicion of tumor-induced osteomalacia underwent (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy to search potential culprit tumor. The images showed a large activity in the region of the left kidney. The lesion was resected and a clear cell renal cell carcinoma was found. One year after the left nephrectomy, the patient was tumor-free without symptoms of osteomalacia.

  16. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapaiwan, N; Tharasanit, T; Punjachaipornpol, S; Yamtang, D; Roongsitthichai, A; Moonarmart, W; Kaeoket, K; Manee-In, S

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05) than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  17. Predictive Factors for Natural Pregnancy after Microsurgical Reconstruction in Patients with Primary Epididymal Obstructive Azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Harza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia (OA is the most prevalent form of OA in nonvasectomized patients and has been less studied. We aim to assess the results with microsurgical vasoepididymostomy used in the treatment of men diagnosed with primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia and to identify the factors associated with natural pregnancy occurring after microsurgical reconstruction. This prospective study included consecutive patients with epididymal OA who underwent microsurgical reconstruction in our center. Clinical and biological data were obtained every three months during follow-up. Occurrence of natural pregnancy was the primary study outcome. In total, 36 patients underwent microsurgical reconstruction. The mean age was 34±4.5 years (range 24–46 years. Median follow-up time was 15 [IQR 12–21] months. The total patency rate was 77.7% (n=28. During follow-up, 8 (22.2% natural pregnancies occurred. The overall live birth rate was 100%. Low FSH levels (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.052–0.88; P=0.032 and higher total motile sperm count (TMSC (HR: 1.001; 95% CI 1–1.001; P=0.012 were associated with a higher rate of natural pregnancy. Our data suggest that microsurgical vasoepididymostomy is an effective therapy of primary epididymal OA. Baseline lower FSH and higher TMSC were independent predictors for natural pregnancy occurrence.

  18. Predictive factors for natural pregnancy after microsurgical reconstruction in patients with primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harza, Mihai; Voinea, Sebastian; Ismail, Gener; Gagiu, Cristian; Baston, Catalin; Preda, Adrian; Manea, Ioan; Priporeanu, Tiberiu; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2014-01-01

    Primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia (OA) is the most prevalent form of OA in nonvasectomized patients and has been less studied. We aim to assess the results with microsurgical vasoepididymostomy used in the treatment of men diagnosed with primary epididymal obstructive azoospermia and to identify the factors associated with natural pregnancy occurring after microsurgical reconstruction. This prospective study included consecutive patients with epididymal OA who underwent microsurgical reconstruction in our center. Clinical and biological data were obtained every three months during follow-up. Occurrence of natural pregnancy was the primary study outcome. In total, 36 patients underwent microsurgical reconstruction. The mean age was 34 ± 4.5 years (range 24-46 years). Median follow-up time was 15 [IQR 12-21] months. The total patency rate was 77.7% (n = 28). During follow-up, 8 (22.2%) natural pregnancies occurred. The overall live birth rate was 100%. Low FSH levels (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.052-0.88; P = 0.032) and higher total motile sperm count (TMSC) (HR: 1.001; 95% CI 1-1.001; P = 0.012) were associated with a higher rate of natural pregnancy. Our data suggest that microsurgical vasoepididymostomy is an effective therapy of primary epididymal OA. Baseline lower FSH and higher TMSC were independent predictors for natural pregnancy occurrence.

  19. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prapaiwan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05 than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  20. The celecoxib derivatives AR-12 and AR-14 induce autophagy and clear prion-infected cells from prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Basant A; Abdelaziz, Dalia; Thapa, Simrika; Lu, Li; Jain, Shubha; Gilch, Sabine; Proniuk, Stefan; Zukiwski, Alexander; Schatzl, Hermann M

    2017-12-14

    Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. The autocatalytic conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathologic isoform PrP Sc is a key feature in prion pathogenesis. AR-12 is an IND-approved derivative of celecoxib that demonstrated preclinical activity against several microbial diseases. Recently, AR-12 has been shown to facilitate clearance of misfolded proteins. The latter proposes AR-12 to be a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of AR-12 and its derivatives in controlling prion infection. We tested AR-12 in prion infected neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. Immunoblotting and confocal microscopy results showed that AR-12 and its analogue AR-14 reduced PrP Sc levels after only 72 hours of treatment. Furthermore, infected cells were cured of PrP Sc after exposure of AR-12 or AR-14 for only two weeks. We partially attribute the influence of the AR compounds on prion propagation to autophagy stimulation, in line with our previous findings that drug-induced stimulation of autophagy has anti-prion effects in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this study demonstrates that AR-12 and the AR-14 analogue are potential new therapeutic agents for prion diseases and possibly protein misfolding disorders involving prion-like mechanisms.

  1. Recovery of sperm after epididymal refrigeration from domestic cats using ACP-117c and Tris extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B.C. Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to compare fresh sperm and sperm cooled to 4ºC that had been recovered from the epididymides of cats using powdered coconut water (ACP-117c and Tris extenders. Sixty epididymides were divided into 6 groups: 10 fresh epididymides were recovered using Tris (T0h; 10 were kept at 4°C/2h and recovered using Tris (T2h; 10 were kept at 4°C/4h and recovered using Tris (T4h; 10 fresh were recovered using ACP-117c (A0h; 10 were kept at 4°C/2h and recovered using ACP-117c (A2h, and 10 were kept at 4°C/4h and recovered using ACP-117c (A4h. The testis-epididymis complexes (TEC control were not cooled. The others were cooled at 4°C for 2 or 4h. The epididymis was separated and the sperm was recovered by the modified flotation method. Sperm kinetic parameters were evaluated by a computer-system analysis, and vigor, viability, concentration, membrane function and morphology of the sperm were assessed under a light microscope. The progressive motility with ACP-117c declined after 2h of cooling, but did not differ between fresh and 4h. The vigor and membrane function were higher in A4h than A0h. The vigor at T2h and T4h were decreased compared to T0h. T0h was higher than A0h for vigor and sperm membrane function. However, after 4h of cooling, ACP-117c maintained a higher percentage of living cells. Feline epididymal sperm quality can be maintained to the degree necessary for artificial breeding programs following cooling and ACP-117c may be successfully used to recover cat sperm that have been cooled for up to 4h.

  2. Tumor biology of non-metastatic stages of clear cell renal cell carcinoma; overexpression of stearoyl desaturase-1, EPO/EPO-R system and hypoxia-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanoff, Tania Romina; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Todaro, Juan Santiago; Espada, Joaquín Diego; Colavita, Juan Pablo Melana; Brandan, Nora Cristina; Torres, Adriana Mónica; Aguirre, María Victoria

    2016-10-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal carcinomas. There is great interest to know the molecular basis of the tumor biology of ccRCC that might contribute to a better understanding of the aggressive biological behavior of this cancer and to identify early biomarkers of disease. This study describes the relationship among proliferation, survival, and apoptosis with the expression of key molecules related to tumoral hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), their receptors (EPO-R, VEGFR-2), and stearoyl desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in early stages of ccRCC. Tissue samples were obtained at the Urology Unit of the J.R. Vidal Hospital (Corrientes, Argentina), from patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cancer between 2011 and 2014. Four experimental groups according to pathological stage and nuclear grade were organized: T1G1 (n = 6), T2G1 (n = 4), T1G2 (n = 7), and T2G2 (n = 7). The expression of HIF-1α, EPO, EPO-R, VEGF, VEGFR-2, Bcl-x L , and SCD-1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and/or RT-PCR. Apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL in situ assay, and tumor proliferation was determined by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Data revealed that HIF-1α, EPO, EPO-R, VEGF, and VEGF-R2 were overexpressed in most samples. The T1G1 group showed the highest EPO levels, approximately 200 % compared with distal renal tissue. Bcl-x L overexpression was concomitant with the enhancement of proliferative indexes. SCD-1 expression increased with the tumor size and nuclear grade. Moreover, the direct correlations observed between SCD-1/HIF-1α and SCD-1/Ki-67 increments suggest a link among these molecules, which would determine tumor progression in early stages of ccRCC. Our results demonstrate the relationship among proliferation, survival, and apoptosis with the expression of key molecules related to tumoral hypoxia (HIF-1α, EPO, VEGF), their

  3. Prognostication of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas based on quantification of DNA methylation levels of CpG island methylator phenotype marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Arai, Eri; Gotoh, Masahiro; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kanai, Yae

    2014-10-20

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is characterized by accumulation of DNA methylation at CpG islands and poorer patient outcome. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for prognostication of patients with ccRCCs using the ccRCC-specific CIMP marker genes. DNA methylation levels at 299 CpG sites in the 14 CIMP marker genes were evaluated quantitatively in tissue specimens of 88 CIMP-negative and 14 CIMP-positive ccRCCs in a learning cohort using the MassARRAY system. An additional 100 ccRCCs were also analyzed as a validation cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that area under the curve values for the 23 CpG units including the 32 CpG sites in the 7 CIMP-marker genes, i.e. FAM150A, ZNF540, ZNF671, ZNF154, PRAC, TRH and SLC13A5, for discrimination of CIMP-positive from CIMP-negative ccRCCs were larger than 0.95. Criteria combining the 23 CpG units discriminated CIMP-positive from CIMP-negative ccRCCs with 100% sensitivity and specificity in the learning cohort. Cancer-free and overall survival rates of patients with CIMP-positive ccRCCs diagnosed using the criteria combining the 23 CpG units in a validation cohort were significantly lower than those of patients with CIMP-negative ccRCCs (P = 1.41 × 10-5 and 2.43 × 10-13, respectively). Patients with CIMP-positive ccRCCs in the validation cohort had a higher likelihood of disease-related death (hazard ratio, 75.8; 95% confidence interval, 7.81 to 735; P = 1.89 × 10-4) than those with CIMP-negative ccRCCs. The established criteria are able to reproducibly diagnose CIMP-positive ccRCCs and may be useful for personalized medicine for patients with ccRCCs.

  4. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude

  5. MR imaging of clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of the soft parts): a multicenter correlative MRI-pathology study of 21 cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuckeleer, L.H. de; Schepper, A.M. de; Vandevenne, J.E.; Bloem, J.L.; Davies, A.M.; Oudkerk, M.; Hauben, E.; Marck, E. van; Somville, J.; Vanel, D.; Steinbach, L.S.; Guinebretiere, J.M.; Hogendoorn, P.C.W.; Mooi, W.J.; Verstraete, K.; Zaloudek, C.; Jones, H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate MR imaging and pathology findings in order to define the characteristic features of clear cell sarcoma of the soft tissues (malignant melanoma of the soft parts).Design and patients. MR examinations of 21 patients with histologically proven clear cell sarcoma of the musculoskeletal system were retrospectively reviewed and assessed for shape, homogeneity, delineation, signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images, contrast enhancement, relationship with adjacent fascia or tendon, secondary bone involvement, and intratumoral necrosis. In 19 cases the pathology findings were available for review and for a comparative MR-pathology study.Results. On T1-weighted images, lesions were isointense (n=3), hypointense (n=7) or slightly hyperintense to muscle (n=11). Immunohistochemical examination was performed in 17 patients. All 17 specimens showed positivity for HMB-45 antibody. In nine of 11 lesions with slightly increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, a correlative MR imaging-pathology study was possible. All nine were positive to HMB-45 antibody.Conclusions. Clear cell sarcoma of the musculoskeletal system often has a benign-looking appearance on MR images. In up to 52% of patients, this lesion with melanocytic differentiation has slightly increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images compared with muscle. As the presence of this relative higher signal intensity on T1-weighted images is rather specific for tumors displaying melanocytic differentiation, radiologists should familiarize themselves with this rare entity and include it in their differential diagnosis when confronted with a well-defined, homogeneous, strongly enhancing mass with slightly higher signal intensity compared with muscle on native T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, T; Andoh, T; Sudo, T; Fujita, I; Imabori, M; Moritake, H; Sugimoto, T; Sakuma, Y; Takeuchi, T; Sonobe, H; Epstein, Alan L; Akisue, T; Kirihata, M; Kurosaka, M; Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H

    2011-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a new approach for clear cell sarcoma (CCS) treatment: Trial using a lung metastasis model of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Sakuma, Toshiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Akisue, Toshihiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In the present study, we established a lung metastasis animal model of CCS and investigated the therapeutic effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA). Biodistribution data revealed tumor-selective accumulation of (10)B. Unlike conventional gamma-ray irradiation, BNCT significantly suppressed tumor growth without damaging normal tissues, suggesting that it may be a potential new therapeutic option to treat CCS lung metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for a recurrent metastasis after resection of liver metastases from an ileal clear-cell sarcoma: Long-term local tumor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Wook

    2017-12-01

    Clear-cell sarcomas (CCSs) in the gastrointestinal tract are extremely rare and aggressive tumors. We present the first case of a CCS arising in the ileum and metastasizing to the liver; our patient was a 60-year-old man. After the resection of the CCS and the liver metastases, a new liver metastasis developed, which was treated via percutaneous radiofrequency ablation only. At the 5-year follow-up, the ablated region was stable without local tumor progression. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is a viable local treatment option for recurrent metastases from an ileal CCS if they are detected when small and at an early stage in follow-up studies.

  9. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole-body and Whole-Organ Clearing and Imaging Techniques with Single-Cell Resolution: Toward Organism-Level Systems Biology in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2016-01-21

    Organism-level systems biology aims to identify, analyze, control and design cellular circuits in organisms. Many experimental and computational approaches have been developed over the years to allow us to conduct these studies. Some of the most powerful methods are based on using optical imaging in combination with fluorescent labeling, and for those one of the long-standing stumbling blocks has been tissue opacity. Recently, the solutions to this problem have started to emerge based on whole-body and whole-organ clearing techniques that employ innovative tissue-clearing chemistry. Here, we review these advancements and discuss how combining new clearing techniques with high-performing fluorescent proteins or small molecule tags, rapid volume imaging and efficient image informatics is resulting in comprehensive and quantitative organ-wide, single-cell resolution experimental data. These technologies are starting to yield information on connectivity and dynamics in cellular circuits at unprecedented resolution, and bring us closer to system-level understanding of physiology and diseases of complex mammalian systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of rete testis fluid deprivation on the kinetic parameters of goat epididymal 5 alpha-reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Lubis, A M; Braun, W F; Youngquist, R S; Ganjam, V K

    1990-01-01

    A surgical technique to cannulate the rete testis of the goat was utilized to examine the effects of rete testis fluid (RTF) deprivation on the enzymatic activity of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase. Kinetic techniques were used to determine whether the regional enzymatic effect of RTF deprivation is to decrease the apparent number of 5 alpha-reductase active sites or the catalytic activity of each active site within the epididymal epithelium. Paired comparisons of (Vmax)app and (Km)app values between control and RTF-deprived epididymides indicated that RTF deprivation affected the value of (Vmax)app with no apparent change in the values of (Km)app in caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal regions. We conclude that RTF deprivation in the goat epididymis for 7 days results in a decreased number of apparent 5 alpha-reductase active sites within the epididymal epithelium.

  12. Contribution of transcription factor, SP1, to the promotion of HB-EGF expression in defense mechanism against the treatment of irinotecan in ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kohei; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Nam, Sung Ouk; Odawara, Takashi; Manabe, Sadao; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo; Takada, Shuji; Asahara, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a worst histological subtype than other ovarian malignant tumor. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. The aims of this study were to validate the efficacy of HB-EGF–targeted therapy for OCCC and to identify the transcription factor that contributed to the induction of HB-EGF by SN38 treatment in OCCC cells. HB-EGF was highly expressed in OCCC cells, and an increase of HB-EGF was induced by SN38 which had only antitumor effect among conventional anticancer agents on OCCC. A specific inhibitor of HB-EGF, a cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), led to a synergistic increase in the number of apoptotic OCCC cells with the treatment of SN38. The luciferase assay with 5′-deletion promoter constructs identified a GC-rich element between −125 and −178 (the distal transcription start site was denoted +1) as a cis-regulatory region, and the treatment of SN38 induced luciferase activity in this region. An in silico and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis estimated that SP1 bound to the cis-regulatory region of HB-EGF in OCCC cells. Real-time PCR and cell viability assays showed that the transfection of a small interfering RNA targeting SP1 suppressed the expression of HB-EGF induced by SN38, resulting in the enhanced sensitivity of SN38. Taken together, these results indicate that induction of HB-EGF expression contributed to defense mechanism against treatment of SN38 through the transcriptional activity of SP1 in OCCC cells

  13. Ion transporters for fluid reabsorption in the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J M; Dalponte, M; Janssen, S; Bunick, D; Nakai, M

    2006-10-01

    Testicular fluid is highly condensed during its passage through the epididymal region in the avian species. In the present study, major ion transporters that are responsible for condensation mainly by water resorption in the reproductive tract as identified in the mammalian epididymis were localized within the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymis by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the efferent ductule epithelium expressed sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and that the connecting ductule and epididymal duct epithelia expressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and CAII. These data suggest that a model proposed for reabsorption in mammalian efferent ductules can be applied to avian efferent ductules.

  14. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  15. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    N. Prapaiwan; T. Tharasanit; S. Punjachaipornpol; D. Yamtang; A. Roongsitthichai; W. Moonarmart; K. Kaeoket; S. Manee-in

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. Howeve...

  16. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  17. MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun [Foshan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Foshan (China); Lei, Ting [Zhongshan People’s Hospital, Zhongshan (China); Xu, Congjie [Department of Urology, Pepole’s Hospital of Hainan Province, Haikou (China); Li, Huan; Ma, Wenmin; Yang, Yunxia; Fan, Shuming [Foshan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Foshan (China); Liu, Yuchen, E-mail: s_ycliu1@stu.edu.cn [Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •miR-187 is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). •Down-regulation of miR-187 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ccRCC. •miR-187 inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3 in ccRCC. -- Abstract: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5 years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3′-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC.

  18. MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun; Lei, Ting; Xu, Congjie; Li, Huan; Ma, Wenmin; Yang, Yunxia; Fan, Shuming; Liu, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •miR-187 is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). •Down-regulation of miR-187 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ccRCC. •miR-187 inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3 in ccRCC. -- Abstract: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5 years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3′-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC

  19. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  20. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A.; Domènech, Òscar; Banjar, Zainy M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  1. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  2. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  3. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Lin Zuo

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+/HCO(3(- cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis.Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH solution, the intracellular pH (pHi recovery from NH(4Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE. Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3(- buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3(- buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS, the inhibitor of HCO(3(- transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+. The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH.The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  4. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  5. Predictors of patency after two-stitch invagination vaso-epididymal anastomosis for idiopathic obstructive azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gautam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anastomotic patency with return of sperm in the ejaculate following microsurgical vasoepididymostomy (VEA is not universal and may be delayed. The ability to predict the result of VEA based on preoperative or intra-operative parameters would enable the surgeon to offer the best treatment to the infertile couple. We used the two-stitch invagination technique of VEA in patients of idiopathic obstructive azoospermia and prospectively analyzed factors that could predict a patent anastomosis. While such studies have previously been done for patients undergoing VEA for secondary infertility following a vasectomy, to the best of our knowledge this is the first study analyzing these parameters for patients with primary infertility and idiopathic obstruction. Methods and materials: Over a 2-year period, 29 men underwent the 2-suture invagination VEA for idiopathic obstructive azoospermia. Twenty-four patients provided at least one postoperative semen sample. Preoperative and intra-operative parameters were compared between patients with a patent anastomosis with sperm in ejaculate (n = 12 and those with no sperm in the ejaculate (n = 12 using the t-test, Fisher′s exact test or chi-square test, as appropriate and a multivariate statistical analysis to determine any significant difference. Results: The mean follow up of the 24 patients was 7.6 months (2-30 months. A significantly greater number of patients with patent anastomosis had motile epididymal sperms (P = 0.034 and higher surgeon′s technical satisfaction with the procedure (P = 0.034. However, this difference was seen only on a univariate analysis and did not persist when a multivariate analysis was used. Conclusions: The presence of motile sperms in the epididymal fluid and a high level of technical satisfaction with the anastomosis may indicate a higher likelihood of success following a vaso-epididymal anastomosis for idiopathic obstruction. However, these parameters are not

  6. Comparative analysis of novel and conventional Hsp90 inhibitors on HIF activity and angiogenic potential in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: implications for clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohonowych, Jessica ES; Peng, Shuping; Gopal, Udhayakumar; Hance, Michael W; Wing, Shane B; Argraves, Kelley M; Lundgren, Karen; Isaacs, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    Perturbing Hsp90 chaperone function targets hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) function in a von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) independent manner, and represents an approach to combat the contribution of HIF to cell renal carcinoma (CCRCC) progression. However, clinical trials with the prototypic Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG have been unsuccessful in halting the progression of advanced CCRCC. Here we evaluated a novel next generation small molecule Hsp90 inhibitor, EC154, against HIF isoforms and HIF-driven molecular and functional endpoints. The effects of EC154 were compared to those of the prototypic Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor LBH589. The findings indicate that EC154 is a potent inhibitor of HIF, effective at doses 10-fold lower than 17-AAG. While EC154, 17-AAG and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor LBH589 impaired HIF transcriptional activity, CCRCC cell motility, and angiogenesis; these effects did not correlate with their ability to diminish HIF protein expression. Further, our results illustrate the complexity of HIF targeting, in that although these agents suppressed HIF transcripts with differential dynamics, these effects were not predictive of drug efficacy in other relevant assays. We provide evidence for EC154 targeting of HIF in CCRCC and for LBH589 acting as a suppressor of both HIF-1 and HIF-2 activity. We also demonstrate that 17-AAG and EC154, but not LBH589, can restore endothelial barrier function, highlighting a potentially new clinical application for Hsp90 inhibitors. Finally, given the discordance between HIF activity and protein expression, we conclude that HIF expression is not a reliable surrogate for HIF activity. Taken together, our findings emphasize the need to incorporate an integrated approach in evaluating Hsp90 inhibitors within the context of HIF suppression

  7. Comparative analysis of novel and conventional Hsp90 inhibitors on HIF activity and angiogenic potential in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: implications for clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohonowych Jessica ES

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perturbing Hsp90 chaperone function targets hypoxia inducible factor (HIF function in a von Hippel-Lindau (VHL independent manner, and represents an approach to combat the contribution of HIF to cell renal carcinoma (CCRCC progression. However, clinical trials with the prototypic Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG have been unsuccessful in halting the progression of advanced CCRCC. Methods Here we evaluated a novel next generation small molecule Hsp90 inhibitor, EC154, against HIF isoforms and HIF-driven molecular and functional endpoints. The effects of EC154 were compared to those of the prototypic Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG and the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor LBH589. Results The findings indicate that EC154 is a potent inhibitor of HIF, effective at doses 10-fold lower than 17-AAG. While EC154, 17-AAG and the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor LBH589 impaired HIF transcriptional activity, CCRCC cell motility, and angiogenesis; these effects did not correlate with their ability to diminish HIF protein expression. Further, our results illustrate the complexity of HIF targeting, in that although these agents suppressed HIF transcripts with differential dynamics, these effects were not predictive of drug efficacy in other relevant assays. Conclusions We provide evidence for EC154 targeting of HIF in CCRCC and for LBH589 acting as a suppressor of both HIF-1 and HIF-2 activity. We also demonstrate that 17-AAG and EC154, but not LBH589, can restore endothelial barrier function, highlighting a potentially new clinical application for Hsp90 inhibitors. Finally, given the discordance between HIF activity and protein expression, we conclude that HIF expression is not a reliable surrogate for HIF activity. Taken together, our findings emphasize the need to incorporate an integrated approach in evaluating Hsp90 inhibitors within the context of HIF suppression.

  8. Prognostic significance of multidrug-resistance protein (MDR-1 in renal clear cell carcinomas: A five year follow-up analysis

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    Strazzullo Viviana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of renal cancer patients shows poor or partial response to chemotherapy and the mechanisms have not been still understood. Multi-drug resistance is the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapic drugs. The role of the multi-drug resistant transporter (MDR-1/P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR-1, and that one of the so-called multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP, two energy-dependent efflux pumps, are commonly known to confer drug resistance. We studied MDR-1 expression in selected cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, clear cell type, with long-term follow-up, in order to establish its prognostic role and its possible contribution in the choice of post-surgical therapy. Methods MDR-1 has been studied by standard LSAB-HRP immunohistochemical technique, in paraffin embedded RCC samples. Protein expression has been compared to clinical and histopathological data and to disease specific survival of RCC patients, by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses. Results Two groups of RCCs were obtained by esteeming MDR-1 expression and disease specific survival (obtained with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses: the first one presents low or absent MDR-1 expression and good survival; the second one is characterized by high MDR-1 expression and significant poor outcome (p p p p Conclusion In our opinion, the results of this study well prove the relationship between MDR-1 expression and worse clinical prognosis in RCC, because MDR-1 over-expressing RCCs can be considered a group of tumours with a more aggressive behavior. This finding outlines a possible role of MDR-1 as prognostic factor, dependent and independent of multidrug resistance. These results could be useful to predict cancer evolution and to choose the appropriate treatment: this is another step that can stimulate further promising and interesting investigations on broader

  9. Multidisciplinary management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma in Africa and the Middle East: current practice and recommendations for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekri J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Zekri,1 Lydia M Dreosti,2 Marwan Ghosn,3 Emad Hamada,4 Mohamed Jaloudi,5 Ola Khorshid,6 Blaha Larbaoui7 1College of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Alfaisal University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Faculty of Medicine Hematology, Oncology Department, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Kasr Alainy, Cairo, Egypt; 5Oncology Hematology Department, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 6National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Kasr El Ainy, Cairo, Egypt; 7Oncology Service, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel Abbés, Algeria Abstract: The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC has evolved considerably in recent years. This report represents the consensus of 22 relevant medical specialists from Africa and the Middle East region engaged in the management of RCC. Partial or radical nephrectomy is the standard of care for most patients with localized RCC. It is essential that patients are followed up appropriately after surgery to enable local and distant relapses to be identified and treated promptly. The treatment of advanced/metastatic disease has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies. Follow-up of these patients enables therapy optimization and assessment of response to treatment. There was universal agreement on the importance of management of RCC by a multidisciplinary team supported by a multidisciplinary tumor board. Barriers hindering this approach were identified. These included lack of awareness of the benefits of multidisciplinary team role, poor communication among relevant disciplines, time constraints, and specifics of private practice. Other challenges include shortage of expert specialists as urologists and oncologists and lack of local management guidelines in some countries. Solutions were proposed and discussed. Medical

  10. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage in epididymal sperm of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Lakshmi, Nagella Venkata; Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Prakash, Seppan

    2013-01-09

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (M. pruriens) is a leguminous plant that has been recognized as an herbal medicine for improving fertility and related disorders in the Indian traditional system of medicine, however without proper scientific validations. To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens on mitochondrial dysfunction and the DNA damage in hyperglycemic rat epididymal spermatozoa. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control (Sham), diabetes induced [streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1M citrate buffer] (STZ), diabetic rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (STZ+MP) and normal rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (Sham+MP). M. pruriens was administered (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. On 60th day animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation sperm were collected from epididymis and subjected various analysis like antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significant reduction in the sperm count, motility, viability and significant increase in the number of abnormal sperm in STZ compared to sham was noticed. STZ rat sperm showed significant increase in LPO and DNA damage. Both the enzymic and non-enzymic were decreased; MMP and the mitochondrial functions were severely affected in STZ group. The diabetic rats supplemented with M. pruriens showed a remarkable recovery in antioxidant levels and reduced LPO with well preserved sperm DNA. MMP and mitochondrial function test were also preserved in STZ+MP rat sperm. The present study has clearly demonstrated the potency of M. pruriens to reduce the diabetic induced sperm damage induced by oxidative stress (OS). These observations are encouraging to perform similar studies in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Snow-clearing operations

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    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  12. Identification of New Epididymal Luminal Fluid Proteins Involved in Sperm Maturation in Infertile Rats Treated by Dutasteride Using iTRAQ

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    Shu-Wu Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa become mature and acquire fertilizing capacity during their passage through the epididymal lumen. In this study, we identified new epididymal luminal fluid proteins involved in sperm maturation in infertile rats by dutasteride, a dual 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to provide potential epididymal targets for new contraceptives and infertility treatment. Methods: Male rats were treated with dutasteride for 28 consecutive days. We observed the protein expression profiles in the epididymal luminal fluids in infertile and normal rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. The confidence of proteome data was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: 1045 proteins were tested, and 23 of them presented different expression profiling in the infertile and normal rats. The seven proteins were down-regulated, and 16 proteins were up-regulated. Among the seven proteins which were significantly down-regulated by dutasteride in the epididymal luminal fluids, there were three β-defensins (Defb2, Defb18 and Defb39, which maybe the key proteins involved in epididymal sperm maturation and male fertility. Conclusions: We report for the first time that dutasteride influences the protein expression profiling in the epididymal luminal fluids of rats, and this result provides some new epididymal targets for male contraception and infertility therapy.

  13. PERCENTAGE OF VIABLE SPERMATOZOA COLLECTED FROM THE EPIDIDYMES OF DEATH LOCAL DOG

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    I Nyoman Sulabda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the effectof post mortem time on percentage of lifeepididymessperm from postmortem dog caudae epididymides. A total of 9 dog were usedand divided into three group. T0 was control group, T1, 3 hours postmortem and T2, 6hours postmortem. This way, samples were obtained at different times postmortem. Spermwere extracted from the caudae epididymes by means of cuts.The result showed that the percentage of life sperm were 67,16 ± 5.67(T0, 46.33 ± 5.60(T1 and 24.00 ± 4.35 respectively. We could appreciate that percentage of life wasaffected by postmortem time. There was significant decrease life sperm recovered fromepididymes postmortem (P<0.01. In conclusion, epididymes sperm from dog undergodecrease of percentage of life, but it could stay acceptable within many hours postmortem.We intepreted these data to indicate that it may still be possible to obtain viablespermatozoa many hours later.

  14. Cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis: a case report and review of the literature

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    Bailey David M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid tumor metastasis to the epididymis is a rare occurrence and is mostly discovered incidentally at autopsy or after therapeutic orchidectomy for prostate cancer. Other primary carcinomas that have been demonstrated to metastasize to the paratesticular region include those originating in the stomach, kidney, ileum, and colon. Case presentation A 72-year-old gentleman presented with a firm and tender mass involving the right epididymis. On examination, he was jaundiced. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated an obstructive stricture of the extra-hepatic bile ducts, in keeping with a cholangiocarcinoma, through which a metal stent was endoscopically inserted for symptomatic relief. Subsequent right radical orchidectomy yielded a diffusely infiltrative adenocarcinoma obliterating the epididymis, extending into the rete testis, vas deferens and spermatic cord and showing widespread vascular and perineural invasion. Residual epididymal, rete, and testicular tubules showed no in situ neoplasia. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the features were in keeping with a metastasis from a primary cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion Only two cases of bile duct carcinoma metastasising to the male genital tract have previously been reported in the literature, the testis being the main site of metastasis in both cases. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cholangiocarcinoma metastasising primarily to the epididymis, and presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis in the absence of disseminated disease. It serves to highlight the importance of performing a thorough examination of the male external genitalia both clinically, in the follow up of cancer patients, and at autopsy.

  15. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL inactivation in sporadic clear cell renal cancer: associations with germline VHL polymorphisms and etiologic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee E Moore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal tumor heterogeneity studies have utilized the von Hippel-Lindau VHL gene to classify disease into molecularly defined subtypes to examine associations with etiologic risk factors and prognosis. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of VHL inactivation in clear cell renal tumors (ccRCC and to evaluate relationships between VHL inactivation subgroups with renal cancer risk factors and VHL germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. VHL genetic and epigenetic inactivation was examined among 507 sporadic RCC/470 ccRCC cases using endonuclease scanning and using bisulfite treatment and Sanger sequencing across 11 CpG sites within the VHL promoter. Case-only multivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations between alteration subtypes and risk factors. VHL inactivation, either through sequence alterations or promoter methylation in tumor DNA, was observed among 86.6% of ccRCC cases. Germline VHL SNPs and a haplotype were associated with promoter hypermethylation in tumor tissue (OR = 6.10; 95% CI: 2.28-16.35, p = 3.76E-4, p-global = 8E-5. Risk of having genetic VHL inactivation was inversely associated with smoking due to a higher proportion of wild-type ccRCC tumors [former: OR = 0.70 (0.20-1.31 and current: OR = 0.56 (0.32-0.99; P-trend = 0.04]. Alteration prevalence did not differ by histopathologic characteristics or occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. ccRCC cases with particular VHL germline polymorphisms were more likely to have VHL inactivation through promoter hypermethylation than through sequence alterations in tumor DNA, suggesting that the presence of these SNPs may represent an example of facilitated epigenetic variation (an inherited propensity towards epigenetic variation in renal tissue. A proportion of tumors from current smokers lacked VHL alterations and may represent a biologically distinct clinical entity from inactivated cases.

  16. Comparison of Clinical Characteristic and Prognosis between Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma and Serous Carcinoma: A 10-Year Cohort Study of Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuang; Yang, Jiaxin; You, Yan; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Chen, Jie; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of Chinese patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and serous carcinoma (SC). A retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristic and prognosis of patients with CCC and SC who were diagnosed and treated in in a tertiary referral center (Peking Union Medical College Hospital) between 1999 and 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were employed in the survival analysis. A total of 504 cases were included in the study, comprising 197 cases of CCC and 307 cases of SC. The mean age of the patients with SC was greater than of CCC patients (3.6±0.94, PPatients with CCC were more likely to be early-stage and optimally debulked (Ppatients with CCC had normal values, and the level was significantly lower than in patients with SC (Ppatients had platinum-resistant tumors compared with platinum-sensitive disease (45.7% in CCC vs. 61.0% in SC [P=0.008]). The 5-year survival rate was 51.2% in the CCC group vs. 49.8% in the SC group (P=0.428). Patients with advanced CCC had a statistically significant poorer overall survival (OS) compared with their SC counterparts (38.0 vs. 52.0 months; hazard ratio 1.584, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.167-2.150, P=0.003). However, the advantage of improved progression-free survival (PFS) existed across all stages. Women with ovarian CCC presented at a younger age and early stage. Patients with ovarian CCC also had improved PFS, but they had similar OS compared to patients with SC. However, patients with advanced CCC had decreased survival.

  17. Outcomes of Patients With Revised Stage I Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney Treated in National Wilms Tumor Studies 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Seibel, Nita L.; Ritchey, Michael; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Grundy, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of children with revised stage I clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) using the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTS)-5 staging criteria after multimodality treatment on NWTS 1-5 protocols. Methods and Materials: All CCSK patients enrolled in the National Wilms Tumor Study Group protocols had their pathology slides reviewed, and only those determined to have revised stage I tumors according to the NWTS-5 staging criteria were included in the present analysis. All patients were treated with multimodality therapy according to the NWTS 1-5 protocols. Results: A total of 53 children were identified as having stage I CCSK. All patients underwent primary surgery with radical nephrectomy. The chemotherapy regimens used were as follows: regimen A, C, F, or EE in 4 children (8%); regimen DD or DD4A in 33 children (62%); regimen J in 4 children (8%); and regimen I in 12 children (22%). Forty-six patients (87%) received flank radiation therapy (RT). Seven children (13%) did not receive flank RT. The median delay between surgery and the initiation of RT was 9 days (range, 3-61). The median RT dose was 10.8 Gy (range, 10-36). The flank RT doses were as follows: 10.5 or 10.8 Gy in 25 patients (47%), 11-19.9 Gy in 2 patients (4%), 20-29.9 Gy in 9 patients (17%), and 30-40 Gy in 10 patients (19%). The median follow-up for the entire group was 17 years (range, 2-36). The relapse-free and cancer-specific survival rate was 100% at the last follow-up examination. Conclusions: The present results have demonstrated that children with revised stage I CCSK using the NWTS-5 staging criteria have excellent survival rates despite the use of varying RT doses and chemotherapy regimens in the NWTS 1-5 protocols.

  18. Does the Loss of ARID1A (BAF-250a Expression in Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinomas Have Any Clinicopathologic Significance? A Pilot Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Fadare, Idris L. Renshaw, Sharon X. Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin-modification complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and to affect transcription and several cellular processes. Accordingly, their loss of function has been associated with malignant transformation. ARID1A (the expression of whose product, BAF250a, a key complex component, is lost when mutated has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in 46-57% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC. The purposes of this study are to assess the frequency of loss of BAF250a expression in endometrial CCC and whether this loss has any discernable clinicopathologic implications. 34 endometrial carcinomas with a CCC component (including 22 pure CCC, 8 mixed carcinomas with a 10% CCC component, and 4 carcinosarcomas with a CCC epithelial component, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human BAF250a protein. 5 (22.7% of the 22 pure CCC were entirely BAF250a negative, whereas the remainder showed diffuse immunoreactivity. None of 4 carcinosarcomas and only 1 (12.5% of the 8 mixed carcinomas were BAF250a negative. There was no discernable relationship between BAF250a immunoreactivity status and tumor architectural patterns (solid, papillary or tubulocystic areas or cell type (flat, hobnail or polygonal. Of the 22 patients with pure CCC, 14, 2, 3, and 3 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages 1, II, III and IV respectively. Interestingly, all 5 BAF250a negative cases were late stage [stages III or IV] as compared with 1 of 17 BAF250a positive cases (p=0.0002. Thus, 83% (5/6 of all late stage cases were BAF250a [-], as compared with 0 (0% of the 16 early stage (I or II cases (p=.0002. BAF250a negative and positive cases did not show any statistically significant difference regarding patient age and frequency of lymphovascular invasion or myometrial invasion. As may be anticipated from the concentration of late stage cases in

  19. Recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from agouti (Dasiprocta aguti) using powdered coconut water (ACP-109c) and Tris extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Santos, E A A; Castelo, T S; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to compare the use of powdered coconut water (ACP-109c; ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil) and Tris extenders for recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from agouti. The caudae epididymus and proximal ductus deferens from 10 sexually mature agoutis were subjected to retrograde washing using ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) or Tris. Epididymal sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, sperm viability, membrane integrity, and morphology. Samples were centrifuged, and extended in the same diluents plus egg yolk (20%) and glycerol (6%), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and subsequently thawed at 37°C for 1 min, followed by re-evaluation of sperm characteristics. The two extenders were similarly efficient for epididymal recovery, with regard to the number and quality of sperm recovered. However, for both extenders, sperm quality decreased (P Biotecnologia) group, which was significantly better than 9.7 ± 2.6% motile sperm with 1.2 ± 0.3 vigor in Tris. In conclusion, agouti epididymal sperm were successfully recovered using either ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) or Tris extenders; however, ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) was a significantly better extender for processing and cryopreserving these sperm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the testicular, epididymal and endocrine phenotypes in the Leuven Vdr-deficient mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lieben, Liesbet; Nielsen, John E

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is a key factor for calcium and bone homeostasis, but signalling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) seems also to be important for testicular function. To test the functional role of vitamin D signalling we examined the male reproductive system of the Leuven Vdr-ablated (Vdr(-/-)) mice......, previously established as a model for hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets. We investigated reproductive hormones, changes in gene expression and histological phenotype of eleven Vdr(-/-), eight Vdr(+/-) and nine Vdr(+/+) mice. Testicular and epididymal histology were grossly normal in Vdr(-/-) mice...... expressions of ERα and the estrogen-target gene Aqp9 were higher. In conclusion, vitamin D seems dispensable for murine spermatogenesis and sex hormone production, but aberrant estrogen-signalling may elicit some of the VDR-mediated effects on male reproduction....

  1. Unique regional distribution of delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase and associated epididymal morphology in the marsupial, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Krause, W J; Ganjam, V K

    1987-09-01

    The epididymal epithelial ultrastructure has been described in the adult male North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Morphological results have suggested that absorptive activity is prominent in the proximal epididymal region by virtue of numerous microvilli, an endocytotic complex, dense granules, and multivesicular bodies in the apical cytoplasm. In contrast, the middle and distal epididymal regions exhibit ultrastructural features indicative of protein synthesis such as large invaginated euchromatic nuclei, large nucleoli, and increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum. It is in the middle and distal epididymal regions where sperm head rotation and sperm pairing take place. Epididymal delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase (5 alpha-reductase) activity also has been measured. It has been found that the level of enzyme activity differs significantly (p less than 0.01) between the proximal, middle, and distal epididymal regions. Enzyme-specific activity has been found to be highest in the middle region (47.6 +/- 5.4 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), lower in the distal region (18.3 +/- 0.7 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), with little activity (2.4 +/- 1.2 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/h/mg protein) found in the proximal epididymal region. This regional distribution of enzyme activity differs markedly from that reported for eutherian mammals. Both the suggested epididymal protein synthetic and secretory activity and the level of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase activity appear to correlate regionally with the morphological changes that occur in the opossum spermatozoa as they transit the epididymis.

  2. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

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    2012-04-09

    ..., 23, 37, et al. Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing..., 38, and 39 RIN 3038-0092, -0094 Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing... implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  3. Lung fibroblasts may play an important role in clearing apoptotic bodies of bronchial epithelial cells generated by exposure to PHMG-P-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Kyuhong; Chang, Jaerak

    2018-04-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) has been widely used in the industry owing to its excellent biocidal, anti-corrosive, and anti-biofouling properties. In Korea, consumers exposed to PHMG-phosphate (PHMG-P)-containing humidifier disinfectant have begun to suffer from fibrotic lung injury-related symptoms for unknown reasons. However, no appropriate treatment has yet been found because the detail toxic mechanism has not been identified. Herein, we first studied the toxic mechanism of PHMG-P-containing solution using human normal bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). When exposed for 24 h, PHMG-P-containing solution rapidly decreased cell viability from around 6 h after exposure and significantly increased of the phosphatidylserine exposure and the LDH release. At 6 h of exposure, the material contained in the solution was found to be bound to the cell membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles, and damaged the cell membrane and organelles. In addition, a significant increase of IFN-γ was observed among cytokines, the expression of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and membrane and DNA damage-related proteins was also enhanced. Meanwhile, the level of intracellular ROS and the secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1, which are chemokines for professional phagocytes, decreased. Thus, we treated dead BEAS-2B cells to lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), non-professional phagocytes, and then we observed that the dead cells rapidly attached to HFL-1 cells and were taken up. Additionally, increased secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1 was observed in the cells. Based on these results, we suggest that pulmonary exposure to PHMG-P induces apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts might play an important role in the clearance of the apoptotic debris. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Persistent scrotal pain and suspected orchido-epididymitis of a young boy during pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection in the bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, J-J; Serlo, W

    2011-08-01

    Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) is the most common parasite among mankind. Ectopic pinworm infections in number of organs are broadly reported. The aim of this report is to review the pinworm infection in the scrotum on the basis of our case. Our patient is a young boy with persistent pain in the scrotums together with abdominal symptoms. He underwent several urgent operations. Pinworm was finally found in appendix vermiformis. We hypothesize that concurrent unresponsive orchido-epididymitis was caused by pinworm as well. Eradication happened finally with pyvrinembonate. Pinworm is a parasite that lives usually in the bowel. Many ectopic locations, like scrotum, are known. Orchido-epididymitis by pinworm has to be kept in mind when treating boys with persistent scrotal pain. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. Outlining adequate protocols for Lidia bull epididymal storage and sperm cryopreservation: use of glycerol, dimethylformamide and N-acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Matilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lidia bovine breed is an important hallmark of the Spanish cattle industry. Bulls are selected based upon aggressiveness and epididymal sperm cryopreservation is the way to obtain and store their genetics. There are not specifically designed protocols yet to perform Lidia bull sperm cryopreservation. The present study aimed to determine if a tris-fructose-citrate-egg yolk (20% v/v; TFY extender supplemented with 7% glycerol (TFY1 or 3.5% glycerol plus 3.5% dimethylformamide (DMF; TFY2 are suitable media for cryopreservation of epididymal Lidia bull sperm. Moreover, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a potent antioxidant, was evaluated. The epididymis were stored at 4°C for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, and both freezing media were tested as such or supplemented with 1 or 2.5 mM of NAC. Our data demonstrated that post-thaw viability was well maintained (TFY1: 50.8% ± 1.9 at 24 h and 52.4% ± 0.8 at 96 h and TFY2: 52.6% ± 1.6 at 24 h and 56.1% ± 1.8 at 96 h; mean % ± SEM; p>0.05 as also were total and progressive sperm motility, high mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, DNA status and acrosomal intactness of Lidia bull sperm up to 96 h of epididymal storage, all extender variations being similar (p>0.05. In conclusion, the use of TFY medium supplemented either with 7% glycerol alone or the combination of 3.5% glycerol and 3.5% DMF were equally safe choices for epididymal Lidia bull sperm cryopreservation, and NAC addition did not significantly improve sperm post-thaw quality.

  6. [IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay versus PPD tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of tuberculous epididymitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Yang, Xi-Fei; Deng, Qun-Yi; Li, Bing; Liu, Guo-Hui; Zhang, Jie-Yun; Yang, Da-Fei

    2012-06-01

    To explore the potential application of IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous epididymitis (TE) by comparing ELISPOT assay with the traditional purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test. We examined 13 TE patients using an in-house ELISPOT kit, another 11 TE patients by PPD skin testing, and 57 healthy male volunteers by parallel test with both the methods. Twelve (92.3%) of the 13 TE cases were positive on ELISPOT assay, and 10 (90.9%) of the 11 TE cases positive on PPD skin test, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Among the 57 healthy male volunteers, 8 (14.0%) were positive on ELISPOT, and 28 (49.1%) positive on PPD test, the latter significantly higher than the former (P PPD test in the examination of tuberculous epididymitis. As for specificity, ELISPOT assay seems better than PPD test in differentiating tuberculous epididymitis patients from healthy males.

  7. The effect of different concentrations of citric acid on motility patterns of bovine epididymal sperms in Hams F10 milieu

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    K Abdy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three concentration of citric acid on motility patterns of bovine epididymal sperms. For this purpose, 50 pairs of bovine testicles were collected immediately after slaughter form urmia abattoir and transferred to the laboratory alongside 5oc ice pack. Epididymal tail sperms were collected with a few incisions in vascular areas and transferred to hams f10 milieu with 10% fetal calf serum and counted after 15 minutes of incubation at 37oc in Co2 incubator. Concentrations of 50 million sperms per ml were proposal and in the normal sperm pH rang of 6.7-7.4, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 normal concentration of citric acid were added to sperm continuity micro tubes (normal concentration of acid equals 7 mg/ml of bovine serum and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 360 minutes the motility patterns of epididymal sperms were evaluated using the computer assisted sperms analyzing (CASA method. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA using the SPSS 15 software. The results indicated significant differences in various indices of sperm motility patterns (Curvilinear   Velocity, Straight-line Velocity, Average Path Velocity, Mean Angel Degree, Amplitude of Lateral Head Displacement, Beat-Cross Frequency, Linearity, Wobble particularly at 0.3 normal concentration of citric acid compared with the control.

  8. Screening for potential targets for therapy in mesenchymal, clear cell, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma reveals Bcl-2 family members and TGFβ as potential targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oosterwijk, Jolieke G; Meijer, Danielle; van Ruler, Maayke A J H

    2013-01-01

    . As in conventional chondrosarcoma, antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, and/or Bcl-xl) were highly expressed in all subtypes. Inhibition with the BH-3 mimetic ABT-737 rendered dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell lines sensitive to doxorubicin or cisplatin. Our data indicate that antiapoptotic proteins may play...

  9. The herpes virus Fc receptor gE-gI mediates antibody bipolar bridging to clear viral antigens from the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Ndjamen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1 glycoprotein gE-gI is a transmembrane Fc receptor found on the surface of infected cells and virions that binds human immunoglobulin G (hIgG. gE-gI can also participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB, a process by which the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs of the IgG bind a viral antigen while the Fc binds to gE-gI. IgG Fc binds gE-gI at basic, but not acidic, pH, suggesting that IgG bound at extracellular pH by cell surface gE-gI would dissociate and be degraded in acidic endosomes/lysosomes if endocytosed. The fate of viral antigens associated with gE-gI-bound IgG had been unknown: they could remain at the cell surface or be endocytosed with IgG. Here, we developed an in vitro model system for ABB and investigated the trafficking of ABB complexes using 4-D confocal fluorescence imaging of ABB complexes with transferrin or epidermal growth factor, well-characterized intracellular trafficking markers. Our data showed that cells expressing gE-gI and the viral antigen HSV-1 gD endocytosed anti-gD IgG and gD in a gE-gI-dependent process, resulting in lysosomal localization. These results suggest that gE-gI can mediate clearance of infected cell surfaces of anti-viral host IgG and viral antigens to evade IgG-mediated responses, representing a general mechanism for viral Fc receptors in immune evasion and viral pathogenesis.

  10. Identification of phosphoproteins coupled to initiation of motility in live epididymal mouse sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Bracho, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    A method for collecting live immotile cauda epididymal mouse sperm that initiate motility by dilution into an activation buffer is described. Sperm in collection buffer showed low percent motility (MOT) and population progression (PRG) that increased 10-fold and 9-fold, respectively, during the first 2 min after dilution into activation buffer. Western phosphoserine (pS), phosphothreonine (pT), and phosphotyrosine (pY) analysis revealed a 120 kDa protein that markedly increased in pT content during initiation of motility and may be related to FP130, the motility-coupled axonemal protein of sea urchin sperm. A prominent 82 kDa protein that was pS and pT-phosphorylated in immotile and motile sperm is likely the fibrous sheath component AKAP82 that is phosphorylated during spermatogenesis. Analysis of live human sperm also identified a prominent 120 kDa pT protein. Thus it appears that phosphorylation of FP130 and related 120 kDa proteins in mouse, and perhaps human sperm, represent common targets during motility initiation in sperm. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Chronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation of epididymally derived white adipocyte cultures reveals a population of thermogenically competent, UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Natasa; Walden, Tomas B; Shabalina, Irina G

    2009-01-01

    The recent insight that brown adipocytes and muscle cells share a common origin and in this respect are distinct from white adipocytes has spurred questions concerning the origin and molecular characteristics of the UCP1-expressing cells observed in classic white adipose tissue depots under certain...... physiological or pharmacological conditions. Examining precursors from the purest white adipose tissue depot (epididymal), we report here that chronic treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone promotes not only the expression of PGC-1alpha and mitochondriogenesis...... associated with classic brown adipocytes (Zic1, Lhx8, Meox2, and characteristically PRDM16) or for myocyte-associated genes (myogenin and myomirs (muscle-specific microRNAs)) and retain white fat characteristics such as Hoxc9 expression. Co-culture experiments verify that the UCP1-expressing cells...

  12. Preliminary results for avelumab plus axitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (JAVELIN Renal 100): an open-label, dose-finding and dose-expansion, phase 1b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Larkin, James; Oya, Mototsugu; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Martignoni, Marcella; Nathan, Paul; Powles, Thomas; McDermott, David; Robbins, Paul B; Chism, David D; Cho, Daniel; Atkins, Michael B; Gordon, Michael S; Gupta, Sumati; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Compagnoni, Anna; Fowst, Camilla; di Pietro, Alessandra; Rini, Brian I

    2018-04-01

    The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. The JAVELIN Renal 100 study is an ongoing open-label, multicentre, dose-finding, and dose-expansion, phase 1b study, done in 14 centres in the USA, UK, and Japan. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) and had histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced renal-cell carcinoma with clear-cell component, life expectancy of at least 3 months, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less, received no previous systemic treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma, and had a resected primary tumour. Patients enrolled into the dose-finding phase received 5 mg axitinib orally twice daily for 7 days, followed by combination therapy with 10 mg/kg avelumab intravenously every 2 weeks and 5 mg axitinib orally twice daily. Based on the pharmacokinetic data from the dose-finding phase, ten additional patients were enrolled into the dose-expansion phase and assigned to this regimen. The other patients in the dose-expansion phase started taking combination therapy directly. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicities in the first 4 weeks (two cycles) of treatment with avelumab plus axitinib. Safety and antitumour activity analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of avelumab or axitinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02493751. Between Oct 30, 2015, and Sept 30, 2016, we enrolled six patients into the dose-finding phase and 49 into the

  13. Statistical clustering of parametric maps from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and an associated decision tree model for non-invasive tumour grading of T1b solid clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Yin; Yuan, Qing; Zhang, Yue; Fulkerson, Michael [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Margulis, Vitaly; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Urology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Brugarolas, James [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Dallas, TX (United States); Kapur, Payal [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Urology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pedrosa, Ivan [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2018-01-15

    To apply a statistical clustering algorithm to combine information from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single tumour map to distinguish high-grade from low-grade T1b clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This prospective, Institutional Review Board -approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -compliant study included 18 patients with solid T1b ccRCC who underwent pre-surgical DCE MRI. After statistical clustering of the parametric maps of the transfer constant between the intravascular and extravascular space (K{sup trans}), rate constant (K{sub ep}) and initial area under the concentration curve (iAUC) with a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, each tumour was segmented into three regions (low/medium/high active areas). Percentages of each region and tumour size were compared to tumour grade at histopathology. A decision-tree model was constructed to select the best parameter(s) to predict high-grade ccRCC. Seven high-grade and 11 low-grade T1b ccRCCs were included. High-grade histology was associated with higher percent high active areas (p = 0.0154) and this was the only feature selected by the decision tree model, which had a diagnostic performance of 78% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 73% specificity, 67% positive predictive value and 89% negative predictive value. The FCM integrates multiple DCE-derived parameter maps and identifies tumour regions with unique pharmacokinetic characteristics. Using this approach, a decision tree model using criteria beyond size to predict tumour grade in T1b ccRCCs is proposed. (orig.)

  14. Statistical clustering of parametric maps from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and an associated decision tree model for non-invasive tumour grading of T1b solid clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Yin; Yuan, Qing; Zhang, Yue; Fulkerson, Michael; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Margulis, Vitaly; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Brugarolas, James; Kapur, Payal; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    To apply a statistical clustering algorithm to combine information from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single tumour map to distinguish high-grade from low-grade T1b clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This prospective, Institutional Review Board -approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -compliant study included 18 patients with solid T1b ccRCC who underwent pre-surgical DCE MRI. After statistical clustering of the parametric maps of the transfer constant between the intravascular and extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant (K ep ) and initial area under the concentration curve (iAUC) with a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, each tumour was segmented into three regions (low/medium/high active areas). Percentages of each region and tumour size were compared to tumour grade at histopathology. A decision-tree model was constructed to select the best parameter(s) to predict high-grade ccRCC. Seven high-grade and 11 low-grade T1b ccRCCs were included. High-grade histology was associated with higher percent high active areas (p = 0.0154) and this was the only feature selected by the decision tree model, which had a diagnostic performance of 78% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 73% specificity, 67% positive predictive value and 89% negative predictive value. The FCM integrates multiple DCE-derived parameter maps and identifies tumour regions with unique pharmacokinetic characteristics. Using this approach, a decision tree model using criteria beyond size to predict tumour grade in T1b ccRCCs is proposed. (orig.)

  15. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  16. Triglyceride synthesis in epididymal adipose tissue: contribution of glucose and non-glucose carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bederman, Ilya R; Foy, Steven; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Alexander, James C; Previs, Stephen F

    2009-03-06

    The obesity epidemic has generated interest in determining the contribution of various pathways to triglyceride synthesis, including an elucidation of the origin of triglyceride fatty acids and triglyceride glycerol. We hypothesized that a dietary intervention would demonstrate the importance of using glucose versus non-glucose carbon sources to synthesize triglycerides in white adipose tissue. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low fat, high carbohydrate (HC) diet or a high fat, carbohydrate-free (CF) diet and maintained on 2H2O (to determine total triglyceride dynamics) or infused with [6,6-(2)H]glucose (to quantify the contribution of glucose to triglyceride glycerol). The 2H2O labeling data demonstrate that although de novo lipogenesis contributed approximately 80% versus approximately 5% to the pool of triglyceride palmitate in HC- versus CF-fed mice, the epididymal adipose tissue synthesized approximately 1.5-fold more triglyceride in CF- versus HC-fed mice, i.e. 37+/-5 versus 25+/-3 micromolxday(-1). The [6,6-(2)H]glucose labeling data demonstrate that approximately 69 and approximately 28% of triglyceride glycerol is synthesized from glucose in HC- versus CF-fed mice, respectively. Although these data are consistent with the notion that non-glucose carbon sources (e.g. glyceroneogenesis) can make substantial contributions to the synthesis of triglyceride glycerol (i.e. the absolute synthesis of triglyceride glycerol from non-glucose substrates increased from approximately 8 to approximately 26 micromolxday(-1) in HC- versus CF-fed mice), these observations suggest (i) the importance of nutritional status in affecting flux rates and (ii) the operation of a glycerol-glucose cycle.

  17. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic glucocorticoid exposure-induced epididymal adiposity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    Full Text Available Prolonged and excessive glucocorticoids (GC exposure resulted from Cushing's syndrome or GC therapy develops central obesity. Moreover, mitochondria are crucial in adipose energy homeostasis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to chronic GC exposure-induced epididymal adiposity in the present study. A total of thirty-six 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (∼20 g were administrated with 100 µg/ml corticosterone (CORT or vehicle through drinking water for 4 weeks. Chronic CORT exposure mildly decreased body weight without altering food and water intake in mice. The epididymal fat accumulation was increased, but adipocyte size was decreased by CORT. CORT also increased plasma CORT, insulin, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations as measured by RIA or ELISA. Interestingly, CORT increased plasma levels of triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids, and up-regulated the expression of both lipolytic and lipogenic genes as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, CORT impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function in epididymal WAT. The reactive oxygen species production was increased and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were reduced by CORT treatment as well. Taken together, these findings reveal that chronic CORT administration-induced epididymal adiposity is, at least in part, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse epididymal white adipose tissue.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Takashi; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Horie, Kengo; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Shimuta, Ken; Ohnishi, Makoto; Muratani, Tetsuro; Nakano, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 41 antimicrobial agents for 73 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis and examined the strains for the production of β-lactamase. We also compared their antimicrobial susceptibilities with those of H. influenzae strains from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections that were reported in Japan. The proportion of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis appeared to be lower, but that of β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains appeared to be higher, compared with those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. However, their antimicrobial susceptibilities to a variety of other antimicrobial agents would be similar to those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. Almost all of the strains of H. influenzae from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis were susceptible to the agents, including ceftriaxone, quinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, commonly prescribed for treatment of acute urethritis based on the MIC breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Ceftriaxone and quinolones could be effective on H. influenzae-induced urethritis. However, azithromycin treatment failures were reported in acute urethritis caused by H. influenzae strains considered susceptible to azithromycin. Further studies will be needed to determine MIC breakpoints of antimicrobial agents, which are recommended for treatment of urogenital infections, for H. influenzae strains causing these infections. Nevertheless, this study provides useful data regarding antimicrobial susceptibilities of H. influenzae strains isolated from the urogenital tract, which have rarely been studied. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier

  20. Quantitative computer-aided diagnostic algorithm for automated detection of peak lesion attenuation in differentiating clear cell from papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Heidi; Young, Jonathan R; Douek, Michael L; Brown, Matthew S; Sayre, James; Raman, Steven S

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of a novel, quantitative computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithm on four-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect peak lesion attenuation to enable differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from chromophobe RCC (chRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML). We queried our clinical databases to obtain a cohort of histologically proven renal masses with preoperative MDCT with four phases [unenhanced (U), corticomedullary (CM), nephrographic (NP), and excretory (E)]. A whole lesion 3D contour was obtained in all four phases. The CAD algorithm determined a region of interest (ROI) of peak lesion attenuation within the 3D lesion contour. For comparison, a manual ROI was separately placed in the most enhancing portion of the lesion by visual inspection for a reference standard, and in uninvolved renal cortex. Relative lesion attenuation for both CAD and manual methods was obtained by normalizing the CAD peak lesion attenuation ROI (and the reference standard manually placed ROI) to uninvolved renal cortex with the formula [(peak lesion attenuation ROI - cortex ROI)/cortex ROI] × 100%. ROC analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess diagnostic performance. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare peak ROI between CAD and manual method. The study cohort comprised 200 patients with 200 unique renal masses: 106 (53%) ccRCC, 32 (16%) oncocytomas, 18 (9%) chRCCs, 34 (17%) pRCCs, and 10 (5%) fp-AMLs. In the CM phase, CAD-derived ROI enabled characterization of ccRCC from chRCC, pRCC, oncocytoma, and fp-AML with AUCs of 0.850 (95% CI 0.732-0.968), 0.959 (95% CI 0.930-0.989), 0.792 (95% CI 0.716-0.869), and 0.825 (95% CI 0.703-0.948), respectively. On Bland-Altman analysis, there was excellent agreement of CAD and manual methods with mean differences between 14 and 26 HU in each phase. A novel, quantitative CAD algorithm enabled robust peak HU lesion detection

  1. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts...

  2. The in vitro and in vivo effects of re-expressing methylated von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene in clear cell renal carcinoma with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Wade G; Tabios, Ray L; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Aprelikova, Olga N; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Rogers, Craig; Rodgers, Craig; Sopko, Nikolai A; Linehan, W Marston; Vasselli, James R

    2004-10-15

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is strongly associated with loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. The VHL gene is functionally lost through hypermethylation in up to 19% of sporadic ccRCC cases. We theorized that re-expressing VHL silenced by methylation in ccRCC cells, using a hypo-methylating agent, may be an approach to treatment in patients with this type of cancer. We test the ability of two hypo-methylating agents to re-express VHL in cell culture and in mice bearing human ccRCC and evaluate the effects of re-expressed VHL in these models. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to evaluate the ability of zebularine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCyd) to re-express VHL in four ccRCC cell lines with documented VHL gene silencing through hypermethylation. We evaluated if the VHL re-expressed after hypo-methylating agent treatment could recreate similar phenotypic changes in ccRCC cells observed when the VHL gene is re-expressed via transfection in cell culture and in a xenograft mouse model. Finally we evaluate global gene expression changes occurring in our cells, using microarray analysis. 5-Aza-dCyd was able to re-express VHL in our cell lines both in culture and in xenografted murine tumors. Well described phenotypic changes of VHL expression including decreased invasiveness into Matrigel, and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter-1 expression were observed in the treated lines. VHL methylated ccRCC xenografted tumors were significantly reduced in size in mice treated with 5-aza-dCyd. Mice bearing nonmethylated but VHL-mutated tumors showed no tumor shrinkage with 5-aza-dCyd treatment. Hypo-methylating agents may be useful in the treatment of patients having ccRCC tumors consisting of cells with methylated VHL.

  3. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  4. 77 FR 37803 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., 202-418-6703, [email protected] , Division of Clearing and Risk, and Camden Nunery, Economist, 202-418-5723, Office of the Chief Economist, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155...

  5. Small intestinal volvulus following laparotomy for endometrial clear cell carcinoma in a woman with a past history of total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Georgiana S M; Heng, Robert; Neesham, Deborah E; Petersen, Rodney W

    2002-12-01

    Small intestinal volvulus is a rare complication following Roux-en-Y anastomosis. A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed with small intestinal volvulus following laparotomy for clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Her past medical history included a total gastrectomy and antecolic Roux-en-Y anastomosis for Duke's B gastric carcinoma. Operative findings were of transmesenteric herniation of the ileum through the Roux-en-Y small intestinal mesenteric window, with metastatic deposits fixing the hernia at its base to create a volvulus. The proximal transverse colon was very dilated and thin due to partial obstruction by the volvulus. Her treatment involved adhesiolysis and unraveling of the small intestinal volvulus. This is the first case report of a small intestinal volvulus following a Roux-en-Y anastomosis involving a metastatic gynacological malignancy.

  6. False-positive “halo” sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Guha, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bawa, Monika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2011-01-01

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy

  7. A functional proteogenomic analysis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas using reverse phase protein array and mutation analysis: protein expression is histotype-specific and loss of ARID1A/BAF250a is associated with AKT phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, Kimberly C; Lu, Yiling; Zhang, Fan; Anglesio, Michael S; Gilks, Blake; Mills, Gordon B; Huntsman, David G; Carey, Mark S; Hennessy, Bryan T; Leung, Samuel; Wang, Yemin; Ju, Zhenlin; McGahren, Mollianne; Kalloger, Steve E; Finlayson, Sarah; Stemke-Hale, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is now recognized as a number of distinct diseases primarily defined by histological subtype. Both clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCC) and ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (EC) may arise from endometriosis and frequently harbor mutations in the ARID1A tumor suppressor gene. We studied the influence of histological subtype on protein expression with reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and assessed proteomic changes associated with ARID1A mutation/BAF250a expression in EC and CCC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for BAF250a expression was performed on 127 chemotherapy-naive ovarian carcinomas (33 CCC, 29 EC, and 65 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC)). Whole tumor lysates were prepared from frozen banked tumor samples and profiled by RPPA using 116 antibodies. ARID1A mutations were identified by exome sequencing, and PIK3CA mutations were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) was performed to determine differential protein expression by histological subtype and ARID1A mutation status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the impact of ARID1A mutation status/BAF250a expression on AKT phosphorylation (pAKT). PIK3CA mutation type and PTEN expression were included in the model. BAF250a knockdown was performed in 3 clear cell lines using siRNA to ARID1A. Marked differences in protein expression were observed that are driven by histotype. Compared to HGSC, SAM identified over 50 proteins that are differentially expressed in CCC and EC. These included PI3K/AKT pathway proteins, those regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, transcription, and other signaling pathways including steroid hormone signaling. Multivariate models showed that tumors with loss of BAF250a expression showed significantly higher levels of AKT-Thr 308 and AKT-Ser 473 phosphorylation (p < 0.05). In 31 CCC cases, pAKT was similarly significantly increased in tumors with BAF250a loss on IHC. Knockdown of BAF250a by siRNA in

  8. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  9. Ideas for clear technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The three greatest obstacles to clear technical-report writing are probably (1) imprecise words, (2) wordiness, and (3) poorly constructed sentences. Examples of category 1 include abstract words, jargon, and vogue words; of category 2, sentences containing impersonal construction superfluous words; and of category 3, sentences lacking parallel construction and proper order of related words and phrases. These examples and other writing-related subjects are discussed in the report, which contains a cross-referenced index and 24 references.

  10. Clear aligners for orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Hanieh; Graham, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials (CENTRAL), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Clinical prospective and retrospective studies of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners on patients over the age of 15 that included clear descriptions of the materials and applied technique were included. Selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Two reviewers extracted data independently with study quality being assessed using the grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Eleven studies involving a total of 480 patients were included consisting of two randomised controlled trials, five prospective studies and four retrospective studies. Six studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the remainder of limited quality. Most of the studies presented with methodological problems: small sample size, bias and confounding variables, lack of method error analysis, blinding in measurements, and deficient or missing statistical methods. The quality level of the studies was not sufficient to draw any evidence-based conclusions.

  11. Clear cell carcinomas of the ovary: a mono-institutional study of 73 cases in China with an analysis of the prognostic significance of clinicopathological parameters and IMP3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rui; Shen, Xuxia; Zhang, Weiwei; Cheng, Yufan; Feng, Zheng; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

    2016-02-02

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is an uncommon subtype of ovarian epithelial tumor. The prognostic significance of its clinicopathological parameters is discordant, with the exception of stage as the adverse prognostic factor. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of its clinicopathological characteristics and the expression of IMP3 (Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3, IMP3 or IGF2BP3) in Chinese patients with primary pure CCC. We collected clinicopathological data from 73 cases with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up and evaluated the expression of IMP3 by immunohistochemistry. In total, 49.3 % of the patients were in stage I. Advanced stages were closely related to poor prognosis of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P 73 cases); Thus, positive expression of IMP3 is an adverse prognostic marker in terms of OS (P = 0.012), even in stage I patients (P = 0.038). The present study demonstrates that IMP3 expression is a prognostic marker, with the exception of stage. IMP3 represents a biomarker of unfavorable prognosis even in stage I patients.

  12. Engineering Education: A Clear Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg J.; Grubbs, Michael E.; Wells, John G.

    2017-01-01

    The core subjects in P-12 education have a common key characteristic that makes them stable over time. That characteristic is a steady content. For example, in the sciences, the basics of biology remain the same--the cell is the basic building block around which organisms are defined, characterized, structured, etc. Similarly, the basics of…

  13. Commentary on: "An integrated metabolic atlas of clear cell renal cell carcinoma." Hakimi AA, Reznik E, Lee CH, Creighton CJ, Brannon AR, Luna A, Aksoy BA, Liu EM, Shen R, Lee W, Chen Y, Stirdivant SM, Russo P, Chen YB, Tickoo SK, Reuter VE, Cheng EH, Sander C, Hsieh JJ.: Cancer Cell. 2016 Jan 11;29(1):104-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron H

    2017-09-01

    Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, manifested through alterations in metabolites. We performed metabolomic profiling on 138 matched clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)/normal tissue pairs and found that ccRCC is characterized by broad shifts in central carbon metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant response. Tumor progression and metastasis were associated with metabolite increases in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism pathways. We develop an analytic pipeline and visualization tool (metabolograms) to bridge the gap between TCGA transcriptomic profiling and our metabolomic data, which enables us to assemble an integrated pathway-level metabolic atlas and to demonstrate discordance between transcriptome and metabolome. Lastly, expression profiling was performed on a high-glutathione cluster, which corresponds to a poor-survival subgroup in the ccRCC TCGA cohort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers of epididy......Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers...... with the activity of NAG were found among Greenlandic men (mean difference 7.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI 3.0, 34), and in the aggregated cohort (mean difference 4.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI -0.2, 8.0). A positive association was observed between CB-153 and PSA as well as zinc among Kharkiv men. In the Swedish cohort...

  15. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm: a controlled national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, J; Loft, A; Parner, E T; Rasmussen, S; Pinborg, A

    2013-01-01

    Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, IVF and natural conception (NC)? Children born after TPT have similar neonatal outcome, including total malformation rates, as have children born after ICSI and IVF with ejaculated sperm. Testing for variance over the four groups may indicate smaller differences in specific malformation rates with TPT as the highest risk group. Regarding neonatal outcome as well as congenital malformations in children born after TPT, studies are few, with limited sample size, heterogeneous and often performed without relevant control groups. Population-based cohort study including all Danish children born after TPT and fresh embryo transfer in Denmark from 1995 to 2009. Children born after transfer of frozen-thawed embryos were excluded. Control groups of children conceived by ICSI with ejaculated sperm, IVF and NC were identified by cross-linkage of the Danish IVF Register, Medical Birth Register (MBR) and National Hospital Discharge Register (HDR). The study group consisted of 466 children born after TPT, while the control groups consisted of 8967 (ICSI with ejaculated sperm), 17 592 (IVF) and 63 854 (NC) children. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations were analysed for singletons and twins separately. Risk estimates for low birthweight (LBW, congenital malformations in the TPT group was 7.7% and did not differ significantly from any of the control groups. However, singleton TPT boys showed an increased rate of cardiac malformations (3.6%) compared with singleton boys after IVF (1.4%; P = 0.04) and NC (1.1%; P = 0.02). Considering the level of male infertility as a continuum over the four groups, tests for variance in the rate of cardiac

  16. Study of the role of epididymal alpha-glucosidase in the fertility of male rats by the administration of the enzyme inhibitor castanospermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C H; Cooper, T G

    1994-11-01

    The activity of epididymal alpha-glucosidase in adult rats was rapidly suppressed to histochemically undetectable levels within 2 days by the continuous release of the enzyme inhibitor castanospermine via a peritoneal osmotic pump at a rate of 100-200 nmol h-1. It was established that mating activities overnight depleted 72% of the spermatozoa in the distal cauda, which was replenished in 2 days, and that fertility began to decline 3 weeks after efferent duct ligation. Male rats of proven mating proficiency and fertility were treated with castanospermine, or buffered saline as control, for up to 30 days and enzyme inhibition was confirmed at the end of treatment by histochemistry. Fertility was normal at the first mating test on day 7, significantly decreased at the second mating on day 9, but recovered in a stepwise manner at subsequent matings on days 12 and 14. Delaying the third mating until day 25 did not sustain the transient subfertility. However, prolonging sperm storage in the distal cauda epididymides and preventing replenishment with freshly matured spermatozoa, by efferent duct ligation for 14 days performed on day 15 during castanospermine administration, caused a decrease in fertility and a change in the kinematics of epididymal spermatozoa of the castanospermine-treated group. In control rats, binding of epididymal spermatozoa to Vicia faba, a lectin specific for glucose and glucosamine, and mannose and mannosamine residues, decreased from the proximal caput to the distal corpus coincident with the increase in alpha-glucosidase activity on the epithelial brush border. Lectin binding then increased in the cauda where enzyme activity was absent. However, castanospermine treatment did not significantly alter this binding profile. The findings suggest that epididymal alpha-glucosidase does not play a crucial role in the development of sperm fertilizing capacity, but may be involved in the preparation of spermatozoa for storage.

  17. Maternal exposure to a mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affects testis histology, epididymal sperm count and induces sperm DNA fragmentation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Abdolrahman; Lindeman, Birgitte; Krogenæs, Anette K; Berntsen, Hanne F; Zimmer, Karin E; Ropstad, Erik

    2017-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread throughout the environment and some are suspected to induce reproductive toxicity. As animals and humans are exposed to complex mixtures of POPs, it is reasonable to assess how such mixtures could interact with the reproductive system. Our aim is to investigate how maternal exposure to a mixture of 29 different persistent organic pollutants, formulated to mimic the relative POP levels in the food basket of the Scandinavian population, could alter reproductive endpoints. Female mice were exposed via feed from weaning, during pregnancy and lactation in 3 exposure groups (control (C), low (L) and high (H)). Testicular morphometric endpoints, epididymal sperm concentration and sperm DNA integrity were assessed in adult male offspring. We found that the number of tubules, proportion of tubule compartments and epididymal sperm concentration significantly decreased in both POP exposed groups. Epididymal sperm from both POP exposed groups showed increased DNA fragmentation. It is concluded that maternal exposure to a defined POP mixture relevant to human exposure can affect testicular development, sperm production and sperm chromatin integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. VIABILITY AND PLASMA MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF THE SPOTTED BUFFALO EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA AFTER THAWING WITH THE ADDITION OF DEXTROSE INTO THE EXTENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RIZAL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available h e objective of this study was to obtain the viability and plasma membrane integrity of the spotted buff alo epididymal sperm after addition of dextrose into Andromed® extender. Spermatozoa that have been collected from cauda epididymis were diluted with Andromed® extender as control (K and Andromed® + 0.2% dextrose (P1 and Andromed® + 0.4% dextrose (P2 as treatments. h e results showed that the quality of epididymal spermatozoa decreased during cryopreservation process. h e percentage of motility after thawing in P1 (46% and P2 (46.67% were signifi cantly higher (P<0.05 compared to K (41% as well as the percentage of live sperm in P1 (58.8% and P2 (60% compared to K (52.2%. h e percentage of membrane integrity in P1, P2 and K were 67.4; 66.8 and 68 %, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 0.2 and 0.4% of dextrose into Andromed® acted as an extra cellular cryoprotectant and could maintain the viability and membrane integrity of the spotted buff alo epididymal spermatozoa after thawing.

  19. Sperm cell granuloma in a gobbler ( Meleagris Gallopavo ) | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microscopically, there was severe diffuse testicular degeneration and necrosis of the germinal epithelial cells, extravasation of spermatozoa into the epididymal interstitium, inciting a granulomatous reaction with arteritis. Based on these findings, sperm cell granuloma was diagnosed. This is probably the first reported case ...

  20. The effect of quercetin on fertility of frozen-thawed ram epididymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mz

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... The mean number of zygote, morula, and blastocyst stage embryos ... rabbits, bulls and human beings (Silva et al., 2013; Martínez-Páramo et al., 2012; Akalin et ..... pathway in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells.

  1. [Size of testes and epididymes in boys up to 17 years of life assessed by ultrasound method and method of external linear measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osemlak, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    1. Determination of the size of testes and epididymes on the right and left side, in healthy boys in various age groups with use of non-invasive ultrasound examination method and the method of external linear measurements. 2. Determination of age, when intensive growth of testicular and epididymal size starts. 3. Determination whether there are statistically significant differences between the size of the right and the left testis, as well as between the right and left epididymis. 4. Evaluation of the ultrasound method and method of external linear measurements in their use for scientific investigations. 309 boys, aged from 1 day to 17 years of life, treated in the Clinical Department of Paediatric Surgery and Traumatology of the Medical University in Lublin from 2009 to 2010 due to diseases needed to be treated surgically, but not the scrotum, were examined in this study. No pathologies influencing the development of genital organs were found in these boys. Dimension of the testes was studied with ultrasound method and with method of external linear measurements. Dimension of epididymes was only examined with ultrasound method. In every age group the author calculated mean arithmetical values for: testiscular length, thickness, width and volume, as well as epididymal depth and basis. With consideration of standard deviation (X+/-1 SD) it was possible to define the range of dimension of healthy testes and epididymes and their change with age. Final dimensions of the right and left testis as well as of the right and left epididymis were compared. Dimensions of the testis on the same side of body acquired with the ultrasound method and acquired with the method of external linear measurements were compared. Statistical work-up with Wilcoxon test for two dependent groups was implemented. Ultrasound evaluation pointed to intensive 2.5-times increase in testicular length and width, and 2-times increase in testicular thickness in boys aged 10 to 17 years. Mean volume of

  2. TESTICULAR AND EPIDIDYMAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN MONGREL ADULT DOGS FROM SÃO JOÃO DA BOA VISTA (SP REGION AVALIAÇÃO HISTOPATOLÓGICA TESTICULAR E EPIDIDIMÁRIA EM CÃES ADULTOS SEM RAÇA DEFINIDA (SRD DA REGIÃO DE SÃO JOÃO DA BOA VISTA, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Laufer Amorim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Little has been explored about testicular and epidi-dymal changes in dogs in different Brazilian regions and their influence on canine fertility, mainly in mongrel dogs. This study was performed to verify the prevalence of testicular and epididymal histopathological changes in mongrel adult dogs from São João da Boa Vista (SP region, as well as the frequency according to animal size and occurrence of simultaneous testicular and epididymal lesions. The use of mongrel dogs was based on the fact that it is the most common breed in the Brazilian canine popula-tion. Testicles and epipidymis were obtained from 60 adult dogs, between 3 and 6 years old, in castration campaign and sorted to in small breed (28 animals, medium breed (28 animals and large breed (14 animals. Histopathological evaluation of the 120 testicles showed 107 cases of degeneration, 89 of tubular atrophy, 16 of hipoplasia, 6 of orchitis, 3 leydig cell tumor, 2 normal tissue, one sertolli cell tumor and one case of edema. In the epididymal evaluation, 55 were considered normal, 36 inflammatory, 22 papillary hyperplasia, 14 degenerations, 12 cribriform hyperplasia, 3 cases of fibrosis, one edema, one adeno-miosis and one spermatic granuloma. Testicular and epididymal lesions were more frequents in medium and large breeds. Cribriform epididymal hyperplasia was observed and papillary epididymal hyperplasia for papillary epithe-lial projections with normal morphology in the lumen was proposed.

    Key-words: Dog, epididym, testicle. histopathological alterations.

    A ocorrência de alterações testiculares e epididi-márias em cães nas diferentes regiões do país, assim como a influência delas sobre a fertilidade da espécie são ainda pouco exploradas, especialmente de cães sem raça definida (SRD. Neste estudo buscou-se determinar a prevalência das alterações histopatológicas testiculares e epididimárias nos

  3. The expression of the new epididymal luminal protein of PDZ domain containing 1 is decreased in asthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Juan Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa are not mature until they transit the epididymis where they acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an egg through sequential modifications. The epididymis has three functional regions, caput, corpus, and cauda, and the luminal proteins of the epididymis play important roles in the above modifications. However, the proteins with differential enrichment between the caput and cauda are still largely unknown. To reveal the functions of the caput and cauda during sperm maturation, luminal proteins from caput and cauda of mice were analyzed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. Overall, 128 differentially enriched proteins were found, of which 46 were caput enriched and 82 were cauda enriched. Bioinformatic analysis showed that lipid metabolism was active in the caput; while anion- and cation-binding activity and phosphorus and organophosphate metabolism were active in the cauda. A new epididymal luminal protein, the caput-enriched PDZ domain containing 1 (Pdzk1, also named Na+/H+ exchange regulatory cofactor 3 (NHERF3, which plays a critical role in cholesterol metabolism and carnitine transport, was found in the lipid metabolism. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses showed that Pdzk1 was expressed in the epididymis but not in the testis, and localized at the middle piece of the sperm tail. Pdzk1 protein level was also reduced in the spermatozoa in case of asthenozoospermic patients compared with that in normozoospermic men, suggesting that Pdzk1 may participate in sperm maturation regulation and may be associated with male infertility. These results may provide new insights into the mechanisms of sperm maturation and male infertility.

  4. Differential expression of a novel seven transmembrane domain protein in epididymal fat from aged and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Egan, J M; Rodgers, B D; Bernier, M; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C

    1999-06-01

    To identify novel seven transmembrane domain proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we used PCR to amplify 3T3-L1 adipocyte complementary DNA (cDNA) with primers homologous to the N- and C-termini of pancreatic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. We screened a cDNA library prepared from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a 500-bp cDNA PCR product probe. Herein describes the isolation and characterization of a 1.6-kb cDNA clone that encodes a novel 298-amino acid protein that we termed TPRA40 (transmembrane domain protein of 40 kDa regulated in adipocytes). TPRA40 has seven putative transmembrane domains and shows little homology with the known GLP-1 receptor or with other G protein-coupled receptors. The levels of TPRA40 mRNA and protein were higher in 3T3-L1 adipocytes than in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. TPRA40 is present in a number of mouse and human tissues. Interestingly, TPRA40 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 2- to 3-fold in epididymal fat of 24-month-old mice vs. young controls as well as in db/db and ob/ob mice vs. nondiabetic control littermates. No difference in TPRA40 mRNA levels was observed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, liver, or kidney. Furthermore, no difference in TPRA40 expression was detected in brown fat of ob/ob mice when compared with age-matched controls. Taken together, these data suggest that TPRA40 represents a novel membrane-associated protein whose expression in white adipose tissue is altered with aging and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the mother and 1 inherited from the father. Although a specific gene has not been discovered, familial non-VHL CCRCC appears to follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, in which a mutation happens in ...

  6. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposed rules address risk management for cleared trades by futures commission merchants, swap dealers... Commission has proposed extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives..., 2011) (Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations). These proposed regulations...

  7. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  8. Global miRNA expression analysis of serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas identifies differentially expressed miRNAs including miR-200c-3p as a prognostic marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilming Elgaaen, Bente; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Haug, Kari Bente Foss; Brusletto, Berit; Sandvik, Leiv; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Gautvik, Kaare M; Davidson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Improved insight into the molecular characteristics of the different ovarian cancer subgroups is needed for developing a more individualized and optimized treatment regimen. The aim of this study was to a) identify differentially expressed miRNAs in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC), clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCC) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), b) evaluate selected miRNAs for association with clinical parameters including survival and c) map miRNA-mRNA interactions. Differences in miRNA expression between HGSC, CCC and OSE were analyzed by global miRNA expression profiling (Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 2.0 Arrays, n = 12, 9 and 9, respectively), validated by RT-qPCR (n = 35, 19 and 9, respectively), and evaluated for associations with clinical parameters. For HGSC, differentially expressed miRNAs were linked to differentially expressed mRNAs identified previously. Differentially expressed miRNAs (n = 78) between HGSC, CCC and OSE were identified (FDR < 0.01%), of which 18 were validated (p < 0.01) using RT-qPCR in an extended cohort. Compared with OSE, miR-205-5p was the most overexpressed miRNA in HGSC. miR-200 family members and miR-182-5p were the most overexpressed in HGSC and CCC compared with OSE, whereas miR-383 was the most underexpressed. miR-205-5p and miR-200 members target epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators, apparently being important in tumor progression. miR-509-3-5p, miR-509-5p, miR-509-3p and miR-510 were among the strongest differentiators between HGSC and CCC, all being significantly overexpressed in CCC compared with HGSC. High miR-200c-3p expression was associated with poor progression-free (p = 0.031) and overall (p = 0.026) survival in HGSC patients. Interacting miRNA and mRNA targets, including those of a TP53-related pathway presented previously, were identified in HGSC. Several miRNAs differentially expressed between HGSC, CCC and OSE have been identified, suggesting a carcinogenetic role for these mi

  9. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  10. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  11. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, D.; Kengatharan, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 m...

  12. Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1990-09-01

    Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun hours, number of clear days and temperature for solar energy applications. Beam irradiance values are used to get clear sky (maximum) sun hours by ab-initio. The need for replacing the conventional sunshine recorder is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  13. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  14. Variations of motility and survival with storage time at 4°C of epididymal spermatozoa Ouled-Djellal breed rams in Eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safsaf, B; Belkadi, S; Belkacem, L; Mamache, B; Tlidjane, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some reproduction performances in Ouled-Djellal rams. This study involved genital organs removed after slaughter from 54 rams at the municipal slaughterhouse of Batna (East Algeria). The measurements of survival and mobility of epididymal sperm followed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after collection, revealed significant (p0.001) according to time. Thus, concerning the sperm motility the values were 91.00±2.40%, 89.20±2.40%, 77.00±6.20% and 62.60±1.20% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Indeed, in live sperm, the viability rates were 82.15±1.48%, 77.67±1.74%, 66.56±1.95% and 52.30±1.46% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. This study revealed that epididymal spermatozoa stored at 04°C for 72 h kept their mobility and vitality at nearly a half of their the original parameters.

  15. Variations of motility and survival with storage time at 4°C of epididymal spermatozoa Ouled-Djellal breed rams in Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Safsaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate some reproduction performances in Ouled-Djellal rams. Materials and Methods: This study involved genital organs removed after slaughter from 54 rams at the municipal slaughterhouse of Batna (East Algeria. Results: The measurements of survival and mobility of epididymal sperm followed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after collection, revealed significant (p0.001 according to time. Thus, concerning the sperm motility the values were 91.00±2.40%, 89.20±2.40%, 77.00±6.20% and 62.60±1.20% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Indeed, in live sperm, the viability rates were 82.15±1.48%, 77.67±1.74%, 66.56±1.95% and 52.30±1.46 at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that epididymal spermatozoa stored at 04°C for 72 h kept their mobility and vitality at nearly a half of their the original parameters.

  16. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Androgen receptor (AR) promotes clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) migration and invasion via altering the circHIAT1/miR-195-5p/29a-3p/29c-3p/CDC42 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kefeng; Sun, Yin; Tao, Wei; Fei, Xiang; Chang, Chawnshang

    2017-05-28

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the androgen receptor (AR) plays important roles to promote the metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The detailed mechanisms, especially how AR functions via altering the circular RNAs (circRNAs) remain unclear. Here we identified a new circRNA (named as circHIAT1) whose expression was lower in ccRCCs than adjacent normal tissues. Targeting AR could suppress ccRCC cell progression via increasing circHIAT1 expression. ChIP assay and luciferase assay demonstrated that AR suppressed circHIAT1 expression via regulating its host gene, Hippocampus Abundant Transcript 1 (HIAT1) expression at the transcriptional level. The consequences of AR-suppressed circHIAT1 resulted in deregulating miR-195-5p/29a-3p/29c-3p expressions, which increased CDC42 expression to enhance ccRCC cell migration and invasion. Increasing this newly identified signal via circHIAT1 suppressed AR-enhanced ccRCC cell migration and invasion. Together, these results suggested that circHIAT1 functioned as a metastatic inhibitor to suppress AR-enhanced ccRCC cell migration and invasion. Targeting this newly identified AR-circHIAT1-mediated miR-195-5p/29a-3p/29c-3p/CDC42 signals may help us develop potential new therapies to better suppress ccRCC metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The problem of clear air turbulence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid improvements in on-board instrumentation and atmospheric observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse weather. However, they still encounter unexpected bumpy flight conditions in regions away from storms and clouds. This is the phenomenon of clear air ...

  19. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  20. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  1. Ultrasound guided electrochemotherapy for the treatment of a clear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasound guided biopsy yielded a diagnosis of clear cell thymoma upon histopathology. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the cat with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using systemic bleomycin. Two sessions of ultrasound guided ECT were performed at two week intervals with trains of biphasic ...

  2. Intelligibility of clear speech: effect of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-10-01

    The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis investigated percentage-correct intelligibility scores as a function of the 4 conditions and speaker sex. Additional analyses included listener response variability, individual speaker trends, and an alternate intelligibility measure: proportion of content words correct. Relative to the habitual condition, the overenunciate condition was associated with the greatest intelligibility benefit, followed by the hearing impaired and clear conditions. Ten speakers followed this trend. The results indicated different patterns of clear speech benefit for male and female speakers. Greater listener variability was observed for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility compared to speakers with inherently high habitual intelligibility. Stable proportions of content words were observed across conditions. Clear speech instructions affected the magnitude of the intelligibility benefit. The instruction to overenunciate may be most effective in clear speech training programs. The findings may help explain the range of clear speech intelligibility benefit previously reported. Listener variability analyses suggested the importance of obtaining multiple listener judgments of intelligibility, especially for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility.

  3. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  4. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  5. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  6. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  7. Skin optical clearing potential of disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shi, Rui; Ma, Ning; Tuchina, Daria K.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Skin optical clearing can significantly enhance the ability of biomedical optical imaging. Some alcohols and sugars have been selected to be optical clearing agents (OCAs). In this work, we paid attention to the optical clearing potential of disaccharides. Sucrose and maltose were chosen as typical disaccharides to compare with fructose, an excellent monosaccharide-OCA, by using molecular dynamics simulation and an ex vivo experiment. The experimental results indicated that the optical clearing efficacy of skin increases linearly with the concentration for each OCA. Both the theoretical predication and experimental results revealed that the two disaccharides exerted a better optical clearing potential than fructose at the same concentration, and sucrose is optimal. Since maltose has an extremely low saturation concentration, the other two OCAs with saturation concentrations were treated topically on rat skin in vivo, and optical coherence tomography imaging was applied to monitor the optical clearing process. The results demonstrated that sucrose could cause a more significant increase in imaging depth and signal intensity than fructose.

  8. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  9. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.4 Procedures for...

  10. 76 FR 47529 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 23, and 39 RIN 3038-AD51 Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission... published in the Federal Register of August 1, 2011, regarding Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of...

  11. Stiffness of RBC optical confinement affected by optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    In vivo optical trapping is a novel applied direction of an optical manipulation, which enables one to noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of cells and tissues in living animals directly. But an application area of this direction is limited because strong scattering of many biological tissues. An optical clearing enables one to decrease the scattering and therefore increase a depth of light penetration, decrease a distortion of light beam, improve a resolution in imaging applications. Now novel methods had appeared for a measurement an optical clearing degree at a cellular level. But these methods aren't applicable in vivo. In this paper we present novel measurement method of estimate of the optical clearing, which are based on a measurement of optical trap stiffness. Our method may be applicable in vivo.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Santos, Larissa Pereira; Machado, Daiana Guimarães Lopes; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet. 3-mo-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a control diet (C) or a high-fructose diet (HFru). After three weeks on the diets, the HFru group was subdivided into four new groups for another five weeks: HFru, HFru+EPA, HFru+DHA, and HFru-EPA+DHA (n=10/group). Besides evaluating biometric and metabolic parameters of the animals, we measured the adipocyte area and performed molecular analyses (inflammation and lipolysis) in the epididymal WAT. The HFru group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and uncontrolled lipolysis. The treated animals showed a reversion of adipocyte hypertrophy, inhibition of inflammation with activation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and regularization of lipolysis. Overall, the beneficial effects were more marked with DHA than EPA. Although the whole-body metabolic effects were similar between EPA and DHA, DHA appeared to be the central actor in WAT metabolism, modulating pro and anti-inflammatory pathways and alleviating adipocytes abnormalities. Therefore, when considering fructose-induced adverse effects in WAT, the most prominent actions were observed with DHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pairwise comparison of 89Zr- and 124I-labeled cG250 based on positron emission tomography imaging and nonlinear immunokinetic modeling: in vivo carbonic anhydrase IX receptor binding and internalization in mouse xenografts of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Punzalan, Blesida; Doran, Michael G.; Osborne, Joseph R.; Evans, Michael J.; Lewis, Jason S.; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The PET tracer, 124 I-cG250, directed against carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) shows promise for presurgical diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) (Divgi et al. in Lancet Oncol 8:304-310, 2007; Divgi et al. in J Clin Oncol 31:187-194, 2013). The radiometal 89 Zr, however, may offer advantages as a surrogate PET nuclide over 124 I in terms of greater tumor uptake and retention (Rice et al. in Semin Nucl Med 41:265-282, 2011). We have developed a nonlinear immunokinetic model to facilitate a quantitative comparison of absolute uptake and antibody turnover between 124 I-cG250 and 89 Zr-cG250 using a human ccRCC xenograft tumor model in mice. We believe that this unique model better relates quantitative imaging data to the salient biological features of tumor antibody-antigen binding and turnover. We conducted experiments with 89 Zr-cG250 and 124 I-cG250 using a human ccRCC cell line (SK-RC-38) to characterize the binding affinity and internalization kinetics of the two tracers in vitro. Serial PET imaging was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous ccRCC tumors to simultaneously detect and quantify time-dependent tumor uptake in vivo. Using the known specific activities of the two tracers, the equilibrium rates of antibody internalization and turnover in the tumors were derived from the PET images using nonlinear compartmental modeling. The two tracers demonstrated virtually identical tumor cell binding and internalization but showed markedly different retentions in vitro. Superior PET images were obtained using 89 Zr-cG250, owing to the more prolonged trapping of the radiolabel in the tumor and simultaneous washout from normal tissues. Estimates of cG250/CAIX complex turnover were 1.35 - 5.51 x 10 12 molecules per hour per gram of tumor (20 % of receptors internalized per hour), and the ratio of 124 I/ 89 Zr atoms released per unit time by tumor was 17.5. Pairwise evaluation of 89 Zr-cG250 and 124 I-cG250 provided the basis for a nonlinear immunokinetic

  14. Pairwise comparison of {sup 89}Zr- and {sup 124}I-labeled cG250 based on positron emission tomography imaging and nonlinear immunokinetic modeling: in vivo carbonic anhydrase IX receptor binding and internalization in mouse xenografts of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Punzalan, Blesida; Doran, Michael G.; Osborne, Joseph R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Evans, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, New York, NY (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiochemistry and Imaging Sciences Service, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Therapy Service, New York, NY (United States); Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Therapy Service, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The PET tracer, {sup 124}I-cG250, directed against carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) shows promise for presurgical diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) (Divgi et al. in Lancet Oncol 8:304-310, 2007; Divgi et al. in J Clin Oncol 31:187-194, 2013). The radiometal {sup 89}Zr, however, may offer advantages as a surrogate PET nuclide over {sup 124}I in terms of greater tumor uptake and retention (Rice et al. in Semin Nucl Med 41:265-282, 2011). We have developed a nonlinear immunokinetic model to facilitate a quantitative comparison of absolute uptake and antibody turnover between {sup 124}I-cG250 and {sup 89}Zr-cG250 using a human ccRCC xenograft tumor model in mice. We believe that this unique model better relates quantitative imaging data to the salient biological features of tumor antibody-antigen binding and turnover. We conducted experiments with {sup 89}Zr-cG250 and {sup 124}I-cG250 using a human ccRCC cell line (SK-RC-38) to characterize the binding affinity and internalization kinetics of the two tracers in vitro. Serial PET imaging was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous ccRCC tumors to simultaneously detect and quantify time-dependent tumor uptake in vivo. Using the known specific activities of the two tracers, the equilibrium rates of antibody internalization and turnover in the tumors were derived from the PET images using nonlinear compartmental modeling. The two tracers demonstrated virtually identical tumor cell binding and internalization but showed markedly different retentions in vitro. Superior PET images were obtained using {sup 89}Zr-cG250, owing to the more prolonged trapping of the radiolabel in the tumor and simultaneous washout from normal tissues. Estimates of cG250/CAIX complex turnover were 1.35 - 5.51 x 10{sup 12} molecules per hour per gram of tumor (20 % of receptors internalized per hour), and the ratio of {sup 124}I/{sup 89}Zr atoms released per unit time by tumor was 17.5. Pairwise evaluation of {sup 89}Zr-cG250 and {sup

  15. Clear-air lidar dark band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Paolo Di; Scoccione, Andrea; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Schween, Jan H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper illustrates measurements carried out by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HOPE, revealing the presence of a clear-air dark band phenomenon (i.e. the appearance of a minimum in lidar backscatter echoes) in the upper portion of the convective boundary layer. The phenomenon is clearly distinguishable in the lidar backscatter echoes at 1064 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of lignite aerosol particles advected from the surrounding open pit mines in the vicinity of the measuring site.

  16. Autophagy and bacterial clearance: a not so clear picture

    OpenAIRE

    Mostowy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process highly conserved from yeast to humans, is viewed as an important defence mechanism to clear intracellular bacteria. However, recent work has shown that autophagy may have different roles during different bacterial infections that restrict bacterial replication (antibacterial autophagy), act in cell autonomous signalling (non-bacterial autophagy) or support bacterial replication (pro-bacterial autophagy). This review will focus on newfound intera...

  17. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  18. A CLEAR Plan for School Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Anthony; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Although many school formulas for crisis management are well coordinated internally, many are also shortsighted in recognizing when a school crisis falls simultaneously into law enforcement's domain. An Illinois high school has devised CLEAR, a crisis management plan delineating cognizance of personnel, the linkages they establish, accountability…

  19. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  20. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode

  1. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  2. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  3. Variabilidade sazonal no ducto epididimário de codorna doméstica: observações morfológicas Seasonal variability in epididymal duct of the domestic quail: morphologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio M. Orsi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ducto epididimário (DE de codorna doméstica mostrou, ao longo do ano, variabilidade pequena, porém muito expressiva no outono, o qual corresponde à fase quiescente do ciclo testicular anual. A morfologia do DE na primavera foi, em termos, similar à verificada no verão e inverno. Nestas fases notaram-se aumento significante do calibre tubular do DE; estocagem intraluminal de espermatozóides e ocorrência de mitocôndrias, lamelas do RE, vesículas variáveis quanto à forma, dimensões e conteúdos e presença de alguns lisossomos localizados, principalmente, no citoplasma apical das células principais (P, no epitélio epididimário. Estas características ultra-estruturais das células P parecem ser indicativas da ocorrência de processos ativos de endocitose e de secreção micromerócrina. A quiescência outonal foi caracterizada pelo aspecto anfractuoso do DE; ausência de espermatozóides e pouco material intraluminal, observados à microscopia de luz. Características ultra-estruturais degenerativas foram verificadas ao nível do citoplasma supranuclear das células P epididimárias no outono.Small but expressive variability was noted on the epididymidis duct (ED of domestic quail along the year, with more evidence in autumn of the quiescent phase of the annual testis cycle in this species. Spring features of ED had a general similar pattern in summer and winter. They were characterized by enlargement of epididymis tubule, storage of spermatozoa into the luminal compartment and presence of mitochondria, ER lamellae, several variable vesicles, and lysosomes localized mainly on the apical cytoplasm of principal cells (P of the epididymal epithelium. These P cells features indicated a process of endocytosis and perhaps protein secretion. Autumn quiescence was marked by a convolute pattern of the epididymis tubule, lacking of spermatozoa and small amount of exfoliate heterogeneous material inside the luminal compartment at light

  4. CLEARING MAGNET DESIGN FOR APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of developing an upgrade (APS-U) of the storage ring. The upgrade will be converting the current double bend achromat (DBA) lattice to a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice. In addition, the storage ring will be operated at 6 GeV and 200 mA with regular swap-out injection to keep the stored beam current constant [1]. The swap-out injection will take place with beamline shutters open. For radiation safety to ensure that no electrons can exit the storage ring, a passive method of protecting the beamline and containing the electrons inside the storage ring is proposed. A clearing magnet will be located in all beamline front ends inside the storage ring tunnel. This article will discuss the features and design of the clearing magnet scheme for APS-U.

  5. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M A

    2011-12-01

    The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives.

  7. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  8. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  9. A clinical case treated with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fernando César; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

    2011-01-01

    There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign.

  10. 77 FR 12896 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66458; File No. 600-9] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012. I... Act provides that in the event any self- regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has...

  11. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  12. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement.

  14. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  15. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Neumann, Peter J; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-06-01

    The terms evidence-based medicine (EBM), health technology assessment (HTA), comparative effectiveness research (CER), and other related terms lack clarity and so could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and poor decision making. The objective of this article is to clarify their definitions and the relationships among key terms and concepts. This article used the relevant methods and policy literature as well as the websites of organizations engaged in evidence-based activities to develop a framework to explain the relationships among the terms EBM, HTA, and CER. This article proposes an organizing framework and presents a graphic demonstrating the differences and relationships among these terms and concepts. More specific terminology and concepts are necessary for an informed and clear public policy debate. They are even more important to inform decision making at all levels and to engender more accountability by the organizations and individuals responsible for these decisions.

  16. Spontaneous regression of epithelial downgrowth from clear corneal phacoemulsification wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Jaber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous regression of optical coherence tomography (OCT and confocal microscopy-supported epithelial downgrowth associated with clear corneal phacoemulsification wound. Observations: A 66-year-old Caucasian male presented two years after phacoemulsification in the left eye with an enlarging cornea endothelial lesion in that eye. His early post-operative course had been complicated by corneal edema and iris transillumination defects. The patient presented to our clinic with a large geographic sheet of epithelial downgrowth and iris synechiae to the temporal clear corneal wound. His vision was correctable to 20/25 in his left eye. Anterior segment OCT showed a hyperreflective layer on the posterior cornea with an abrupt transition that corresponded to the clinical transition zone of the epithelial downgrowth. Confocal microscopy showed polygonal cells with hyperreflective nuclei suggestive of epithelial cells in the area of the lesion with a transition to a normal endothelial cell mosaic. Given the lack of glaucoma or inflammation and the relatively good vision, the plan was made to closely monitor for progression with the anticipation that he may require aggressive surgery. Over course of subsequent follow-up visits at three, seven and ten months; the endothelial lesion receded significantly. Confocal imaging in the area of the previously affected cornea showed essentially normal morphology with anan endothelial cell count of 1664 cells/mm2. Conclusions and importance: Epithelial downgrowth may spontaneously regress. Though the mechanism is yet understood, contact inhibition of movement may play a role. Despite this finding, epithelial downgrowth is typically a devastating process requiring aggressive treatment. Keywords: Epithelial downgrowth, Spontaneous regression, Confocal microscopy, Contact inhibition of movement

  17. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  18. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D; Kengatharan, M

    1994-01-01

    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 microM) produced a small, but statistically non-significant, reduction. 3. The same method has been used to measure the pKI of prazosin against exogenous noradrenaline. In the latter case addition of DMI (0.3 microM) and corticosterone (30 microM) together produced a statistically significant reduction in the apparent pKI of prazosin. 4. The new method for estimating pKI values shows that DMI itself acts either pseudo-irreversibly or non-competitively and may be reducing the apparent pKI of prazosin. 5. The pKI values obtained for prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter are in good agreement with those obtained by other workers for the actions of these drugs on alpha-adrenoceptors.

  19. Down-regulation of CatSper1 channel in epididymal spermatozoa contributes to the pathogenesis of asthenozoospermia, whereas up-regulation of the channel by Sheng-Jing-San treatment improves the sperm motility of asthenozoospermia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Bo; Liang, Ming; Han, Cai-Yan; Zhang, Bin; Cai, Jie; Sun, Wei; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2013-02-01

    To determine the expression of CatSper1 channel in epididymal spermatozoa in a rat model of asthenozoospermia, induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), and further examine the effects of soluble granules of Sheng-Jing-San (SJS), a traditional Chinese medicine recipe, on CatSper1 expression and sperm motility in the CP-induced asthenozoospermic rats. Placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University, China. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60). In the CP group, CP at the dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected into rats once a day for 7 days; in the normal saline (NS) group, 0.9% saline solution was injected as control. Sperm motility and count were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm assay (CASA); protein and mRNA expression of CatSper1 channel in epididymal spermatozoa was determined by Western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The rats were randomly divided into five groups with 12 rats in each group: CP, normal saline (NS), CP + SJS, CP + NS, and treatment naïve. In the CP + SJS group, after the last injection of CP, SJS at a dose of 30 mg/kg was intragastrically administrated to rats once a day for 14 days; in CP + NS group, saline solution instead of SJS was administrated as control. In the treatment naïve group, rats were normally fed for 21 days as controls. We found a statistically significant reduction of the CatSper1 channel, which is associated with an impairment of sperm motility in the epididymal spermatozoa of CP-induced asthenozoospermic rats. Soluble granules of SJS could dramatically restore the CP-induced down-regulation of CatSper1 in epididymal spermatozoa, which greatly improved the sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic rats. Down-regulation of the CatSper1 channel in epididymal spermatozoa likely contributes to the pathogenesis of asthenozoospermia, whereas up-regulation of the channel by SJS improves sperm motility and thus can be used as an effective therapeutic

  20. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  1. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA)

  2. 3D on-chip microscopy of optically cleared tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Shin, Yoonjung; Sung, Kevin; Yang, Sam; Chen, Harrison; Wang, Hongda; Teng, Da; Rivenson, Yair; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2018-02-01

    Traditional pathology relies on tissue biopsy, micro-sectioning, immunohistochemistry and microscopic imaging, which are relatively expensive and labor-intensive, and therefore are less accessible in resource-limited areas. Low-cost tissue clearing techniques, such as the simplified CLARITY method (SCM), are promising to potentially reduce the cost of disease diagnosis by providing 3D imaging and phenotyping of thicker tissue samples with simpler preparation steps. However, the mainstream imaging approach for cleared tissue, fluorescence microscopy, suffers from high-cost, photobleaching and signal fading. As an alternative approach to fluorescence, here we demonstrate 3D imaging of SCMcleared tissue using on-chip holography, which is based on pixel-super-resolution and multi-height phase recovery algorithms to digitally compute the sample's amplitude and phase images at various z-slices/depths through the sample. The tissue clearing procedures and the lens-free imaging system were jointly optimized to find the best illumination wavelength, tissue thickness, staining solution pH, and the number of hologram heights to maximize the imaged tissue volume, minimize the amount of acquired data, while maintaining a high contrast-to-noise ratio for the imaged cells. After this optimization, we achieved 3D imaging of a 200-μm thick cleared mouse brain tissue over a field-of-view of based microscope (20× 0.75NA). Moreover, the lens-free microscope achieves an order-of-magnitude better data efficiency compared to its lens-based counterparts for volumetric imaging of samples. The presented low-cost and high-throughput lens-free tissue imaging technique enabled by CLARITY can be used in various biomedical applications in low-resource-settings.

  3. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  4. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  5. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  6. 76 FR 45730 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposing regulations to facilitate customer access to clearing and to bolster risk management through... and execution of customer transactions on a DCM or SEF on terms that have a reasonable relationship to... a reasonable relationship to the best terms available by prohibiting restrictions in customer...

  7. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  8. Integrative systems analysis of diet-induced obesity identified a critical transition in the transcriptomes of the murine liver and epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Kwon, E-Y; Park, S; Kim, J-R; Choi, S-W; Choi, M-S; Kim, S-J

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that high-fat diet (HFD) can cause immune system-related pathological alterations after a significant body weight gain. The mechanisms of the delayed pathological alterations during the development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying DIO development, we analyzed time-course microarray data obtained from a previous study. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at each time point by comparing the hepatic transcriptome of mice fed HFD with that of mice fed normal diet. Next, we clustered the union of DEGs and identified annotations related to each cluster. Finally, we constructed an 'integrated obesity-associated gene regulatory network (GRN) in murine liver'. We analyzed the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) transcriptome usig the same procedure. Based on time-course microarray data, we found that the genes associated with immune responses were upregulated with an oscillating expression pattern between weeks 2 and 8, relatively downregulated between weeks 12 and 16, and eventually upregulated after week 20 in the liver of the mice fed HFD. The genes associated with immune responses were also upregulated at late stage, in the eWAT of the mice fed HFD. These results suggested that a critical transition occurred in the immune system-related transcriptomes of the liver and eWAT around week 16 of the DIO development, and this may be associated with the delayed pathological alterations. The GRN analysis suggested that Maff may be a key transcription factor for the immune system-related critical transition thatoccurred at week 16. We found that transcription factors associated with immune responses were centrally located in the integrated obesity-associated GRN in the liver. In this study, systems analysis identified regulatory network modules underlying the delayed immune system-related pathological changes during the development of DIO and could suggest possible

  9. Confocal Microscopy and Image Analysis Indicates a Region-Specific Relation between Active Caspases and Cytoplasm in Ejaculated and Epididymal Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vazquez, Susana; Aragón Martínez, Andrés; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Previously, it was suggested a relation between the presence of apoptosis markers with cytoplasm in mammalian sperm. In this work, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to analyze the relationship between active caspase-3 and -7 and intracellular esterases expression in ejaculated or epididymal ram sperm. Sperm obtained from ejaculates from the caput, corpus, or cauda of the epididymis were treated with an inhibitor of active caspase-3 and -7 and a marker of cytoplasmic esterases. Additionally, ejaculated sperm were incubated for one, two, or three hours before evaluation for active caspases. Sperm subpopulations positive for active caspases and/or intracellular esterases were detected by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy; however, image analysis of confocal images showed that the correlation between active caspases and cytoplasmic esterases in sperm is region-specific. Lower values of Spearman correlation coefficients were found when whole sperm or head sperm was analyzed; however, a high correlation was observed for midpiece sperm. Incubation of sperm for two or three hours promoted the autoactivation of caspases. It has been suggested that the presence of apoptotic markers in sperm are related with a process of abortive apoptosis and with errors during spermiogenesis. Our results permit us suggest that the origin of the relationship between active caspases and cytoplasmic esterases is due to differentiation errors occurring during spermiogenesis because the percentages of sperm with active caspases are not different in the caput, corpus, or cauda of the epididymis. In this study we demonstrate that existing sperm subpopulations can express active caspases and intracellular esterases and that the correlation between these molecules is high in midpiece sperm. PMID:22530029

  10. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα in white adipose tissue (WAT. Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (eWAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg and OEA (5 mg/kg co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2. This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs, and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2 and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16 genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Ultrastructural effects of silicone oil on the clear crystalline lens of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Wael; Sharaf, Mohamed; Abdelazeem, Khaled; El-Gamal, Dalia; Nafady, Allam

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate light and electron microscopic changes of the anterior capsule and its epithelium after clear lens extraction of vitrectomized myopic eyes with silicone oil tamponade. This prospective, controlled, non-randomized, interventional study included 20 anterior lens capsular specimens that were excised during combined clear lens extraction and silicone oil removal from previously vitrectomized highly myopic patients with silicone oil tamponade for previous retinal detachment surgeries. The specimens were examined via light microscopy and electron microscopy and compared with 20 anterior capsule specimens removed during clear lens extraction of non-vitrectomized highly myopic eyes. Light microscopic examination of clear lens anterior capsule specimens of vitrectomized myopic eyes filled with silicone oil showed relatively more flat cells with irregular outline of lens' epithelial cells with wide intercellular spaces, deeply stained nuclei, and multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed collagenous surfaces filled with multiple pits, depressions, and abnormal deposits. Transmission electron microscopy revealed lens epithelial cells with apoptotic changes, many cytoplasmic vacuoles, and filopodia-like protrusions between lens epithelial cells and the capsule. Epithelial proliferation and multilayering were also observed. silicone oil may play a role in the development of apoptotic and histopathological changes in clear lens epithelial cells. Clarity of the lens at the time of silicone oil removal does not indicate an absence of cataractous changes. We found justification of combined clear lens extraction and silicone oil removal or combined phacovitrectomy when silicone oil injection is planned, but further long-term studies with larger patient groups are required.

  12. Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the Nigerian experience. ... Abstract. This study investigated the impact of automated clearing system on the Nigerian banking system. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Dragnet: A Case Study of the CLEAR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa, Samuel; Keegan, Matt; Kyser, Giles

    2007-01-01

    ...). The quickest way to describe CLEAR is to mention a quote from Ron Huberman, assistant deputy superintendent, Office of Information and Strategic Services at CPD "CLEAR automates everything we do in...

  14. Development of software for estimating clear sky solar radiation in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on solar energy applications in Indonesia has come under scrutiny in recent years. Solar radiation is harvested by solar collector or solar cell and convert the energy into useful energy such as heat and or electricity. In order to provide a better configuration of a solar collector or a solar cell, clear sky radiation should be estimated properly. In this study, an in-house software for estimating clear sky radiation is developed. The governing equations are solved simultaneously. The software is tested in Medan city by performing a solar radiation measurements. For clear sky radiation, the results of the software and measurements ones show a good agreement. However, for the cloudy sky condition it cannot predict the solar radiation. This software can be used to estimate the clear sky radiation in Indonesia.

  15. Functional imaging in bulk tissue specimens using optical emission tomography: fluorescence preservation during optical clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhalkar, H S; Dewhirst, M; Oliver, T; Cao, Y; Oldham, M

    2007-01-01

    Optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) is a technique for imaging the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of fluorescent probes in biological tissue specimens with high contrast and spatial resolution. In optical-ECT, functional information can be imaged by (i) systemic application of functional labels (e.g. fluorophore labelled proteins) and/or (ii) endogenous expression of fluorescent reporter proteins (e.g. red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP)) in vivo. An essential prerequisite for optical-ECT is optical clearing, a procedure where tissue specimens are made transparent to light by sequential perfusion with fixing, dehydrating and clearing agents. In this study, we investigate clearing protocols involving a selection of common fixing (4% buffered paraformaldehyde (PFA), methanol and ethanol), dehydrating (methanol and ethanol) and clearing agents (methyl salicylate and benzyl-alcohol-benzyl-benzoate (BABB)) in order to determine a 'fluorescence friendly' clearing procedure. Cell culture experiments were employed to optimize the sequence of chemical treatments that best preserve fluorescence. Texas red (TxRed), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), RFP and GFP were tested as fluorophores and fluorescent reporter proteins of interest. Fluorescent and control cells were imaged on a microscope using a DSred2 and FITC filter set. The most promising clearing protocols of cell culture experiments were applied to whole xenograft tumour specimens, to test their effectiveness in large unsectioned samples. Fluorescence of TxRed/FITC fluorophores was not found to be significantly affected by any of the test clearing protocols. RFP and GFP fluorescence, however, was found to be significantly greater when cell fixation was in ethanol. Fixation in either PFA or methanol resulted in diminished fluorescence. After ethanol fixation, the RFP and GFP fluorescence proved remarkably robust to subsequent exposure to either methyl salicylate or BABB

  16. Functional imaging in bulk tissue specimens using optical emission tomography: fluorescence preservation during optical clearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhalkar, H S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oliver, T [Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Cao, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) is a technique for imaging the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of fluorescent probes in biological tissue specimens with high contrast and spatial resolution. In optical-ECT, functional information can be imaged by (i) systemic application of functional labels (e.g. fluorophore labelled proteins) and/or (ii) endogenous expression of fluorescent reporter proteins (e.g. red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP)) in vivo. An essential prerequisite for optical-ECT is optical clearing, a procedure where tissue specimens are made transparent to light by sequential perfusion with fixing, dehydrating and clearing agents. In this study, we investigate clearing protocols involving a selection of common fixing (4% buffered paraformaldehyde (PFA), methanol and ethanol), dehydrating (methanol and ethanol) and clearing agents (methyl salicylate and benzyl-alcohol-benzyl-benzoate (BABB)) in order to determine a 'fluorescence friendly' clearing procedure. Cell culture experiments were employed to optimize the sequence of chemical treatments that best preserve fluorescence. Texas red (TxRed), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), RFP and GFP were tested as fluorophores and fluorescent reporter proteins of interest. Fluorescent and control cells were imaged on a microscope using a DSred2 and FITC filter set. The most promising clearing protocols of cell culture experiments were applied to whole xenograft tumour specimens, to test their effectiveness in large unsectioned samples. Fluorescence of TxRed/FITC fluorophores was not found to be significantly affected by any of the test clearing protocols. RFP and GFP fluorescence, however, was found to be significantly greater when cell fixation was in ethanol. Fixation in either PFA or methanol resulted in diminished fluorescence. After ethanol fixation, the RFP and GFP fluorescence proved remarkably robust to subsequent exposure to either methyl salicylate

  17. Comparison of seven optical clearing methods for mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Zhu, Jingtan; Yu, Tingting; Zhu, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a variety of tissue optical clearing techniques have been developed to reduce light scattering for imaging deeper and three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structures. Combined with optical imaging techniques and diverse labeling methods, these clearing methods have significantly promoted the development of neuroscience. However, most of the protocols were proposed aiming for specific tissue type. Though there are some comparison results, the clearing methods covered are limited and the evaluation indices are lack of uniformity, which made it difficult to select a best-fit protocol for clearing in practical applications. Hence, it is necessary to systematically assess and compare these clearing methods. In this work, we evaluated the performance of seven typical clearing methods, including 3DISCO, uDISCO, SeeDB, ScaleS, ClearT2, CUBIC and PACT, on mouse brain samples. First, we compared the clearing capability on both brain slices and whole-brains by observing brain transparency. Further, we evaluated the fluorescence preservation and the increase of imaging depth. The results showed that 3DISCO, uDISCO and PACT posed excellent clearing capability on mouse brains, ScaleS and SeeDB rendered moderate transparency, while ClearT2 was the worst. Among those methods, ScaleS was the best on fluorescence preservation, and PACT achieved the highest increase of imaging depth. This study is expected to provide important reference for users in choosing most suitable brain optical clearing method.

  18. 17 CFR 39.7 - Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization. 39.7 Section 39.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.7 Fraud in connection...

  19. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified.

  20. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  1. The Clearing : Heidegger’s Lichtung and the big scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities.Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  2. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  3. Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Tainaka, Kazuki; Perrin, Dimitri; Yukinaga, Hiroko; Kuno, Akihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a protocol for advanced CUBIC (Clear, Unobstructed Brain/Body Imaging Cocktails and Computational analysis). The CUBIC protocol enables simple and efficient organ clearing, rapid imaging by light-sheet microscopy and quantitative imaging analysis of multiple samples. The organ or body is cleared by immersion for 1-14 d, with the exact time required dependent on the sample type and the experimental purposes. A single imaging set can be completed in 30-60 min. Image processing and analysis can take whole-brain neural activities at single-cell resolution using Arc-dVenus transgenic (Tg) mice. CUBIC informatics calculated the Venus signal subtraction, comparing different brains at a whole-organ scale. These protocols provide a platform for organism-level systems biology by comprehensively detecting cells in a whole organ or body.

  4. Simulation results of a veto counter for the ClearPEM

    CERN Document Server

    Trummer, J; Lecoq, P

    2009-01-01

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC) has built a prototype of a novel positron emission tomograph dedicated to functional breast imaging, the ClearPEM. The ClearPEM uses the common radio pharmaceutical FDG for imaging cancer. As FDG is a rather non-specific radio tracer, it accumulates not only in cancer cells but in all cells with a high energy consumption, such as the heart and liver. This fact poses a problem especially in breast imaging, where the vicinity of the heart and other organs to the breast leads to a high background noise level in the scanner. In this work, a veto counter to reduce the background is described. Different configurations and their effectiveness were studied using the GATE simulation package.

  5. 75 FR 77576 - General Regulations and Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... derivatives clearing organization (DCO) Core Principles A (Compliance), H (Rule Enforcement), N (Antitrust... commission merchant (FCM) that is also registered as a securities broker-dealer (FCM/BD), and make certain...

  6. Work-in-process clearing in supply chain operations planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selcuk, B.; Fransoo, J.C.; Kok, de A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we provide insights into the effectiveness of the clearing function concept in a hierarchical planning context. The clearing function is a mathematical representation of the relation between the Work-In-Process (WIP) and the throughput of a production process. We use it in a

  7. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept document was developed as a first step in developing the Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture (NASA/TM-2011-216956). The CLEAR operational concept defines how the system will be used by the Constellation Program and what needs it meets. The document creates scenarios for major elements of the CLEAR architecture. These scenarios are generic enough to apply to near-Earth, Moon, and Mars missions. The CLEAR operational concept involves basic assumptions about the overall program architecture and interactions with the CLEAR system architecture. The assumptions include spacecraft and operational constraints for near-Earth orbit, Moon, and Mars missions. This document addresses an incremental development strategy where capabilities evolve over time, but it is structured to prevent obsolescence. The approach minimizes flight hardware by exploiting Internet-like telecommunications that enables CLEAR capabilities to remain on Earth and to be uplinked as needed. To minimize crew time and operational cost, CLEAR exploits offline development and validation to support online teleoperations. Operational concept scenarios are developed for diagnostics, repair, and functional test operations. Many of the supporting functions defined in these operational scenarios are further defined as technologies in NASA/TM-2011-216956.

  8. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerdrum, Per Kaare; Poulsson, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk

  9. The problem of clear air turbulence: Changing perspectives in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse ... that weather is a predominant cause of aviation accidents, accounting for ... clear air turbulence, wind shear and wake-vortex effects. Here .... ters a region of turbulence, the pilot informs the ground control about the location and extent.

  10. The Effectiveness of Clear Speech as a Masker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Van Engen, Kristin; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is established that speaking clearly is an effective means of enhancing intelligibility. Because any signal-processing scheme modeled after known acoustic-phonetic features of clear speech will likely affect both target and competing speech, it is important to understand how speech recognition is affected when a competing speech signal…

  11. A New Type of distributed Enamel based Clearing Electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Hellmond, P; Métral, E; Wendel, J C; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Clearing electrodes can be used for electron cloud (EC) suppression in high intensity particle accelerators. In this paper the use of low and highly resistive layers on a dielectric substrate are examined. The beam coupling impedance of such a structure is evaluated. Furthermore the clearing efficiency as well as technological issues are discussed.

  12. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  13. Clear exterior finishes : finding the balance between aesthetics and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniel; Marc S. Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan S. Ross; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    Consumers can easily be confused by the abundance of choices to make when selecting a clear wood finish. There are many types of clear finishes with different characteristics and product claims. This article is designed to help consumers sort out the different finishes and effectively choose which product would be best for their purpose. First, we cover the causes and...

  14. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  15. 78 FR 54507 - Clearing Agency; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... risk arising from the potential need to liquidate a particular clearing member's margin collateral, OCC... by improving OCC's risk management process related to deposits as margin collateral of concentrated... and Policy so that OCC has discretion to disapprove as margin collateral for a particular clearing...

  16. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Becker

    Full Text Available Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when working with specimens exhibiting low GFP expression rates. Thus, we screened for a substitute and found that dibenzyl ether (phenylmethoxymethylbenzene, CAS 103-50-4 can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos. Chemical clearing, staining, and embedding of biological samples mostly requires careful foregoing tissue dehydration. The commonly applied tissue dehydration medium is ethanol, which also can markedly impair GFP fluorescence. Screening for a substitute also for ethanol we found that tetrahydrofuran (CAS 109-99-9 is a more GFP-friendly dehydration medium than ethanol, providing better tissue transparency obtained by successive clearing. Combined, tetrahydrofuran and dibenzyl ether allow dehydration and chemical clearing of even delicate samples for UM, confocal microscopy, and other microscopy techniques.

  17. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Saghafi, Saiedeh; Weiler, Reto; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when working with specimens exhibiting low GFP expression rates. Thus, we screened for a substitute and found that dibenzyl ether (phenylmethoxymethylbenzene, CAS 103-50-4) can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos. Chemical clearing, staining, and embedding of biological samples mostly requires careful foregoing tissue dehydration. The commonly applied tissue dehydration medium is ethanol, which also can markedly impair GFP fluorescence. Screening for a substitute also for ethanol we found that tetrahydrofuran (CAS 109-99-9) is a more GFP-friendly dehydration medium than ethanol, providing better tissue transparency obtained by successive clearing. Combined, tetrahydrofuran and dibenzyl ether allow dehydration and chemical clearing of even delicate samples for UM, confocal microscopy, and other microscopy techniques.

  18. Controling the scattering of Intralipid by using optical clearing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiang; Luo Qingming; Zhu Dan; Tuchin, Valery V

    2009-01-01

    Optical clearing agents (OCAs) with high refractive indices and hyperosmolarity can enhance the penetration of light in tissues by reducing scattering in tissues. However, the mechanism of tissue optical clearing is not much clear for the complex interaction between tissues and OCAs. In this work, Intralipid was mixed with different concentrations of OCAs, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,2-propanediol, poly-ethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) and poly-ethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Except for PEG200 and PEG400 that make aggregation of particles, the others kept the mixture uniform. The reduced scattering coefficients of uniform mixtures were predicted with Mie theory and measured by a commercially available spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. The results show that all of the OCAs used enhance the optical clearing effect of Intralipid. If OCAs do not change the structure of Intralipid, Mie theory prediction matches well with the measurements. And the higher the refractive index of OCA, the smaller the reduced scattering coefficient. A simple formula deduced can quantitatively predict the optical clearing effect caused by OCAs. This work is helpful for clarifying the mechanism of tissue optical clearing, which will make the effect of optical clearing of tissue predictable and controllable.

  19. Clear-PEM, a dedicated PET camera for mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results suggest that Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) can offer a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques and aid in expeditiously establishing the diagnosis of cancer. A dedicated machine seems to offer better perspectives in terms of position resolution and sensitivity. This paper describes the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN for an evaluation of this approach. This device is based on new crystals introduced by the Crystal Clear as well as on modern data acquisition techniques developed for the large experiments in high energy physics experiments.

  20. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  1. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  2. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without... of clearance and related papers shall be surrendered. (e) No vessel shall be cleared for the high...

  3. How to Successfully Build a Clear Label Paradigm : Ingredient Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Careful labeling and consumer education may make the difference for the future success of individual ingredients and the products that rely on them. The second of a two-part report on a clear label strategy.

  4. Reconstruction of Clear-PEM data with STIR

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M V; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A; Oliveira, N; Correia, M; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, N C; Varela, J; Almeida, P

    2006-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner is a device based on planar detectors that is currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration, at CERN. The basis for 3D image reconstruction in Clear-PEM is the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). STIR is an open source object-oriented library that efficiently deals with the 3D positron emission tomography data sets. This library was originally designed for the traditional cylindrical scanners. In order to make its use compatible with planar scanner data, new functionalities were introduced into the library's framework. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the Clear-PEM scanner acquisitions were used as input for image reconstruction with the 3D OSEM algorithm available in STIR. The results presented indicate that dual plate PEM data can be accurately reconstructed using the enhanced STIR framework.

  5. Verminderen antibioticagebruik in de vleeskuikensector : CLEAR Helpdeskvraag 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Harn, van J.; Veldkamp, T.; Stockhofe, N.; Melchior, M.B.; Emous, van R.A.; Kense, M.

    2011-01-01

    Questions from participants and advisors in the CLEAR project with regard to reduction of the use of antibiotics in the broiler sector are answered. Advice and suggestions for further research are given.

  6. Bridge pressure flow scour for clear water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The equilibrium scour at a bridge caused by pressure flow with critical approach velocity in clear-water simulation conditions was studied both analytically and experimentally. The flume experiments revealed that (1) the measured equilibrium scour pr...

  7. An Investigation of Loop Seal Clearings in ATLAS SBLOCA Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeonsik; Cho, Seok; Kang, Kyoungho; Park, Hyunsik; Min, Kyeongho; Choi, Namhyeon; Park, Jonggook; Kim, Bokdeuk; Choi, Kiyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In most of the SBLOCA cases, the pressure of the upper-head region will increase mainly owing to the accumulated steam and water inventory in the upper-plenum. This build-up pressure acts as a suppression force to the core water level, and resultantly the core water level will decrease possibly up to and/or below the top of the active core region. Simultaneously, the downcomer water level will increase owing to the evacuated water inventory from the lower part of the core region. This unbalanced hydro-static pressure between the core and downcomer region acts as a potential pushing force to the reactor coolant pump (RCP) side intermediate leg. The potential pushing force will be increased with time to overcome the hydro-static head in the upflow intermediate leg. The unbalanced hydro-static pressure can finally be dissolved with the occurrence of the loop seal clearing. A minimum core collapsed water level, located below the elevation of the loop seal bottom leg in the ATLAS tests, is taken at this time. Since the loop seal bottom leg is located below the core top for typical PWR plants such as an APR1400, the water level depression may uncover the core upper regions until the core water level recovers with the progress of the clearing of the loop seal upflow leg. At this moment, the core temperature may increase to a peak cladding temperature (PCT) owing to an excessive core uncovery by the minimum core collapsed water level. Therefore, the loop seal clearing phenomenon is very important with respect to the PCT occurrence, which is one of the most important parameters to insure the safety of the reactor system. The loop seal clearing behavior seems to be closely related to the break location and break size. Usually, a loop seal in the break loop is cleared first, and the number of loop seal clearings is dependent on the break size. The larger the break size, the more the loop seals that are cleared. An investigation of LSC in the SBLOCA for DVI line and CL breaks

  8. Geophysical study of the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of geophysical studies in the Clear Lake region of California, north of San Francisco, have revealed a prominent, nearly circular negative gravity anomaly with an amplitude of more than 25 milligals (mgal) and an areal extent of approximately 250 square miles and, in addition, a number of smaller positive and negative anomalies. The major negative gravity anomaly is closely associated with the Clear Lake volcanic field and with an area characterized by hot springs and geothermal fields. However, the anomaly cannot be explained by mapped surface geologic features of the area. Aeromagnetic data in the Clear Lake region show no apparent correlation with the major negative gravity anomaly; the local magnetic field is affected principally by serpentine. An electrical resistivity low marks the central part of the gravity minimum, and a concentration of earthquake epicenters characterizes the Clear Lake volcanic field area. The primary cause of the major negative gravity anomaly is believed to be a hot intrusive mass, possibly a magma chamber, that may underlie the Clear Lake volcanic field and vicinity. This mass may serve as a source of heat for the geothermal phenomena in the area. Other smaller gravity anomalies in the Clear Lake region are apparently caused by near-surface geologic features, including relatively dense units of the Franciscan Formation and less dense Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock units.

  9. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  10. Clear-Sky Narrowband Albedo Datasets Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Arduini, R. F.; Hong, G.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting the clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the near-infrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 μm) and visible (VIS; 0.63 μm) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties. Generally, clear-sky albedo for a given surface type is determined for conditions when the vegetation is either thriving or dormant and free of snow. The clear-sky albedos are derived using a radiative transfer parameterization of the impact of the atmosphere, including aerosols, on the observed reflectances. This paper presents the method of generating monthly clear-sky overhead albedo maps for both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces of these channels using one year of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) CERES products. Maps of 1.24 and 1.6 μm are being used as the background to help retrieve cloud properties (e.g., effective particle size, optical depth) in CERES cloud retrievals in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions.

  11. Clearing of ventilating emissions in low temperature environment of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The method of high-temperature processing of streams of the ventilating air which is a subject clearing from organic pollutions is developed. Data about its efficiency, including on a number of economic parameters are obtained. Results of work are recommended for use, first of all, by development clearing plasma-thermal reactors (CPTR) for clearing air, especially from toxic substances, and also for large technological clearing installations, containing organic ventilating emissions (OVE). It is created experimental CPTR. Laws of the expiration of a plasma jet in stream of OVE limited by cylindrical walls, water-cooled channel are experimentally investigated. Dependences of a trajectory and long-range the plasma jet blown radially in stream of OVE are received. Heat exchange of stream of OVE with walls of CPTR after blowing a plasma jet is experimentally investigated; dependences of distribution of temperatures on length of a reactor and a thermal stream in a wall of channel of CPTR are received. Are investigated chemical compound of OVE after plasma-thermal clearing, some experimental data by formation of oxides of nitrogen and mono-oxide of carbon during clearing are received.

  12. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  13. Effect of an acute exposure of rat testes to gamma rays on germ cells and on Sertoli and Leydig cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Maas, J.; Viguier-Martinez, M.C.; Touzalin, A.M.; Jegou, B.

    1991-01-01

    Germ cells and Sertoli and Leydig cell functions were studied from 7 to 180 days after an acute exposure of 2-month-old rat testes to 9 Gy of γ rays. Body weight, testis and epididymal weights were recorded. Sertoli cell parameters (androgen-binding protein, ABP, in caput epididymis and plasma follicle stimulating hormone, FSH) and Leydig cell parameters (plasma luteinizing hormone, LH, testosterone and prostate and seminal vesicle weights) were determined together with the number of germ cells and Sertoli cells. Irradiation did not affect body weight but significantly reduced testicular and epididymal weights from day 7 and day 15 post-irradiation respectively. The cells killed by irradiation were mainly spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes engaged in replicating their DNA at the time of exposure, but all spermatocytes seemed damaged as they gave abnormal descendent cells. By day 34, only elongated spermatids remained in a few tubules and thereafter very little regeneration of the seminiferous epithelium occurred, except for one rat which showed a better regeneration. Levels of ABP decreased by day 15 when the germ cell depletion had reached the pachytene spermatocytes, whereas FSH and LH levels rose when the number of elongated spermatids decreased. Levels of testosterone and the weight of the seminal vesicles did not change; occasionally, the prostate weight was slightly reduced. These results support our hypothesis that pachytene spermatocytes and elongated spermatids are involved in influencing some aspects of Sertoli cell function in the adult rat

  14. Commentary on "Effects on survival of BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations in sporadic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis with independent validation." Kapur P, Peña-Llopis S, Christie A, Zhrebker L, Pavía-Jiménez A, Rathmell WK, Xie XJ, Brugarolas J. Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14(2):159-67. [Epub 2013 Jan 16]. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70584-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas display divergent clinical behaviours. However, the molecular genetic events driving these behaviours are unknown. We discovered that BAP1 is mutated in about 15% of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma, and that BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations are largely mutually exclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of these molecular subtypes and to determine whether patients with BAP1-mutant and PBRM1-mutant tumours had different overall survival. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed 145 patients with primary clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma and defined PBRM1 and BAP1 mutation status from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW), TX, USA, between 1998 and 2011. We classified patients into those with BAP1-mutant tumours and those with tumours exclusively mutated for PBRM1 (PBRM1-mutant). We used a second independent cohort (n=327) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for validation. In both cohorts, more than 80% of patients had localised or locoregional disease at presentation. Overall both cohorts were similar, although the TCGA had more patients with metastatic and higher-grade disease, and more TCGA patients presented before molecularly targeted therapies became available. The median overall survival in the UTSW cohort was significantly shorter for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours (4·6 years; 95% CI 2·1-7·2), than for patients with PBRM1-mutant tumours (10·6 years; 9·8-11·5), corresponding to a HR of 2·7 (95% CI 0·99-7·6, p=0·044). Median overall survival in the TCGA cohort was 1·9 years (95% CI 0·6-3·3) for patients with BAP1-mutant tumours and 5·4 years (4·0-6·8) for those with PBRM1-mutant tumours. A HR similar to the UTSW cohort was noted in the TCGA cohort (2·8; 95% CI 1·4-5·9; p=0·004). Patients with mutations in both BAP1 and PBRM1, although a minority (three in UTSW cohort and four in TCGA cohort), had the worst overall survival (median 2·1 years, 95

  15. Changes in biotic and abiotic processes following mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Elise; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I.

    2008-12-01

    Mangrove forests, important tropical coastal habitats, are in decline worldwide primarily due to removal by humans. Changes to mangrove systems can alter ecosystem properties through direct effects on abiotic factors such as temperature, light and nutrient supply or through changes in biotic factors such as primary productivity or species composition. Despite the importance of mangroves as transitional habitats between land and sea, little research has examined changes that occur when they are cleared. We examined changes in a number of biotic and abiotic factors following the anthropogenic removal of red mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle) in the Panamanian Caribbean, including algal biomass, algal diversity, algal grazing rates, light penetration, temperature, sedimentation rates and sediment organic content. In this first study examining multiple ecosystem-level effects of mangrove disturbance, we found that areas cleared of mangroves had higher algal biomass and richness than intact mangrove areas. This increase in algal biomass and richness was likely due to changes in abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity, temperature), but not biotic factors (fish herbivory). Additionally the algal and cyanobacterial genera dominating mangrove-cleared areas were rare in intact mangroves and included a number of genera that compete with coral for space on reefs. Interestingly, sedimentation rates did not differ between intact and cleared areas, but the sediments that accumulated in intact mangroves had higher organic content. These findings are the first to demonstrate that anthropogenic clearing of mangroves changes multiple biotic and abiotic processes in mangrove forests and that some of these changes may influence adjacent habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds. Additional research is needed to further explore the community and ecosystem-level effects of mangrove clearing and their influence on adjacent habitats, but it is clear that mangrove conservation is an

  16. Seeing through Musculoskeletal Tissues: Improving In Situ Imaging of Bone and the Lacunar Canalicular System through Optical Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ian M.; Miola, Joseph P.; David, Michael A.; Smith, Melanie K.; Price, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In situ, cells of the musculoskeletal system reside within complex and often interconnected 3-D environments. Key to better understanding how 3-D tissue and cellular environments regulate musculoskeletal physiology, homeostasis, and health is the use of robust methodologies for directly visualizing cell-cell and cell-matrix architecture in situ. However, the use of standard optical imaging techniques is often of limited utility in deep imaging of intact musculoskeletal tissues due to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Drawing inspiration from recent developments in the deep-tissue imaging field, we describe the application of immersion based optical clearing techniques, which utilize the principle of refractive index (RI) matching between the clearing/mounting media and tissue under observation, to improve the deep, in situ imaging of musculoskeletal tissues. To date, few optical clearing techniques have been applied specifically to musculoskeletal tissues, and a systematic comparison of the clearing ability of optical clearing agents in musculoskeletal tissues has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study we tested the ability of eight different aqueous and non-aqueous clearing agents, with RIs ranging from 1.45 to 1.56, to optically clear murine knee joints and cortical bone. We demonstrated and quantified the ability of these optical clearing agents to clear musculoskeletal tissues and improve both macro- and micro-scale imaging of musculoskeletal tissue across several imaging modalities (stereomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and one-, and two-photon confocal microscopy) and investigational techniques (dynamic bone labeling and en bloc tissue staining). Based upon these findings we believe that optical clearing, in combination with advanced imaging techniques, has the potential to complement classical musculoskeletal analysis techniques; opening the door for improved in situ investigation and quantification of musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:26930293

  17. Seeing through Musculoskeletal Tissues: Improving In Situ Imaging of Bone and the Lacunar Canalicular System through Optical Clearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Berke

    Full Text Available In situ, cells of the musculoskeletal system reside within complex and often interconnected 3-D environments. Key to better understanding how 3-D tissue and cellular environments regulate musculoskeletal physiology, homeostasis, and health is the use of robust methodologies for directly visualizing cell-cell and cell-matrix architecture in situ. However, the use of standard optical imaging techniques is often of limited utility in deep imaging of intact musculoskeletal tissues due to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Drawing inspiration from recent developments in the deep-tissue imaging field, we describe the application of immersion based optical clearing techniques, which utilize the principle of refractive index (RI matching between the clearing/mounting media and tissue under observation, to improve the deep, in situ imaging of musculoskeletal tissues. To date, few optical clearing techniques have been applied specifically to musculoskeletal tissues, and a systematic comparison of the clearing ability of optical clearing agents in musculoskeletal tissues has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study we tested the ability of eight different aqueous and non-aqueous clearing agents, with RIs ranging from 1.45 to 1.56, to optically clear murine knee joints and cortical bone. We demonstrated and quantified the ability of these optical clearing agents to clear musculoskeletal tissues and improve both macro- and micro-scale imaging of musculoskeletal tissue across several imaging modalities (stereomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and one-, and two-photon confocal microscopy and investigational techniques (dynamic bone labeling and en bloc tissue staining. Based upon these findings we believe that optical clearing, in combination with advanced imaging techniques, has the potential to complement classical musculoskeletal analysis techniques; opening the door for improved in situ investigation and quantification of musculoskeletal

  18. Anterior Crossbite and Crowding Correction with a Series of Clear Aligners Involving Lower Incisor Extraction: "The Clear Way" Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaskar, Naval Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopaedic appliances. Some forms ofattachments are required with clear aligners to achieve all major types of orthodontic tooth movements. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by a clinician with computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner can be fabricated in steps, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment in cases of complex malocclusions. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners without the use of any forms of attachments. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances.

  19. An Improved Clearing and Mounting Solution to Replace Chloral Hydrate in Microscopic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Villani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: This study presents Visikol™, a new proprietary formulation that can be used as an efficient replacement for chloral hydrate as a clearing agent for microscopic examination. In the United States, chloral hydrate is regulated and therefore difficult to acquire. Methods and Results: Fresh and dry samples of the following plants: ginger (Zingiber officinale, maté (Ilex paraguariensis, lime basil (Ocimum americanum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, and mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana, were cleared using Visikol or chloral hydrate solution and compared using a light microscope. Conclusions: This new method can be used successfully to clear specimens, allowing identification of diagnostic characteristics for the identification of plant materials. Visikol is as effective as chloral hydrate in providing clarity and resolution of all tissues examined. Tissues become transparent, allowing observation of deeper layers of cells and making it effective in research, botanical and quality control, and for educational applications.

  20. Enhancing facial features by using clear facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofoo, Fanar Fareed Hanna

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of features between individuals of same ethnicity motivated the idea of this project. The idea of this project is to extract features of clear facial image and impose them on blurred facial image of same ethnic origin as an approach to enhance a blurred facial image. A database of clear images containing 30 individuals equally divided to five different ethnicities which were Arab, African, Chines, European and Indian. Software was built to perform pre-processing on images in order to align the features of clear and blurred images. And the idea was to extract features of clear facial image or template built from clear facial images using wavelet transformation to impose them on blurred image by using reverse wavelet. The results of this approach did not come well as all the features did not align together as in most cases the eyes were aligned but the nose or mouth were not aligned. Then we decided in the next approach to deal with features separately but in the result in some cases a blocky effect was present on features due to not having close matching features. In general the available small database did not help to achieve the goal results, because of the number of available individuals. The color information and features similarity could be more investigated to achieve better results by having larger database as well as improving the process of enhancement by the availability of closer matches in each ethnicity.

  1. Papillary type 2 versus clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, G; Tuderti, G; Ferriero, M; Papalia, R; Misuraca, L; Minisola, F; Costantini, M; Mastroianni, R; Sentinelli, S; Guaglianone, S; Gallucci, M

    2016-11-01

    To compare the cancer specific survival (CSS) between p2-RCC and a Propensity Score Matched (PSM) cohort of cc-RCC patients. Fifty-five (4.6%) patients with p2-RCC and 920 cc-RCC patients were identified within a prospectively maintained institutional dataset of 1205 histologically proved RCC patients treated with either RN or PN. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to identify predictors of CSS after surgical treatment. A 1:2 PSM analysis based on independent predictors of oncologic outcomes was employed and CSS was compared between PSM selected cc-RCC patients using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Overall, 55 (4.6%) p2-RCC and 920 (76.3%) cc-RCC patients were selected from the database; p2-RCC were significantly larger (p = 0.001), more frequently locally advanced (p p2-RCC for age (p = 0.81), tumor size (p = 0.39), pT (p = 1.00) and pN (p = 0.62) stages, cM stage (p = 0.71) and Fuhrman grade (p = 1). In this PSM cohort, 5 yr CSS was significantly lower in the p2-RCC (63% vs 72.4%; p = 0.047). At multivariable Cox analysis p2 histology was an independent predictor of CSM (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.04-5.83; p = 0.041). We confirmed the tendency of p2-RCC to present as locally advanced and metastatic disease more frequently than cc-RCC and demonstrated p2-RCC histology as an independent predictor of worse oncologic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  3. A Case of Cushing's Syndrome with Multiple Adrenocortical Adenomas Composed of Compact Cells and Clear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ota, Mitsutane; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Sasahara, Yuriko; Takeuchi, Takato; Nakano, Yujiro; Oohara, Norihiko; Murakami, Masanori; Bouchi, Ryotaro; Minami, Isao; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Hashimoto, Koshi; Izumiyama, Hajime; Kawamura, Naoko; Kihara, Kazunori; Negi, Mariko; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for Cushingoid features and diagnosed as adrenal Cushing's syndrome due to a right adrenocortical mass (60 × 55 mm). The mass was composed of three different tumors; the first one was homogeneously lipid-poor neoplasm measuring 20 × 13 mm located at the most dorsal region, the second one was heterogeneous and lipid-rich tumor containing multiple foci of calcification measuring 50 × 32 mm located at the central region, and the last one was heterogeneous harboring dilated and tortuous vessels and lipid-poor one measuring 35 × 18 mm at the most ventral region of the adrenal gland. A right adrenalectomy was subsequently performed by open surgery. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed that all three tumors were adrenocortical adenomas; the first one represents a pigmented adrenocortical adenoma, the second one adrenocortical adenoma associated with degeneration, and the third one adrenocortical adenoma harboring extensive degeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis of the steroidogenic enzymes also revealed that all of the tumors had the capacity of synthesizing cortisol. This is a very rare case of Cushing's syndrome caused by multiple adrenocortical adenomas including a pigmented adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes contributed to understanding of steroidogenesis in each of these three different adrenocortical adenomas in this case.

  4. Effects of Tobacco Smoke (TS) on Growth of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    tumor suppressor Accomplishments: What were the major goals of the project? It is a discovery level study to collect and genetically analyze...pathologist who identifies histological types of tumors and actually flash -freezes the specimens, and a laboratory technician who processes the tissues

  5. Genetics of clear cell renal cell carcinoma : new tumor suppressor genes and aberrant chromatin regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duns, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    De korte arm van chromosoom 3 bevat verschillende genen die een rol kunnen spelen bij de ontwikkeling van de meest voorkomende soort nierkanker: heldercellige niercelcarcinomen (ccRCCs). Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van promovendus Gerben Duns. Bij heldercellige niercelcarcinomen is de korte arm van

  6. Systematic Evaluation of the Prognostic Impact and Intratumour Heterogeneity of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Sakshi; Martinez, Pierre; Joshi, Tejal

    2014-01-01

    and statistical analysisBiomarker association with CSS was analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results and limitationsA total of 17 of 28 biomarkers (TP53 mutations; amplifications of chromosomes 8q, 12, 20q11.21q13.32, and 20 and deletions of 4p, 9p, 9p21.3p24.1, and 22q; low EDNRB and TSPAN7...... expression and six gene expression signatures) were validated as predictors of poor CSS in univariate analysis. Tumour stage and the ccB expression signature were the only independent predictors in multivariate analysis. ITH of the ccB signature was identified in 8 of 10 tumours. Several genetic alterations...... that were significant in univariate analysis were enriched, and chromosomal instability indices were increased in samples expressing the ccB signature. The study may be underpowered to validate low-prevalence biomarkers. ConclusionsThe ccB signature was the only independent prognostic biomarker. Enrichment...

  7. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  8. A stochastic framework for clearing of reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new stochastic framework for clearing of day-ahead reactive power market. The uncertainty of generating units in the form of system contingencies are considered in the reactive power market-clearing procedure by the stochastic model in two steps. The Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is first used to generate random scenarios. Then, in the second step, the stochastic market-clearing procedure is implemented as a series of deterministic optimization problems (scenarios) including non-contingent scenario and different post-contingency states. In each of these deterministic optimization problems, the objective function is total payment function (TPF) of generators which refers to the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed model is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  9. Multiobjective clearing of reactive power market in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.; Amjady, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context. Total payment function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation, is considered as the main objective function of reactive power market. Besides that, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index are the other objective functions of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the reactive power market. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented to solve the problem of reactive power market clearing using a fuzzy approach to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  10. One Clear Image? Challenging Simplicity in Place Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling

    2011-01-01

    Unique selling points! Simplicity sells! One clear identity! One clear image! These are some of the place branding mantras of today. In this paper, this “simplicity trend” is critically examined and challenged by raising the question whether clear images and simplicity are truly the only options...... in destination branding. After a short introduction and discussion of the underlying assumptions of destination branding strategy, an illustrative case is used to demonstrate how tourism stakeholders create several different “versions” of the tourist destination through a multiplicity of discursive, performative...... and socio-material practices at the tourist destination. Based on these findings, place marketers are encouraged to embrace and benefit from the multiple destination rather than seeking to reduce its multiplicity. It is argued that diversity branding might actually be deployed, strategically, in order...

  11. Effects of Mixing on Hopper Sedimentation in Clearing Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina

    2015-01-01

    , and a common perception of turbulence (or at least of mixing) is that it delays sedimentation. Existing measurements of sedimentation rates in a closed-flume experiment, engineered to provide input to a hopper sedimentation model, revealed that turbulence in a clearing mixture is not necessarily associated......Hopper sedimentation is the result of precipitation of typically fine sediment from a homogenous, high-concentration mixture, which is not completely deficient of turbulence. If hopper sedimentation or loading is accomplished through a single-inflow system, or if the irregularity of the inflow...... concentrations is pronounced or simply terminated, then the hopper mixture will clear. Whereas turbulent mixing is redundant, when the mixture is homogeneous, it may take an active role when the mixture is clearing. The role of turbulence on hopper sedimentation has been the focus of several studies...

  12. Electron clearing and dimensional tolerance for the ISA chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the straight sections of the ISA ring, the clearing of the low energy electrons produced by the beam-gas collisions will take place by longitudinal motion. Thus, an electron of low energy, which is prevented from escaping transversely by the attractive field of the beam, will receive successive kicks by the circulating protons and thereby acquire sufficient energy to travel longitudinally toward the clearing electrodes. However, a discontinuity or step in the chamber diameter, which occurs within an axial distance equal to a few diameters, gives rise to a potential difference along the chamber axis. An estimate of the magnitude of the diameter discontinuity that can be tolerated without a clearing electrode is given

  13. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  14. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.

    2009-06-01

    The possibility of improvement of laser tattoo removal due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that previously perforation of skin stratum corneum allows increasing tattoo image contrast at topical administration of immersion agent in contrast with non-perforated skin. Computer Monte Carlo simulation shows that at the optical clearing of upper skin layers the tattoo image contrast and the photon fraction absorbed in the tattoo area at the depths of 0.5 or 1.0 mm increase, that allows significant decreasing of the power of laser radiation used at laser thermolysis.

  15. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  16. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one from racing sessio...

  17. Efficiency of ocular UV protection by clear lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Katharina; Hornauer, Matthias; Buechinger, Ramona; Schoen, Roland; Barraza-Bernal, Maria; Habtegiorgis, Selam; Glasenapp, Carsten; Wahl, Siegfried; Mappes, Timo

    2018-04-01

    Ocular UV doses accumulate all-day, not only during periods of direct sun exposure. The UV protection efficiency of three clear lenses was evaluated experimentally, validated by simulation, and compared to non-UV protection: a first spectacle lens with a tailored UV absorber, a second spectacle lens, minimizing UV back reflections, as well as a third spectacle lens, combining both. A tailored UV-absorber efficiently reduced overall UV irradiance to 7 %, whereas reduction of back-reflections still left UV irradiance at 42 %. Thus, clear lenses with a tailored UV absorber efficiently protect the eye from UV, supplementing sun glasses wear to an all-day protection scenario.

  18. Clear Speech Variants: An Acoustic Study in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how different variants of clear speech affect segmental and suprasegmental acoustic measures of speech in speakers with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group. Method: A total of 14 participants with Parkinson's disease and 14 control participants served as speakers. Each speaker produced 18 different…

  19. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... managerial resources, as determined by the Commission, to discharge each responsibility of the [DCO].'' \\27... wide range of potential stress scenarios, which include, but are not limited to, the default of the... clearing members through margin requirements and other risk control mechanisms, to ensure that the DCO's...

  20. Performance and quality control of Clear-PEM detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Pedro; Carrico, Bruno; Ferreira, Miguel; Moura, Rui; Ortigao, Catarina; Rodrigues, Pedro; Da Silva, Jose C.; Trindade, Andreia; Varela, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Clear-PEM is a dedicated PET scanner for breast and axilla cancer diagnosis, under development within the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN, aiming at the detection of tumors down to 2 mm in diameter. The camera consists of two planar detector heads with active dimensions 16.0x14.5 cm 2 . Each head has 96 Clear-PEM detector modules consisting of 32 LYSO:Ce pixels with dimensions 2x2x20 mm 3 packed in a 4x8 BaSO 4 reflector matrix compressed between two Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays in a double-readout configuration for Depth-of-Interaction (DoI) determination. The modules are individually measured and characterized before being grouped into Supermodules (comprised of 24 modules). Measured properties include photo-peak position, relative gain dispersion, energy resolution, cross-talk and DoI resolution. Optical inspection of matrices was also performed with the aid of a microscope, to search for pixel misalignments and matrix defects. Modules' performance was thoroughly evaluated with a 511 keV collimated beam to exactly determine DoI resolution. In addition, a fast quality control (QC) procedure using flood irradiations from a 137 Cs source was applied systematically. The overall performance of the 24 detector modules complies with the design goals of the Clear-PEM detector, showing energy resolution around 15%, DoI resolution of about 2 mm and gain dispersion among pixels of 15%

  1. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  2. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  3. Seeing Clearly (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-08

    If you’re not seeing the world as clearly as you used to, you might be among the millions of people suffering from vision impairment. In this podcast, Dr. John Crews discusses ways to take care of your eyes.  Created: 5/8/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/8/2014.

  4. 75 FR 78185 - Information Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Principles J, K, L and M. This is based on the Commission's view that rigorous information management... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 21, and 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Information Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  5. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  6. Seeing Clearly (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    If you’re not seeing the world as clearly as you used to, you might be among the millions of people suffering from vision impairment. In this podcast, Dr. John Crews discusses ways to take care of your eyes.

  7. 75 FR 63113 - Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...\\ For example, the positions of each clearing member would be margined separately and would be stress... of debt, externally forced revisions of its operations, or similar actions.\\13\\ \\13\\ See American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Auditing Standards Board Statement of Auditing Standards No. 59...

  8. Advances and perspectives in tissue clearing using CLARITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveles Jensen, Kristian; Berg, Rune W.

    2017-01-01

    CLARITY is a tissue clearing method, which enables immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. The method was initially time-consuming, expensive and relied on electrophoresis to remove lipids to make the tissue transparent. Since then several improvements and simplifications...

  9. Impact of Prosopis (mesquite) invasion and clearing on vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the impact of Prosopis invasion and clearing on vegetation species composition and diversity (alien and indigenous species richness and cover) in Nama-Karoo rangeland on two sheep farms in the Beaufort ... Keywords: invasive plants – exotic, Nama-Karoo, plant community ecology, rehabilitation, semi-arid ...

  10. Marketing Strategies of United Kingdom Universities during Clearing and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clearing system in the UK enables students without a university place after exam results have been announced to find suitable vacancies, as it is important for universities to fill their vacancies as any shortfall loses them a lot of money. The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies adopted by UK universities on…

  11. 76 FR 3697 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 39 Risk Management Requirements for... RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity... (Participant and Product Eligibility), D (Risk Management), E (Settlement Procedures), F (Treatment of Funds...

  12. Electron clearing and dimensional tolerance for the ISA chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the straight sections of the ISA ring, the clearing of the low energy electrons produced by the beam-gas collisions will take place by longitudinal motion. Thus, an electron of low energy, which is prevented from escaping transversely by the attractive field of the beam, will receive successive kicks by the circulating protons and thereby acquire sufficient energy to travel longitudinally toward the clearing electrodes. However, a discontinuity or step in the chamber diameter, which occurs within an axial distance equal to a few diameters, gives rise to a potential difference along the chamber axis. In the case of a section of chambers which has a larger diameter, that is, a small cavity, the two steps result in a longitudinal potential well, or attractive region. It is then necessary that the electrons be given additional energy in order to overcome this longitudinal trapping potential. The ISA design envisions the placement of clearing electrodes at the location of significant chamber discontinuities, particularly in the experimental insertions. An estimate of the magnitude of the diameter discontinuity that can be tolerated without a clearing electrode is given

  13. Investigations on the insulin receptor of isolated fat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fat cells, isolated from the epididymal adipose tissue of rats, were incubed with iodine 125 insulin after previous incubation with various antagonists. By varying the antagonist concentration, it was possible to determine the effect these substances have on the insulin receptor, i.e. the insulin similarity. By varying the preincubation time, toxicity of the test substances could be detected, which pretended repression effects; and by finally verying the incubation time the effects on the receptor via the membrane could be distinguished from direct receptor bindings of the antagonist. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Deaf children's use of clear visual cues in mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. REGULATORY T CELLS AND VASECTOMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Claudia; Wheeler, Karen; Jeffrey, Sarah; Qiao, Hui; Luu, Brian; Tewalt, Eric F; Engelhard, Victor H; Tardif, Stephen; Hardy, Daniel; del Rio, Roxana; Teuscher, Cory; Tung, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) strongly influence the early and late autoimmune responses to meiotic germ cell antigens (MGCA) and the gonadal immunopathology in vasectomized mice. This is supported by the published and recently acquired information presented here. Within 24 hours of unilateral vasectomy (uni-vx) the ipsilateral epididymis undergoes epithelial cell apoptosis followed by necrosis, severe inflammation, and granuloma formation. Unexpectedly, vasectomy alone induced MGCA-specific tolerance. In contrast, uni-vx plus simultaneous Treg depletion resulted in MGCA-specific autoimmune response and bilateral autoimmune orchitis. Both tolerance and autoimmunity were strictly linked to the early epididymal injury. We now discovered that testicular autoimmunity in uni-vx mice did not occur when Treg depletion was delayed by one week. Remarkably, this delayed Treg depletion also prevented tolerance induction. Therefore, tolerance depends on a rapid de novo Treg response to MGCA exposed after vasectomy. Moreover, tolerance was blunted in mice genetically deficient in PD-1 ligand, suggesting the involvement of induced Treg. We conclude that pre-existing natural Treg prevents post-vasectomy autoimmunity, whereas vasectomy-induced Treg maintains post-vasectomy tolerance. We further discovered that vasectomized mice were still resistant to autoimmune orchitis induction for at least 12–16 months; thus, tolerance is long-lasting. Although significant sperm autoantibodies of low titers became detectable in uni-vx mice at seven months, the antibody titers fluctuated over time, suggesting a dynamic “balance” between the autoimmune and tolerance states. Finally, we observed severe epididymal fibrosis and hypo-spermatogenesis at 12 months after uni-vx: findings of highly critical clinical significance. PMID:24080233

  16. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear twilight sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Mollner, Duncan C

    2017-07-01

    At the earth's surface, clear-sky colors during civil twilights depend on the combined spectral effects of molecular scattering, extinction by tropospheric aerosols, and absorption by ozone. Molecular scattering alone cannot produce the most vivid twilight colors near the solar horizon, for which aerosol scattering and absorption are also required. However, less well known are haze aerosols' effects on twilight sky colors at larger scattering angles, including near the antisolar horizon. To analyze this range of colors, we compare 3D Monte Carlo simulations of skylight spectra with hyperspectral measurements of clear twilight skies over a wide range of aerosol optical depths. Our combined measurements and simulations indicate that (a) the purest antisolar twilight colors would occur in a purely molecular, multiple-scattering atmosphere, whereas (b) the most vivid solar-sky colors require at least some turbidity. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple scattering plays an important role in determining the redness of the antitwilight arch.

  17. Vent clearing analysis of a Mark III pressure suppression containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, R.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the vent clearing transient in a Mark III pressure suppression containment after a hypothetical LOCA is carried out. A two-dimensional numerical model solving the transient fluid dynamic equations is used. The geometry of the pressure suppression pool is represented and the pressure and velocity fields in the pool are obtained from the moment the LOCA occurs until the first vent in the drywell wall clears. The results are compared to those obtained with the one-diemensional model used for containment design, with special interest on two-dimensional effects. Some conclusions concerning the effect of the water discharged into the suppression pool through the vents on submerged structures are obtained. Future improvements to the model are suggested. (orig.)

  18. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani; Reza Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abut...

  19. Clear turbulence forecasting - Towards a union of art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The development of clear air turbulence (CAT) forecasting over the last several decades is reviewed in the context of empirical and theoretical research into the nature of nonconvective turbulence in the free atmosphere, particularly at jet stream levels. Various qualitative CAT forecasting techniques are examined, and prospects for an effective quantitative index to aid aviation meteorologists in jet stream level turbulence monitoring and forecasting are examined. Finally, the use of on-board sensors for short-term warning is discussed.

  20. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho, R; Carrico, B; Ferreira, C S; Frade, M; Ferreira, M; Moura, R; Ortigao, C; Pinheiro, J F; Rodrigues, P; Rolo, I; Silva, J C; Trindade, A; Varela, J [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, 1000-149 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: frade@lip.pt

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 x 2 x 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean C{sub DOI}{sup -1} is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  1. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  2. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  3. Clear-sky narrowband albedos derived from VIRS and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Arduini, Robert F.

    2004-02-01

    The Clouds and Earth"s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is using multispectral imagers, the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra, operating since spring 2000, and Aqua, operating since summer 2002, to provide cloud and clear-sky properties at various wavelengths. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis of the CERES clear-sky reflectances to derive a set top-of-atmosphere clear sky albedo for 0.65, 0.86, 1.6, 2.13 μm, for all major surface types using the combined MODIS and VIRS datasets. The variability of snow albedo with surface type is examined using MODIS data. Snow albedo was found to depend on the vertical structure of the vegetation. At visible wavelengths, it is least for forested areas and greatest for smooth desert and tundra surfaces. At 1.6 and 2.1-μm, the snow albedos are relatively insensitive to the underlying surface because snow decreases the reflectance. Additional analyses using all of the MODIS results will provide albedo models that should be valuable for many remote sensing, simulation and radiation budget studies.

  4. [Ground-clearing fires in the amazon and respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Karen dos Santos; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-06-01

    The intentional burning of forest biomass commonly known as "ground-clearing fires" is an age-old and widespread practice in the country and is seen as a major contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases. However, global awareness of their potential impact is relatively recent. The occurrence of large ground-clearing fires in the Brazilian and international scenarios drew attention to the problem, but the measures taken to prevent and/or control the fires are still insufficient. In the Amazon region, with distinct geographical and environmental features from the rest of the country, with its historic process of land occupation, every year the ground-clearing fires expose larger portions of the population making them vulnerable to its effects. In this context, this non-systematic review presents the papers written over the past five years about the fires in the Brazilian Amazon and respiratory illness. The main objective is to provide information for managers and leaders on environmental issues about the problems related to biomass burning in the Amazon region.

  5. Potential application of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) as enhancer for tissue optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jiang, Jingying; Wang, Ruikang K.; Xu, Kexin

    2009-02-01

    Many biocompatible hyperosmotic agents such as dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) have been used as enhancers for tissue optical clearing technique. However, previous investigations showed that DMSO can induce bradycardia, respiratory problems, and alterations in blood pressure. Also, DMSO could potentially alter the chemical structure, and hence the functional properties, of cell membranes. In this talk, Borneol among natural and nontoxic CTMs was introduced as new enhancer for optical clearing of porcine skin tissue since it has been widely used as new penetration promoter in the field of trandermial drug delivery system(TDDS) and been proved to be effective. In the first, the spectral characteristics of borneol was obtained and analyzed by Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. And further experimental studies were performed to probe if borneol is capable of optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro with near infrared spectroscopy, double integrating-spheres system and Inverse Adding-Doubling(IAD) algorithm. Spectral results show that light penetration depth into skin tissue got the increase. Meanwhile, absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient of porcine skin treated by borneol got the decrease during the permeation of Borneol. Therefore, Borneol could be potentially used as enhancer for tissue optical clearing to improve non-invasive light-based diagnostic and imaging techniques while practically optical application and clinical safety are under consideration.

  6. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  7. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  8. Temporal co-registration for TROPOMI cloud clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Genkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is anticipated to provide high-quality and timely global atmospheric composition information through observations of atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde and aerosol properties. The methane and the aerosol retrievals require very precise cloud clearing, which is difficult to achieve at the TROPOMI spatial resolution (7 by 7 km and without thermal IR measurements. The TROPOMI carrier – the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P, does not include a cloud imager, thus it is planned to fly the S5P mission in a constellation with an instrument yielding an accurate cloud mask. The cloud imagery data will be provided by the US NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP mission, which will have the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on board (Scalione, 2004. This paper investigates the temporal co-registration requirements for suitable time differences between the VIIRS measurements of clouds and the TROPOMI methane and aerosol measurements, so that the former could be used for cloud clearing. The temporal co-registration is studied using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI data with 15 min temporal resolution (Veefkind, 2008b, and with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite – 10 (GOES-10 having 1 min temporal resolution. The aim is to understand and assess the relation between the amount of allowed cloud contamination and the required time difference between the two satellites' overflights. Quantitative analysis shows that a time difference of approximately 5 min is sufficient (in most conditions to use the cloud information from the first instrument for cloud clearing in the retrievals using data from the second instrument. In recent years the A-train constellation demonstrated the benefit of flying satellites in formation. Therefore this study's findings will be

  9. Cognitive errors: thinking clearly when it could be child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Antoinette L

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive errors have been studied in a broad array of fields, including medicine. The more that is understood about how the human mind processes complex information, the more it becomes clear that certain situations are particularly susceptible to less than optimal outcomes because of these errors. This article explores how some of the known cognitive errors may influence the diagnosis of child abuse, resulting in both false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Suggested remedies for these errors are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis on the way of foreign exchange clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yingying

    2014-01-01

    Constantly advancing market-led interest rate led to the financial institution traditional business profit margins shrinking. Finance companies which are financial institutions within the enterprise groups withstand greater impact than commercial banks. Therefore, the financial company's top priority is to expand the intermediary business, including settlement and sales, and to develop new profit growth point. This paper compares the existing domestic and foreign currency clearing modes and their efficiencies, combines with the company's business situation, and makes corresponding analysis of the prior preparations and considerations of conducting settlement and sales. (author)

  11. Viscous optical clearing agent for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Wu, Ning; lv, Pengyu; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui

    2014-07-01

    By allowing more photons to reach deeper tissue, the optical clearing agent (OCA) has gained increasing attention in various optical imaging modalities. However, commonly used OCAs have high fluidity, limiting their applications in in vivo studies with oblique, uneven, or moving surfaces. In this work, we reported an OCA with high viscosity. We measured the properties of this viscous OCA, and tested its successful performances in the imaging of a living animal's skin with two optical imaging modalities: photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Our results demonstrated that the viscous OCA has a great potential in the study of different turbid tissues using various optical imaging modalities.

  12. A Trading Agent for a Multi-Issue Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John

    The potential size of the electronic business market offers great incentives to trading agents that can bargain, bid in auctions and trade in exchanges. Much of business negotiation is multi-issue. A generic 'information-based' agent is proposed for multi-issue negotiation. Successful negotiation depends on shrewd strategies driven by the right information. This agent has machinery to value information and to manage its integrity. A multi-issue, many-to-many clearing house, and an agent to trade in it, are proposed.

  13. A Reflectance Model for Relatively Clear and Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs is of great interest for ocean colour studies in highly turbid and relatively clear waters. In this work a semianalytical model that simulates the spectral curves of remote sensing reflectance of these waters is developed based on the inherent optical properties (IOPs and f and Q factors. For accommodating differences in the optical properties of the water and accounting for their directional variations, IOPs and f and Q factors are derived as a function of phytoplankton pigments, suspended sediments and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are compared with in-situ bio-optical data collected at 83 stations encompassing highly turbid/relatively cleared waters of the South Sea of Korea. Measured and modeled remote sensing reflectances agree favorably in both magnitude and spectral shape, with considerably low errors (mean relative error MRE -0.0327; root mean square error RMSE 0.205, bias -0.0727 and slope 1.15 and correlation coefficient R2 0.74. These results suggest that the new model has the ability to reproduce measured reflectance values and has potentially profound implications for remote sensing of complex waters in this region.

  14. A new computational method for reactive power market clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Elkasrawy, A.; Venkatesh, B.

    2009-01-01

    After deregulation of electricity markets, ancillary services such as reactive power supply are priced separately. However, unlike real power supply, procedures for costing and pricing reactive power supply are still evolving and spot markets for reactive power do not exist as of now. Further, traditional formulations proposed for clearing reactive power markets use a non-linear mixed integer programming formulation that are difficult to solve. This paper proposes a new reactive power supply market clearing scheme. Novelty of this formulation lies in the pricing scheme that rewards transformers for tap shifting while participating in this market. The proposed model is a non-linear mixed integer challenge. A significant portion of the manuscript is devoted towards the development of a new successive mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique to solve this formulation. The successive MILP method is computationally robust and fast. The IEEE 6-bus and 300-bus systems are used to test the proposed method. These tests serve to demonstrate computational speed and rigor of the proposed method. (author)

  15. Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Valery V

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to review recent results on the optical clearing of the naturally turbid biological tissues and blood using the optical immersion technique, which is well known in physical science and is applied for the reduction of light scattering and undesirable reflections in the optical system. Basic principles of the technique, its advantages, limitations and future are discussed. The refractive index matching concept for enhancement of in-depth light penetration into tissues and blood is presented on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies using optical spectroscopy, polarization and coherence-domain techniques. The index matching of scatterers and ground matter by means of administration of clearing agents is under discussion. The optical properties of tissues with basic multiple scattering, which are transformed to a low scattering mode, are analysed. It is shown that light reflection, transmission, scattering and polarization can be effectively controlled. The possibilities of using the optical immersion method for diagnostic purposes based on contrasting of abnormalities, on in-depth profiling of tissue and blood and on monitoring of endogenous and exogenous matter diffusion within tissue are demonstrated

  16. APLIKASI SIX SIGMA PADA PRODUK CLEAR FILE DI PERUSAHAAN STATIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Emilasari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available