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Sample records for epibiont zoothamnium intermedium

  1. Attachment of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) to artificial substrates in a natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Utz, LRP.

    2008-01-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found as epibionts, colonizing living organisms, or attached to non-living substrates in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Several species of peritrich epibionts are obligate, which means that they are able to only colonize other organisms, while others are facultative attaching to living or non-living substrates. The peritrich Zoothamnium intermedium is commonly found as epibiont on the copepod species Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis in Chesa...

  2. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia estimated from laboratory experiments

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    LRP. Utz

    Full Text Available Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host, and proliferation (zooids/colony rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  3. Attachment of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) to artificial substrates in a natural environment Colonização de substratos artificiais pelo peritríquio epibionte Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia), em um ambiente natural

    OpenAIRE

    LRP. Utz

    2008-01-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found as epibionts, colonizing living organisms, or attached to non-living substrates in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Several species of peritrich epibionts are obligate, which means that they are able to only colonize other organisms, while others are facultative attaching to living or non-living substrates. The peritrich Zoothamnium intermedium is commonly found as epibiont on the copepod species Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis in Chesa...

  4. Attachment of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia to artificial substrates in a natural environment Colonização de substratos artificiais pelo peritríquio epibionte Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, em um ambiente natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRP. Utz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peritrich ciliates are commonly found as epibionts, colonizing living organisms, or attached to non-living substrates in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Several species of peritrich epibionts are obligate, which means that they are able to only colonize other organisms, while others are facultative attaching to living or non-living substrates. The peritrich Zoothamnium intermedium is commonly found as epibiont on the copepod species Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Previous studies demonstrated that Z. intermedium is not able to attach to non-living substrates in the laboratory; with free-swimming stages (telotrochs dying when living substrates are not available for colonization. The present study investigated the ability of Z. intermdium to colonize artificial substrates in the field. Observations were carried out while the peritrich ciliate was colonizing copepods in Rhode River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay. Results demonstrated that four species of Zoothamnium were recovered from artificial substrates, but none of them was Z. intermedium. At the same time, Z. intermedium was colonizing adults and copepodites of E. affinis and A. tonsa during the whole study period. These results, in addition to laboratory observations, suggest that Z. intermedium is an obligate epibiont.Ciliados peritríquios são normalmente encontrados como epibiontes, colonizando substratos vivos, ou em substratos inanimados em ambientes de água doce, estuarinos e marinhos. Muitas espécies de peritríquios epibiontes podem ser consideradas obrigatórias quando estão aptas a colonizar apenas substratos vivos, ou facultativos quando conseguem colonizar substratos vivos ou inanimados. A espécie de ciliado peritríquio Zoothamnium intermedium é encontrada colonizando os copépodos Acartia tonsa e Eurytemora affinis na Chesapeake Bay, EUA. Estudos preliminares demonstraram que Z. intermedium não consegue colonizar substratos

  5. Sulfide assimilation by ectosymbionts of the sessile ciliate, Zoothamnium niveum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røy, Hans; Vopel, Kay; Huettel, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the constraints on sulfide uptake by bacterial ectosymbionts on the marine peritrich ciliate Zoothamnium niveum by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Protists with symbionts were collected on large blocks of mangrove-peat. The blocks were placed in a flow cell wi...

  6. Two New Species of Zoothamnium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) from Korea, with New Observations of Z. parahentscheli Sun et al., 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Daode; Kim, Ji Hye; Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Sun, Ping; Li, Liqiong; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Three peritrichous ciliates, Zoothamnium arcuatum n. sp., Z. grossi n. sp., and Z. parahentscheli Sun et al., 2009, were collected from an estuary of the Taehwagang River, Korea. All these species were investigated based on live observations and silver staining, and their small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was also sequenced. Zoothamnium arcuatum can be identified by a goblet-shaped colony, double-layered peristomial lip, and abstomally shortened row 3 of infundibular polykinety 3 (P3). Zoothamnium grossi is morphologically characterized by an alternately branched stalk with the lowest secondary stalk diverging from the main part of colony, asymmetrically bell-shaped zooids, and three short, parallel ciliary rows in P3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three Zoothamnium species described in this paper clustered with other members of the family Zoothamniidae, as expected. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Proteomics characterization of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinopyrum intermedium, commonly known as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), is a perennial crop with favorable agronomic characteristics and nutritional benefits. IWG lines are deficient in high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG), responsible for dough strength. A detailed characterization of IWG flou...

  8. Oecologie en verspreiding van Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Dederen, L.H.T.; Weeda, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Vaccinium X intermedium Ruthe is a natural hybrid of V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea. The hybrid shows conspicuous intermediacy between both parent species. In Great Britain the hybrid could only be resynthesized when V. myrtillus was the female parent. The plant shows partial sterility and a

  9. Efficiency of Citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt extracts to control Zoothamnium sp. in black tiger shrimp (PL15 stage

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    Areechon, N.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on the efficiency of Citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt extracts to control Zoothamnium sp. was conducted in the laboratory at Kasetsart University. Comparison between two methods of extractor, water distillation and soxhlet extractor, revealed that soxhlet extractor was about 225 times more efficient than the water distillation, based on the concentration that could give 100% mortality of Zoothamnium sp. in 24 hours (0.008 g/l from soxhlet extractor and 1.8 g/l from water distillation. The LC50 of PL15 shrimp in 24 hours of this extract from water distillation was 21.05 g/l while from soxhlet extractor was 1.88 g/l. Those concentrations, 0.008 g/l from soxhlet extractor and 1.8 g/l from water distillation did not harmful to the PL15 shrimp measured by dissolved oxygen and pH of water.

  10. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

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    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  11. Embryology and cytogenetics of Eupatorium pauciflorum and E. intermedium (Compositae

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    Maristela Sanches Bertasso-Borges

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryology of Eupatorium pauciflorum indicates diplospory with autonomous endosperm development. The embryo sac is of the polygonum type and the polar nuclei mostly fuse before anthesis. The occurrence of precocious embryo and endosperm development in unopened florets, and the total absence of germinated pollen grains on exposed stigmas, as well as the absence of pollen tubes in the ovules, indicate agamospermy to be obligate and embryo and endosperm development autonomous. The study of microsporogenesis revealed the total absence of pollen production in consequence of microsporocyte degeneration before the onset of meiosis, which resulted in absolute male sterility. E. pauciflorum was demonstrated to be an autotriploid with a basic set of 10 chromosomes, each represented three times. Embryological studies showed E. intermedium to undergo reductive meiosis with tetrad formation during megasporogenesis, followed by monosporic embryo sac development of the polygonum type. The polar nuclei fuse before anthesis. The egg cell invariably attains anthesis still undivided, without precocious embryony. Meiosis of microsporogenesis results in the regular formation of 10 bivalents and the subsequent stages of microsporogenesis are normal. Stigmatic loads indicate the regular occurrence of pollination with viable, functional grains. Karyotypic studies revealed a complement of 20 chromosomes separable into 10 pairs. It is concluded that E. pauciflorum, as represented by the material studied, is apomictic while E. intermedium is sexual.Os estudos embriológicos indicam que Eupatorium pauciflorum apresenta diplosporia com desenvolvimento autônomo do endosperma. O saco embrionário é do tipo polygonum e os núcleos polares se fundem antes da antese. A ocorrência de embrionia precoce e desenvolvimento do endosperma em flores fechadas, e a total ausência de grãos de pólen germinados em estigmas expostos, bem como a ausência de tubos polínicos nos

  12. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  13. Microdissection and Chromosome Painting of the Alien Chromosome in an Addition Line of Wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium

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    Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th . intermedium . Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th . intermedium , 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th . intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a Js genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (Js, J and St) in Th . intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th . bessarabicum . Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the Js genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th . intermedium . Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  14. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

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    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889

  15. PRIMER REGISTRO DE EPIBIONTES EN EJEMPLARES JUVENILES DE CROCODYLUS ACUTUS EN EL MEDIO SILVESTRE

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    CUPUL-MAGAÑA FABIO GERMÁN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por vez primera la presencia de cuatro géneros de diatomeas (Amphora, Cymbella, Navicula y Nitzschia, un alga azul-verde del género Trichodesmium y colonias de protozoarios ciliados del género Epistylis, como epibiontes de cocodrilos de río juveniles (Crocodylus acutus. Los epibiontes se encontraron en la región ventral del cuerpo de cocodrilos juveniles, menores de 75 cm de largo, capturados en el estero Boca Negra, Jalisco, México.

  16. Primer registro de epibiontes en ejemplares juveniles de crocodylus acutus en el medio silvestre

    OpenAIRE

    CUPUL-MAGAÑA, FABIO GERMÁN; CORTÉS-LARA, MARÍA DEL CARMÉN

    2012-01-01

    Se registra por vez primera la presencia de cuatro géneros de diatomeas (Amphora, Cymbella, Navicula y Nitzschia), un alga azul-verde del género Trichodesmium y colonias de protozoarios ciliados del género Epistylis, como epibiontes de cocodrilos de río juveniles (Crocodylus acutus). Los epibiontes se encontraron en la región ventral del cuerpo de cocodrilos juveniles, menores de 75 cm de largo, capturados en el estero Boca Negra, Jalisco, México.

  17. [Ochrobactrum intermedium ANKI, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to decolorize azobenzene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkerov-Kouzova, N D

    2007-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical properties of the nitrogen-fixing strain Ochrobactrum intermedium ANKI, intensely growing on media with azo compounds, and its resistance to various common xenobiotics were investigated. The kinetics of azobenzene conversion by O. intermedium ANKI was studied. Under cometabolism conditions, up to 40 mg of azobenzene per liter of medium were decolorized within one week. It was shown that the strain possessed molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase activity, and its nitrogenase system was sensitive to oxygen and fixed nitrogen in the medium.

  18. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochrobactrum intermedium Strain SA148, a Plant Growth-Promoting Desert Rhizobacterium

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-03-03

    Ochrobactrum intermedium strain SA148 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from sandy soil in the Jizan area of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 4.9-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting different pathways characteristic of plant growth promotion activity and environmental adaptation of SA148.

  20. Epibiont relationships on hyolithids demonstrated by Ordovician trepostomes (Bryozoa) and Devonian tabulates (Anthozoa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galle, Arnošt; Parsley, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2005), s. 125-138 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/02/1576 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : epibionts * obligate and facultative symbiosis * mutualism * Ordovician * Devonian * Hyolithida * Tabulata * Bryozoa Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/contents/2005/vol80no2/125_galle.pdf

  1. Settlement pattern of Posidonia oceanica epibionts along a gradient of ocean acidification: an approach with mimics

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    L. DONNARUMMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ocean acidification (OA on the colonization/settlement pattern of the epibiont community of the leaves and rhizomesof the Mediterranean seagrass,Posidoniaoceanica, have been studied at volcanic CO2vents off Ischia (Italy, using “mimics”as artificial substrates. The experiments were conducted in shallowPosidoniastands (2-3 m depth, in three stations on the northand three on the south sides of the study area, distributed along a pH gradient. At each station, 4 rhizome mimics and 6 artificialleaves were collected every three months (Sept 2009-Sept 2010. The epibionts on both leaf and rhizome mimics showed clearchanges along the pH gradient; coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates (bryozoans, serpulid polychaetes and barnacles weredominant at control stations but progressively disappeared at the most acidified stations. In these extremely low pH sites theassemblage was dominated by filamentous algae and non calcareous taxa such as hydroids and tunicates. Settlement pattern onthe artificial leaves and rhizome mimics over time showed a consistent distribution pattern along the pH gradient and highlightedthe peak of recruitment of the various organisms in different periods according to their life history.Posidoniamimics at theacidified station showed a poor and very simplified assemblage where calcifying epibionts seemed less competitive for space. Thisprofound difference in epiphyte communities in low pH conditions suggests cascading effects on the food web of the meadow and,consequently, on the functioning of the system

  2. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta epibiontes de Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae en el Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela

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    Ildefonso Liñero Arana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron poliquetos epibiontes de ostiones (Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 recolectados entre 10 y 30 m de profundidad en el Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela, empleando equipo de buceo autónomo. Se analizaron 32 ostiones, identificándose 43 especies de poliquetos; 51.3% del Atlántico, 28.2% cosmopolitas, 17.9% anfiamericanas y 2.6% "disyuntas".Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta epibiont on Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae from Mochima National Park, Venezuela. The polychaetes epibiontic on the mollusk Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 were extracted from mollusks hand-collected at a depth of 10-30 m in Mochima National Park, Venezuela (10º21’00" N - 63º23’36" W, using scuba diving gear. Forty-three polychaete species were identified on the 32 bivalve specimens analyzed. The Serpulidae included 17 especies, Eunicidae six and Terebellidae four species. The most abundant species were Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863, Pileolaria militaris Claparède, 1868 (Serpulidae, and Notaulax nudicollis Krøyer, 1856 (Sabellidae. Their geographic affinitie were: 51.3% Atlantic, 28.2% widely distributed, 17.9% Amphiamericans, and 2.6% have a disjunct distribution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 765-772. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  3. On the genome constitution and evolution of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium: Poaceae, Triticeae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David; Paštová, Ladislava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 127 (2011), s. 1-17 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P312; GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Thinopyrum intermedium * polyplidization * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.521, year: 2011

  4. Response of Posidonia oceanica seagrass and its epibiont communities to ocean acidification.

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    Katja Guilini

    Full Text Available The unprecedented rate of CO2 increase in our atmosphere and subsequent ocean acidification (OA threatens coastal ecosystems. To forecast the functioning of coastal seagrass ecosystems in acidified oceans, more knowledge on the long-term adaptive capacities of seagrass species and their epibionts is needed. Therefore we studied morphological characteristics of Posidonia oceanica and the structure of its epibiont communities at a Mediterranean volcanic CO2 vent off Panarea Island (Italy and performed a laboratory experiment to test the effect of OA on P. oceanica photosynthesis and its potential buffering capacity. At the study site east of Basiluzzo Islet, venting of CO2 gas was controlled by tides, resulting in an average pH difference of 0.1 between the vent and reference site. P. oceanica shoot and leaf density was unaffected by these levels of OA, although shorter leaves at the vent site suggest increased susceptibility to erosion, potentially by herbivores. The community of sessile epibionts differed in composition and was characterized by a higher species richness at the vent site, though net epiphytic calcium carbonate concentration was similar. These findings suggest a higher ecosystem complexity at the vent site, which may have facilitated the higher diversity of copepods in the otherwise unaffected motile epibiont community. In the laboratory experiment, P. oceanica photosynthesis increased with decreasing pHT (7.6, 6.6, 5.5, which induced an elevated pH at the leaf surfaces of up to 0.5 units compared to the ambient seawater pHT of 6.6. This suggests a temporary pH buffering in the diffusive boundary layer of leaves, which could be favorable for epibiont organisms. The results of this multispecies study contribute to understanding community-level responses and underlying processes in long-term acidified conditions. Increased replication and monitoring of physico-chemical parameters on an annual scale are, however, recommended to

  5. Introduction of Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum chromosomes to wheat by trigeneric hybridization involving Triticum, Secale and Thinopyrum genera.

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    Li, Jianbo; Lang, Tao; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhihui; Wang, Hongjin; Li, Guangrong; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular markers have confirmed that several chromosomes from Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum have been added to a wheat background, which originated from a cross between a wheat- Thinopyrum partial amphiploid and triticale. The lines displayed blue grains and resistance to wheat stripe rust. Thinopyrum intermedium has been used as a valuable resource for improving the disease resistance and yield potential of wheat. With the aim to transfer novel genetic variation from Th. intermedium species for sustainable wheat breeding, a new trigeneric hybrid was produced by crossing an octoploid wheat-Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum partial amphiploid with hexaploid triticale. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that Thinopyrum chromosomes were transmitted preferably and the number of rye chromosomes tended to decrease gradually in the selfed derivatives of the trigeneric hybrids. Four stable wheat-Th. intermedium chromosome substitution, addition and translocation lines were selected, and a 2J S addition line, two substitution lines of 4J S (4B) and 4J(4B), and a small 4J.4B translocation line were identified by FISH and molecular markers. It was revealed that the gene(s) responsible for blue grains may located on the FL0.60-1.00 of long arm of Th. intermedium-derived 4J chromosome. Disease resistance screenings indicated that chromosomes 4J S and 2J S appear to enhance the resistance to stripe rust in the adult plant stage. The new germplasm with Th. intermedium introgression shows promise for utilization of Thinopyrum chromosome segments in future wheat improvement.

  6. Cytogenetic study and stripe rust response of the derivatives from a wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium - Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Tang, Lin; Li, Dai-Yan; Diao, Cheng-Dou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Zeng, Jian; Sha, Li-Na; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2017-05-01

    To transfer multiple desirable alien genes into common wheat, we previously reported a new trigeneric hybrid synthesized by crossing a wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid with wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid. Here, the meiotic behavior, chromosome constitution, and stripe rust resistance of F 5 derivatives from the wheat - Th. intermedium - P. huashanica trigeneric hybrid were studied. Cytological analysis indicated the F 5 progenies had chromosome numbers of 42-50 (average 44.96). The mean meiotic configuration was 1.28 univalents, 21.74 bivalents, 0.04 trivalents, and 0.02 tetravalents per pollen mother cell. In 2n = 42 lines, the average pairing configuration was 0.05 I + 19.91 II (ring) + 1.06 II (rod) + 0.003 IV, suggesting these lines were cytologically stable. Most lines with 2n = 43, 44, 46, 48, or 50, bearing a high frequency of univalents or multivalents, showed abnormal meiotic behavior. Genomic in situ hybridization karyotyping results revealed that 25 lines contained 1-7 Th. intermedium chromosomes, but no P. huashanica chromosomes were found among the 27 self-pollinated progenies. At meiosis, univalents (1-5) possessing Th. intermedium hybridization signals were detected in 19 lines. Bivalents (1-3) expressing fluorescence signals were observed in 12 lines. Importantly, 21 lines harbored wheat - Th. intermedium chromosomal translocations with various alien translocation types. Additionally, two homozygous lines, K13-668-10 and K13-682-12, possessed a pair of wheat - Th. intermedium small fragmental translocations. Compared with the recurrent parent Zhong 3, most lines showed high resistance to the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) pathogens prevalent in China, including race V26/Gui22. This paper reports a highly efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Th. intermedium by trigeneric hybridization. These lines might be potentially valuable germplasm resources for further

  7. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuanliang; Bai, Lili; Fu, Shulan; Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R-C; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a J(s) genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (J(s) , J and St) in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the J(s) genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  8. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanliang Deng

    Full Text Available In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome and pDbH12 (a J(s genome specific probe as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (J(s , J and St in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the J(s genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of

  9. Associational resistance of fouled blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) against starfish (Asterias rubens) predation: relative importance of structural and chemical properties of the epibionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Jürgen; Wahl, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Several epibiotic species reduce starfish (Asterias rubens) preference for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the Baltic. The aim of this study was to reveal whether this associational resistance was caused by structural or chemical aspects of the different epibionts. To assess structural epibiont effects, an in situ experiment was conducted with unfouled mussels and mussels equipped with artificial epibionts (`dummies') exposed to natural predation by A. rubens. The chemically inert dummies closely matched the structural properties of the locally common epibionts Balanus improvisus (barnacle), Ceramium strictum (red alga), Halichondria panicea (sponge), and Laomedea flexuosa (hydrozoan). Starfish fed indiscriminately in all treatments. Chemical effects of epibionts on the attractiveness of mussels for A. rubens were investigated by incorporating freeze-dried epibionts or mussel tissue into Phytagel pellets at natural concentrations. Starfish were allowed to choose among these structurally similar but chemically different prey items in an in vitro experiment. The predators exhibited significant preferences among the food pellets, which closely matched their preferences for corresponding natural mussel-epibiont associations. Thus, chemical aspects of epibionts appear to play a larger role in this associational resistance than do structural aspects. Implications of these indirect interactions for benthic communities are discussed.

  10. New records of epibiont Ciliates (Ciliophora) from Indian coast with descriptions of six new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Fernandez-Leborans, G.; Ramteke, D.; Ingole, B.S.

    . dovgali, C. mannaerensis et C. clampi sont décrites comme espèces nouvelles le long de la Côte Indienne. Acineta truncata Collin, 1909  et A. tuberosa Ehrenberg, 1834 sont rapportés pour la premère fois le long de la Côte Indienne.   Keywords: Epibiont... of the British museum (Natural History) Zoology, 48: 75-129. Daday J. 1911. Deux infusoires nouveaux de la región Antarctique. Allattani Közlemenyek, Budapest 10: 97-99, 114-115. Dones C. 1946. Zwei neue Cothurnien. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabernes Selskabs...

  11. Ecosistemas errantes: Epibiontes como indicadores biogeográficos de tortugas marinas de Canarias

    OpenAIRE

    Liria-Loza, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Ecología y gestión de recursos vivos marinos [ES] Las características morfológicas de las tortugas marinas las convierten auténticas bases flotantes para determinadas especies marinas que buscan zonas de asentamiento para desarrollar parte o todo de su ciclo de vida, generando un auténtico ecosistema que se desplaza en el océano. El presente trabajo analiza la interacción de las 29 especies epibiontes observadas en tortugas Caretta caretta de Canarias, para profundiz...

  12. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Petkeviciute

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰, and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes. Expression of the genes ferritin, Hsp90 and Hsp70 were analyzed in adult copepods by conducting reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. The expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was significantly up-regulated after heat shock and the expression levels were higher in copepods cultivated at 10‰ salinity seawater than in copepods cultivated at 32‰. Significant up-regulation of ferritin (3.3 fold increase was observed as a response to infestation with the epibiotic euglenid Colacium vesiculosum. Results suggest that (i A. tonsa responds more pronounced to thermal shock when cultivated in low salinity seawater (10‰ as compared to optimal salinity seawater (32‰ and (ii epibiont infestation does cause a measureable physiological response in the host.

  13. Immunological features of LPS from Ochrobactrum intermedium on sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2014-10-01

    The effects of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ochrobactrum intermedium in sheep with fasciolosis was reported previously, resulting in lower fecal egg counts and fluke burden. In the current study, we analyzed its immunological effects in two groups of sheep, treated (T) and controls (C). Fasciolosis induces a T helper (Th) type-2 response, characterized by IL-4 and IL-10 production; however, at the beginning of the infection, the IFN-γ production predominates (Th type-1 response). Although we did not find differences in IL-4 production or in the expression level of this gene in the hepatic lymph nodes, the expression level of IL-10 was higher (P < 0.05) in the T group at 4 wpi. The IFN-γ production was higher (P < 0.01) at 12 wpi as well as its level of expression at 4 wpi (P < 0.05) in the T group. We found a higher expression level of TGF-β at 4 wpi in the T group (P < 0.05), associated with the previous report of thicker fibrous tracks in a treated group. Immunoglobulin G1, related with a Th type-2 response, was higher (P < 0.01) in the T group at 4 and 12 wpi. In conclusion, the effects of LPS from O. intermedium could have resulted from a predominant Th type-2 immune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ochrobactrum intermedium on sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Valcárcel-Sancho, F; González-Guirado, A M; de Castro, I Casanova-García; Nieto-Martínez, J M; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2013-08-01

    The effects of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ochrobactrum intermedium was evaluated in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Animals were divided into four groups: two treated with the LPS (T1/T2) and two controls (C1/C2). T1/C1 were slaughtered at 30 days postinfection (dpi) and T2/C2 at 85 dpi. Body weight and body condition were found higher in T1 and T2 than in controls, although differences were not significant. Treated sheep showed lower cumulative fecal egg count than controls (p hepatic enzymes, although gamma-glutamyl transferase and aspartate aminotransferase values were higher in C2, and alanine aminotransferase was higher in T2. At necropsy, the mean weight of liver, fibrosis in portal triads, and ganglion size were similar in all groups. The number and size of flukes was greater in C2 than in T2 (p < 0.05). The histological examinations revealed a higher degree of parenchymatous fibrosis in T2 compared to C2 (p < 0.05). The administration of LPS from O. intermedium increased the nonspecific resistance against F. hepatica in experimentally infected sheep.

  15. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  16. Cloning of resistance gene analogs located on the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Mei; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2005-09-01

    Homology-based gene/gene-analog cloning method has been extensively applied in isolation of RGAs (resistance gene analogs) in various plant species. However, serious interference of sequences on homoeologous chromosomes in polyploidy species usually occurred when cloning RGAs in a specific chromosome. In this research, the techniques of chromosome microdissection combined with homology-based cloning were used to clone RGAs from a specific chromosome of Wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition line TAi-27, which was derived from common wheat and Thinopyrum intermedium with a pair of chromosomes from Th. intermedium. The alien chromosomes carry genes for resistance to BYDV. The alien chromosome in TAi-27 was isolated by a glass needle and digested with proteinase K. The DNA of the alien chromosome was amplified by two rounds of Sau3A linker adaptor-mediated PCR. RGAs were amplified by PCR with the degenerated primers designed based on conserved domains of published resistance genes (R genes) by using the alien chromosome DNA, genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 (a parent of TAi-27) as templates. A total of seven RGAs were obtained and sequenced. Of which, a constitutively expressed single-copy NBS-LRR type RGA ACR 3 was amplified from the dissected alien chromosome of TAi-27, TcDR 2 and TcDR 3 were from cDNA of Th. intermedium, AcDR 3 was from cDNA of TAi-27, FcDR 2 was from cDNA of 3B-2, AR 2 was from genomic DNA of TAi-27 and TR 2 was from genomic DNA of Th. intermedium. Sequence homology analyses showed that the above RGAs were highly homologous with known resistance genes or resistance gene analogs and belonged to NBS-LRR type of R genes. ACR 3 was recovered by PCR from genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium and TAi-27, but not from 3B-2. Southern hybridization using the digested genomic DNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 as the template and ACR 3 as the probe showed that there is only one copy of ACR 3 in the genome of Th. intermedium and TAi

  17. Influence of different types of sessile epibionts on the community structure of mobile invertebrates in an eelgrass bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Momota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina beds are known to have high ecological and economical values within coastal ecosystems of the temperate northern hemisphere although their biodiversity and functions varied greatly from sites to sites. The variation in the biomass, abundance and diversity of mobile invertebrates in eelgrass beds has been examined in relation to various abiotic and biotic factors, such as water temperature, salinity, eelgrass biomass and epiphytic microalgae presence. However, the importance of sessile epibionts, such as macroalgae and calcific spirorbid polychaetes attached to eelgrass blades, has not been the focus of previous studies. In the present study, we examined the effects of three different sessile epibionts, namely, branched red algae, filamentous green algae, and calcific spirorbid polychaetes, on the biomass and diversity of mobile invertebrates in the eelgrass beds of Akkeshi in northeastern Japan. The relationships between seven abiotic and biotic variables including three types of epibionts, and biomass of 11 dominant mobile invertebrate species as well as three community-level variables (the total biomass of mobile invertebrates, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener species diversity index were analyzed using a linear mixed model. Our results show that branched red algae are correlated with Pontogeneia rostrata, Lacuna spp., Nereis sp., Syllis sp. and the total biomass of mobile invertebrates, filamentous green algae with P. rostrata, Ansola angustata and the species diversity of mobile invertebrates, and spirorbid polychaetes with A. angustata, Lacuna spp., Siphonacmea oblongata, Syllis sp., the species richness and diversity of mobile invertebrates. The effect size of the epibionts was similar or even higher than that of abiotic and eelgrass factors on the total biomass of mobile invertebrates, species richness, species diversity and most of dominant invertebrate populations across the taxonomic groups. Consequently

  18. Analysis of epibiont data in relation with the Debilitated Turtle Syndrome of sea turtles in Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea from Concepción coast, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Fernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epibionts on the surface of the skin and shell of a specimen of Chelonia mydas and three Lepidochelys olivacea found floating on the coast of Concepción, Chile, between June 2010 and December 2012, were analyzed. These epibionts were analyzed during the clinical inspection and the tissue changes related to its settlement, with filamentous algae around, were observed. Subsequently, the epibionts were identified by morphological observation. The knowledge about theses epibionts in Chile is reviewed and the potential occurrence of Debilitated Turtle Syndrome (DTS in these turtles is discussed. The presence of sea turtles in the Chilean coast is considered a casual event, so there is little information on this issue. We propose it is necessary to carry out more studies on the association between turtles and epibionts because their identification, colonizing reptiles’ surface may give relevant information to a better understanding of different diseases, including DTS, that affect these marine reptiles and facilitates the development of strategies intended to recover their populations.

  19. Intoxicação natural por Cestrum intermedium em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Spontaneous poisoning by Cestrum intermedium in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Em junho de 2007, uma mortalidade de bovinos com sinais clínicos e lesões de insuficiência hepática aguda em uma propriedade, na região da encosta da serra do Rio Grande do Sul, foi atribuída ao consumo de Cestrum intermedium. De um total de 17 bovinos, dois morreram com curso clínico inferior a 12 horas, apresentando tremores musculares, andar cambaleante, reações agressivas, decúbito lateral e morte. À necropsia, o fígado estava moderadamente aumentado de volume e com acentuação do padrão lobular. Histologicamente, o fígado apresentava necrose de coagulação centrolobular, difusa, aguda e acentuada. As alterações patológicas associadas à presença e a evidência de consumo da planta pelos bovinos permitiram o diagnóstico.In June of 2007, mortality in cattle with clinical signs and lesions of acute hepatic insufficiency on a farm located in the hillside of Rio Grande do Sul mountain range was attributed to Cestrum intermedium consumption. From 17 bovines, two died up to 12 hours presenting clinical signs such as muscular tremors, incoordination, aggressiveness, lateral recumbence and death. Macroscopic lesions were found primary in the liver and were characterized by a slightly increased volume and diffuse accentuation of the lobules. Microscopically, the liver showed diffuse and accentuated centrilobular coagulative necrosis. The presence of Cestrum intermedium plants that was being ingested by the bovine associated with the hepatic lesions was decisive for the diagnosis.

  20. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  1. Paleoecology and environments of bioestromes and path reefs , its ostreid , enhdolith and epibionts ( Camacho formation - middle upper Miocene; Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprechmann, P.; Verde, M.; Martinez, S.; Gaucher, C.

    1998-01-01

    A special lithofacies of the Camacho formation (Middle-Upper Miocene, Uruguay), exposed at Puerto Arazati, is studied from a sedimentologic and paleontologic point of view. Ostreid biostromes and patch reefs show different kinds of growings patterns. Two kinds of ostreid concentration s, biogenic and sedimentologic were distinguished in Puerto Arazati based on taphonomic evidence. Endolith association and epibionts from biostrome and patch reef hardgrounds were also analysed in Puerto Arazati. Both sedimentologic and paleontologic evidence indicates a free of sediment, shallow water depositional environment, in the photic zone. Complementary data about endoliths from other outcrops of the Camacho Formation are included (author)

  2. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  3. Identification and genetic mapping of the putative Thinopyrum intermedium-derived dominant powdery mildew resistance gene PmL962 on wheat chromosome arm 2BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive disease affecting the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Powdery mildew resistance was putatively transferred from Thinopyrum intermedium to the common wheat line L962, which conferred resistance to multiple Ch...

  4. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  5. Crustáceos ectoparásitos y epibiontes de ballenas jorobadas, Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetacea: Balaenopteridae) en el Pacífico colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Avila Jimenez, Isabel Cristina; Cuellar Reina, Luis Miguel; Cantera Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We recorded three species of crustacean ectoparasites and epibionts in two calves and four adults of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) that in the breeding season 2010 visited PNN Gorgona and Bahía Málaga, Colombian Pacific: the amphipod Cyamus boopis and the barnacles Coronula diadema and Conchoderma auritum. These crustaceans adhere to calves and adults and are present in the caudal fin, dorsal fin, back of the body (near the blowhole) and ventral side of the lower jaw. Ectoparasites ...

  6. Epibiont occurrence on gastropod shells used by the hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Anomura: Diogenidae on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Ayres-Peres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastropod shells occupied by hermit crabs are an important attachment substrate for epifauna, and these shells are often damaged. The present study aimed to characterize the epibionts and extent of damage for gastropod shells occupied by the hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901. Samples were collected monthly over a period of one year (from July 2002 through June 2003, in the Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba regions, on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The sampling was performed using a fishing boat equipped with double-rig nets. The shells were identified and weighed. Loxopagurus loxochelis occupied 14 gastropod shell species in Caraguatatuba and five in Ubatuba. In the two areas, approximately 55% of these gastropod shells bore epibionts, and a significantly large number (p < 0.05 showed no damage. The presence of epibionts did not significantly change the mean weight of shells. This cover may provide camouflage to the animals when they are associated with the sandy substrate, which possibly affects the occupancy of the shells by the hermit crabs. Undamaged shells may reflect a high availability of shells in good condition in the environment.

  7. Molecular cytological characterization of two novel durum--Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploids with resistance to leaf rust, stem rust and Fusarium head blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J; Cao, W; Fedak, G; Sun, S; McCallum, B; Fetch, T; Xue, A; Zhou, Y

    2013-02-01

    Thinopyrum intermedium, a wild relative of wheat, is an excellent source of disease resistance. Two novel partial amphiploids, 08-47-50 and 08-53-55 (2n = 6x = 42), were developed from wide crosses between durum wheat and Th. intermedium. Meiotic analysis showed that pollen mother cells of the two partial amphiploids formed an average 20.49 bivalents for 08-47-50 and 20.67 bivalents for 08-53-55, indicating that they are basically cytologically stable. GISH analysis revealed that the two partial amphiploids carried different chromosome compositions. 08-47-50 had fourteen chromosomes from Th. intermedium and its alien chromosomes included six St-, four E(e) - and four E(e)-St translocated chromosomes, whereas 08-53-55 had four St- and ten E(e)-St translocated chromosomes. Fungal disease evaluation indicated that both partial amphiploids had a high level of resistance to FHB, leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two novel partial amphiploids with multiple disease resistance could be used as a new source of multiple disease resistance in bread wheat and durum wheat breeding programs. © 2013 The Authors.

  8. Diatoms and Other Epibionts Associated with Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) Sea Turtles from the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Santoro, Mario; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo; De Stefano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea turtles have long been familiar and even iconic to marine biologists, many aspects of their ecology remain unaddressed. The present study is the first of the epizoic diatom community covering the olive ridley turtle's (Lepidochelys olivacea) carapace and the first describing diatoms living on sea turtles in general, with the primary objective of providing detailed information on turtle epibiotic associations. Samples of turtle carapace including the associated diatom biofilm and epizoic macro-fauna were collected from Ostional beach (9° 59´ 23.7´´ N 85° 41´ 52.6´´ W), Costa Rica, during the arribada event in October 2013. A complex diatom community was present in every sample. In total, 11 macro-faunal and 21 diatom taxa were recorded. Amongst diatoms, the most numerous were erect (Achnanthes spp., Tripterion spp.) and motile (Haslea sp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Proschkinia sp.) forms, followed by adnate Amphora spp., while the most common macro-faunal species was Stomatolepas elegans (Cirripedia). Diatom densities ranged from 8179 ± 750 to 27685 ± 4885 cells mm-2. Epizoic microalgae were either partly immersed or entirely encapsulated within an exopolymeric coat. The relatively low diatom species number, stable species composition and low inter-sample dissimilarities (14.4% on average) may indicate a mutualistic relationship between the epibiont and the basibiont. Dispersal of sea turtle diatoms is probably highly restricted and similar studies will help to understand both diatom diversity, evolution and biogeography, and sea turtle ecology and foraging strategies.

  9. Diatoms and Other Epibionts Associated with Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea Sea Turtles from the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Majewska

    Full Text Available Although the sea turtles have long been familiar and even iconic to marine biologists, many aspects of their ecology remain unaddressed. The present study is the first of the epizoic diatom community covering the olive ridley turtle's (Lepidochelys olivacea carapace and the first describing diatoms living on sea turtles in general, with the primary objective of providing detailed information on turtle epibiotic associations. Samples of turtle carapace including the associated diatom biofilm and epizoic macro-fauna were collected from Ostional beach (9° 59´ 23.7´´ N 85° 41´ 52.6´´ W, Costa Rica, during the arribada event in October 2013. A complex diatom community was present in every sample. In total, 11 macro-faunal and 21 diatom taxa were recorded. Amongst diatoms, the most numerous were erect (Achnanthes spp., Tripterion spp. and motile (Haslea sp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Proschkinia sp. forms, followed by adnate Amphora spp., while the most common macro-faunal species was Stomatolepas elegans (Cirripedia. Diatom densities ranged from 8179 ± 750 to 27685 ± 4885 cells mm-2. Epizoic microalgae were either partly immersed or entirely encapsulated within an exopolymeric coat. The relatively low diatom species number, stable species composition and low inter-sample dissimilarities (14.4% on average may indicate a mutualistic relationship between the epibiont and the basibiont. Dispersal of sea turtle diatoms is probably highly restricted and similar studies will help to understand both diatom diversity, evolution and biogeography, and sea turtle ecology and foraging strategies.

  10. Diatoms and Other Epibionts Associated with Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) Sea Turtles from the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Santoro, Mario; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo; De Stefano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea turtles have long been familiar and even iconic to marine biologists, many aspects of their ecology remain unaddressed. The present study is the first of the epizoic diatom community covering the olive ridley turtle’s (Lepidochelys olivacea) carapace and the first describing diatoms living on sea turtles in general, with the primary objective of providing detailed information on turtle epibiotic associations. Samples of turtle carapace including the associated diatom biofilm and epizoic macro-fauna were collected from Ostional beach (9° 59´ 23.7´´ N 85° 41´ 52.6´´ W), Costa Rica, during the arribada event in October 2013. A complex diatom community was present in every sample. In total, 11 macro-faunal and 21 diatom taxa were recorded. Amongst diatoms, the most numerous were erect (Achnanthes spp., Tripterion spp.) and motile (Haslea sp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Proschkinia sp.) forms, followed by adnate Amphora spp., while the most common macro-faunal species was Stomatolepas elegans (Cirripedia). Diatom densities ranged from 8179 ± 750 to 27685 ± 4885 cells mm-2. Epizoic microalgae were either partly immersed or entirely encapsulated within an exopolymeric coat. The relatively low diatom species number, stable species composition and low inter-sample dissimilarities (14.4% on average) may indicate a mutualistic relationship between the epibiont and the basibiont. Dispersal of sea turtle diatoms is probably highly restricted and similar studies will help to understand both diatom diversity, evolution and biogeography, and sea turtle ecology and foraging strategies. PMID:26083535

  11. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  12. Turtle cleaners: reef fishes foraging on epibionts of sea turtles in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic, with a summary of this association type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    Full Text Available In the present study we record several instances of reef fish species foraging on epibionts of sea turtles (cleaning symbiosis at the oceanic islands of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and near a shipwreck, both off the coast of Pernambuco State, northeast Brazil. Nine reef fish species and three turtle species involved in cleaning are herein recorded. Besides our records, a summary of the literature on this association type is presented. Postures adopted by turtles during the interaction are related to the habits of associated fishes. Feeding associations between fishes and turtles seem a localized, albeit common, phenomenon.

  13. Development and characterization of a compensating wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Robertsonian translocation with Sr44 resistance to stem rust (Ug99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxuan; Danilova, Tatiana V; Rouse, Matthew N; Bowden, Robert L; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S; Pumphrey, Michael O

    2013-05-01

    The emergence of the highly virulent Ug99 race complex of the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. One of the effective genes against the Ug99 race complex is Sr44, which was derived from Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth and D.R. Dewey and mapped to the short arm of 7J (designated 7J#1S) present in the noncompensating T7DS-7J#1L∙7J#1S translocation. Noncompensating wheat-alien translocations are known to cause genomic duplications and deficiencies leading to poor agronomic performance, precluding their direct use in wheat improvement. The present study was initiated to produce compensating wheat-Th. intermedium Robertsonian translocations with Sr44 resistance. One compensating RobT was identified consisting of the wheat 7DL arm translocated to the Th. intermedium 7J#1S arm resulting in T7DL∙7J#1S. The T7DL∙7J#1S stock was designated as TA5657. The 7DL∙7J#1S stock carries Sr44 and has resistance to the Ug99 race complex. This compensating RobT with Sr44 resistance may be useful in wheat improvement. In addition, we identified an unnamed stem rust resistance gene located on the 7J#1L arm that confers resistance not only to Ug99, but also to race TRTTF, which is virulent to Sr44. However, the action of the second gene can be modified by the presence of suppressors in the recipient wheat cultivars.

  14. Turtle cleaners: reef fishes foraging on epibionts of sea turtles in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic, with a summary of this association type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we record several instances of reef fish species foraging on epibionts of sea turtles (cleaning symbiosis at the oceanic islands of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and near a shipwreck, both off the coast of Pernambuco State, northeast Brazil. Nine reef fish species and three turtle species involved in cleaning are herein recorded. Besides our records, a summary of the literature on this association type is presented. Postures adopted by turtles during the interaction are related to the habits of associated fishes. Feeding associations between fishes and turtles seem a localized, albeit common, phenomenon.No presente estudo registramos diversos episódios de peixes recifais alimentando-se de epibiontes sobre o corpo de tartarugas marinhas (simbiose de limpeza nas ilhas oceânicas do arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha e próximo a um naufrágio na costa de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Nove espécies de peixes recifais e três espécies de tartarugas envolvidas nas associações são aqui registradas. Além de nossos registros, apresentamos também um resumo da literatura sobre o tema. As posturas adotadas pelas tartarugas durante as interações estão relacionadas com os hábitos dos peixes associados. Associações alimentares entre peixes e tartarugas podem ser consideradas como um fenômeno local, embora comum.

  15. Intoxicação espontânea por Cestrum intermedium em bovinos no Sudoeste do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica T.B. Wouters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos surtos de intoxicação espontânea por Cestrum intermedium em bovinos leiteiros do Município de Salgado Filho, sudoeste do Estado do Paraná, com morte de dezesseis bovinos de um total de 72 de quatro pequenas propriedades. O histórico obtido nessas propriedades incluía curso clínico agudo, com morte em menos de 24 horas. Em todas foram observadas elevada lotação por área com escassa pastagem disponível e grande quantidade de plantas arbustivas identificadas como C. intermedium e com sinais de terem sido consumidas pelos animais. Dois bovinos foram necropsiados e os achados mais importantes foram congestão de mucosas conjuntivais e vulvovestibular; hemorragias e evidenciação do padrão lobular no fígado; hemorragia, congestão e edema pulmonares; congestão esplênica e encefálica, além de hemorragias multifocais no coração. Amostras de tecidos desses bovinos foram avaliadas, com alterações histológicas importantes no fígado, caracterizadas por necrose acentuada de hepatócitos e hemorragia, indicativas de hepatopatia tóxica aguda e, no encéfalo, foram observadas alterações astrocitárias em substância branca de cérebro e cerebelo e na substância cinzenta do cerebelo, caracterizadas por tumefação celular com citoplasma amplo e eosinofílico, núcleo picnótico, ora excêntrico. Essas alterações astrocitárias foram evidenciadas pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ, com imunomarcação fortemente positiva para os anticorpos anti-proteína S100 (anti-S100 e anti-proteína glial fibrilar ácida (anti-GFAP. O trabalho visa enfatizar em lesões encefálicas relacionadas à hepatotoxicidade aguda em bovinos.

  16. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  17. Variación espacio-temporal de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados epibiontes en las raíces del mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae en la laguna costera de La Mancha, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La laguna de La Mancha está conectada al Golfo de México a través de una boca estuarina efímera, una barra arenosa, la cual se abre durante la época de lluvias y se cierra durante el otoño y la temporada de vientos invernales. Cuando la laguna se llena con la entrada de agua proveniente de un arroyo permanente, ubicado en la parte sur, el nivel del agua se incrementa y la barra arenosa se abre, descargando grandes volúmenes de agua hacia el océano y dejando expuesta a la desecación la zona intermareal previamente inundada. En este estudio, se describen las variaciones espacio-temporales de la estructura y composición de la comunidad de epibiontes que vive en la superficie de las raíces del mangle rojo,y su relación con la dinámica hidrológica de la boca estuarina. Se recolectaron cuatro raíces trimestralmente, durante un año, en diez estaciones de muestreo. También se midió la temperatura del agua, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, profundidad y transparencia en cada muestreo. Se determinó la abundancia, la biomasa y la riqueza específica, a lo largo de las raíces en segmentos verticales de 10cm llamados horizontes. Se registraron un total de 59 632 especímenes y una biomasa total de 172g/cm2, y un máximo de once horizontes presentaron al menos una especie de epibionte. Se identificaron dos especies de poliquetos, 12 de moluscos y 14 de crustáceos, siendo Mytilopsis leucophaeata la más abundante, Ficopomatus miamiensis la más común y Crassostrea rhizophorae la de mayor contribución a la biomasa. Se evaluó la eficiencia del muestreo mediante curvas de acumulación de especies, resultando que la eficiencia fue, en general, >90% de la riqueza estimada por modelos asintóticos. La hidrodinámica de la boca estuarina tuvo gran influencia en las condiciones ambientales de la laguna y en las variaciones espacio-temporales de la comunidad de epibiontes: (a cuando la boca estuarina está cerrada son más claros los gradientes

  18. Density, size structure, shell orientation and epibiontic colonization of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis L. 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia in three contrasting habitats in an estuarine area of Sardinia (W Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Addis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution, size structure, shell orientation and valve colonization by epibionts of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis in three continuous but different habitats in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, western Mediterranean. The sampling stations chosen were: an estuarine area (E of coastal salt-marshes characterized by unvegetated sea-bottoms; and two areas in a seagrass meadow characterized by an extensive Posidonia oceanica meadow (Mw and patched mixed meadows of P. oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa (Me. We found significant differences in mean densities among stations and the highest value was found in the estuarine area. Shell orientation showed that there was uniform circular distribution of specimens in the Mw station and a unimodal distribution in the Me and E stations, where specimens were set at 0°N and 10°NNE, which is a pattern related to sea drift. Shell epibiosis displayed differences between habitats. The highest valve colonization was in the estuary, with filamentous dark algae and Ostrea edulis reaching almost 90 percent of shell coverage. This study provides new information on habitat preferences and data for assessing local populations of P. nobilis that is useful for its conservation and improving the knowledge of its ecology.

  19. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    ), lorica width 13 µm (26.4 µm after Schulz 1933), body length 13 µm (33– 55 µm after Curds 1985), body width 11 µm, stalk length 14 µm (22 µm after Schulz 1933). Macronucleus dimensions 8x5 µm. Reproduction by endogenous monogemmic budding. The original...

  20. Systematics, morphology, and paleobiogeography of Lower Devonian tabulate coral epibionts: Hyostragulidae fam. nov. on hyolithids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galle, Arnošt; Plusquellec, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2002), s. 53-64+2 pl. ISSN 0945-7275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013807; GA ČR GA205/98/1347 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Hyostragulidae fam. nov. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. A new early brachyuran (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Middle Jurassic of northwest France, epibionts and ecological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, N.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Hondt, d' J.-L.; Charbonnier, S.

    2015-01-01

    The earliest known crabs are of Early and Middle Jurassic age; in general, they are rare. Here we describe a new species of homolodromioid from the late Bathonian of Sarthe (France), based on a single dorsal carapace, Tanidromites raboeufi n. sp. This specimen has mostly well-preserved cuticle, and

  2. Report of epibiont Thecacineta calix (Ciliophora: Suctorea) on deep sea Desmodora (Nematoda) from the Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Singh, R.; Sautya, S.; Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.

    biodiversity, sediment sampling was performed in the Andaman Back Arc Basin (Figure 1) during the RV ‘Sonne’ cruise (NIO-RVS-II, 17 October to 1 December 2007). Seabed samples were obtained by deploying a TV camera-guided grab (area: 0.6 m 3 ) which consists... essentially of a set of steel jaws with a video camera in the centre. It collected sediment and rock samples and transmitted pictures of the ocean floor to the deck unit. Some specimens of hexactinellid sponge were collected along with the sediment and rock...

  3. New records of Thecacineta cothurnioides and Trematosoma rotunda (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts on nematodes from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    . Journal of the Marine Biological Associa- tion, U.K. 83, 407, 1/1-2. Ingole B., Sivadas S., Nanajkar M., Sautya S. and Nag A. 2008. A comparative study of macroben- thic community from harbours along the central west coast of India. Environmental...- hausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine. SYSTEMATICS Class SUCTOREA Claparede et Lachmann, 1859 Subclass VERMIGENIA Jankowski, 1978 Order SPELAEOPHRYIDA Jankowski, 1978 Family THECACINETIDAE Matthes, 1956 Thecacineta cothurnioides (Collin, 1909...

  4. First report of Limnoricus ponticus Dovgal and Lozowskiy (Ciliophora: Suctorea) as epibionts on Pycnophyes (Kinorhyncha) from the Indian Ocean with key to species of the genus Limnoricus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.

    Limnoricus ponticus Dovgal & Lozowskiy, 2008, trouvé pour la première fois sur des Kinorhynches et dans une nouvelle région (l’Océan Indien). La diagnose du genre Limnoricus Jankowski, 1981 est précisée ainsi que les caractéristiques de l’espèce et les clefs...

  5. Some ciliates from the marine wood boring isopod Sphaeroma treubia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, N.B.

    Seven ectocommensalic ciliates, namely, Vorticella companula, Zoothamnium rigidum, Cothurnia gammari, Legenophrys cochinensis sp. nov., Epistylis gammari, Folliculina producta and Foliculina boltoni, all first-time recorded from the wood...

  6. Epizoic and ectoparasitic protozoans from planktonic copepods of the southwest and southeast coasts of India with the description of a new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    The epizoic and the ectoparasitic protozoans were studied from the planktonic copepods of the southwest and southeast coasts of India. The species of protozoans viz. Trochilioides trivialis Fenchel, Zoothamnium adamsi Stokes; Ephelota gemmipara...

  7. Variación espacio-temporal de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados epibiontes en las raíces del mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) en la laguna costera de La Mancha, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Ruiz; Jorge López-Portillo

    2014-01-01

    La laguna de La Mancha está conectada al Golfo de México a través de una boca estuarina efímera, una barra arenosa, la cual se abre durante la época de lluvias y se cierra durante el otoño y la temporada de vientos invernales. Cuando la laguna se llena con la entrada de agua proveniente de un arroyo permanente, ubicado en la parte sur, el nivel del agua se incrementa y la barra arenosa se abre, descargando grandes volúmenes de agua hacia el océano y dejando expuesta a la desecación la zona in...

  8. Contrasting patterns of evolution of 45S and 5S rDNA families uncover new aspects in the genome constitution of the agronomically important grass Thinopyrum intermedium (Triticeae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David; Baum, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 9 (2013), s. 2065-2086 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04454S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Triticeae * polyploidy * roibosomal DNA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 14.308, year: 2013

  9. ASSERT Progress Report for Contract N00014-85-J-1240 (Dept. of Integrative Biology, Univ. of California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-31

    are women. :1 M. Schabes completed an investigation of the hydrodynamic consequences of epibionts (Didemnum sp.) growing on benthic hosts (Styella...hosts when bearing epibionts in differnt spatial arrangements, and he used these results to predict the probability of dislogement of hosts in a variety...of marine habitats. Schabes’ results will not only permit us to address the basic biological question of the circumstances under which epibionts

  10. Interactions entre les huitres perlières en élevage (Pinctada margaritifera) et les communautés d'épibiontes, et influence de l'association sur les flux de matière dans les lagons de Polynésie française

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, Élise

    2014-01-01

    Reared pearl oysters support a host of epibiont communities (ie biofouling). Biofouling control results in additional costs for farmers (handling, treatment). However, the impact of epibionts on pearl oysters and on environment remains poorly known. Epibiont communities are dominated by filter-feeder organisms, which may compete for food with pearl oysters. Although such competition could alter the commercial production, very few studies have been conducted concerning the trophic interactions...

  11. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Monjit Paul; Mukti Chanda; Joydev Maity; Supriya Sen Gupta; Bidhan Chandra Patra; Gadadhar Dash

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium ...

  12. New St-chromosome-specific molecular markers for identifying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific marker. St-specific markers for wheat–Th. intermedium introgression lines. An introgression line Z148 was selected from the progeny of hybrid between wheat and wheat–Th. intermedium ssp. trichorophrum partial amphiploid (Yang et al. 2006). The chromosome constitution of Z148 was determined using the.

  13. Linking regional variation of epibiotic bacterial diversity and trophic ecology in a new species of Kiwaidae (Decapoda, Anomura) from East Scotia Ridge (Antarctica) hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Heywood, Jane; Sweeting, Christopher J; Wigham, Benjamin D; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Hawkes, Jeff A; Connelly, Douglas P; Pearce, David; Linse, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed the diversity of bacterial epibionts and trophic ecology of a new species of Kiwa yeti crab discovered at two hydrothermal vent fields (E2 and E9) on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and stable isotope analysis. The Kiwa epibiont communities were dominated by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria. About 454 sequencing of the epibionts on 15 individual Kiwa specimen revealed large regional differences between the two hydrothermal vent fields: at E2, the bacterial community on the Kiwa ventral setae was dominated (up to 75%) by Gammaproteobacteria, whereas at E9 Epsilonproteobacteria dominated (up to 98%). Carbon stable isotope analysis of both Kiwa and the bacterial epibionts also showed distinct differences between E2 and E9 in mean and variability. Both stable isotope and sequence data suggest a dominance of different carbon fixation pathways of the epibiont communities at the two vent fields. At E2, epibionts were putatively fixing carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham and reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, while at E9 the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle dominated. Co-varying epibiont diversity and isotope values at E2 and E9 also present further support for the hypothesis that epibionts serve as a food source for Kiwa. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Annelid symbiont assemblage and European stone crayfish − a deterministic relationship with implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Christian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected European stone crayfish, Austropotamobius torrentium, is a host to epibionts inhabiting its exoskeleton. Despite evidence of the close association of these epibionts to the crayfish and the beneficial services provided for the crayfish, the main factors influencing their occurrence, distribution and abundance are still poorly understood. In order to investigate the stone crayfish epibiont community, the ecological requirements of individual species, and aspects of the host-epibiont relationship we collected data at several crayfish populations in Austria, Switzerland and Germany. At each location, we recorded the epibiont position on the crayfish host along with a number of biotic and abiotic parameters. Apart from recording the Branchiobdella species B. parasita, B. hexadonta, B. pentadonta and B. balcanica, we detected for the first time the polychaete Hystricosoma chappuisi in the European Alps. Species-specific biogeographical and habitat factors such as river catchment borders, crayfish length, water temperature and nutrients concentration were identified to be important for the occurrence and abundance of epibionts. Branchiobdella species were strongly linked to certain host body areas, providing evidence for the existence of different functional traits within the annelid assemblage. With this study we demonstrate that the crayfish–epibionts relationship includes structural and functional complexities that can be important for defining management units in future conservation policies. Due to benefits for the mutualistic relationship, restocking and reintroduction actions are likely to be more successful, if ecological requirements of both the host and the epibiont species are considered.

  15. New St-chromosome-specific molecular markers for identifying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chromosome-specific PLUG and SCAR markers, and successfully used them to detect the St-chromosome in wheat–Th. intermedium introgression lines. Materials and methods. Plant materials. Wheat line ML13 was provided by International Maize and.

  16. Temporal variation of epi- and endofaunal assemblages associated with the red sponge Tedania ignis on a rocky shore (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fosca P. P. Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sponges are biogenic substrates that increase the available space on rocky shores and provide shelter for many groups of the benthic fauna, which can live both inside and on these sessile invertebrates. In order to assess the differences in temporal variation of endobiont and epibiont groups, samples of the red sponge Tedania ignis (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 were obtained each month for one year. The density, richness and diversity of endobiont and epibiont groups were analyzed in relation to abiotic factors. The dry mass of the sponge was negatively correlated with the density of individuals in both groups and positively with the diversity of endobionts, while organic matter was positively correlated with the diversity of epibionts. Endobiont diversity was more highly correlated with intrinsic factors of the sponge, whereas the diversity of epibionts was more highly correlated with factors related to the surrounding environment.

  17. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  18. Marine snake epibiosis: a review and first report of decapods associated with Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Joseph B; Frick, Michael G; Brischoux, François; Sheehy, Coleman M; Lillywhite, Harvey B

    2012-08-01

    Under circumstances in which area for settlement is limited, the colonization of living substrata may become a highly valuable strategy for survival of marine invertebrates. This phenomenon, termed epibiosis, results in spatially close associations between two or more living organisms. Pelamis platurus, the yellow-bellied sea snake, is the only exclusively pelagic marine snake and its propensity for foraging along ocean slicks facilitates its colonization by pelagic epibionts. Herein, we report epibionts associated with P. platurus inhabiting the waters off the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. These associations include the first records of decapod epibionts from any marine snake. Decapod epibionts were found on 18.9% of P. platurus, and size of snake (total length) had a significant positive effect on the frequency and intensity of epibiosis. We discuss the spatial and ecological mechanisms that facilitate these interactions, as well as the suite of factors that either promote or deter epibiosis and ultimately dictate the frequency and intensity of these interactions. Finally, we provide a review of marine snake epibiosis. The intention of this review is to (1) provide contemporary researchers with a single, accessible reference to all known reports of epibionts associated with marine snakes and (2) discuss what is currently known with respect to diversity of epibionts from marine snakes.

  19. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton Colacium vesiculosum Ehrenberg (Euglenophyceae es un epibionte común en microcrustáceos del plancton de aguas continentales. La interacción epibiontes y organismo substrato es poco conocida, particularmente en ambientes subtropicales de América del Sur. Se analiza la prevalencia, densidad, biomasa y sitios de adhesión de C. vesiculosum en microcrustáceos planctónicos de un lago subtropical de Argentina. Con el fin de evaluar si los epibiontes afectan la tasa de filtración de Notodiaptomus spiniger Brian, crustáceo dominante del zooplancton, se realizaron bioensayos utilizando el fitoplancton <53µm. Los crustáceos fueron muestreados con un tubo de PVC (1m de largo, 10cm de diámetro filtrándose 50L de agua a través de una red de 53µm de abertura de malla. El recuento de los microcrustáceos se realizó en cámaras de Bogorov bajo microscopio estereoscópico. Los organismos infectados fueron separados y observados al microscopio fotónico para determinaciones de densidad y biovolumen de los epibiontes, y su distribución en el exoesqueleto. La prevalencia de C. vesiculosum fue mayor en crustáceos adultos que en estadíos larvales y juveniles. El grupo más infestado fue el de los copépodos calanoideos en relación con su alta densidad. Los sitios de adhesión sobre el exoesqueleto fueron las regiones del cuerpo que durante la

  20. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and stripe rust response of a trigeneric hybrid involving Triticum, Psathyrostachys, and Thinopyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Zeng, Jian; Xie, Quan; Tao, Shan; Zhong, Meiyu; Zhang, Haiqin; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Xu, Lili; Zhou, Yonghong

    2012-05-01

    Trigeneric hybrids offer opportunities to transfer alien traits into cultivated wheat. In this study, a new trigeneric hybrid involving species of Triticum, Psathyrostachys, and Thinopyrum was synthesized by crossing Triticum aestivum L. (wheat)--Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey amphiploid Zhong 3 with wheat--Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo amphiploid PHW-SA. Crossability of the two amphiploids was 19.74%, and the fertility of the hybrid was 16.20%. The mean meiotic configuration of the trigeneric hybrid (2n=56) was 13.06 I+17.24 IIring+3.73 IIrod+0.28 III+0.04 IV. GISH analysis indicated that the trigeneric F1 had seven P. huashanica chromosomes and seven Th. intermedium chromosomes. The mean chromosome numbers of F2, F3, and F4 progenies were 2n=49.24, 2n=48.13, and 2n=46.78, respectively, a gradual decrease. GISH analysis revealed that most F2 and F3 plants had 2–10 Th. intermedium chromosomes and 0–4 P. huashanica chromosomes. In the F4 progenies, 1–7 Th. intermedium chromosomes were labeled, but no P. huashanica chromosomes were detected. It seems that Th. intermedium chromosomes are more likely than P. huashanica chromosomes to be transmitted to the progenies. The stripe rust response of PHW-SA was expressed in the F1 and some F2 and F3 progenies. The trigeneric hybrid could be a useful bridge for transfering P. huashanica and Th. intermedium chromosomes to common wheat.

  1. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton <53µm. Crustaceans were sampled using a PVC tube (1.2m long and 10cm in diameter, filtering 50L of water through a 53µm-mesh. Microcrustaceans were counted in Bogorov chambers under a stereoscopic microscope. The infested organisms were separated and observed with a photonic microscope to determine density and biovolume of epibionts, by analyzing their distribution on the exoskeleton. The prevalence of C. vesiculosum was higher in adult crustaceans than in their larvae and juveniles. The most infested group was that of calanoid copepods, related to their high density. The attachment sites on the exoskeleton were found to be the portions of the body which have a higher probability of encounter with epibionts during locomotion and feeding, i.e., antennae and thoracic legs in copepods, and thoracic legs and postabdomen in cladocerans. The similar values found in the filtering rate of infested and uninfested individuals of N. spiniger and the constant prevalence (<40% of epibiont algae, suggest that C. vesiculosum does not condition the life of planktonic crustaceans of Paiva Lake. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1295-1306. Epub 2011 September 01.

  2. [Isolation and study of azobenzene converting soil bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkerov-Kouzova, N D

    2005-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from soil and glass slides and classified as Bacillus cereus SNK12, Paenibacillus polymyxa SNK2, Azotobacter chroococcum ANKII, and Ochrobacterium intermedium ANKI. Their cultures could degrade azobenzene under the conditions of co-metabolism. A rapid test for the ability of bacteria to convert azobenzenes is proposed.

  3. Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Zdeněk; Půža, Vladimír; Nermuť, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3760, č. 3 (2014), s. 336-350 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : new species * affine/intermedium group * ITS Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  4. Three species of entomopathogenic Nematodes of the family Steinernematidae (Nematoda: Rhabditida) new to continental Portugal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valadas, V.; Mráček, Zdeněk; Oliveira, S.; Mota, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2011), s. 169-178 ISSN 0391-9749 Grant - others:Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (PT) SFHR/BD/22086/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Steinernema intermedium * S. kraussei * Steinernema sp.

  5. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of eight Enterobacter species, with special reference to Enterobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muytjens, H L; van der Ros-van de Repe, J

    1986-01-01

    An agar dilution method was used to measure the MICs of 29 antimicrobial agents against Enterobacter sakazakii, E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, E. agglomerans, E. amnigenus, E. gergoviae, E. intermedium, and E. taylorae (formerly Enteric Group 19). E. sakazakii was the most susceptible species. Results showing resistance to ampicillin are likely to exclude E. sakazakii. PMID:3636109

  6. Uncovering the genetic architecture of seed weight and size in intermediate wheatgrass through linkage and association mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG); Thinopyrum intermedium) is being developed as a new perennial grain crop that has a large allohexaploid genome similar to that of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Breeding for increased seed weight is one of the primary goals for improving grain yield of IWG. As a new crop, ...

  7. d13C vs d15N of co-occurring molluscs within a community dominated by Crassostrea gigas and Crepidula fornicata (Oosterschelde, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riera, P.; Stal, L.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of d13C and d15N, the diet of co-occurring intertidal molluscs species within a community dominated by the oyster Crassostrea gigas and its epibiont, the common Atlantic slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata. The results showed that the d13C versus d15N

  8. Evaluación de la bioactividad y papel ecológico de los extractos orgánicos crudos de las esponjas marinas Cribrochalina vasculum y Biemna cribaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Arias Hernández

    2005-01-01

    inhibitoria de epibiontes y su baja tasa de lixiviación. Ya que este es un primer acercamiento a la bioactividad de estas dos esponjas, surge la necesidad por continuar estudiando los aspectos ecológicos y químicos de los metabolitos que ellas producen.

  9. Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klitgaard, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    (reproduction, biochemistry, microbiology, epibionts) for each species are also reviewed. Our results show that there are six valid species of boreo-arctic Atlantic Geodia while other names are synonyms or mis-identifications. Geodia barretti, G.atlantica, G.macandrewii, and G.hentscheli are well established...

  10. Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentall, Gena B.; Rosen, Barry H.; Kunz, Jessica M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Saunders, Gary W.; LaRoche, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations between epibionts (organisms that live on the surface of another living organism) and vertebrates have been documented in both marine and terrestrial environments, and may be opportunistic, commensal, or symbiotic (Lewin et al. 1981, Holmes 1985, Allen et al. 1993, Bledsoe et al. 2006, Pfaller et al. 2008, Suutari et al. 2010). Although epibiont proliferation is frequently reported on slow-moving, sparsely haired organisms such as manatees and sloths, reports from densely furred, highly mobile mammals are much less common. There are reports of epizoic algae for several species of pinnipeds (Kenyon and Rice 1959, Scheffer 1962, Baldridge 1977, Allen et al. 1993), which rely to varying degrees on both pelage and blubber for thermoregulation, but the phenomenon has not been widely described. Scheffer (1962) noted that red algae was fairly common on the pelage of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), pinnipeds for which fur likely makes a comparatively high contribution to thermoregulation (Donohue et al. 2000). For species with pelage that plays a critical role of thermal insulation, it seems implausible that an epibiont would persist on healthy individuals that devote significant energy resources toward grooming and actively maintaining their coat. Biological characteristics of epibiont settlement and attachment, and physiological requirements of epizoic species play key roles in their successful colonization and potential host impacts. To investigate this relationship, we explore a novel discovery of an epizoic alga from southern sea otters, including describing algal development on sea otter hair and molecular identification of the algae.

  11. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  12. Microbiome of Trichodesmium Colonies from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Gradoville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG. The 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences from hand-picked colonies were predominantly (>99% from Trichodesmium Clade I (i.e., T. thiebautii, which is phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from the Clade III IMS101 isolate used in most laboratory studies. The bacterial epibiont communities were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, including several taxa with a known preference for surface attachment, and were relatively depleted in the unicellular Cyanobacteria and small photoheterotrophic bacteria that dominate NPSG surface waters. Sequencing the nifH gene (encoding a subcomponent of the nitrogenase enzyme identified non-Trichodesmium diazotrophs that clustered predominantly among the Cluster III nifH sequence-types that includes putative anaerobic diazotrophs. Trichodesmium colonies may represent an important habitat for these Cluster III diazotrophs, which were relatively rare in the surrounding seawater. Sequence analyses of nifH gene transcripts revealed several cyanobacterial groups, including heterocystous Richelia, associated with the colonies. Both the 16S rRNA and nifH datasets indicated strong differences between Trichodesmium epibionts and picoplankton in the surrounding seawater, and also between the epibionts inhabiting Trichodesmium puff and tuft colony morphologies. Metagenomic and 16S r

  13. Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

    2011-04-01

    A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology.

  14. [Light and electron microscopic studies of the oropharyngeal epithelium of the metamorphosed Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Urodela: Salamandridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1985-01-01

    The multi-layered oropharyngeal-epithelium of metamorphosed S. salamandra consists of 3 principal layers: the stratum superficiale, the stratum intermedium and the stratum basale. 4 cell types can be identified in the stratum superficiale: ciliated cells producing small amounts of neutral and acid mucosubstances, and 3 types of goblet cells. Type 1 produces roundish alciano-philic, type 2 PAS-positive polygonal secretory granules; type 3 cells mostly arranged in clusters forming small glands synthesize granules which consist of complex electron dense bodies embeddet in a fuzzy matrix. All cell types mentioned arise from the undifferentiated s. basale; they differentiate in the s. intermedium, where they can be distinguished already in an early stage of maturation.

  15. Bird embryos uncover homology and evolution of the dinosaur ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Mpodozis, Jorge; Vargas, Alexander O

    2015-11-13

    The anklebone (astragalus) of dinosaurs presents a characteristic upward projection, the 'ascending process' (ASC). The ASC is present in modern birds, but develops a separate ossification centre, and projects from the calcaneum in most species. These differences have been argued to make it non-comparable to dinosaurs. We studied ASC development in six different orders of birds using traditional techniques and spin-disc microscopy for whole-mount immunofluorescence. Unexpectedly, we found the ASC derives from the embryonic intermedium, an ancient element of the tetrapod ankle. In some birds it comes in contact with the astragalus, and, in others, with the calcaneum. The fact that the intermedium fails to fuse early with the tibiale and develops an ossification centre is unlike any other amniotes, yet resembles basal, amphibian-grade tetrapods. The ASC originated in early dinosaurs along changes to upright posture and locomotion, revealing an intriguing combination of functional innovation and reversion in its evolution.

  16. Quality assurance system for sitting high risk facilities; Sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad para el emplazamiento de obras de alto riesgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Aymee; Peralta, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, San Jose de las Lajas (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    The paper shows how we have conceived and designed the quality assurance system for the site selection process of an area for sitting the facility of high risk in correspondence with the approved methodology. The results obtained in the implementation of the system have permitted the satisfactory performance of each one the expected stage, defining the most favorable sectors in order to continue the studies of the repository site for the disposal of low and intermedium. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Decontamination treatments to eliminate problem biota from macroalgal tank cultures of Osmundea pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca

    OpenAIRE

    Kerrison, Philip D.; Le, Hau Nhu; Twigg, Gail C.; Smallman, Duncan R.; MacPhee, Rory; Houston, Fiona A. B.; Hughes, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a range of chemical disinfectants at different concentration and exposure times was investigated on five macroalgal species and the marine gastropod Littorina spp. Palmaria palmata, Osmundea pinnatifida and Ulva lactuca are commercially valuable and are often cultivated in tanks for food or feed. Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ulva intestinalis are common epiphytes of P. palmata and O. pinnatifida cultures, whilst Littorina spp. are common herbivorous epibionts within U. lactuca cul...

  18. The impact of suspended oyster farming on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide production in a sub-tropical Australian estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V.; Welsh, David T.; Bennet, William W.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric; Nizzoli, Daniele; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this study we quantified nitrate (NO3-) reduction (denitrification, anammox and DNRA) and N2O production in sediments and epibiont communities associated with Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) farming. In sediments beneath an active suspended oyster farm, DNRA accounted for 98% of NO3- reduction with rates of up to 169 ± 45 μmol N m-2 h-1. Much of this DNRA was fuelled by NO3- derived from nitrification. Reference sediments had significantly lower DNRA rates of 83.8 ± 28.2 μmol N m-2 h-1, however this constituted 96% of the sites total NO3- reduction. Fatty acid analysis showed that sediment organic matter was more labile in the oyster impacted sediments, facilitating subtle shifts in sediment oxygen demand which increased the Fe2+ availability with respect to the reference sediments. The difference in DNRA rate between the sites was attributed to autotrophic oxidation of soluble Fe2+ in sediments underlying the oyster cultures. DNRA was absent in the oyster shell epibiont communities and rates of anammox and denitrification were lower than in the sediments. Production of NH4+ from the oysters and their associated epibionts was larger than DNRA and reached a rate of 206.2 μmol N m-2 h-1. Nitrous oxide production rates were generally low compared to other aquaculture systems and the net flux of N2O for the combined oyster cultivation system (i.e. sediments plus epibionts) was negative, i.e. there was N2O consumption in the sediments beneath the oysters. Overall, subtropical suspended oyster farming systems favour inorganic N retention over N loss.

  19. Genomic analysis reveals key aspects of prokaryotic symbiosis in the phototrophic consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Müller, Johannes; Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    'Chlorochromatium aggregatum' is a phototrophic consortium, a symbiosis that may represent the highest degree of mutual interdependence between two unrelated bacteria not associated with a eukaryotic host. 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum' is a motile, barrel-shaped aggregate formed from a single cell...... of "Candidatus Symbiobacter mobilis," a polarly flagellated, non-pigmented, heterotrophic bacterium, which is surrounded by approximately 15 epibiont cells of Chlorobium chlorochromatii, a non-motile photolithoautotrophic green sulfur bacterium....

  20. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondino, Clara; Torre, Luciana; Sahade, Ricardo Jose; Tatian, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo), South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verr...

  1. Epibiotic pressure contributes to biofouling invader success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kaeden; Hewitt, Chad L; Campbell, Marnie L; Primo, Carmen; Miller, Steven D

    2017-07-12

    Reduced competition is a frequent explanation for the success of many introduced species. In benthic marine biofouling communities, space limitation leads to high rates of overgrowth competition. Some species can utilise other living organisms as substrate (epibiosis), proffering a competitive advantage for the epibiont. Additionally, some species can prevent or reduce epibiotic settlement on their surfaces and avoid being basibionts. To test whether epibiotic pressure differs between native and introduced species, we undertook ex situ experiments comparing bryozoan larval settlement to determine if introduced species demonstrate a greater propensity to settle as epibionts, and a reduced propensity to be basibionts, than native species. Here we report that introduced species opportunistically settle on any space (bare, native, or introduced), whereas native species exhibit a strong tendency to settle on and near other natives, but avoid settling on or near introduced basibionts. In addition, larvae of native species experience greater larval wastage (mortality) than introduced species, both in the presence and absence of living substrates. Introduced species' ability to settle on natives as epibionts, and in turn avoid epibiosis as basibionts, combined with significantly enhanced native larval wastage, provides a comprehensive suite of competitive advantages contributing to the invasion success of these biofouling species.

  2. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  3. Eelgrass Leaf Surface Microbiomes Are Locally Variable and Highly Correlated with Epibiotic Eukaryotes

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    Mia M. Bengtsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina is a marine foundation species essential for coastal ecosystem services around the northern hemisphere. Like all macroscopic organisms, it possesses a microbiome (here defined as an associated prokaryotic community which may play critical roles in modulating the interaction of eelgrass with its environment. For example, its leaf surface microbiome could inhibit or attract eukaryotic epibionts which may overgrow the eelgrass leading to reduced primary productivity and subsequent eelgrass meadow decline. We used amplicon sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes to assess the leaf surface microbiome (prokaryotes as well as eukaryotic epibionts in- and outside lagoons on the German Baltic Sea coast. Prokaryote microbiomes varied substantially both between sites inside lagoons and between open coastal and lagoon sites. Water depth, leaf area and biofilm chlorophyll a concentration explained a large amount of variation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic community composition. The prokaryotic microbiome and eukaryotic epibiont communities were highly correlated, and network analysis revealed disproportionate co-occurrence between a limited number of eukaryotic taxa and several bacterial taxa. This suggests that eelgrass leaf surfaces are home to a mosaic of microbiomes of several epibiotic eukaryotes, in addition to the microbiome of the eelgrass itself. Our findings thereby underline that eukaryotic diversity should be taken into account in order to explain prokaryotic microbiome assembly and dynamics in aquatic environments.

  4. Biological features on epibiosis of Amphibalanus improvisus (Cirripedia on Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the epibiosis of barnacles Amphibalanus improvisus on eight adult Macrobrachium acanthurus males from the Mundaú Lagoon, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The number of epibiont barnacles varied from 247 to 1,544 specimens per prawn; these were distributed predominantly on the cephalothorax and pereiopods, but also on the abdomen and other appendices. Although some were already reproducing, most barnacles had been recruited recently or were still sexually immature; this suggests recent host arrival in that estuarine environment. Despite the fact that other barnacles occur in this region, A. improvisus is the only species reported as an epibiont on Macrobrachium acanthurus; this was also the first record of epibiosis on this host. The occurrence of innumerable specimens in the pereiopods' articulations and the almost complete covering of the carapace of some prawns (which also increased their weight suggest that A. improvisus is adapted to fixate this kind of biogenic substrate and that the relationship between the two species biologically damages the basibiont.O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a epibiose de cirrípedes Amphibalanus improvisus em oito camarões machos adultos da espécie Macrobrachium acanthurus provenientes da Laguna Mundaú, Alagoas, Brasil. O número de cirrípedes epibiontes variou desde 247 até 1.544 espécimes por camarão, distribuídos predominantemente no cefalotórax e pereiópodos, mas presentes também no abdome e demais apêndices. A grande maioria dos cirrípedes era recém-recrutada ou ainda estava sexualmente imatura, embora de alguns estivessem já em reprodução, sugerindo a chegada recente de seu hospedeiro no ambiente estuarino. Apesar de ocorrem outros cirrípedes na região, A. improvisus foi à única espécie relatada como epibionte em Macrobrachium acanthurus e isto se constituiu o primeiro registro de epibiose de Amphibalanus improvisus A ocorrência de inúmeros esp

  5. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this

  6. Quantum entanglement analysis of an optically excited coupling of two nuclear spins via a mediator: Combining the quantum concurrence and negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chenghua; Hu, Zhanning

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the nuclear spin entanglement generated by an intermedium with an optically excited triplet. Significantly, the interaction between the two nuclear spins presents to be a direct XY coupling in each of the effective subspace Hamiltonians which are obtained by applying a transformation on the natural Hamiltonian. The quantum concurrence and negativity are discussed to quantitatively describe the quantum entanglement, and a comparison between them can reveal the nature of their relationship. An innovative general equation describing the relationship between the concurrence and negativity is explicitly obtained.

  7. Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) of freshwater fishes of the family Anabantidae from the Okavango River and Delta (Botswana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Linda; Van As, Jo G

    2002-01-01

    During parasitological surveys in the Okavango Delta and Panhandle in Botswana, two species of climbing perches belonging to the family Anabantidae were investigated for ectoparasites. The fishes were the blackspot climbing perch, Microctenopoma intermedium (Pellegrin) and the manyspined climbing perch, Ctenopoma multispine Peters. Five trichodinid species were found from the skin, fins and gills of these anabantids. One is a known species, i.e., Trichodina microspina Van As et Basson, 1992, for which a comparative description is provided. Four other species are described as new species using silver impregnation, i.e., Trichodina labyrinthipiscis sp. n., Trichodina anabantidarum sp. n., Tripartiella microctenopomae sp. n., and Tripartiella ctenopomae sp. n.

  8. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey DeAmicis

    Full Text Available Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide

  9. Epiphyte toxicity bioassay for ecotoxicological and coastal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Elena; Lozano, Pablo; Blasco, Julián; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Marine epibionts are organisms that grow on submerged surfaces. Those found on seagrass leaves are especially important because of their interactions with the plants, their contribution to primary production in these ecosystems, and their role as food source for heterotrophic fauna. Given the relative lack of ecotoxicological studies on epibionts, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of environmental pollution on epiphytes experimentally attached to artificial devices (mimes) consisting of thermally-sealed silicone tubes supported on bamboo sticks that mimic the morphology of seagrasses and serve as an anchor surface for marine epibionts. Mimes were installed on the sea floor in subtidal waters of the Rio San Pedro (Cádiz), collected after 28 days, and incubated in the laboratory with environmental concentrations of atrazine (herbicide), Irgarol (anti-fouling substance), and copper. Tube-dwelling diatoms formed the major component of the epiphyte community. Average surface covering, chlorophyll, and biomass content did not show significant differences between controls and treatments. The glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly with 4 μg L(-1) of atrazine and 5 μg L(-1) of copper. This enzymatic activity increase seems to be sufficient to prevent oxidative cellular damage by removing reactive oxygen substances produced by oxidative stress; in addition to this enzyme, there might be other antioxidant enzymes which have not been measured in this study, that have also protected the organism from oxidative damage. Thus, the measurement of antioxidant enzymatic activity in epiphytes may be a useful toxicity indicator for coastal biomonitoring.

  10. Ectosymbiosis associated with cidaroids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) promotes benthic colonization of the seafloor in the Larsen Embayments, Western Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C.; David, B.; Rigaud, T.; De Ridder, C.; Saucède, T.

    2011-03-01

    Ice-shelf collapses in the Larsen A and B embayments along the Weddell side of the Antarctic Peninsula resulted in new open-water areas that are likely reorganizing benthic communities. It is a natural laboratory to assess colonization of the sea bottom under new conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the epibionts associated to cidaroid echinoids could promote or enhance the colonization of hard surfaces. In fact, being vagile, cidaroids might improve dispersal capabilities of the sessile animals that are attached to their spines, e.g., promoting the colonization of areas where the fauna has been eradicated by iceberg scouring. If this hypothesis is correct, pioneer sessile species present locally on stones might have affinities with ectosymbionts on cidaroids, and the sessile fauna present both on cidaroids and stones should be more similar in the Larsen embayments than in undisturbed areas. We therefore compared sessile species living on cidaroids with those living on stones in three areas: Larsen A and B embayments and two undisturbed and geographically different areas, Atka Bay and Elephant Island. Overall, richness, evaluated as 'morphotypes' richness, was lower in the Larsen area than in other areas, but levels of species diversity were similar among the three zones. The estimate of similarity between assemblages (using the C22 index of Chao et al., 2008) also suggests that cidaroid epibionts are either species-specific or specific to cidaroids, while the composition of sessile fauna on stones is more variable and probably dependent on local factors. In the two undisturbed areas, sessile fauna are highly different between stones and cidaroids. This contrasts with the Larsen embayments where cidaroids share more than 80% of epibionts with the surrounding stones. These results suggest that ectosymbioses linked to cidaroids strongly contribute to benthic colonization of the seafloor in the Larsen enbayments. With time, secondary successions are expected to

  11. Epibiotic Diatoms Are Universally Present on All Sea Turtle Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathan J; Majewska, Roksana; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A; Nel, Ronel; Paladino, Frank V; Rojas, Lourdes; Zardus, John D; Pinou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    The macro-epibiotic communities of sea turtles have been subject to growing interest in recent years, yet their micro-epibiotic counterparts are almost entirely unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that diatoms are epibionts for all seven extant species of sea turtle. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy, we inspected superficial carapace or skin samples from a single representative of each turtle species. We distinguished 18 diatom taxa from these seven individuals, with each sea turtle species hosting at least two diatom taxa. We recommend that future research is undertaken to confirm whether diatom communities vary between sea turtle species and whether these diatom taxa are facultative or obligate commensals.

  12. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  13. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Scholz, H C; Sedlácek, I; Melzer, F; Sanogo, Y O; Nesvadbová, J

    2007-01-01

    A systemic disease occurred in a wild population of the common vole Microtus arvalis in South Moravia (Czech Republic) during the years 1999-2003. Acute infections were characterized by edema of extremities, occasionally with colliquating abscesses, arthritis, lymphadenitis, perforations of the skin resulting from colliquated abscesses, orchitis, and peritoneal granulomas. From the clinical samples, small Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium by API 20NE and colistin sensitivity profiles. However, subsequent rrs (16S rRNA) and recA (recombinase A) gene sequencing analysis of two isolates (CCM 4915=CAPM 6434; CCM 4916=CAPM 6435) identified them as Brucella sp. with sequence identities of 100% to other Brucella spp. Analysis of the omp2a/b genes confirmed the two isolates as Brucella. In AMOS polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a 2000-bp fragment was generated that was not seen in other brucellae. Experimental infection of outbred ICR mice with these isolates resulted in a mortality rate of 50%. Based on the results of the molecular investigations and the mortality observed in experimentally infected mice we conclude that the epizootic was caused by Brucella sp. and not by Ochrobactrum intermedium. The study demonstrates the limitations of commercial biochemical test systems in accurately differentiating among Ochrobactrum and Brucella.

  14. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  15. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  16. Castaways can't be choosers - Homogenization of rafting assemblages on floating seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, Lars; Beermann, Jan; Buschbaum, Christian; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Thiel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    After detachment from benthic habitats, the epibiont assemblages on floating seaweeds undergo substantial changes, but little is known regarding whether succession varies among different seaweed species. Given that floating algae may represent a limiting habitat in many regions, rafting organisms may be unselective and colonize any available seaweed patch at the sea surface. This process may homogenize rafting assemblages on different seaweed species, which our study examined by comparing the assemblages on benthic and floating individuals of the fucoid seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Sargassum muticum in the northern Wadden Sea (North Sea). Species richness was about twice as high on S. muticum as on F. vesiculosus, both on benthic and floating individuals. In both seaweed species benthic samples were more diverse than floating samples. However, the species composition differed significantly only between benthic thalli, but not between floating thalli of the two seaweed species. Separate analyses of sessile and mobile epibionts showed that the homogenization of rafting assemblages was mainly caused by mobile species. Among these, grazing isopods from the genus Idotea reached extraordinarily high densities on the floating samples from the northern Wadden Sea, suggesting that the availability of seaweed rafts was indeed limiting. Enhanced break-up of algal rafts associated with intense feeding by abundant herbivores might force rafters to recolonize benthic habitats. These colonization processes may enhance successful dispersal of rafting organisms and thereby contribute to population connectivity between sink populations in the Wadden Sea and source populations from up-current regions.

  17. Ecological and geographical characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells of the river Uzh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Korniichuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater molluscs serve as test objects in the ecological monitoring of the environment, because they are able to extract in indicator quantity from the environment and accumulate in their bodies radionuclides, various macro- and micronutrients, toxic substances of inorganic and organic origin, and so on. The gastropods are a taxonomically diverse, ecologically plastic and rather widespread group of aquatic organisms, whose role in the life of freshwater ecosystems is very important. Molluscs often have various interactions in biogeocenoses that determines their trophic net. As a rule, these interactions occur in the form of ectocommensalism, endocommensalism, supercrescence, predation or parasitism. The latter type of interaction is the subject of many studies, but the epibionts of gastropods and bivalves have practically not been studied and this research is an effort towards filling this gap. Species composition of algal epibionts identifies specific sensitivity to the effects of certain environmental factors and reflects the processes occurring in their ecosystem water bodies. This determines their efficient use for analyzing changes of water bodies as aquatic habitat, particularly in terms of complex anthropogenic pressure on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the research was to determine the ecological characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. auricularia and Viviparus viviparus (the Uzh river, Korosten district, Zhytomyr region. Identified microalgae communities were grouped and studied according to such indices as: confinedness to the habitat (substrate, temperature, fluidity and water oxygenating, saprobiological characteristics according to the Pantle-Buck system in the modification of Sladecek and Watanabe, salinity according to Kolbe’s system, pH at Hustedt scale in the interpretation of M. M. Davydova and geographical limitations of the objects of study. Algal fouling on the shells L. stagnalis

  18. [Light and electron microscopy analysis of the differentiation of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) during metamorphosis (Urodela:Salamandridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1985-01-01

    During metamorphosis the oropharyngeal-epithelium of Salamandra salamandra consists of cells partly with features typical for larvae partly with these characteristic for metamorphosed animals. In the stratum intermedium cells which in larvae develop to secreting non-ciliated pavement cells become precursors of ciliated cells. During this process mucus granulus were discharged and cells develop cilia. Cells of deepe layers stop the production of mucus granules; those granules, which are already present, disintegrate. Furthermore, new types of goblet cells (type 2 and 3 according to Clemen, 1984) arise. Goblet cells of older larvae (typ 1) are to be found nearly unchanged in metamorphosed animals. Older goblet cells degenerate. In the stratum superficiale during transformation of pavement cells to ciliated cells discharge of mucus and ciliogenesis run parallely. Some of the pavement cells, however, degenerate. The stratum basale remains unaltered.

  19. Research on public logistics centers of Zhenzhou city based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuhuai; Chen, Shuisen; Tian, Zhihui; Miao, Quansheng

    2008-10-01

    The regional public logistics center (PLC) is the intermedium that transports goods or commodity from producer to wholesaler, retailer and end consumer through whole supply chains. According to the Central Place Theory, the PLC should be multi-centric and of more kinds of graded degrees. From the road network planning discipline, an unique index---Importance Degree, is presented to measure the capacity of a PLC. The Importance Degree selects three township criteria: total population, gross industry product and budget income as weights to calculate the weighted vectors by principle component analysis method. Finally, through the clustering analysis, we can get the graded degrees of PLCs. It proves that that this research method is very effective for the road network planning of Zhengzhou City.

  20. FIRST REPORT OF METALLO-β-LACTAMASES PRODUCING Enterobacter spp. STRAINS FROM VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Rodulfo, Hectorina E.; Rodríguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa E.; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; Carreño, Numirin; Marcano, Daniel; Donato, Marcos De

    2014-01-01

    Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21), E. aerogenes (7), E. intermedium (1), E. sakazakii (1) and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%), CRO (48.8%), CAZ (46.6%), PIP (46.4%), CIP (45.2%) and ATM (43.3%). This is the first report for South America of bla VIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed bla TEM-1, but only one showed bla CTX-M-15 gene, while no bla SHV was detected. PMID:24553611

  1. Molecular cytogenetic (FISH and genome analysis of diploid wheatgrasses and their phylogenetic relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Linc

    Full Text Available This paper reports detailed FISH-based karyotypes for three diploid wheatgrass species Agropyron cristatum (L. Beauv., Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul.&Rayss A. Löve, Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh A. Löve, the supposed ancestors of hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth & D.R.Dewey, compiled using DNA repeats and comparative genome analysis based on COS markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with repetitive DNA probes proved suitable for the identification of individual chromosomes in the diploid JJ, StSt and PP genomes. Of the seven microsatellite markers tested only the (GAAn trinucleotide sequence was appropriate for use as a single chromosome marker for the P. spicata AS chromosome. Based on COS marker analysis, the phylogenetic relationship between diploid wheatgrasses and the hexaploid bread wheat genomes was established. These findings confirmed that the J and E genomes are in neighbouring clusters.

  2. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss. from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss., kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv. Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel Maxim.], L. tristis Bunge, Melandrium olgae Maxim., Silene melandriiformis Maxim., five varieties (Melandrium affine var. Intermedium Tolm., Silene repens var. pratensis Kom., S. repens var. alpina Kom., S. repens var. angustifolia Turcz., S. repens var. latifolia Turcz., and one form (Silene repens f. densa Kom. are lectotypified.Key words: Caryophyllaceae, Silenoideae, type specimens, typification, Komarov Botanical Institute (LE, Siberia, Far East. 

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11598-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EF534375 |pid:none) Thinopyrum intermedium SGT1 cDNA, ... 49 2e-04 AY365188_1( AY365188 |pid:none) Nicotiana...hqi*nn*lnn*fkkk--- ---skry**yapiyilqlhmvidh*h*n*ln*dqm*mlqqmmaqpplhiatdaedieick sliekgailkmdsdgltpl... Ear... 50 0.13 1 ( EK177296 ) 1095458104244 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1....7 (Q9D4H7) RecName: Full=LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING ... 57 5e-07 AE014188_398( AE014188 |pid:n... homolog B; Short=... 53 1e-05 (Q496Y0) RecName: Full=LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING ... 53 1e-05

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11104-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29085_1( AF129085 |pid:none) Homo sapiens carboxy terminus of H... 52 3e-05 ( P53...ium erythraeum IMS101... 48 3e-04 EF534375_1( EF534375 |pid:none) Thinopyrum intermedium SGT1 cDNA, ... 48 3....004 4 ( EX867252 ) AUAO2324.fwd AUAO Karenia brevis Karbr Dark-phase... 44 0.007 2 ( ER272186 ) 1095527125230 Global-Ocean-Sampli...ng_GS-33-01-01-1... 44 0.008 2 ( EK698342 ) 1092403983752 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-33-...3e-08 AK291555_1( AK291555 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ76863 complet... 62 3e-08 ( O54981 ) RecName: Full=Stress-induced

  5. Upper Arenigian to lower Llanvirnian acritarch assemblages from South China: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocke, R; Li, J; Wang, Y

    2000-12-01

    Acritarchs from the interval corresponding to the late Arenigian and early Llanvirnian in British stratigraphy have rarely been described from China, and they are documented herein for the first time. A biostratigraphic correlation of certain acritarch taxa with the Undulograptus austrodentatus graptolite Biozone, which constitutes the base of the Darriwilian Stage, is still premature for China and elsewhere. According to recent studies on different sections from South China, it appears that at least four distinctive species (Ampullula suetica, Dicrodiacrodium ancoriforme, Hoegklintia rayii nov. comb., Liliosphaeridium intermedium) may characterize an interval that corresponds to levels just below or within the Darriwilian Stage. In this context, the acritarch assemblages of the lower to upper Arenigian and of the lower Llanvirnian sequences from different localities of the Yangtze Platform are described. Four acritarch assemblages are distinguished for this time interval and their possible correlations with other areas are discussed.

  6. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  7. Improvement of biodegradability of oil wastewater contained PAM by pretreatment with Fenton oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, M.; Wang, N.

    2008-01-01

    The use of polymer flooding in enhanced oil recovery operations has resulted in higher levels of polyacrylamide (PAM) found in oil wastewater. PAM is harmful to the environment, particularly the monomer acrylamide that is generated from PAM degradation. In this study, PAM derived from oil wastewater was pretreated by Fenton oxidation. This oxidation method is based on the use of a mixture of H 2 O 2 and iron salts which produce hydroxyl radicals in acidic conditions. The method offers a cost-effective source of hydroxyl radicals, using easy-to-handle reagents. The purpose of this study was to transform PAM to biodegradable intermediums. The optimal conditions for the Fenton reactions were also determined and described. Under optimal conditions, the removal ratios of PAM and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 83.8 and 77 per cent respectively. It was concluded that Fenton's oxidation is an effective treatment to improved the biodegradability of PAM. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  8. [Evenly floating attention, models and theories of the cognitive process of the psychoanalyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H

    1996-04-01

    The perception process taking place in the mind of the analyst in the psycho-analytic situation is a constant oscillation between the temptation to be guided too much by theory and the dangers of trusting to feelings and intuition alone. In order to avoid the pitfalls of this Scylla and Charybdis situation and with a view to reconciling empathy and knowledge in such a way as to provide optimal access to the patient's unconscious, the author draws upon a model devised by W.R. Bion. The author claims that Bion's model, an intermedium between affect and cognition, achieves the integration of evenly suspended attention and theory-guided perception by taking account of patient's experiential objects while at the same time allowing scope for cognitive activity, a process which Bion calls "intervening phase" König then briefly recounts a case study illustrating the possibility of achieving interpretations that combine both empathy and knowledge.

  9. The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum, its symbionts and helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Campeche Sound, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Del Rio-Rodríguez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Rendón-von Osten, J; Miranda-Rosas, G A

    2006-06-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum may acquire pollutants, helminths and symbionts from their environment. Statistical associations were studied between the symbionts and helminths of F. duorarum and pollutants in sediments, water and shrimps in Campeche Sound, Mexico. The study area spatially overlapped between offshore oil platforms and natural shrimp mating grounds. Spatial autocorrelation of data was controlled with spatial analysis using distance indices (SADIE) which identifies parasite or pollutant patches (high levels) and gaps (low levels), expressing them as clustering indices compared at each point to produce a measure of spatial association. Symbionts included the peritrich ciliates Epistylis sp. and Zoothamnium penaei and all symbionts were pooled. Helminths included Hysterothylacium sp., Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Prochristianella penaei and an unidentified cestode. Thirty-five pollutants were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and heavy metals. The PAHs (2-3 ring) in water, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), Ni and V in sediments, and Zn, Cr and heptachlor in shrimps were significantly clustered. The remaining pollutants were randomly distributed in the study area. Juvenile shrimps acquired pesticides, PAHs (2-3 rings) and Zn, while adults acquired PAHs (4-5 rings), Cu and V. Results suggest natural PAH spillovers, and continental runoff of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and PAHs (2-3 ring). There were no significant associations between pollutants and helminths. However, there were significant negative associations of pesticides, UCM and PCBs with symbiont numbers after controlling shrimp size and spatial autocorrelation. Shrimps and their symbionts appear to be promising bioindicators of organic chemical pollution in Campeche Sound.

  10. New developmental evidence clarifies the evolution of wrist bones in the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O

    2014-09-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal-anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal-anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur-bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal-posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as "element x," but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal-posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal-posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological data illuminate

  11. New Developmental Evidence Clarifies the Evolution of Wrist Bones in the Dinosaur–Bird Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O.

    2014-01-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal–anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal–anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur–bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal–posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as “element x,” but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal–posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal–posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological

  12. Multilocus sequence typing of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from gastric niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Gohil, Kushal; Misra, Vatsala; Kakrani, Arjun L; Misra, Sri P; Patole, Milind; Shouche, Yogesh; Dharne, Mahesh

    The human stomach is colonized by diverse bacterial species. The presence of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in urease-positive biopsies of individuals has been reported. Bacteria belonging to the Ochrobactrum genus have been documented in the human gastric niche. The co-occurrence of Ochrobactrum spp. with H. pylori was previously reported in an antral biopsy of a non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) subject from Northern India. There is no information on the genetic diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from the gastric niche in the stomach. We aimed to study the species distribution and diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. with and without H. pylori in urease-positive biopsies across three different geographical regions in India. Sixty-two Ochrobactrum isolates recovered from patients with an upper gastric disorder (n=218) were subjected to molecular identification and multilocus sequence typing. H. pylori DNA was found in the majority of biopsies, which had a variable degree of Ochrobactrum spp present. Interestingly, some of the urease-positive biopsies only had Ochrobactrum without any H. pylori DNA. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the Ochrobactrum isolates were distributed into the O. intermedium, O. anthropi and O. oryzae groups. This indicates there are multiple species in the gastric niche irrespective of the presence or absence of H. pylori. Antibiotyping based on colistin and polymyxin B could differentiate between O. intermedium and O. anthropi without revealing the resistance-driven diversity. Considering the prevalence of multiple Ochrobactrum spp. in the human gastric niche, it is important to evaluate the commensal and/or pathogenic nature of non-H. pylori bacteria with respect to their geographical distribution, lifestyle and nutrition needs. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microorganisms and heavy metals associated with atmospheric deposition in a congested urban environment of a developing country: Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasundara, Lakshika; Amarasekara, R W K; Magana-Arachchi, D N; Ziyath, Abdul M; Karunaratne, D G G P; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-04-15

    The presence of bacteria and heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were investigated in Kandy, Sri Lanka, which is a typical city in the developing world with significant traffic congestion. Atmospheric deposition samples were analyzed for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb which are heavy metals common to urban environments. Al and Fe were found in high concentrations due to the presence of natural sources, but may also be re-suspended by vehicular traffic. Relatively high concentrations of toxic metals such as Cr and Pb in dissolved form were also found. High Zn loads can be attributed to vehicular emissions and the wide use of Zn coated roofing materials. The metal loads in wet deposition showed higher concentrations compared to dry deposition. The metal concentrations among the different sampling sites significantly differ from each other depending on the traffic conditions. Industrial activities are not significant in Kandy City. Consequently, the traffic exerts high influence on heavy metal loadings. As part of the bacterial investigations, nine species of culturable bacteria, namely; Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Exiguobacterium sp., Bacillus pumilus and Kocuria kristinae, which are opportunistic pathogens, were identified. This is the first time Pseudomonas monteilii and Ochrobactrum intermedium has been reported from a country in Asia. The culturable fraction constituted ~0.01 to 10%. Pigmented bacteria and endospore forming bacteria were copious in the atmospheric depositions due to their capability to withstand harsh environmental conditions. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals creates potential human and ecosystem health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New developmental evidence clarifies the evolution of wrist bones in the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco Botelho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal-anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal-anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur-bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2. The distal-posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as "element x," but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal-posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal-posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological

  15. Cell turnover in the odontogenic organ of the rat incisor as visualized by graphic reconstructions following a single injection of 3H-thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C E

    1980-07-01

    Turnover of cells within the odontogenic organ was studied in three dimensions by preparing serial sections of incisors from young male rats killed at various times following a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi/g body weight of 3H-thymidine. Radioautographs showed that at 1 hour after injection labeled cells were present in all cell layers throughout the entire depth of the odontogenic organ. They were encountered frequently within the inner dental epithelium and stratum intermedium but appeared less abundant within the stellate reticulum and outer dental epithelium. With time, the frequency of labeled cells in each layer declined progressively, and more rapidly at the anterior and labial side of the odontogenic organ than toward its posterior and lingual side. Hence labeled cells were observed over the longest time interval in regions where cell layers were in closest proximity to the opening of the apical foramen, that is, near the apical and cervical loops. By 32 days after injection, numerous labeled cells could still be identified within the outer dental epithelium and stellate reticulum near the apical loop (bulbous part of the odontogenic organ) and the outer dental epithelium near the cervical loops ("U"-shaped part of the odontogenic organ). These findings support the hypothesis that cells originate within the bulbous part of the odontogenic organ and migrate anteriorly through the "U"-shaped and root sheath parts of the odontogenic organ during renewal of the incisor. It appears that individual stem cell compartments may be maintained for surface (outer/inner dental epithelium) and intermediate layers (stellate reticulum/stratum intermedium) in the odontogenic epithelium.

  16. [Histochemical and histological investigations on the vagina of the beagle she-dog during various functional conditions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Günzel, P

    1975-01-01

    Histotopochemistry and histology of vaginal epithelium in female beagles were studied during oestrus, metoestrus-dioestrus, post partum period and at days 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 of pregnancy. During oestrus the epithelium is uniform throughout the whole vagina: it presents itself as a high, uncornified, stratified squamous epithelium with some glycogen and lipid droplets but devoid of leucocytes. The intercellular gaps of the stratum intermedium give strong reactions for ATPase and alkaline phosphatase. The activities of oxidoreductases studied decrease continuously from basal to apical. During gravidity, post partum period and metoestrus-dioestrus distinct morphological and histochemical differences can be stated between the cranial and caudal vaginal portions. Caudal vaginal epithelium outside oestrus remains of stratified squamous type. It exhibits strong mucification during pregnancy. The PAS-positive mucous substances prefer a position in the enlarged intercellular gaps of stratum intermedium and superficiale. During pregnancy the epithelium is relatively rich in acid and completely devoid of alkaline phosphatases. Outside oestrus the epithelium of the cranial vaginal region is a relatively flat, stratified columnar one and contains leucocytes with regularity. Also the cranial vaginal portion undergoes mucification during pregnancy with a maximum about day 33. The mucous material is situated intracellularly and not within the intercellular gaps. Further, larger intraepithelial mucus cysts are observed. Alkaline phosphatase is found during gravidity in the basal region and an adluminal border of the epithelium. The reactions for oxidoreductases are strongest in the columnar cell layer which shows more functional adaptations than the remainder of the epithelium. Histochemical tests for beta-D-glucuronidase and leucine aminopeptidase give negative results in the whole vagina during all different functional stages studied.

  17. Infestation and morphological identification of the stalked epizoic barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab Portunus pelagicus from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi Khattab, Rafat

    2017-09-01

    The intensity of infestation of the epizoic stalked barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab was calculated for a total of 180 individuals collected around Jeddah, the western Red Sea Saudi coast. More than 90% of the crabs were found bearing the Octolasmis at a prevalence rate of 92% and mean intensity of 18.5±18.6 (0-127 epibiont per host). The intensity of infestation increased with host size in the range 90-135 mm. Generally, females were more infested (69%) than the males (31%). Octolasmis angulata occurred mostly on the gills, and the lower side of the gill chambers was more infested (84%) than the upper side (16%) and the left side of gills was also more infested than the right side in both males and females. Further studies are still needed to examine the commensal relationship and its impact on the fishery market of the Red Sea blue crab populations.

  18. The true diversity of devescovinid flagellates in the termite Incisitermes marginipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassert, Jürgen F H; Desai, Mahesh S; Brune, Andreas; Radek, Renate

    2009-11-01

    More than 40 years ago, ten species of devescovinid flagellates were described to occur in the gut content of the termite Incisitermes marginipennis. Based on light microscopic examinations, the flagellates were then classified into the two genera Devescovina and Metadevescovina. Here, we combined molecular phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of the gut flagellates with the first ultrastructural investigation of the genus Metadevescovina. Our results suggest that I. marginipennis contains only one species of devescovinid flagellates, Metadevescovina modica, which comprises three variants of the same phylotype (> or =99.5% sequence similarity). Monophyly of all Metadevescovina sequences obtained from Pterotermes and Incisitermes species in this and previous studies and the absence of filamentous bacterial epibionts typical of Devescovina species (M. modica is densely colonized with spirochetes) corroborate the validity of the genus Metadevescovina and allow its differentiation from other genera of devescovinid flagellates.

  19. Comparative myoanatomy of cycliophoran life cycle stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Maria R.; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The metazoan phylum Cycliophora includes small cryptic epibionts that live attached to the mouthparts of clawed lobsters. The life cycle is complex, with alternating sexual and asexual generations, and involves several sessile and free-living stages. So far, the morphological and genetic...... on the dorsal side, whereas on the ventral side, longitudinal muscles and a V-shaped muscle structure are present. These muscles are complemented by additional dorsoventral muscles. The mesodermal muscle fibers attach to the cuticle via the epidermis in all life cycle stages studied herein. The musculature...... of the female is similar to that of the Pandora larva of Symbion americanus and includes dorsoventral muscles and longitudinal muscles that run in the dorsal and ventral body region. Overall, our results reveal striking similarities in the muscular arrangement of the life cycle stages of both Symbion species. J...

  20. Rol de los anfípodos (Amphipoda) en ambientes de agua dulce de Patagonia: epibiosis y parasitismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rauque Perez, Carlos Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    En Argentina existen escasos estudios sobre los epibiontes y los parásitos de crustáceos, siendo el objetivo del presente estudio reportar la presencia de los organismos asociados a anfípodos del género Hyalella y ampliar su distribución geográfica en ambientes de agua dulce de Patagonia. Los anfípodos se colectaron con un tamiz de 1 mm de tamaño de malla en diferentes cuerpos de agua dulce, abarcando un rango latitudinal entre los 38º27?S y los 54º55´S (provincias de Neuquén a Tierra del Fue...

  1. Spatial differences in East scotia ridge hydrothermal vent food webs: influences of chemistry, microbiology and predation on trophodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D K Reid

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp. and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp. but their food webs are unknown. Vent fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three vent sites (E2, E9N and E9S at distances of tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres apart with contrasting vent fluid chemistries to describe trophic interactions and identify potential carbon fixation pathways using stable isotopes. δ(13C of dissolved inorganic carbon from vent fluids ranged from -4.6‰ to 0.8‰ at E2 and from -4.4‰ to 1.5‰ at E9. The lowest macroconsumer δ(13C was observed in peltospiroid gastropods (-30.0‰ to -31.1‰ and indicated carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle by endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria. Highest δ(13C occurred in Kiwa sp. (-19.0‰ to -10.5‰, similar to that of the epibionts sampled from their ventral setae. Kiwa sp. δ(13C differed among sites, which were attributed to spatial differences in the epibiont community and the relative contribution of carbon fixed via the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA and CBB cycles assimilated by Kiwa sp. Site differences in carbon fixation pathways were traced into higher trophic levels e.g. a stichasterid asteroid that predates on Kiwa sp. Sponges and anemones at the periphery of E2 assimilated a proportion of epipelagic photosynthetic primary production but this was not observed at E9N. Differences in the δ(13C and δ(34S values of vent macroconsumers between E2 and E9 sites suggest the relative contributions of photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (rTCA v CBB entering the hydrothermal vent food webs vary between the sites.

  2. Pathways of carbon and energy metabolism of the epibiotic community associated with the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügler, Michael; Petersen, Jillian M; Dubilier, Nicole; Imhoff, Johannes F; Sievert, Stefan M

    2011-01-07

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the faunal biomass at many deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In its enlarged gill chamber it harbors a specialized epibiotic bacterial community for which a nutritional role has been proposed. We analyzed specimens from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by complementing a 16S rRNA gene survey with the analysis of genes involved in carbon, sulfur and hydrogen metabolism. In addition to Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, the epibiotic community unexpectedly also consists of Deltaproteobacteria of a single phylotype, closely related to the genus Desulfocapsa. The association of these phylogenetic groups with the shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Based on functional gene analyses, we hypothesize that the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria are capable of autotrophic growth by oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds, and that the Deltaproteobacteria are also involved in sulfur metabolism. In addition, the detection of proteobacterial hydrogenases indicates the potential for hydrogen oxidation in these communities. Interestingly, the frequency of these phylotypes in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the mouthparts differ from that of the inner lining of the gill chamber, indicating potential functional compartmentalization. Our data show the specific association of autotrophic bacteria with Rimicaris exoculata from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field, and suggest that autotrophic carbon fixation is contributing to the productivity of the epibiotic community with the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle as one important carbon fixation pathway. This has not been considered in previous studies of carbon fixation and stable carbon isotope composition of the shrimp and its epibionts. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing epibionts raises the possibility that both may be involved in the syntrophic exchange of sulfur compounds

  3. Diversity and abundance of invertebrate epifaunal assemblages associated with gorgonians are driven by colony attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Curdia, Joao

    2015-03-20

    The present study aimed to explicitly quantify the link between the attributes of shallow-water gorgonian colonies (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and the ecological patterns of associated non-colonial epifaunal invertebrates. Based on multiple regression analysis, we tested the contribution of several attributes (colony height, width, and area, fractal dimension as a measure of colony complexity, lacunarity as a measure of the heterogeneity, and “colonial” epibiont cover) to abundance and taxonomic richness of associated assemblages. The results highlight the variation in the response of epifaunal assemblages to the gorgonian colony characteristics. The nature and intensity of the relationships were gorgonian species-dependent and varied from one taxonomic group to another. For both gorgonian species analyzed, the strongest predictor of species richness and abundance of the epifaunal assemblages was “colonial” epibiont cover, possibly due to a trophic effect (direct or indirect enhancement of food availability) combined with the surface available for colonization (species–area effect). Although structural complexity is usually indicated as the main driver for rich and abundant coral-associated assemblages, no significant relationship was observed between fractal dimension and the community descriptors; lacunarity, which reflects the sizes of the inter-branch spaces, was only linked to taxonomic richness in the assemblages associated with Leptogorgia lusitanica. The validity of the paradigm that structural complexity enhances biodiversity may be scale-dependent. In the case of gorgonians, the effect of complexity at the “garden” level may be more relevant than at the individual colony level. This reinforces the need for the conservation of gorgonian aggregation areas as a whole in order to preserve host diversity and size structure. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  4. Parasitic outbreak of the copepod Balaenophilus manatorum in neonate loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from a head-starting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Picazo, J L; García-Parraga, D; Domènech, F; Tomás, J; Aznar, F J; Ortega, J; Corpa, J M

    2017-06-02

    Diseases associated to external parasitosis are scarcely reported in sea turtles. During the last decades several organism have been documented as a part of normal epibiont community connected to sea turtles. The copepod Balaenophilus manatorum has been cited as a part of epibiont fauna with some concern about its parasitic capacity. This study serves three purposes, i.e. (i) it sheds light on the type of life style that B. manatorum has developed with its hosts, particularly turtles; (ii) it makes a cautionary note of the potential health risks associated with B. manatorum in sea turtles under captivity conditions and in the wild, and (iii) it provides data on effective treatments against B. manatorum. We report for the first time a massive infestation of the copepod B. manatorum and subsequent acute mortality in a group of loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings. Four-month-old turtles from a head-starting program started exhibiting excitatory and fin rubbing behavior preceding an acute onset of lethargy, skin ulceration and death in some animals. All the individuals (n = 57) were affected by severe copepod load and presented different degrees of external macroscopic skin lesions. The ventral area of front flippers, axillar and pericloacal skin were mostly affected, and were the main parasite distribution regions. Copepods were also detected on plastron and carapace sutures. The gut contents of B. manatorum reacted positively for cytokeratin, indicating consumption of turtle skin. Severe ulcerative necrotic dermatitis and large amount of bacteria presence were the major histopathological findings. Individual fresh water immersion for 10 min and lufenuron administration (0.1 ppm) to the water system every 2 weeks proved effective for removing turtle parasites and to control re-infestation, respectively. The results from our study clearly indicated that B. manatorum individuals consume turtle skin. The pathological effects of this agent and the potential implications

  5. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI BAKTERI NITRIFIKASI DAN DENITRIFIKASI SEBAGAI KANDIDAT PROBIOTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Senyawa nitrogen yang tinggi pada limbah budidaya perikanan intensif dapat memperburuk kualitas air, sehingga perlu diatasi dengan penambahan probiotik untuk proses bioremediasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan bakteri nitrifikasi dan denitrifikasi yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik pengendali senyawa nitrogen pada budidaya ikan air tawar. Tahap penelitian terdiri atas: 1 koleksi sampel air dan sedimen dari kolam budidaya ikan patin di kawasan minapolitan Desa Pudak Kecamatan Kumpeh Kabupaten Muaro Jambi Provinsi Jambi dan Desa Koto Mesjid Kecamatan XIII Koto Kampar Kabupaten Kampar Provinsi Riau; 2 pengujian sampel secara in vitro yang meliputi: a Isolasi dan seleksi bakteri nitrifikasi dan denitrifikasi; b Karakterisasi morfologis bakteri terpilih; c Karakterisasi fisiologi/biokimia isolat bakteri terpilih; d Karakterisasi genetika isolat bakteri terpilih dengan sekuensing 16S-rRNA. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh empat isolat bakteri nitrifikasi dan empat isolate bakteri denitrifikasi. Isolat bakteri nitrifikasi Pandoraea pnomenusa strain 1318 (NP1; Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSE12 (NP2; Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSE12 (NP3; Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain NE 7 (NP4; dan denitrifikasi Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain TPL14 (DP1; Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain BTY (DP2; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain BHWSL2 (DP3; Ochrobactrum intermedium strain: SQ 20 (DP4 Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain TPL14 (DP1; Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain BTY (DP2; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain BHWSL2 (DP3; Ochrobactrum intermedium strain: SQ 20 (DP4; yang berpotensi digunakan sebagai kandidat probiotik pengendali senyawa nitrogen pada budidaya ikan air tawar. Wastes from an intensive aquaculture contain nitrogen compounds which, if untreated, could rapidly reduce water quality condition within the system. The addition of probiotics as bioremediation to

  6. Expression of Podoplanin in the Mouse Tooth Germ and Apical Bud Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Yoshihiko; Iwasawa, Kana; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of cells expressing podoplanin in the mouse tooth bud. Podoplanin expression was detected in enamel epithelia of the cervical loop at cell-cell contacts strongly, and weakly on the loosely aggregated stellate reticulum in the center and the neighboring stratum intermedium. Odontoblasts exhibited intense podoplanin expression at the junction with predentin while no expression was detected in the enamel organ containing ameloblasts. These results suggest that proliferating inner and outer enamel epithelia express podoplanin but that the expression is suppressed in the differentiated epithelia containing ameloblasts. On the other hand the podoplanin expression occurs in the differentiating odontoblasts and the expression is sustained in differentiated odontoblasts, indicating that odontoblasts have the strong ability to express podoplanin. In cultured apical bud cells podoplanin was detected at cell-cell contacts. In real-time PCR analysis the amount of podoplanin mRNA of the apical buds was 2-fold compared with the amount of kidney used as a positive control. These findings indicate that apical bud cells have the strong ability to express the podoplanin gene. Podoplanin is a mucin-type glycoprotein negatively charged by extensive O-glycosylation and a high content of sialic acid, which expresses the adhesive property. The podoplanin may contribute to form odontoblastic fiber or function as the anchorage to the tooth development and in proliferating epithelial cells of cervical loop and apical bud. PMID:18989465

  7. [Identification of 23 mycobacterial species by Invader assay with targeting 16S rRNA gene and ITS-1 region--comparison with DDH method in clinical isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Makoto; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ito, Nobuko; Tomii, Takayuki; Kazumi, Yuko; Takei, Katsuaki; Abe, Chiyoji; Sugawara, Isamu

    2008-07-01

    The Invader assay was developed to identify 23 mycobacterial species using probes derived from the species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region, with minor modifications of our previous study. In the present study, we compared the identification capability between the Invader assay and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) method. DDH is commonly used to identify non-tuberculosis mycobacterium in Japan and 636 clinical mycobacterial strains cultured on Ogawa slants were tested. The Invader assay could identify 615 (96.7%) of the 636 strains. The results contained 14 M.lentiflavum, 3 M. parascrofulaceum and 1 M. intermedium, which were undetectable with DDH method. On the other hand, DDH method could identify 580 (91.2%) strains with duplicate assay. Of 628 strains except 8 strains identified as a few species by Invader assay, 551 (87.7%) strains were identified as the same species by two methods. Discordant results were mainly recognized for the identification of M. gordonae, M. avium, M. lentiflavum and M. intracellurare. The results of other methods targeting 16S rRNA indicated correctness of the Invader assay. These results indicate that Invader assay could identify more correctly than DDH method and could identify about 97% of clinically important mycobacterium.

  8. Culturable heavy metal-resistant and plant growth promoting bacteria in V-Ti magnetite mine tailing soil from Panzhihua, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Yu

    Full Text Available To provide a basis for using indigenous bacteria for bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil, the heavy metal resistance and plant growth-promoting activity of 136 isolates from V-Ti magnetite mine tailing soil were systematically analyzed. Among the 13 identified bacterial genera, the most abundant genus was Bacillus (79 isolates out of which 32 represented B. subtilis and 14 B. pumilus, followed by Rhizobium sp. (29 isolates and Ochrobactrum intermedium (13 isolates. Altogether 93 isolates tolerated the highest concentration (1000 mg kg(-1 of at least one of the six tested heavy metals. Five strains were tolerant against all the tested heavy metals, 71 strains tolerated 1,000 mg kg(-1 cadmium whereas only one strain tolerated 1,000 mg kg(-1 cobalt. Altogether 67% of the bacteria produced indoleacetic acid (IAA, a plant growth-promoting phytohormone. The concentration of IAA produced by 53 isolates was higher than 20 µg ml(-1. In total 21% of the bacteria produced siderophore (5.50-167.67 µg ml(-1 with two Bacillus sp. producing more than 100 µg ml(-1. Eighteen isolates produced both IAA and siderophore. The results suggested that the indigenous bacteria in the soil have beneficial characteristics for remediating the contaminated mine tailing soil.

  9. Investigational research on the design of computational materials; Keisanki zairyo sekkei no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Computer chemistry was investigationally studied. The advance of theoretical chemistry is indispensable to the design of materials, and the theory and high speed computational method are expected which can simulate the real system with more accuracy. It is basic to simulate structures and physical properties of structural molecules and the aggregate, but the meso region, the intermedium region between structural molecules and the aggregate, has became regarded as important. Rough visualization models in high polymer materials and the progress of computational software/hardware of quantum chemistry/molecular dynamics such as catalyst become necessary. Seamless zooming is proposed as a concept of the software which simulates materials from micro/macro/meso viewpoints. Moreover, to make the most of computer chemistry, an integrated system is necessary which generally handles computational software, database, etc. For the development of software, indispensable is the demonstrative verification by a combination of experiments and researchers. Under a commission from NEDO, the investigational research was conducted as a leading study during fiscal 1996 and 1997 to view the course of the research. 17 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. GABAergic and glutamatergic identities of developing midbrain Pitx2 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, M R; Skidmore, J M; Billi, A C; Martin, J F; Martin, D M

    2011-02-01

    Pitx2, a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, is expressed in post-mitotic neurons within highly restricted domains of the embryonic mouse brain. Previous reports identified critical roles for PITX2 in histogenesis of the hypothalamus and midbrain, but the cellular identities of PITX2-positive neurons in these regions were not fully explored. This study characterizes Pitx2 expression with respect to midbrain transcription factor and neurotransmitter phenotypes in mid-to-late mouse gestation. In the dorsal midbrain, we identified Pitx2-positive neurons in the stratum griseum intermedium (SGI) as GABAergic and observed a requirement for PITX2 in GABAergic differentiation. We also identified two Pitx2-positive neuronal populations in the ventral midbrain, the red nucleus, and a ventromedial population, both of which contain glutamatergic precursors. Our data suggest that PITX2 is present in regionally restricted subpopulations of midbrain neurons and may have unique functions that promote GABAergic and glutamatergic differentiation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Foliicolous lichenized fungi of lowland Amazon forests in Pando, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foliicolous lichens are an important component of lowland tropical forests and are useful bioindicators of vegetation continuity or forest health. This study of these fungi in lowland Bolivian Amazon forests of Pando Department revealed the presence of 180 species, 101 of which are reported as new for Bolivia. The following 15 species are mentioned for the first time from South America: Anisomeridium guttuliferum Lücking, Byssolecania pluriseptata Breuss, Caprettia confusa Lücking & Sipman, Chroodiscus submuralis Lücking, Coenogonium barbatum Lücking, Aptroot & L. Umaña-Tenorio, Echinoplaca tetrapla (Zahlbr. Lücking, Gyalectidium laciniatum Lücking, G. pallidum Herrera-Campos & Lücking, Mazosia conica Sérus., Phylloblastia excavata P. M. McCarthy, Porina conica R. Sant., Porina subnucula Lücking & Vězda, Porina aff. subpallescens Vězda, Strigula minuta Lücking and Trichothelium intermedium Lücking. The up-to-date list of foliicolous lichens of Bolivia now numbers 218 species, 52% more than known previously. The foliicolous lichen biota of Pando, a substantial part of the Bolivian Amazon, has clear affinities to neighboring countries due to the significant proportion of species typical for lowland and submontane humid forests in the Neotropics. Analyses of the lichen diversity in the area suggest that its species composition is positively correlated with the presence of specific forest types.

  12. Maxillary Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Presenting at a Postextraction Site: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talla Harshavardhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT was described as an entity by Danish pathologist Jens J. Pindborg in 1955. It is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm forming 0.4–3.0% of all intraosseous tumors. Also known as Pindborg tumor, it is traditionally described as an uncommon, benign neoplasm of exclusively epithelial tissue of origin. Much of controversy exists in the nature of origin of this tumor; there is no consensus on the originating cells of CEOT. Some pathologists suggest that it is derived from stratum intermedium layer of enamel organ in the tooth development stage; others favor a different hypothesis in which this tumor may arise from the remnants of primitive dental lamina in the initial stages of odontogenesis. Most of the cases reported involve the posterior mandible than the maxilla in the ratio of 3:1. The mean age is 30–40 years with no gender predilection. The present case throws highlight on the unusual site of the lesion, i.e. presenting in the maxillary molar region as an ulcerated area in the area of extraction socket. The study also attempts to briefly emphasize the concepts of CEOT and also revives the review of literature.

  13. The Moss Flora of Çankırı Alpsarı Pond, with a moss record (Pterygoneurum crossidioides W. Frey, Herrnst. & Kürschner from the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Gündüz KESİM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Moss Flora of Çankırı Alpsarı pond (Çankırı, Turkey was studied. It was found that 332 moss specimen occurred in 73 taxa belonging to 31 genera and 15 families. In The richest 5 families by taxa number were Pottiaceae (26, Brachytheciaceae (10, Grimmiaceae (7, Orthotrichaceae (6, Bryaceae (5 respectively. The richest species by taxa number were; Tortula (8, Orthotrichum (7, Syntrichia (7, Grimmia (6, and Bryum (5. While acrocarpous taxa (54 represented 75% of the whole flora, the ratio of pleurocarpous (18 was 25%. Funaria hygrometrica (Hedw., Grimmia alpestris (F.Weber & D.Mohr Schleich., Bryum pallens (Sw. ex anon. were identified first time from Çankırı province; Ceratodon conicus (Hampe Lindb., Weissia longifolia (Mitt., Bryum intermedium (Brid. Blandow, Grimmia crinita Brid, and Tomentypnum nitens (Hedw. Loeske. were identified first time from A2 grid square; and Pterygoneurum subsessile (Brid. Jur. record was given for the second time in Turkey. In addition, P. crossidioides (W. Frey, Herrnstr. & Is Kurschner was reported for the first time in Turkey. The species which is rarely distributed in arid regions has been reported worldwide in Israel and Hungary

  14. Biodegradation of bispyribac sodium by a novel bacterial consortium BDAM: Optimization of degradation conditions using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Anwar, Samina; Firdous, Sadiqa; Da-Chuan, Yin; Iqbal, Samina

    2018-05-05

    Bispyribac sodium (BS), is a selective, systemic and post emergent herbicide used to eradicate grasses and broad leaf weeds. Extensive use of this herbicide has engendered serious environmental concerns. Hence it is important to develop strategies for bioremediation of BS in a cost effective and environment friendly way. In this study a bacterial consortium named BDAM, comprising three novel isolates Achromobacter xylosoxidans (BD1), Achromobacter pulmonis (BA2), and Ochrobactrum intermedium (BM2), was developed by virtue of its potential for degradation of BS. Different culture conditions (temperature, pH and inoculum size) were optimized for degradation of BS by the consortium BDAM and the mutual interactions of these parameters were analysed using a 2 3 full factorial central composite design (CCD) based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimal values for temperature, pH and inoculum size were found to be 40 °C, 8 and 0.4 g/L respectively to achieve maximum degradation of BS (85.6%). Moreover, the interactive effects of these parameters were investigated using three dimensional surface plots in terms of maximum fitness function. Importantly, it was concluded that the newly developed consortium is a potential candidate for biodegradation of BS in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Measurement of biochemical oxygen demand from different wastewater samples using a mediator-less microbial fuel cell biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted considerable attention as potential biosensors. A MFC biosensor for rapid measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) has been recently studied. However, a standardized bacterial mixture inoculated in the MFC biosensor for BOD measurement is unavailable. Thus, the commercial application of a MFC biosensor is limited. In this study, a mediator-less MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures to quickly determine BOD concentration was tested. Optimal external resistance, operating temperature and measurement time for the MFC biosensor were determined to be 5000 omega, 35 degrees C and 12h, respectively. A good relationship between BOD concentration and voltage output, high reproducibility and long-term stability for the MFC biosensor was observed. The newly developed MFC biosensor was inoculated with a mixture of six bacterial strains (Thermincola carboxydiphila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Shewanella frigidimarina, Citrobacter freundii and Clostridium acetobutylicum) capable of degrading complex organic compounds and surviving toxic conditions. The described MFC biosensor was able to successfully measure BOD concentrations below 240 mg L(-1) in real wastewater samples.

  16. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  17. Resistance to brown leaf rust of hybrids between wheat and amphiploids wheat-thinopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to a brown leaf rust in 56 chromosomal partial аmphiploids (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp. Z.-W. Liu and R.-C. Wang, РА 2 (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth and D.R. Devey, H79/9-9 (Triticum aestivum L. × Elymus sp., Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Albatross odesskiy, Fantaziya odesskaya, Zhatva Altaya and their hybrids, F2-F4 were studied at artificial infection in field infectious nursery in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The investigated varieties of wheat have shown a high susceptibility to pathogen. Amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 also are susceptible to pathogen, but in a lesser degree, than the wheat. Good resistance was shown only by amphiploid Н79/9-9, but its hybrid with wheat Albatross Odessa appeared is susceptible to pathogen. The hybrids with amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 have shown a various degree of resistance to brown leaf rust. Hybrid Zhatva Altaya × РА 2 within three years stably showed 8 point resistance to disease. The reasonsfor different resistance of amphiploids and its hybrids with wheat are discussed.

  18. The fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China: a generic account, descriptions of one new genus, one new species, one new subspecies, and keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2014-02-11

    Fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China are represented by 13 species in 10 genera, including a new genus, Vietaphis gen nov., a new species, Vietaphis aliquantus sp nov., from Guizhou and Tibet on Plagiogyria japonicum, and a new subspecies, Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp nov., from Guizhou on Pentarhizidium intermedium. Two genera, Amphorophora Buckton and Idiopterus Davis, and four species or subspecies, Amphorophora ampullate ben-galensis Hille Ris Lambers and Basu, Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi, and Myzus filicis Basu, are reported for the first time in China. Apterae and alatae of Myzus filicis are redescribed herein, and with host plant notes. The fern-feeder aphid genus Ne-omacromyzus Lee is considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus. Furthermore, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee is transferred to the genus Idiopterus, as Idiopterus cyrtomicola (Lee), comb nov., which is herein considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis. Keys to Chinese fern-feeder species are provided. Morphological figures and biometrical data of Vietaphis aliquantus sp nov., Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp nov., and Myzus filicis are presented. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  19. Infección urinaria crónica en un hospital general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Rocha Posada

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo seleccionado de 362 pacientes adultos entre varones y mujeres, fueron sometidos a medicación quimioantibiótica para  evaluar    el curso de la bacteriuria crónica. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron luego del uso de la Gentamicina (79.1% Rifampicina (74,4%, Hetacilina (63, 3%, Kanamicina (60,0%, Oxietraciclina micronizada (60.0% y Cefalatina (52,2%. Con sulfametoxipiridazina, Colimicina, Doxiciclina, Ampicilina, Metaciclina y Cloramfenicol los resultados variaron entre el 40 y 50%. Durante el lapso comprendido entre 1961 y 1967, fueron estudiados 6.113 urocultivos obteniéndose recuentos significativos por encima de100.000 o más bacterias, en el 31,03%. Las bacterias más frecuentemente aisladas fueron en su orden: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Aerobacter, Proteus, Escherichia freundii, Paracoli, E. intermedium y P. aeruginosa. Las infecciones por cocos gram-positivos fueron escasas, predominando en ellas el Enterococo y el Estafilococo coagulasa positiva.

  20. Alkaline phosphatase in developing teeth and bone of man and macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselgren, G

    1978-01-01

    The activity of nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1) in developing teeth and bone of human fetuses and young macaque monkeys has been studied by means of histochemistry. The incubations for alkaline phosphatase were performed at pH 8.2 using naphthol-AS-MX-phosphate as substrate and Fast Blue RR salt or Fast Red Violet LB salt as couplers. By means of pretreatment with heat (56 degrees C), or addition of sodium metavanadate, ortho- or pyrophosphate, two alkaline phosphatases were demonstrated in the developing teeth. Prior to hard tissue formation all alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited by the addition of vanadate, phosphate, or by pretreatment with heat. Pretreatment with heat or addition of vanadate or phosphate also inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity in the odontoblasts and in the pulpal connective tissue, whereas the activity in the subodontoblastic cell layer, stratum intermedium, outer enamel epithelium, and the the outer cells of the reduced enamel epithelium were much less affected. A week resistant activity was also noted in odontoblasts and pulpal connective tissue.

  1. Detection of alien chromatin introgression from Thinopyrum into wheat using S genomic DNA as a probe--a landmark approach for Thinopyrum genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of alien genetic variation from the genus Thinopyrum through chromosome engineering into wheat is a valuable and proven technique for wheat improvement. A number of economically important traits have been transferred into wheat as single genes, chromosome arms or entire chromosomes. Successful transfers can be greatly assisted by the precise identification of alien chromatin in the recipient progenies. Chromosome identification and characterization are useful for genetic manipulation and transfer in wheat breeding following chromosome engineering. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using an S genomic DNA probe from the diploid species Pseudoroegneria has proven to be a powerful diagnostic cytogenetic tool for monitoring the transfer of many promising agronomic traits from Thinopyrum. This specific S genomic probe not only allows the direct determination of the chromosome composition in wheat-Thinopyrum hybrids, but also can separate the Th. intermedium chromosomes into the J, J(S) and S genomes. The J(S) genome, which consists of a modified J genome chromosome distinguished by S genomic sequences of Pseudoroegneria near the centromere and telomere, carries many disease and mite resistance genes. Utilization of this S genomic probe leads to a better understanding of genomic affinities between Thinopyrum and wheat, and provides a molecular cytogenetic marker for monitoring the transfer of alien Thinopyrum agronomic traits into wheat recipient lines. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Do the morphological and functional traits of free-living marine nematodes mirror taxonomical diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprucci, F; Cesaroni, L; Guidi, L; Balsamo, M

    2018-04-01

    The taxonomical structure and diversity of nematode assemblages are the main attributes analyzed in ecology, but nematode adaptations to their habitats are still understudied. Accordingly, a survey on some known and other newly proposed morpho-functional traits was carried out in order to: determine if the morpho-functional diversity of nematodes mirrors their taxonomical diversity; and assess potential nematode adaptations to sediment type and hydrodynamic stress. Morpho-functional traits were investigated both singularly and together and showed significant differences related to these environmental factors. The greatest taxonomical and morpho-functional diversity was found in medium-coarse sand (M-CS) and at an intermedium energy level (IEL). The M-CS and IEL were probably richer in micro-habitats and subject to a low selective pressure, hosting nematodes with a wide range of adaptations. The mirroring of morpho-functional diversity with taxonomical diversity is crucial for the future growth of the use of nematodes in biomonitoring. This is because the study of their morpho-functional traits could reduce the level of work involved and the costs of any analyses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Morphological peculiarities of consolidation of experimental mandible fractures by osteosynthesis using Kollapan and retabolil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriashvili, G K; Menabde, G T; Chikhladze, R T

    2006-07-01

    The Purpose of the research was to study in the experiment morphological particularities of mandible fracture consolidation by osteosynthesis using Kollapan and Retabolil. The experiments were carried out on sexually matured rabbits. In the first series of the experiments (the control group), mandibula bones fracture was prototyped lower, whereas bone fragments were fixed by miniplate. In the second series of the experiments (the study group) bone fragments were bolted by the above mentioned way but diastase between bone fragments was filled by Kollapan granules, containing klaforan, and animals were intramuscularly anabolic material (the retabolil 0.4 mg/kg). On the 3-d and 15-th days, as well as, after 1 and 2 months after operation observing all corresponding rules, animals were killed and patologico-anatomic study of jaw bone was carried out. The analysis of the results showed that in experimental animals both in the control and the study groups reparative regeneration of bone tissues runs with the formation of periosteum and intermedium regenerator, at the same time consolidation of the bone defect in the main group occurs earlier than in the control group. The Results of the studies point out that Retabolil under osteosynthesis is an osteoinductive material and Kollapan, having osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteoprotective characteristics, promotes speeding of the process of jaw bones fracture consolidation.

  4. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l -1 to 8 mg TPH l -1 . Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  5. Evaluation of modified dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar for enumerating fungi in wheat flour: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Hwang, C A

    1996-04-01

    Dichloran 18% glycerol agar base supplemented with 100 micrograms of chloramphenicol ml-1 (DG18 agar) was compared to DG18 agar supplemented with 100 micrograms of Triton X-301 ml-1 (DG18T) and DG18 agar supplemented with 1 microgram of iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methyl-ethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidine- carboxamide] ml-1 (DG18I agar) for enumeration of fungi in ten brands of wheat flour. As the flours contained low fungal populations, all were inoculated with two to four strains of xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus candidus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. intermedium, E. repens, E. rubrum, E. tonophilum, E. umbrosum and Wallemia sebi), after which counts ranged from 3.87 to 6.37 log10 CFU g-1. Significantly higher populations (p sebi grew well on all three media. DG18T agar was judged to be superior to DG18 and DG18I agars for enumerating fungi in wheat flours.

  6. Algae as hosts for epifaunal bryozoans: Role of functional groups and taxonomic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, María G.; López Gappa, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Macroalgae build biogenic habitats which give shelter and provide a suitable physical environment for a great variety of organisms. Structural complexity of algal substrates may influence the composition of their attached epifauna. The aim of this study is to test whether the taxonomic relatedness of the algal hosts and the functional groups to which they belong influence the species richness and composition of their epifaunal bryozoans. We analysed 36 algal genera from the Atlantic coast of South America between 42°S and Cape Horn. Changes in bryozoan species richness (number of species) among different algal functional groups (filamentous algae, foliose algae, corticated foliose algae, corticated macrophytes) were non-significant. The composition of the epifaunal assemblages differed significantly only between filamentous and foliose algae. Sheet-like bryozoans (i.e. encrusting, pluriserial colonies) were more frequent on foliose than on filamentous algae, while runner-like species (i.e. uniserial stolons) were characteristic epibionts on filamentous thallii. Similarity of bryozoan assemblages increased with increasing taxonomic relatedness of their hosts. As most filamentous seaweeds analysed in this study are members of the Order Ceramiales, the influence of algal taxonomic relatedness and functional groups on the composition of their bryozoan assemblages can be viewed as two different aspects of the same phenomenon.

  7. Ecology of antarctic marine sponges: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J; van Soest, Rob W M

    2005-04-01

    Sponges are important components of marine benthic communities of Antarctica. Numbers of species are high, within the lower range for tropical latitudes, similar to those in the Arctic, and comparable or higher than those of temperate marine environments. Many have circumpolar distributions and in some habitats hexactinellids dominate benthic biomass. Antarctic sponge assemblages contribute considerable structural heterogeneity for colonizing epibionts. They also represent a significant source of nutrients to prospective predators, including a suite of spongivorous sea stars whose selective foraging behaviors have important ramifications upon community structure. The highly seasonal plankton blooms that typify the Antarctic continental shelf are paradoxical when considering the planktivorous diets of sponges. Throughout much of the year Antarctic sponges must either exploit alternate sources of nutrition such as dissolved organic carbon or be physiologically adapted to withstand resource constraints. In contrast to predictions that global patterns of predation should select for an inverse correlation between latitude and chemical defenses in marine sponges, such defenses are not uncommon in Antarctic sponges. Some species sequester their defensive metabolites in the outermost layers where they are optimally effective against sea star predation. Secondary metabolites have also been shown to short-circuit molting in sponge-feeding amphipods and prevent fouling by diatoms. Coloration in Antarctic sponges may be the result of relict pigments originally selected for aposematism or UV screens yet conserved because of their defensive properties. This hypothesis is supported by the bioactive properties of pigments examined to date in a suite of common Antarctic sponges.

  8. A New Deep-Sea Suctorian-Nematode Epibiosis (Loricophrya-Tricoma) from the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Román, Sara; Martin, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    During a pluri-disciplinary study carried out within the frame of the Spanish research project DOS MARES, multicore samples were collected along the Blanes submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope to study the structure and dynamics of the meiofaunal organisms, mainly nematodes. Among the 5808 nematode individuals identified, only 190 of them belonged to the genus Tricoma (Desmoscolecidae), and only two harboured epibiont suctorian ciliates. The three specimens were located near the tail of the basibionts. A careful examination of the ciliates revealed that they were suctorians, which are here described as a new species of Loricophrya, namely L. mediterranea sp. nov. The new species is characterized by having a conical, slightly elongated lorica, narrowing towards posterior end; an anterior end inward curved, surrounding the lorica opening; a body placed near the lorica opening, occupying 1/3 of the lorica length, 4-8 capitate tentacles, and a peripheral, oval to sausage-shaped macronucleus. Our findings represent the first known report of an association with a deep-sea species of Tricoma, and the first record in the Mediterranean Sea, for a species of Loricophrya. The significance of the relationships between suctorian ciliates and their host in extreme environments such as deep-sea submarine canyons is discussed.

  9. Aquatic urban ecology at the scale of a capital: community structure and interactions in street gutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Vincent; Leroy, Boris; Da Silva Pires, Albert; Lopez, Pascal Jean

    2018-01-01

    In most cities, streets are designed for collecting and transporting dirt, litter, debris, storm water and other wastes as a municipal sanitation system. Microbial mats can develop on street surfaces and form microbial communities that have never been described. Here, we performed the first molecular inventory of the street gutter-associated eukaryotes across the entire French capital of Paris and the non-potable waters sources. We found that the 5782 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) present in the street gutters which are dominated by diatoms (photoautotrophs), fungi (heterotrophs), Alveolata and Rhizaria, includes parasites, consumers of phototrophs and epibionts that may regulate the dynamics of gutter mat microbial communities. Network analyses demonstrated that street microbiome present many species restricted to gutters, and an overlapping composition between the water sources used for street cleaning (for example, intra-urban aquatic networks and the associated rivers) and the gutters. We propose that street gutters, which can cover a significant surface area of cities worldwide, potentially have important ecological roles in the remediation of pollutants or downstream wastewater treatments, might also be a niche for growth and dissemination of putative parasite and pathogens.

  10. Unsuspected diversity of Niphargus amphipods in the chemoautotrophic cave ecosystem of Frasassi, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattagupta Sharmishtha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfide-rich Frasassi caves in central Italy contain a rare example of a freshwater ecosystem supported entirely by chemoautotrophy. Niphargus ictus, the sole amphipod species previously reported from this locality, was recently shown to host the first known case of a freshwater chemoautotrophic symbiosis. Since the habitat of N. ictus is highly fragmented and is comprised of streams and lakes with various sulfide concentrations, we conducted a detailed study to examine the potential genetic diversity of this species within Frasassi. Results By sequencing one nuclear (ITS and two mitochondrial (COI and 12S regions, we show that four partially sympatric Niphargus clades are present in Frasassi. Morphological and behavioral data obtained for three of these clades are perfectly congruent with this molecular delineation and make it possible to distinguish them in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA sequences reveal that, among the four clades, only two are closely related to each other. Moreover, these four clades occupy distinct niches that seem to be related to the chemical properties and flow regimes of the various water bodies within Frasassi. Conclusions Our results suggest that four distinct Niphargus species are present in Frasassi and that they originated from three or four independent invasions of the cave system. At least two among the four species harbor Thiothrix epibionts, which paves the way for further studies of the specificity and evolutionary history of this symbiosis.

  11. Microbial proliferation on gill structures of juvenile European lobster ( Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Karen L.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of gill-cleaning structures is not well described in European lobster ( Homarus gammarus). Furthermore, the magnitude and time scale of microbial proliferation on gill structures is unknown to date. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate development of setae in zoea, megalopa and juvenile stages (I-V). Microbes were classified and quantified on gill structures throughout a moult cycle from megalopa (stage IV) to juvenile (stage V). Epipodial serrulate setae, consisting of a naked proximal setal shaft with the distal portion possessing scale-like outgrowths (setules), occur only after zoea stage III. After moulting to megalopa (stage IV), gill structures were completely clean and no microbes were visible on days 1 or 5 postmoult. Microbial proliferation was first evident on day 10 postmoult, with a significant 16-fold increase from day 10 to 15. Rod-shaped bacteria were initially predominant (by day 10); however, by day 15 the microbial community was dominated by cocci-shaped bacteria. This research provides new insights into the morphology of gill-grooming structures, the timing of their development, and the magnitude, timescale and characteristics of gill microbial proliferation during a moult cycle. To some degree, the exponential growth of epibionts on gills found during a moult cycle will likely impair respiratory (gas exchange) and ion regulatory function, yet further research is needed to evaluate the physiological effects of the exponential bacterial proliferation documented here.

  12. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-02-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the ``slender'' and ``stocky'' forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the ``slender'' morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the ``stocky'' morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the ``slender'' morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link.

  13. Bioerosion and encrustation: Evidences from the Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hedeny, Magdy; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Al Farraj, Saleh

    2017-10-01

    The Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic hard substrates of central Saudi Arabia displayed considerable signs of bioerosion and encrustations. They include organic (oysters, other bivalves, gastropods, corals and brachiopods) and an inorganic carbonate hardground that marks the boundary between the Middle Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone and the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation. Traces of bioerosion in organic substrates include seven ichnotaxa produced by bivalves (Gastrochaenolites Leymerie, 1842), polychaete annelids (Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932; MaeandropolydoraVoigt, 1965 and CaulostrepsisClarke, 1908), sponges (Entobia Bronn, 1837), acrothoracican cirripedes (Rogerella Saint-Seine, 1951), gastropods (Oichnus Bromley, 1981) and probable ?Centrichnus cf. eccentricus. The encrusting epifauna on these substrates consist of several organisms, including oysters, serpulid worms, corals and foraminifera. In contrast, the carbonate hardground was only bioeroded by Gastrochaenolite, Trypanites and Entobia. Epibionts on this hardground include ;Liostrea Douvillé, 1904-type; oysters, Nanogyra nana Sowerby, 1822 and serpulids. In general, bioerosion and encrustation are less diversified in hardground than in organic substrates, indicating a long time of exposition of organic substrates with slow to moderate rate of deposition in a restricted marine environment. Both organic and inorganic commuinities are correlated with those of other equatorial, subtropical and temperate equivalents.

  14. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parasitic gastropod bioerosion trace fossil on Cenomanian oysters from Le Mans, France and its ichnologic and taphonomic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Breton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe and name Loxolenichnus stellatocinctus Breton and Wisshak igen. et isp. nov., a bioerosion trace fossil on an Upper Cenomanian oyster from Le Mans (France. This trace is attributed here to a parasitic gastropod. The characteristics of this ichnospecies are a combination of one or several, vertical or oblique, complete penetrations, and an asymmetrical attachment etching (fixichnion with a diagnostic set of stellate grooves increasingly distinct towards the margin of the trace. By including two former Oichnus ichnospecies, Loxolenichnus halo comb. nov. and Loxolenichnus taddei comb. nov., Oichnus, is now constrained to pure predation traces (praedichnia. The numerous oysters collected from the Marnes à Pycnodonte biauriculata Formation show associated epibionts and encrusters as well as borers and scrapers. Encrusters comprise 24 taxa while bioerosion trace fossils comprise 17 ichnotaxa ranging from very rare (< 0.1% to quite abundant (81%. The taphonomic history leading to an ex-situ condensation of these oysters is complex. Both the Gnathichnus and Entobia ichnofacies are represented on the shellgrounds, presumably alternatingly.

  16. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the “slender” and “stocky” forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the “slender” morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the “stocky” morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the “slender” morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link. PMID:25655432

  17. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly C Wu

    Full Text Available Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.. Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups-the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%. L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40% on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts.

  18. Locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals as detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, C.; Smith, E. G.; Oswald, F.; Burt, J.; Tchernov, D.; Wiedenmann, J.

    2012-12-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are a prevalent group of host pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colours of many reef-building corals. They have been suggested to contribute to the striking coloration changes of different corals species in response to wounding and infestation with epibionts/parasites. In order to elucidate the physiological processes underlying the potentially disease-related colour changes, we have analysed spatial and temporal expression patterns of GFP-like proteins and other biomarkers in corals from the Red Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf and Fiji both in their natural habitat and under specific laboratory conditions. The expression of distinct GFP-like proteins and the growth marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen was upregulated in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies as well as in disturbed colony parts. Furthermore, phenoloxidase activity increased in these proliferating tissues. It is thus demonstrated that locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals and, moreover, these processes can be detected utilizing the excellent biomarker properties of GFP-like proteins. Finally, the results of this work suggest an additional vulnerability of corals in predicted future scenarios of increased ocean acidification, warming and eutrophication that are anticipated to reduce coral growth capacity.

  19. Composition and seasonal variation of brachyura and anomura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated with brown mussel farms at Praia da Cocanha, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Coletti Bernadochi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition and seasonal variation of brachyuran and anomuran species associated with mussel farms were evaluated at Praia da Cocanha, São Paulo between May 2007 and February 2008. Nine mussel ropes were sampled at random in each quarter, and 1,208 organisms were identified, comprising five families and 28 species. The most numerous species was the porcellanid Pachycheles laevidactylus (18.5%, followed by the xanthids Acantholobulus schmitti (16.6%, Hexapanopeus paulensis (11.3%, Panopeus americanus (10.2%, and Menippe nodifrons (8.4%. The exotic crab Charybdis hellerii was recorded throughout the study period. The ecological descriptors, except Pielou evenness index, varied significantly over the time. The highest abundance and diversity of the species were recorded during November and February. This pattern was reversed for Berger-Parker dominance, with the lowest values recorded in February. The development of epifauna was correlated with the different stages of the mussel farms, since the mean size of mussels and consequently the abundance of epibiotic organisms and the structural complexity on the mussel ropes increased from May (seeding until February (harvest. Despite this, the temporal population variations in recruitment patterns of the different epibionts should not be overlooked. The results indicated that the mussel farms provided favorable conditions for the development of these crustacean groups, which could be used in environmental monitoring programs and / or be exploited for the aquarium trade.

  20. Islands in a Sea of Mud: Insights From Terrestrial Island Theory for Community Assembly on Insular Marine Substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K S

    Most marine hard-bottom habitats are isolated, separated from other similar habitats by sand or mud flats, and can be considered analogous to terrestrial islands. The extensive scientific literature on terrestrial islands provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of isolated marine habitats. More individuals and higher species richness occur on larger marine substrata, a pattern that resembles terrestrial islands. However, while larger terrestrial islands have greater habitat diversity and productivity, the higher species richness on larger marine hard substrata can be explained by simple surface area and hydrodynamic phenomena: larger substrata extend further into the benthic boundary, exposing fauna to faster current and higher food supply. Marine island-like communities are also influenced by their distance to similar habitats, but investigations into the reproductive biology and dispersal ability of individual species are required for a more complete understanding of population connectivity. On terrestrial islands, nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been attributed to interspecific competition, but while nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been found for marine fauna, different mechanisms are responsible, including epibiontism. Major knowledge gaps for community assembly in isolated marine habitats include the degree of connectivity between isolated habitats, mechanisms of succession, and the extent of competition on hard substrata, particularly in the deep sea. Anthropogenic hard substrata of known age can be used opportunistically as "natural" laboratories to begin answering these questions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and function of the first antibiotic isolated from a vent organism: the extremophile metazoan Alvinella pompejana.

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    Aurélie Tasiemski

    Full Text Available The emblematic hydrothermal worm Alvinella pompejana is one of the most thermo tolerant animal known on Earth. It relies on a symbiotic association offering a unique opportunity to discover biochemical adaptations that allow animals to thrive in such a hostile habitat. Here, by studying the Pompeii worm, we report on the discovery of the first antibiotic peptide from a deep-sea organism, namely alvinellacin. After purification and peptide sequencing, both the gene and the peptide tertiary structures were elucidated. As epibionts are not cultivated so far and because of lethal decompression effects upon Alvinella sampling, we developed shipboard biological assays to demonstrate that in addition to act in the first line of defense against microbial invasion, alvinellacin shapes and controls the worm's epibiotic microflora. Our results provide insights into the nature of an abyssal antimicrobial peptide (AMP and into the manner in which an extremophile eukaryote uses it to interact with the particular microbial community of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. Unlike earlier studies done on hydrothermal vents that all focused on the microbial side of the symbiosis, our work gives a view of this interaction from the host side.

  2. Characterization and function of the first antibiotic isolated from a vent organism: the extremophile metazoan Alvinella pompejana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Jung, Sascha; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Jollivet, Didier; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Pradillon, Florence; Vetriani, Costantino; Hecht, Oliver; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Gelhaus, Christoph; Hung, Chien-Wen; Tholey, Andreas; Leippe, Matthias; Grötzinger, Joachim; Gaill, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The emblematic hydrothermal worm Alvinella pompejana is one of the most thermo tolerant animal known on Earth. It relies on a symbiotic association offering a unique opportunity to discover biochemical adaptations that allow animals to thrive in such a hostile habitat. Here, by studying the Pompeii worm, we report on the discovery of the first antibiotic peptide from a deep-sea organism, namely alvinellacin. After purification and peptide sequencing, both the gene and the peptide tertiary structures were elucidated. As epibionts are not cultivated so far and because of lethal decompression effects upon Alvinella sampling, we developed shipboard biological assays to demonstrate that in addition to act in the first line of defense against microbial invasion, alvinellacin shapes and controls the worm's epibiotic microflora. Our results provide insights into the nature of an abyssal antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and into the manner in which an extremophile eukaryote uses it to interact with the particular microbial community of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. Unlike earlier studies done on hydrothermal vents that all focused on the microbial side of the symbiosis, our work gives a view of this interaction from the host side.

  3. Biodiversity patterns of epifaunal assemblages associated with the gorgonians Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in response to host, space and time

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biodiversity (alpha- and beta-diversity), abundance and community structure of the epifaunal assemblages associated with two gorgonians, Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica, were analysed in relation to host, colony size, location and time. Colony size and time were the major factors shaping attendant assemblages. Patterns of alpha-diversity and beta-diversity were host-dependent. Assemblages associated with E. gazella showed a significant inter-annual variability for most of the metrics analysed, while in those associated with L. lusitanica only Shannon-Wiener varied significantly between years. In L lusitanica Hurlbert\\'s expected number of taxa was significantly lower in small-sized than in medium- to large-sized colonies, but an opposite pattern was detected for beta-diversity, reflecting the higher heterogeneity among small-sized colonies. The dbRDA analysis segregated the assemblages associated with each of the two hosts; the faunal patterns were mainly explained by colony size related attributes (area, number of branches and, to a lesser extent, width) and the "colonial" epibiont cover. However, we suggest that altogether they may act as a metacommunity, with high temporal and spatial fluidity in their composition and structure related to multiple factors including not only a component of stochasticity but also life history events, biotic interactions and response to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Population study of the fan shell Pinna nobilis L. in Malo and Veliko Jezero of the Mljet National Park (Adriatic Sea

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    Tihana Siletic

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have noted the presence of the bivalve Pinna nobilis Linnaeus, 1758 in Mljet National Park, there is a lack of basic knowledge of this endangered species. The present study was initiated as part of a long-term investigation of P. nobilis density and growth with the aim of gaining a better understanding of this species´ population dynamics, as well as evaluating the efficiency of protection measures of P. nobilis in Mljet National Park. Density, population structure, growth of tagged individuals and epibionts on P. nobilis were studied using SCUBA diving in 1998 and 2000 along four transects in Mljet inlets, Adriatic Sea. The density of P. nobilis ranged from 0.20 ind/m2 on transect MLJ-9 in Malo Jezero in 1998 to 0.02 ind/m2 on transect MLJ-5 in Veliko Jezero in 2000. Individuals measured in 1998 were significantly smaller than those measured in 2000. Growth curves were constructed from data collected by tagging and re-measuring 47 individuals. A decrease in density along some of the transects and the disappearance of 24 tagged individuals in 2000 is suggestive of poaching. The results of the present study indicate recovery of the P. nobilis population in Mljet lakes, but also provide evidence for the illegal removal of this protected species.

  5. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shelly C; Bergey, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina) across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.). Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups-the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas) than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%). L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40%) on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of cultivable bacteria associated with seaweeds in the Gulf of Mannar on the southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakan, B; Chakraborty, K; Chakraborty, R D

    2016-08-01

    In this study, 234 bacterial strains were isolated from 7 seaweed species in the Gulf of Mannar on the southeast coast of India. The strains having consistent antimicrobial activity were chosen for further studies, and this constituted about 9.8% of the active strains isolated. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequencing with the help of classical biochemical identification indicated the existence of 2 major phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Antimicrobial activity analysis combined with the results of amplifying genes encoding for polyketide synthetase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase showed that seaweed-associated bacteria had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These epibionts might be beneficial to seaweeds by limiting or preventing the development of competing or fouling bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of ketosynthase (KS) regions with respect to the diverse range of KS domains showed that the KS domains from the candidate isolates were of Type I. The bacterial cultures retained their antimicrobial activities after plasmid curing, which further suggested that the antimicrobial activity of these isolates was not encoded by plasmid, and the genes encoding the antimicrobial product might be present within the genome. Seaweed-associated bacteria with potential antimicrobial activity suggested that the seaweed species are an ideal ecological niche harboring specific bacterial diversity representing a largely underexplored source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites.

  7. Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda, with notes on a high infestation

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    Roberto Júnio P. Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827 (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae, originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758 Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

  8. Deep Sequencing of Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) methanophila, an Epibiotic Sponge on Cold-Seep Tubeworms, Reveals Methylotrophic, Thiotrophic, and Putative Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Associations

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano, Shawn M.

    2012-10-11

    The encrusting sponge Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) methanophila (Poecilosclerida: Myxillidae) is an epibiont on vestimentiferan tubeworms at hydrocarbon seeps on the upper Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico. It has long been suggested that this sponge harbors methylotrophic bacteria due to its low δ13C value and high methanol dehydrogenase activity, yet the full community of microbial associations in M. methanophila remained uncharacterized. In this study, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes representing the microbial community in M. methanophila collected from two hydrocarbon-seep sites (GC234 and Bush Hill) using both Sanger sequencing and next-generation 454 pyrosequencing technologies. Additionally, we compared the microbial community in M. methanophila to that of the biofilm collected from the associated tubeworm. Our results revealed that the microbial diversity in the sponges from both sites was low but the community structure was largely similar, showing a high proportion of methylotrophic bacteria of the genus Methylohalomonas and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria of the genera Cycloclasticus and Neptunomonas. Furthermore, the sponge microbial clone library revealed the dominance of thioautotrophic gammaproteobacterial symbionts in M. methanophila. In contrast, the biofilm communities on the tubeworms were more diverse and dominated by the chemoorganotrophic Moritella at GC234 and methylotrophic Methylomonas and Methylohalomonas at Bush Hill. Overall, our study provides evidence to support previous suggestion that M. methanophila harbors methylotrophic symbionts and also reveals the association of PAH-degrading and thioautotrophic microbes in the sponge. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  9. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

    2011-06-01

    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon.

  10. Parastacuspugnax (Poeppig, 1835 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae: conocimiento biológico, presión extractiva y perspectivas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich H Rudolph

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El camarón excavador, Parastacuspugnax (Poeppig, 1835, es una de las seis especies de la familia Parastacidae que habita las aguas dulces de Chile, y la que soporta mayor extracción para consumo humano. Sin embargo, carece de una legislación que la proteja y su conocimiento biológico es escaso, fragmentario y disperso. En este artículo se recopila la información publicada de esta especie, junto a otros datos accesibles al autor, con el objetivo de actualizar el conocimiento de su biología, evidenciar la magnitud de la presión extractiva que soporta y analizar la factibilidad de su cultivo en cautiverio. Se proporciona información sobre: sistemática, distribución geográfica, hábitat, conducta excavadora, variación morfológica, casos teratológicos, tamaño, relación longitud-peso, estructura de longitud, densidad poblacional, biología reproductiva, migraciones, hábitos alimentarios, crecimiento, depredadores, epibiontes, parásitos, enfermedades, pesquería y comercialización, legislación, estado de conservación y perspectivas de cultivo.

  11. Population study of the Hawksbill Turtle eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae) in the southern pacific region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobon Lopez, Alexander; Amorocho Llanos, Diego Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) found in the southern Colombian Pacific Department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals) on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL) showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the Department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007). Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values.

  12. Host-specific phenotypic plasticity of the turtle barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria: a widespread generalist rather than a specialist.

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    Chi Chiu Cheang

    Full Text Available Turtle barnacles are common epibionts on marine organisms. Chelonibia testudinaria is specific on marine turtles whereas C. patula is a host generalist, but rarely found on turtles. It has been questioned why C. patula, being abundant on a variety of live substrata, is almost absent from turtles. We evaluated the genetic (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and morphological differentiation of C. testudinaia and C. patula from different hosts, to determine the mode of adaptation exhibited by Chelonibia species on different hosts. The two taxa demonstrate clear differences in shell morphology and length of 4-6(th cirri, but very similar in arthropodal characters. Moreover, we detected no genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses. Outlier detection infers insignificant selection across loci investigated. Based on combined morphological and molecular evidence, we proposed that C. testudinaria and C. patula are conspecific, and the two morphs with contrasting shell morphologies and cirral length found on different host are predominantly shaped by developmental plasticity in response to environmental setting on different hosts. Chelonibia testudinaria is, thus, a successful general epibiotic fouler and the phenotypic responses postulated can increase the fitness of the animals when they attach on hosts with contrasting life-styles.

  13. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  14. AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCAL DE PRODUÇÃO DO "PEQUIZEIRO-ANÃO" SOB CONDIÇÕES NATURAIS NA REGIÃO SUL DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS DWARF "PEQUI" PRODUCTION POTENTIAL EVALUATION UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS STATE

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    DIJALMA BARBOSA DA SILVA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O pequizeiro (Caryocar spp. - Caryocaraceae é uma planta nativa do Cerrado e da Amazônia, cujo fruto é muito rico em óleo e proteína, e bastante apreciado pelos povos que vivem nestes ecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de produção do "pequizeiro-anão", (Caryocar brasiliense subsp. intermedium, em seu habitat. Foram realizadas duas prospecções botânicas na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997 e 1998, em áreas de vegetação de cerrado, nas proximidades do município de Ingaí-MG, onde se observou a ocorrência de pequizeiro de porte baixo. Foi observado que os frutos apresentam deiscência e grande heterogeneidade em relação ao número de frutos/planta. Nas plantas com tronco, encontraram-se até 86 frutos/planta e, nas sem tronco, até 16 frutos/planta. A época de maturação dos frutos concentra-se nos meses de fevereiro e março. O fruto de cor esverdeada e polpa amarelo-alaranjada possui em média duas sementes/endocarpo, com peso médio de 8g. Em plantios realizados no Distrito Federal, foi observado que as plantas de "pequizeiro-anão", oriundas de sementes, iniciaram a frutificação com altura de 60 cm, aos 18 a 24 meses após o plantio, evidenciando que são também precoces. O "pequizeiro-anão" apresenta potencial para sua exploração em cultivos comerciais e em programas de melhoramento genético.The pequi tree (Caryocar spp. -- Caryocaraceae, a wild specie of Brazilian savannah and Amazon region, is an edible fruit for people living in these ecosystems. The "dwarf pequi tree" (Cariocar brasiliense subsp. intermedium, has a restricted occurrence in some parts of Brasilian savanna which is an incorporated process to arable farm, treating the survival of this specie. The objective of this work was to evaluate the production potencial of "dwarf pequi tree" in its natural habitat. The fruits can be harvested from February to March. In the plant with and without trunk there are up to

  15. Capítulo VI: evaluación de la resistencia al pasador del fruto de tomate Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Gueneé en materiales L. hirsutum Humb y Bonpl y L. pimpinellifolium (Just mill y su transferencia a materiales cultivados de tomate L. esculentum Mill

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    Salinas Helbert

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar el ciclo de vida del pasador  del fruto del tomate, N. elegantalis y evaluar la resistencia genética en diferentes accesiones de Lycopersicon y en poblaciones derivadas de cruzamientos interespecíficos entre L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum. La evaluación se realizó en condiciones de campo, utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Se midieron los siguientes caracteres: estados del ciclo de vida, número de posturas, cantidad de frutos dañados, número de perforaciones de entrada, número de larvas por fruto e intensidad del daño. Se determinó el ciclo de vida del insecto plaga. Las especies silvestres fueron calificadas como muy resistentes o resistentes. Las variedades comerciales fueron calificadas como susceptible o medianamente susceptibles. Las poblaciones segregantes provenientes de los cruzamientos interespecíficos fueron calificados como resistentes o ligeramente susceptibles, indicando la posibilidad de introgresión genética de la resistencia. El insecto plaga  tiene mayor preferencia por fenotipos con frutos de mayor peso promedio y pericarpio duro.

    The research was carried out to study the life cicle of N. elegantalis, and the identification of resistence to the insect among Lycopersicon accessions and derivated populations from crossing between L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium and L. hirsutum. The life cicle of N. elegantalis was determinated. The wild species L. hirsutum and L. pimpinellifolium were very resistant and resistant, respectively. The Lycopersicon cultivars were susceptibles and derivated populationes from interspecific crossing were resistant or intermedium susceptible. There were associations between the fruit size, fruit firmness, fruit weight and susceptible expression in the plants from crossing between L. hirsutum, L. pimpinellifolium and commercial cultivars.

  16. On the possibility and conditions of intermediate-level radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tyukov, V.A.; Brovkova, E.V.; Zakharenko, V.N.; Konstantinovich, A.A.; Krylova, l.V.; Kulichenko, V.V.; Musatov, N.D.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of laboratory studies on the possibility and conditions of vitrification of intermedium-level radioactive wastes are presented. The investigations are carried out as applied to a facility with the use of a direct electric heating furnace. Various available minerals are used as fluxing agents. The main part of experiments is conducted using datolite concentrate and fluorite. The studies are made with liquid wastes, containing from 260 to 370 kg/m 3 NaNO 3 , 2-8 kg/m 3 KNO 3 , different concentrations of iron compounds (up to 20 kg/m 3 ), magnesium (up to 35 kg/m 3 ), calcium (from 15 to 60 kg/m 3 ), chlorides (up to 15 kg/m 3 ), sulfates (up to 10 kg/m 3 ), and fluorides (up to 10 kq/m 3 ). Data, characterizing the entrainment of certain components of wastes and flux in the process of vitrification, and the main parameters of the procedure, as well as the effect of waste humidity on conditions of their reprocessing are obtained. A conclusion is drawn that the volume of vitrified wastes obtained as a result of vitrification of 1 m 3 of liquid wastes is 0.2 to 0.3 m 3 . It is 3.7 times less, than the volume with waste inclusions into bitumen and polymers and almost 10 times as less as the volume of a cement block obtained from the same wastes. The leaching out rate of the least strongly fixed radionuclide, 137 Cs, makes up (2-3)x10 -6 g/(cm 2 xday), which is by two orders lower than the rate of leaching from a bitumenous block and by fours orders lower than the rate of leaching from cement

  17. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis. PHOSPHO1 protein localization during amelogenesis was verified using immunohistochemistry, with positive signals in the enamel layer, ameloblast Tomes' processes, and in the walls of ameloblast secretory vesicles. These ameloblast secretory vesicle walls were also labeled for amelogenin and the exosomal protein marker HSP70 using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, PHOSPHO1 presence in the enamel organ was confirmed by Western blot. Phospho1−/− mice lacked sharp incisal tips, featured a significant 25% increase in total enamel volume, and demonstrated a significant 2-fold reduction in silver grain density of von Kossa stained ground sections indicative of reduced mineralization in the enamel layer when compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.001. Scanning electron micrographs of Phospho1−/− mouse enamel revealed a loss of the prominent enamel prism “picket fence” structure, a loss of parallel crystal organization within prisms, and a 1.56-fold increase in enamel prism width (p < 0.0001. Finally, EDS elemental analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in phosphate incorporation in the enamel layer when compared to controls (p < 0.05. Together, these data establish that the matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is essential for physiological enamel mineralization. Our findings also suggest that intracellular ameloblast secretory

  18. Corticothalamic and corticotectal somatosensory projections from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (SIV cortex) in neonatal cats: an anatomical demonstration with HRP and /sup 3/H-leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHaffie, J.G.; Kruger, L.; Clemo, H.R.; Stein, B.E.

    1988-08-01

    Corticothalamic and corticotectal projections from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) in neonatal cats were studied with anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical techniques. When the injection site was relatively restricted to the sulcal walls and fundus of the rostral AES (i.e., the SIV cortex), heavy ipsilateral thalamic label was observed in the medial subdivision of the posterior group, in the suprageniculate nucleus, and in the external medullary lamina. No terminal label was seen in the contralateral thalamus although the contralateral homotopic cortex was heavily labeled. Within the ventrobasal complex (VB), dense axonal label was observed in fascicles that traversed VB, but only light terminal label was observed within VB itself. However, in cases where the tracer spread into adjacent SII, terminal label in VB was pronounced. Similarly, when the injection site extended into auditory cortex, terminal label was observed in the lateral and intermediate subdivisions of the posterior group. Rostral AES injections produced distinct, predominantly ipsilateral, terminal label in the superior colliculus that was distributed in two tiers: a discontinuous band in the stratum griseum intermedium and a more diffuse band in stratum griseum profundum. Caudally, dense terminal label was seen in the intercollicular zone and dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. When the injection site did not include rostral AES, no label was observed in the superior colliculus. Horseradish peroxidase injections into the superior colliculus of neonates produced retrogradely labeled neurons throughout the AES, but none was found on the crown of the gyrus where SII is located. Thus, the neonatal corticotectal somatosensory projection arises exclusively from AES and parallels that found in adults.

  19. Transmitter receptors reveal segregation of the arcopallium/amygdala complex in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christina; Paulitschek, Christina; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Güntürkün, Onur; Zilles, Karl

    2018-02-15

    At the beginning of the 20th century it was suggested that a complex group of nuclei in the avian posterior ventral telencephalon is comparable to the mammalian amygdala. Subsequent findings, however, revealed that most of these structures share premotor characteristics, while some indeed constitute the avian amygdala. These developments resulted in 2004 in a change of nomenclature of these nuclei, which from then on were named arcopallial or amygdala nuclei and referred to as the arcopallium/amygdala complex. The structural basis for the similarities between avian and mammalian arcopallial and amygdala subregions is poorly understood. Therefore, we analyzed binding site densities for glutamatergic AMPA, NMDA and kainate, GABAergic GABA A , muscarinic M 1 , M 2 and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh; α 4 β 2 subtype), noradrenergic α 1 and α 2 , serotonergic 5-HT 1A and dopaminergic D 1/5 receptors using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography combined with a detailed analysis of the cyto- and myelo-architecture. Our approach supports a segregation of the pigeon's arcopallium/amygdala complex into the following subregions: the arcopallium anterius (AA), the arcopallium ventrale (AV), the arcopallium dorsale (AD), the arcopallium intermedium (AI), the arcopallium mediale (AM), the arcopallium posterius (AP), the nucleus posterioris amygdalopallii pars basalis (PoAb) and pars compacta (PoAc), the nucleus taeniae amgygdalae (TnA) and the area subpallialis amygdalae (SpA). Some of these subregions showed further subnuclei and each region of the arcopallium/amygdala complex are characterized by a distinct multi-receptor density expression. Here we provide a new detailed map of the pigeon's arcopallium/amygdala complex and compare the receptor architecture of the subregions to their possible mammalian counterparts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A survey of entomopathogenic nematode species in continental Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, V; Laranjo, M; Mota, M; Oliveira, S

    2014-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are lethal parasites of insects, used as biocontrol agents. The objectives of this work were to survey the presence of EPN in continental Portugal and to characterize the different species. Of the 791 soil samples collected throughout continental Portugal, 53 were positive for EPN. Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were the two most abundant species. Analysis of EPN geographical distribution revealed an association between nematode species and vegetation type. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was mostly found in the Alentejo region while S. feltiae was present in land occupied by agriculture with natural vegetation, broadleaved forest, mixed forest and transitional woodland-shrub, agro-forestry areas, complex cultivated patterns and non-irrigated arable land. Although no clear association was found between species and soil type, S. feltiae was typically recovered from cambisols and H. bacteriophora was more abundant in lithosols. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that S. feltiae was the most abundant species, followed by H. bacteriophora. Steinernema intermedium and S. kraussei were each isolated from one site and Steinernema sp. from two sites. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS, D2D3 expansion region of the 28S rRNA gene, as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes, was performed to evaluate the genetic diversity of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. No significant genetic diversity was found among H. bacteriophora isolates. However, COXI seems to be the best marker to study genetic diversity of S. feltiae. This survey contributes to the understanding of EPN distribution in Europe.

  1. A comparison of bioelectricity in microbial fuel cells with aerobic and anaerobic anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can, besides running on wastewater, also derive energy directly from certain aquatic plants. However, few studies have focussed on electricity generation using aerobic anodes. This study presents a comparison of the MFC performances of an anaerobic-anode MFC (ana-MFC) and an aerobic-anode MFC (aa-MFC), and shows their individual conditions for optimal operation. Results show that the maximum power density of 7.07 +/- 0.45 mW/m2 for the ana-MFC occurred at 500 omega, whereas the aa-MFC had a maximum power density of 2.34 +/- 0.16 mW/m2 at 2200 omega. The ana-MFC generally achieved high electricity generation, and the aa-MFC achieved relatively high electricity generation when fed with a diluted substrate. In the ana-MFC, the optimal substrate for electricity generation was glucose (fermentable substrate); however, glucose and acetic acid (non-fermentable substrate) were both suitable substrates for the aa-MFC. The optimal gas retention times of the ana-MFC and the aa-MFC were 9 and 120 s, respectively. This retention time is an important limiting factor of electricity generation for the ana-MFC. The aa-MFCs fed with different substrates exhibited non-significant differences between bacterial communities. We observed the relative diversities of bacterial communities in the ana-MFC fed with various substrates. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggest that Ochrobactrum intermedium, Delftia acidovorans, and Citrobacterfreundii may be potential electrogenic bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the MFC performances of anaerobic and aerobic anodes.

  2. Prevalence, Host Range, and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Temperate Ochrobactrum Phages

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    Claudia Jäckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum and Brucella are closely related bacteria that populate different habitats and differ in their pathogenic properties. Only little is known about mobile genetic elements in these genera which might be important for survival and virulence. Previous studies on Brucella lysogeny indicated that active phages are rare in this genus. To gain insight into the presence and nature of prophages in Ochrobactrum, temperate phages were isolated from various species and characterized in detail. In silico analyses disclosed numerous prophages in published Ochrobactrum genomes. Induction experiments showed that Ochrobactrum prophages can be induced by various stress factors and that some strains released phage particles even under non-induced conditions. Sixty percent of lysates prepared from 125 strains revealed lytic activity. The host range and DNA similarities of 19 phages belonging to the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, or Podoviridae were determined suggesting that they are highly diverse. Some phages showed relationship to the temperate Brucella inopinata phage BiPB01. The genomic sequences of the myovirus POA1180 (41,655 bp and podovirus POI1126 (60,065 bp were analyzed. Phage POA1180 is very similar to a prophage recently identified in a Brucella strain isolated from an exotic frog. The POA1180 genome contains genes which may confer resistance to chromate and the ability to take up sulfate. Phage POI1126 is related to podoviruses of Sinorhizobium meliloti (PCB5, Erwinia pyrifoliae (Pep14, and Burkholderia cenocepacia (BcepIL02 and almost identical to an unnamed plasmid of the Ochrobactrum intermedium strain LMG 3301. Further experiments revealed that the POI1126 prophage indeed replicates as an extrachromosomal element. The data demonstrate for the first time that active prophages are common in Ochrobactrum and suggest that atypical brucellae also may be a reservoir for temperate phages.

  3. Good for sewage treatment and good for agriculture: Algal based compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2017-09-15

    In this study we test a novel approach to closing the anthropogenic nutrient cycle, by using the freshwater macroalga, Oedogonium intermedium, to recover dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from municipal wastewater. We then convert this cultivated algae into two types of soil ameliorant; compost and biochar. To produce compost, algae was combined with sugarcane bagasse and left to mature for 10 weeks, and to produce biochar, algae was processed through slow pyrolysis at 450 °C. The mature compost had a total N and P content of 2.5% and 0.6%, which was 2- to 4-times lower than the algal biochar, which had a total N and P content of 5.5% and 2.5% respectively. Composting stabilized the N and P recovered from wastewater, with 80% of the initial N and >99% of the initial P retained in the mature compost. In contrast, only 29% of the initial N and 62% of the initial P was retained in the biochar. When the mature compost was added to a low fertility soil it significantly increased the production of sweet corn (Zea mays). Treatments receiving 50 and 100% compost produced 4-9 times more corn biomass than when synthetic fertilizer alone was added to the low fertility soil. When biochar was applied in conjunction with compost there was an additional 15% increase in corn productivity, most likely due to the ability of the biochar to bind labile N and P and prevent its loss from the soil. This study demonstrates a unique model for recovering N and P from municipal wastewater and recycling these nutrients into the agricultural industry. This could be an ideal model for regional areas where agriculture and water treatment facilities are co-located and could ultimately reduce the reliance of agriculture on finite mineral sources of P. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

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    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  5. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

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    Richard C. Hayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  6. Possibilities of urolithiasis crystallodiagnostics

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    A.K. Martusevich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most common groups of diseases in veterinary medicine is the urinary system pathology. Urolithiasis is widespread disease, could be found in many species, including cats, dogs, rabbits, guinea-pigs, turtles etc. Despite the large scale of this pathology in animal world, there are some challenges with diagnostic process and diagnosis’s verification. The aim of our study is estimation of diagnostic value of advanced urine tesiocrystalloscopy in urolithiasis (by the example of cats. We studied crystallogenic and initiated properties of 24 healthy cats and 32 animals with urolithiasis. Own and initiated crystallogenesis of the urine specimens was studied. For teziographic test we used sodium chloride solution (0.45%, 0.9%, 3% consequently, hydrochloric acid solution (0.1H and sodium hydroxide (0.1H as a crystal-forming substances. We used the original criterions to estimate crystalloscopic and tezigraphic facias. As the main parameters structure index (SI, crystallizability (Cr, facia's destruction degree (FDD and edge belt intensity (EB were used to describe free crystallogenesis, and main tezigraphic coefficient (Q, belt coefficient (B and FDD were used for the comparative tezigraphy data. Results showed that Cat’s urine in normal conditions has moderate crystallogenic activity, but in urolithiasis it acquires high level of crystallizing, with intermedium value of structure index, and significant destruction of crystal-forming elements. A similar changes of physical-chemical biomedium properties are detected during analysis of tezigraphic microslides of urines of cats with urolithiasis, that was prepared using 0.9% sodium chloride as basis substance. In conclusion, we fixed that tesiocristalloscopic „pattern“ of cats’ urine in urolithiasis significantly transforms into activation of crystal formation and increasing of biomedium’s initiating potential. So, the investigation of free or initialized urine

  7. Functional role of fouling community on an artificial reef at the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Werther Krohling

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State lacks natural consolidate substrates, making it a proper environment to the development of researches using artificial structures. After studies about the type of substrate, concrete seems to be the most appropriate for studying fouling community development. This research was carried out to investigate the functional role of biofouling in the development of the ichthyic community in the north of Rio de Janeiro State. Percentage data of the epibenthic organisms' coverage and samples of the fish community with gillnet and visual census showed that biofouling in artificial reefs might have more than one functional role, acting as a facilitator in the recruitment of fish species and as a link in the trophic marine chain. Through the increase of localized structural complexity provided by the reef itself and by the fouling organisms which act as "engineering species", additional protection options are offered to the ichthyic community, especially recruits. Also, the epibiont biomass represents an important link in the food web, acting either as a direct source or in the transference of energy to higher trophic levels. Through the relationship between the ichthyic and fouling communities we concluded that the functional role of the latter in artificial reef habitats could be characterized mainly as shelter and feeding grounds for few fish species.O litoral norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro possui uma escassez de substrato consolidado natural tornando o ambiente propício para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas com estruturas artificiais. Após estudos conclusivos sobre o tipo de substrato, o concreto parece ser o mais apropriado para o desenvolvimento da comunidade incrustante. Novas pesquisas foram realizadas para investigar o papel funcional da bioincrustação no desenvolvimento da comunidade íctica no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dados de porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos epibênticos e

  8. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  9. The value of algae as a substrate for intertidal invertebrates in the White Sea

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    Chovgan O. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to researching zoobenthos communities of the intertidal zone, where the role of the substrate is represented by littoral phytobenthos. Macrophytes are subject to changes in time and are part of the trophic structure of marine communities as comparing with an inert ground substrate. The comprehensive study of littoral biocenoses allows reveal interrelation of benthic organisms with the vegetable substrate where they inhabit. The aim of the work is the investigation of structure and distribution features of epibenthic communities on the littoral macrophytes of the Chupa inlet (the White Sea. The investigations were conducted at The White Sea Biological Station "Kartesh" (WSBS during the summer period of three years (2012–2015. The material was being collected on the intertidal zone of the Levaya bay, Kruglaya bay, and Sel'dyanaya bay of the Chupa inlet by the method of vertical transects using the accounting frame (0.25 m2 in the three-fold repetition. In the processing of samples, the abundance of algae and epibionts has been defined; the biomass and number of macrophytes and invertebrates have been measured. In the course of the work, it has been revealed that Fucus algae create a favorable habitat for epibenthos including moving animals. A variety of seaweed substrates contributes to increase of invertebrates' biomass. The only exceptions are parts of the bays, where seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and Pelvetia caniculata are abundant. These algae are not favourable substrate for most of epibenthic organisms and serve as habitat mainly of sedentary invertebrates due to the morphology of the thallus. Mussels Mytilus edulis are dominant invertebrates in the communities, where Fucus is the substrate. Filamentous algae contribute to active development of Hydrobia ulvae communities.

  10. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Do native grazers from Patagonia, Argentina, consume the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida? ¿Pueden los pastoreadores nativos de Patagonia, Argentina, consumir al alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida?

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    S. Valeria Teso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales was first reported in Golfo Nuevo in 1992 and since then it has spread widely over more than 170 km, all along the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina. Field observations in the region have indicated the potential role of invertebrate grazers, like the sea urchins Arbacia dufresnii and Pseudechinus magellanicus and the gastropod Tegula patagonica, in controlling algal density. Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether, and if so, to what extent these grazers actually feed on the algae. The studied sea urchins fed on the alga, whereas the snail scraped off biofouling adhered to its surface. Higher densities of grazers were observed on the kelp during summer and might be attributed to increasing in metabolism with increasing temperature, and degradation of blades and sporophylls, which possibly increase their palatability.El alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales fue reportada por primera vez en Golfo Nuevo en 1992, dispersándose ampliamente a lo largo de 170 km de costa en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Observaciones de campo hechas en los erizos de mar Arbacia dufresnii y Pseudechinus magellanicus y en el gasterópodo Tegula patagonica evidenciaron que son posibles consumidores de Undaria pinnatifida en la población local. Se realizaron experimentos de laboratorio con el objetivo de probar si estos pastoreadores eran capaces de consumir el alga. Los erizos de mar estudiados consumen el alga, mientras que el gasterópodo ramonea los epibiontes presentes sobre su superficie. Altas densidades de ramoneadores fueron encontradas sobre el alga durante el verano y podrían ser atribuidas a un aumento del su metabolismo con el aumento de la temperatura y a la degradación de las láminas y esporofilos, lo cual posiblemente aumente la palatabilidad del alga.

  12. Decontamination treatments to eliminate problem biota from macroalgal tank cultures ofOsmundea pinnatifida,Palmaria palmataandUlva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Philip D; Le, Hau Nhu; Twigg, Gail C; Smallman, Duncan R; MacPhee, Rory; Houston, Fiona A B; Hughes, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a range of chemical disinfectants at different concentration and exposure times was investigated on five macroalgal species and the marine gastropod Littorina spp. Palmaria palmata , Osmundea pinnatifida and Ulva lactuca are commercially valuable and are often cultivated in tanks for food or feed. Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ulva intestinalis are common epiphytes of P. palmata and O. pinnatifida cultures, whilst Littorina spp. are common herbivorous epibionts within U. lactuca culture tanks. These contaminants reduce the productivity and quality of the culture as a food. Differential tolerance to the treatments was seen between the algal species using pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll a fluorescence, a few hours and a week following treatment. We identified treatments that selectively damaged the epiphyte but not the basiphyte species. Ectocarpus siliculosus had a significantly lower tolerance to 1 % sodium hypochlorite than P. palmata , and to 25 % methanol than O. pinnatifida , with a 1-5 min exposure appearing most suitable. Ulva intestinalis had a significantly lower tolerance than P. palmata and O. pinnatifida to many disinfectants: 0.1-1 % sodium hypochlorite for 10 min, 0.5 % potassium iodide for up to 10 min, and 0.25 % Kick-start (a commercial aquaculture disinfectant solution) for 1-5 min. No treatment was able to kill the gastropod snails without also damaging U. lactuca , although agitation in freshwater for an hr may cause them to detach from the basiphyte, with little to no photophysiological impact seen to U. lactuca . This experiment forms the basis for more extended commercial trials.

  13. Distribution of bacteria and associated minerals in the gill chamber of the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and related biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, M.; Le Bris, N.; Compere, P.; Gaill, F.

    2004-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafauna of some mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. This species harbors a rich bacterial epibiosis inside its gill chamber. At the Rainbow vent field, the epibionts are associated with iron oxide deposits. Investigation of both bacteria and minerals by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) shows the occurrence of three distinct compartments in the gill chamber: (1) the lower pre-branchial chamber, housing bacteria, but devoid of minerals, (2) the "true" branchial chamber that contains the gills and remains free of both bacteria and minerals, and (3) the upper pre-branchial chamber housing the main ectosymbiotic bacterial community and associated iron oxides. According to our chemical and temperature data, abiotic iron oxidation appears to be kinetically inhibited in the environment of the shrimps and this would explain the lack of iron oxide deposits in the first two areas. We propose that, in the third area, iron oxidation is microbially promoted. The discrepancy between the spatial distribution of bacteria and minerals suggests that different bacterial metabolisms are involved in the two compartments. A possible explanation lies in the modification of physico-chemical conditions downstream of the gills, that would reduce the oxygen content and favor the development of bacterial iron-oxidizers in this Fe II-rich environment. A potential role of such iron-oxidizing symbionts in the shrimp diet is suggested. This would be unusual for hydrothermal ecosystems, where most previously described symbioses rely on sulphide or methane as an energy source.

  14. Investigation of bacterial communities within the digestive organs of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata provide insights into holobiont geographic clustering.

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    Dominique A Cowart

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation. To identify which hypothesis best fits, we tested whether bacterial assemblages exhibit differentiation across sites or host populations by performing a 16S rRNA metabarcoding survey on R. exoculata digestive prokaryote samples (n = 31 taken from three geochemically distinct vents across MAR: Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG and Logatchev. Analysis of communities across two organs (digestive tract, stomach, three molt colors (white, red, black and three life stages (eggs, juveniles, adults also provided insights into symbiont transmission mode. Examining both whole communities and operational taxonomic units (OTUs confirmed the presence of three main epibionts: Epsilonproteobacteria, Mollicutes and Deferribacteres. With these findings, we identified a clear pattern of geographic segregation by vent in OTUs assigned to Epsilonproteobacteria. Additionally, we detected evidence for differentiation among all communities associated to vents and life stages. Overall, results suggest a combination of environmental selection and vertical inheritance of some of the symbiotic lineages.

  15. Effect of temperature rise and ocean acidification on growth of calcifying tubeworm shells (Spirorbis spirorbis): an in situ benthocosm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Sha; Taubner, Isabelle; Böhm, Florian; Winde, Vera; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2018-03-01

    The calcareous tubeworm Spirorbis spirorbis is a widespread serpulid species in the Baltic Sea, where it commonly grows as an epibiont on brown macroalgae (genus Fucus). It lives within a Mg-calcite shell and could be affected by ocean acidification and temperature rise induced by the predicted future atmospheric CO2 increase. However, Spirorbis tubes grow in a chemically modified boundary layer around the algae, which may mitigate acidification. In order to investigate how increasing temperature and rising pCO2 may influence S. spirorbis shell growth we carried out four seasonal experiments in the Kiel Outdoor Benthocosms at elevated pCO2 and temperature conditions. Compared to laboratory batch culture experiments the benthocosm approach provides a better representation of natural conditions for physical and biological ecosystem parameters, including seasonal variations. We find that growth rates of S. spirorbis are significantly controlled by ontogenetic and seasonal effects. The length of the newly grown tube is inversely related to the initial diameter of the shell. Our study showed no significant difference of the growth rates between ambient atmospheric and elevated (1100 ppm) pCO2 conditions. No influence of daily average CaCO3 saturation state on the growth rates of S. spirorbis was observed. We found, however, net growth of the shells even in temporarily undersaturated bulk solutions, under conditions that concurrently favoured selective shell surface dissolution. The results suggest an overall resistance of S. spirorbis growth to acidification levels predicted for the year 2100 in the Baltic Sea. In contrast, S. spirorbis did not survive at mean seasonal temperatures exceeding 24 °C during the summer experiments. In the autumn experiments at ambient pCO2, the growth rates of juvenile S. spirorbis were higher under elevated temperature conditions. The results reveal that S. spirorbis may prefer moderately warmer conditions during their early life stages

  16. Biodiversity of prokaryotic communities associated with the ectoderm of Ectopleura crocea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa.

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    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available The surface of many marine organisms is colonized by complex communities of microbes, yet our understanding of the diversity and role of host-associated microbes is still limited. We investigated the association between Ectopleura crocea (a colonial hydroid distributed worldwide in temperate waters and prokaryotic assemblages colonizing the hydranth surface. We used, for the first time on a marine hydroid, a combination of electron and epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to investigate the associated prokaryotic diversity. Dense assemblages of prokaryotes were associated with the hydrant surface. Two microbial morphotypes were observed: one horseshoe-shaped and one fusiform, worm-like. These prokaryotes were observed on the hydrozoan epidermis, but not in the portions covered by the perisarcal exoskeleton, and their abundance was higher in March while decreased in late spring. Molecular analyses showed that assemblages were dominated by Bacteria rather than Archaea. Bacterial assemblages were highly diversified, with up to 113 genera and 570 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs, many of which were rare and contributed to <0.4%. The two most abundant OTUs, likely corresponding to the two morphotypes present on the epidermis, were distantly related to Comamonadaceae (genus Delftia and to Flavobacteriaceae (genus Polaribacter. Epibiontic bacteria were found on E. crocea from different geographic areas but not in other hydroid species in the same areas, suggesting that the host-microbe association is species-specific. This is the first detailed report of bacteria living on the hydrozoan epidermis, and indeed the first study reporting bacteria associated with the epithelium of E. crocea. Our results provide a starting point for future studies aiming at clarifying the role of this peculiar hydrozoan-bacterial association.

  17. Effect of depth and vent fluid composition on the carbon sources at two neighboring deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields (Mid-Cayman Rise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah A.; Dover, Cindy Van; Breier, John A.; Coleman, Max

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have used stable isotopes of megafauna, microbial mats and particulate organic matter to examine the effect of depth and vent fluid composition on the carbon sources at two proximal, chemically distinct hydrothermal vent fields along the Mid-Cayman Rise. The basalt hosted Piccard vent field (4980 m) is twice as deep as the ultramafic hosted Von Damm vent field (2300 m) and has very different faunal assemblages. Of particular note is the presence of seep-associated fauna, Escarpia and Lamellibrachia tubeworms, at the Von Damm vent field. We identify a greater range of carbon sources and a suggestion of increased photosynthetic inputs to the Von Damm vent field compared to Piccard vent field. Rimicaris hybisae shrimp are the only abundant species shared between the two vent fields with δ13C values ranging between -22.7 and -10.1‰. Higher concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the vent fluids at Piccard is proposed to be responsible for varying the relative contributions of the carbon fixation cycles used by their epibionts. Seep-associated fauna at Von Damm rely on elevated, thermogenic hydrocarbon content of the vent fluids for their carbon source (δ13C values ranging from -21.3 to 11.6‰). They also derive energy from hydrogen sulfide formed by the microbial reduction of sulfide (δ34S values ranging from -10.2 to -6.9‰). The tubeworms have very short roots (buried at most a centimeter into rubble), suggesting that microbial sulfate reduction must be occurring either in the shallow subsurface and/or in the anterior part of the tube. Overall, megafauna at Von Damm vent field appear to have a smaller food chain length (smaller δ15N range) but a greater breadth of trophic resources compared to the megafauna at the Piccard vent field.

  18. Dark production of extracellular superoxide by the coral Porites astreoides and representative symbionts

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    Tong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reactive oxygen species (ROS superoxide has been implicated in both beneficial and detrimental processes in coral biology, ranging from pathogenic disease resistance to coral bleaching. Despite the critical role of ROS in coral health, there is a distinct lack of ROS measurements and thus an incomplete understanding of underpinning ROS sources and production mechanisms within coral systems. Here, we quantified in situ extracellular superoxide concentrations at the surfaces of aquaria-hosted Porites astreoides during a diel cycle. High concentrations of superoxide (~10’s of nM were present at coral surfaces, and these levels did not change significantly as a function of time of day. These results indicate that the coral holobiont produces extracellular superoxide in the dark, independent of photosynthesis. As a short-lived anion at physiological pH, superoxide has a limited ability to cross intact biological membranes. Further, removing surface mucus layers from the P. astreoides colonies did not impact external superoxide concentrations. We therefore attribute external superoxide derived from the coral holobiont under these conditions to the activity of the coral host epithelium, rather than mucus-derived epibionts or internal sources such as endosymbionts (e.g., Symbiodinium. However, endosymbionts likely contribute to internal ROS levels via extracellular superoxide production. Indeed, common coral symbionts, including multiple strains of Symbiodinium (clades A to D and the bacterium Endozoicomonas montiporae LMG 24815, produced extracellular superoxide in the dark and at low light levels. Further, representative P. astreoides symbionts, Symbiodinium CCMP2456 (clade A and E. montiporae, produced similar concentrations of superoxide alone and in combination with each other, in the dark and low light, and regardless of time of day. Overall, these results indicate that healthy, non-stressed P. astreoides and representative symbionts produce

  19. Population Study of the Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae in the Southern Pacific region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer aspectos poblacionales, biológicos y ecológicos de las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata presentes en el Pacífico sur de Colombia (Departamento del Cauca, para esto se tomó información de morfometría, se revisó el estado de salud de los individuos y se tomaron muestras de sangre para valoración de química sanguínea. Durante siete meses de muestreo se capturaron 25 tortugas carey (16 individuos diferentes en los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, con un porcentaje de recaptura del 46 %. Aunque no se notaron problemas evidentes de salud, la mayoría de animales presentaron gran parte del caparazón cubierto de algas filamentosas y algunos epibiontes sobre el plastrón y el caparazón. La Longitud Curva Caparazón (LCC mostró una mayor proporción de individuos con tallas entre 37 y 45 cm de longitud (prom. 42,3 cm; min. 37,5 cm; max. 58 cm. Por medio de la prueba de Mann Whitney U, se comparó la LCC de los 16 individuos diferentes capturados en el PNN Gorgona, con 11 individuos capturados en la zona del litoral del Departamento del Cauca, encontrándose diferencias significativas entre estos dos grupos, donde los animales presentes en el PNN Gorgona fueron de mayor talla que los presentes en el continente (Z = -2,59; p = 0,007. Los valores de ácido úrico se encontraron por encima de los valores de referencia.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Spirochete Associated with the Hydrothermal Vent Polychaete Annelid, Alvinella pompejana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara J.; Cary, S. Craig

    2001-01-01

    A highly integrated, morphologically diverse bacterial community is associated with the dorsal surface of Alvinella pompejana, a polychaetous annelid that inhabits active high-temperature deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites along the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Analysis of a previously prepared bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) library identified a spirochete most closely related to an endosymbiont of the oligochete Olavius loisae. This spirochete phylotype (spirochete A) comprised only 2.2% of the 16S rDNA clone library but appeared to be much more dominant when the same sample was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure (12 to 18%). PCR amplification of the community with spirochete-specific primers used in conjunction with DGGE analysis identified two spirochete phylotypes. The first spirochete was identical to spirochete A but was present in only one A. pompejana specimen. The second spirochete (spirochete B) was 84.5% similar to spirochete A and, more interestingly, was present in the epibiont communities of all of the A. pompejana specimens sampled throughout the geographic range of the worm (13°N to 32°S along the EPR). The sequence variation of the spirochete B phylotype was less than 3% for the range of A. pompejana specimens tested, suggesting that a single spirochete species was present in the A. pompejana epibiotic community. Additional analysis of the environments surrounding the worm revealed that spirochetes are a ubiquitous component of high-temperature vents and may play an important role in this unique ecosystem. PMID:11133434

  1. To Swim or Not to Swim: Potential Transmission of Balaenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in Marine Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Francesc; Tomás, Jesús; Crespo-Picazo, José Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Species of Balaenophilus are the only harpacticoid copepods that exhibit a widespread, obligate association with vertebrates, i.e., B. unisetus with whales and B. manatorum with marine turtles and manatees. In the western Mediterranean, juveniles of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta are the only available hosts for B. manatorum, which has been found occurring at high prevalence (>80%) on them. A key question is how these epibionts are transmitted from host to host. We investigated this issue based on experiments with live specimens of B. manatorum that were cultured with turtle skin. Specimens were obtained from head-started hatchlings of C. caretta from the western Mediterranean. Hatched nauplii crawled only on rough substrates and lacked the ability to swim. Only copepodites IV and V, and adults, were able to perform directional swimming. Legs 2, 3 and 4 played a major role in swimming and were only well-developed in these stages. Nauplii reared in wells with turtle skin readily fed on this item. Late copepodites and adults also fed on turtle skin but did not consume other potential food items such as fish skin, baleen plates or planktonic algae. Evidences suggest that the transmission of B. manatorum should rely on hosts' bodily contacts and/or swimming of late developmental stages between spatially close hosts. The possibility of long-ranged dispersal is unlikely for two reasons. First, all developmental stages seem to depend on turtle skin as a food resource. Second, the average clutch size of ovigerous females was small (turtles that occur at very low densities (turtles·km-2) in the western Mediterranean. The high prevalence of B. manatorum in loggerhead turtles in this area raises the question whether these turtles have contacts, or tend to closely aggregate, more than is currently believed.

  2. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Determination of Mineral Contents of Some Legume and Cereal Forages Grown as Naturally in Pastures of Erzurum Province

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    Esra GÜRSOY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the mineral substances such as macro and micro minerals of legume and cereal forages grown as naturally in the pastures of Erzurum province. In present study, clover, (Medicago sativa, mountain hispanic sainfoin (Hedysarum elegans, bird vetch (Vicia cracca, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, mountain vetch (Vicia alpestris, mountain clover (Trifolium montanum, caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum, the three-headed clover (Trifolium trichocephalum, tawny grass crown (Coronilla varia, the crown of the eastern horn of grass (Coronilla orientatis and yellow flowers gazelle (Lotus corniculatus from legume forages; cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, red fescue (Festuca rubra, sheep ball (Festuca ovina, tawny bromine (Bromus variegatus, blue split (Agropyron intermedium, kelp tail grass (Phleum pratense, meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis from cereal forages were investigated. The obtained data were subjected to an analysis of variance by using SPSS 12.0 package program. Significant differences between means were tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Macro minerals such as Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Sulfur (S assigned for legume forages changed between 2.39- 3.30%, 1.16-1.28%, 0.70-2.69%, 0.56-1.61%, 0.11-0.51% and 0.16-0.27%, respectively. The amounts of micro mineral like Iron (Fe, Virgin (Cu, Zinc (Zn, Manganese (Mn and Boron (B of legume forages were determined to be 105.9-893.7 ppm, 2.22-12.36 ppm, 14.11-195 ppm, 18.18-66.58 ppm and 5.91-40.39 ppm, respectively. Instances of macro minerals of cereal forages were found for N 1.76-of 2.19%, P 1.10-1.19%, K 1.99-3.25%, Ca 0.09-1.15%, Mg 0.07-0.26% and S 0.22-0.36% in present study. Micro minerals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B determined for cereal forages changed between 74.90-630.6 ppm, 4-9.84 ppm, 31.49-335.6 ppm, 24.63-94.51 ppm and 0.35-26.64 ppm, respectively. In conclusion

  4. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  5. The evolution of the manus of early theropod dinosaurs is characterized by high inter- and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel E; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Norell, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the avian hand, with its reduced and fused carpals and digits, from the five-fingered hands and complex wrists of early dinosaurs represents one of the major transformations of manus morphology among tetrapods. Much attention has been directed to the later part of this transition, from four- to three-fingered taxa. However, earlier anatomical changes may have influenced these later modifications, possibly paving the way for a later frameshift in digit identities. We investigate the five- to four-fingered transition among early dinosaurs, along with changes in carpus morphology. New three-dimensional reconstructions from computed tomography data of the manus of the Triassic and Early Jurassic theropod dinosaurs Coelophysis bauri and Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis are described and compared intra- and interspecifically. Several novel findings emerge from these reconstructions and comparisons, including the first evidence of an ossified centrale and a free intermedium in some C. bauri specimens, as well as confirmation of the presence of a vestigial fifth metacarpal in this taxon. Additionally, a specimen of C. bauri and an unnamed coelophysoid from the Upper Triassic Hayden Quarry, New Mexico, are to our knowledge the only theropods (other than alvarezsaurs and birds) in which all of the distal carpals are completely fused together into a single unit. Several differences between the manus of C. bauri and M. rhodesiensis are also identified. We review the evolution of the archosauromorph manus more broadly in light of these new data, and caution against incorporating carpal characters in phylogenetic analyses of fine-scale relationships of Archosauromorpha, in light of the high degree of observed polymorphism in taxa for which large sample sizes are available, such as the theropod Coelophysis and the sauropodomorph Plateosaurus. We also find that the reduction of the carpus and ultimate loss of the fourth and fifth digits among early dinosaurs did not

  6. MMP20 Overexpression Disrupts Molar Ameloblast Polarity and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M; Chavez, M B; Ikeda, A; Foster, B L; Bartlett, J D

    2018-02-01

    Ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation express matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20), an enzyme that cleaves enamel matrix proteins, including amelogenin (AMELX) and ameloblastin (AMBN). Previously, we showed that continuously erupting incisors from transgenic mice overexpressing active MMP20 had a massive cell infiltrate present within their enamel space, leading to enamel mineralization defects. However, effects of MMP20 overexpression on mouse molars were not analyzed, although these teeth more accurately represent human odontogenesis. Therefore, MMP20-overexpressing mice ( Mmp20 +/+ Tg + ) were assessed by multiscale analyses, combining several approaches from high-resolution micro-computed tomography to enamel organ immunoblots. During the secretory stage at postnatal day 6 (P6), Mmp20 +/+ Tg + mice had a discontinuous ameloblast layer and, unlike incisors, molar P12 maturation stage ameloblasts abnormally migrated away from the enamel layer into the stratum intermedium/stellate reticulum. TOPflash assays performed in vitro demonstrated that MMP20 expression promoted β-catenin nuclear localization and that MMP20 expression promoted invasion through Matrigel-coated filters. However, for both assays, significant differences were eliminated in the presence of the β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001. This suggests that MMP20 activity promotes cell migration via the Wnt pathway. In vivo, the unique molar migration of amelogenin-expressing ameloblasts was associated with abnormal deposition of ectopic calcified nodules surrounding the adherent enamel layer. Enamel content was assessed just prior to eruption at P15. Compared to wild-type, Mmp20 +/+ Tg + molars exhibited significant reductions in enamel thickness (70%), volume (60%), and mineral density (40%), and MMP20 overexpression resulted in premature cleavage of AMBN, which likely contributed to the severe defects in enamel mineralization. In addition, Mmp20 +/+ Tg + mouse molar enamel organs had increased levels

  7. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis

  8. Nannofossil record across the Cenomanian-Coniacian interval in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin and Tethyan foreland basins (Outer Western Carpathians), Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švábenická, Lilian

    2012-06-01

    Nannofossil biostratigraphy and mutual correlation was worked out for the Cenomanian-Coniacian deposits of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (BCB) and Outer Western Carpathians (OWC) in the territory of the Czech Republic. Similar assemblages of the BCB and from sediments deposited on the SE slopes of West European Platform, Waschbergždánice-Subsilesian Unit, OWC support the hypothesis that the two areas were connected by a sea way (nowadays the Blansko trough). The nannoflora of the Silesian Unit, OWC show more afinity to high latitudes as is documented by the presence of Marthasterites furcatus in the Lower Turonian, UC6b and UC7 Zones. Turonian and Coniacian deep-water flysch sediments of the Silesian Unit and Magura Group of Nappes provide nannofossils on rare occassions. Strongly atched nannofossils dominated by W. barnesiae from Cenomanian black shales of the BCB are comparable to those of the Silesian Unit and reflect a similar shallow nearshore sea. In the BCB, uppermost Cenomanian is marked by the last occurrence (LO) of Axopodorhabdus albianus and first occurrence (FO) of Quadrum intermedium (6 and 7 elements) and lowermost Turonian by a sudden quantitative rise in nannoflora and by the FO Eprolithus octopetalus. First Eiffellithus eximius and thus the base of the UC8 Zone was recorded in the upper part of ammonite Zone Collignoniceras woollgari in the lower Middle Turonian. Lithastrinus grillii is the stratigraphically youngest nannofossil species in this region and indicates the uppermost Coniacian. In the OWC, the Albian-Cenomanian boundary was recorded in the Silesian Unit and is marked by the LO Crucicribrum anglicum and FO Prediscosphaera cretacea and Corollithion kennedyi in the uppermost Albian. The Turonian-Coniacian boundary found both in the BCB and Waschberg-Ždánice-Subsilesian Unit, OWC is indicated by the FO Broinsonia parca expansa and by the base of the interval with common Marthasterites furcatus. In both areas, events were found closely

  9. Recyclable magnetic photocatalysts of Fe2+/TiO2 hierarchical architecture with effective removal of Cr(VI) under UV light from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.C.; Zhang, Y.X.; Pan, S.S.; Ding, H.L.; Li, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe 2+ /TiO 2 catalyst has a three-level hierarchical architecture. ► With a removal effectiveness of 99.3% at Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L −1 . ► Two-step reduction: TiO 2 photoreduces Fe 2+ to Fe and Fe reduces Cr(VI) to Cr(III). ► Hierarchical architecture serves as both photocatalytic reactor and absorbent. ► Fe 2+ /TiO 2 catalyst can be magnetically separated from wastewater and recycled. - Abstract: We report the synthesis and photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) from water of hierarchical micro/nanostructured Fe 2+ /TiO 2 tubes. The TiO 2 tubes fabricated by a facile solvothermal approach show a three-level hierarchical architecture assembled from dense nanosheets nearly vertically standing on the surface of TiO 2 microtube. The nanosheets with a thickness of about 20 nm are composed of numerous TiO 2 nanocrystals with size in the range of 15–20 nm. Ferrous ions are doped into the hierarchical architecture by a reduction route. The Fe 2+ /TiO 2 catalyst demonstrates an effective removal of Cr(VI) from water under UV light and the removal effectiveness reaches 99.3% at the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L −1 . The ferrous ion in the catalyst serves not as the photo-electron trap but as an intermedium of a two-step reduction. The TiO 2 photoreduces the Fe 2+ ions to Fe atoms firstly, then the Fe atoms reduce the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and the later is removed by adsorption. The hierarchical architecture of the catalyst serves as a reactor for the photocatalytic reaction of Cr(VI) ions and an effective absorbent for the removal of Cr(III) ions. The catalyst can be easily magnetically separated from the wastewater after photocatalytic reaction and recycled after acid treatment.

  10. Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

    2012-04-01

    the crawler camera and sensors. On retrieval, the specimens will be further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. The complex coordination of hardware, software, and people is challenging such that the ideal of frequent and timely observations of these poorly known processes is realized. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

  11. Deep Sea Shell Taphonomy: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, Ocean Networks Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Mairi; Purser, Autun

    2015-04-01

    from the mound. On retrieval, the specimens are being further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

  12. The toxic benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis in temperate areas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Accoroni

    2016-04-01

    and salinity is not completely clear, complicated by the influence of high nutrient levels often associated to low salinity waters. Finally, Ostreopsis colonize a variety of substrata, although living substrata seems to allow lower concentration of epibionts than any other substrate, probably due to the production of some allelopathic compounds.

  13. Sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and Plakortis spp. are not motivated by shared chemical defense against predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Jaarsma Marty

    the epibiont. Comparing the immense deterrency of Plakortis spp. extracts to the extracts of X. deweerdtae gives the impression that there may be some sharing of chemical defenses: one partner in the symbiosis is clearly more defended than the other and a small amount of its defensive chemistry may translocate to the partner. However, X. deweerdtae effectively deters predators with its own defensive chemistry. Multiple lines of evidence provide no support for the shared chemical defense hypothesis. Given the diversity of other potential food resources available to predators on coral reefs, it is improbable that the evolution of these specialized sponge-sponge symbioses has been driven by predation pressure.

  14. Sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and Plakortis spp. are not motivated by shared chemical defense against predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah Jaarsma; Vicente, Jan; Oyler, Benjamin L; Place, Allen; Hill, Russell T

    2017-01-01

    The recently described epizoic sponge-sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and two species of Plakortis present an unusual series of sponge interactions. Sponges from the genus Plakortis are fierce allelopathic competitors, rich in cytotoxic secondary metabolites, and yet X. deweerdtae flourishes as an epizoic encrustation on Plakortis deweerdtaephila and Plakortis symbiotica. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that X. deweerdtae grows epizoic to these two species of Plakortis due to a shared chemical defense against predators. We collected free-living individuals of X. deweerdtae and symbiotic pairs from a wide geographical range to generate crude organic extracts and a series of polarity fractions from sponge extract. We tested the deterrency of these extracts against three common coral reef predators: the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, the Caribbean sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata, and the white spotwrist hermit crab, Pagurus criniticornis. While the chemical defenses of P. deweerdtaephila and P. symbiotica are more potent than those of X. deweerdtae, all of the sponge species we tested significantly deterred feeding in all three generalist predators. The free-living form of X. deweerdtae is mostly defended across the region, with a few exceptions. The associated form of X. deweerdtae is always defended, and both species of Plakortis are very strongly defended, with puffers refusing to consume extract-treated pellets until the extract was diluted to 1/256× concentration. Using diode-array high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/IT-TOF), we found two secondary metabolites from P. deweerdtaephila, probably the cyclic endoperoxides plakinic acid I and plakinic acid K, in low concentrations in the associated-but not the free-living-form of X. deweerdtae, suggesting a possible translocation of defensive chemicals from the basibiont to the epibiont

  15. Sponge epizoism in the Caribbean and the discovery of new Plakortis and Haliclona species, and polymorphism of Xestospongia deweerdtae (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Jan; Zea, Sven; Hill, Russell T

    2016-10-24

    The new discovery by Vicente et al. (2014) of specialized epizoic symbioses between sponges of the genera Plakortis and Xestospongia revealed the obligate interaction of two new Plakortis spp. associating with Xestospongia deweerdtae and a new Xestospongia sp. In this study we formally describe the two new Plakortis spp. as Plakortis deweerdtaephila sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 1), Plakortis symbiotica sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 2) and describe the new Xestospongia sp. epibiont as Haliclona (Halichoclona) plakophila sp. nov.  Plakortis deweerdtaephila associates only with X. deweerdtae, and has very small to large straight diods (24.2-233.7 μm long) and triods (26.4-102.6 μm long) that form large ectosomal circular meshes (114-329 μm diameter). P. symbiotica associates with both X. deweerdtae and H. plakophila, has larger curved diods (71.9-141.8 μm long) and triods (20.4-70.6 μm long) that form smaller ectosomal circular meshes (43-121 μm diameter) than P. deweerdtaephila. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 and cob gene fragments revealed a strongly supported clade that grouped both Plakortis spp. nov. distantly from any other known Plakortis spp. H. plakophila is described as a thin encrusting veneer of tissue with occasional papillae, so far only found associated with P. symbiotica in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cox1 gene fragments place it distantly from any known clade of Haplosclerida. We found a new associated morphotype of X. deweerdtae from Bocas del Toro Panama, which completely overgrew P. deweerdtaephila. In addition, free-living morphotypes from Panama produce larger S-shaped and round bracket shaped strongyles never before observed for this species, leading us to redescribe X. deweerdtae. All X. deweerdtae morphotypes shared >99% sequence homology of cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes with the holotype of X. deweerdtae. This study highlights the highly variable morphological

  16. Sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and Plakortis spp. are not motivated by shared chemical defense against predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah Jaarsma; Vicente, Jan; Oyler, Benjamin L.; Place, Allen

    2017-01-01

    The recently described epizoic sponge-sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and two species of Plakortis present an unusual series of sponge interactions. Sponges from the genus Plakortis are fierce allelopathic competitors, rich in cytotoxic secondary metabolites, and yet X. deweerdtae flourishes as an epizoic encrustation on Plakortis deweerdtaephila and Plakortis symbiotica. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that X. deweerdtae grows epizoic to these two species of Plakortis due to a shared chemical defense against predators. We collected free-living individuals of X. deweerdtae and symbiotic pairs from a wide geographical range to generate crude organic extracts and a series of polarity fractions from sponge extract. We tested the deterrency of these extracts against three common coral reef predators: the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, the Caribbean sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata, and the white spotwrist hermit crab, Pagurus criniticornis. While the chemical defenses of P. deweerdtaephila and P. symbiotica are more potent than those of X. deweerdtae, all of the sponge species we tested significantly deterred feeding in all three generalist predators. The free-living form of X. deweerdtae is mostly defended across the region, with a few exceptions. The associated form of X. deweerdtae is always defended, and both species of Plakortis are very strongly defended, with puffers refusing to consume extract-treated pellets until the extract was diluted to 1/256× concentration. Using diode-array high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/IT-TOF), we found two secondary metabolites from P. deweerdtaephila, probably the cyclic endoperoxides plakinic acid I and plakinic acid K, in low concentrations in the associated—but not the free-living—form of X. deweerdtae, suggesting a possible translocation of defensive chemicals from the basibiont to the epibiont

  17. Incrustação em Moluscos Holocênicos da Planície Litorânea de Cabo Frio, RJ.

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    Alan de Paiva Bernardes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Conchas ou bioclastos são amplamente utilizados por organismos incrustantes, escavadores e predadores que deixam nos biosedimentos oregistro da sua atividade. A utilização de esqueletos de moluscos implica em escavação e/ou ilhas de substrato duro para a incrustação. Moluscos vivos e mortos são explorados por epibiontes como superfícies de fixação e por endobiontes como abrigo e ainda para a obtenção de nutrientes. Na baixada litorânea de Cabo Frio/Armação dos Búzios, Estado do Rio de Janeiro são assinalados extensos depósitos argilosos de até 1,3 m de espessura,intercalados com níveis de conchas que contém uma malacofauna relativamente diversificada. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os processos de incrustação dessa malacofauna, em 2 localidades da planície litorânea, selecionadas a partir doregistro conhecido das associações de moluscos. Incrustação foi identificada com o emprego de microscópio esteroscópico. Em Campos Novos foram analisados um total de 1.155 moluscos, e a incrustação foi observada em 5 espécies, dentre elas: Trachycardium muricatum, Chama marcerophyla e Leptopecten bavayi (biválvios, e Cerithiumatratum e Stramonita haemastoma (gastrópodes. Incrustação teve freqüência absoluta do bioagente tafonômico Ostrea equestris, de 32%, 50% e 50% em C. atratum, S. haemastoma e C. marcerophyla,respectivamente. Colônias de briozoários são raras em T. muricatum e S. haemastoma. Na Fazenda Araçá foi analisado um total de 1.160 moluscos. Todos os exemplares isolados de Ostrea equestrisapresentaram incrustação por briozoário, enquanto Chicoreus senegalensis, incrustação por ostra. Entre os gastrópodes, 20% dos exemplares de Pugilina morio registram incrustação, por ostra e briozoário. A incrustação é um importante dado paleoecológico,contribuindo com a paleodiversidade. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas das taxas de incrustação, entre indivíduos jovens

  18. Extended parental care in crustaceans: an update Cuidado parental extendido en crustáceos: conocimiento actual

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    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Many crustacean species show extended parental care (XPC for fully developed juvenile offspring. Herein, the present state of knowledge of the major patterns and consequences of XPC is reviewed, and furthermore important future research topics are identified. Crustaceans with XPC are found in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments, but care for late juvenile stages appears to be more common in terrestrial environments. In all species, females participate or even take the main share of XPC activities. Crustaceans that carry their offspring during XPC commonly release early juvenile stages, while species inhabiting particular microhabitats may host offspring until these have reached subadult or adult stages. Apart from providing a suitable and safe microhabitat to small offspring, parents share food with, groom or actively defend their juveniles. Some of the most important benefits of XPC include improved juvenile growth and survival. XPC may also lead to conflicts among developing offspring or between parents and offspring, especially during later phases of XPC when resources (food and space become increasingly limiting. Similarly, during long-lasting cohabitation, epibionts (e.g., parasites may be transferred from parents to offspring, as is indicated by observational evidence. For several species, local recruitment, where juveniles recruit in the immediate vicinity of their parents, has been observed. Under these conditions, local populations may rapidly increase, potentially leading to intra-specific competition for space, thereby possibly causing a decrease in reproductive activity or a reduction in length of XPC. Another consequence of XPC and local recruitment could be limited dispersal potential, but some marine crustaceans with XPC and local recruitment nevertheless have a wide geographic distribution. It is hypothesized that the existence of suitable dispersal vectors such as floating macroalgae or wood can lead to a substantial

  19. TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1

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    Komatsuda Takao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant traits. While Arabidopsis thaliana is the premiere model plant system, the spectrum of its traits cannot address all of the fundamental questions of crop plant development. Unlike Arabidopsis, barley is both a crop and a model system for scientific research, and it is increasingly being used for genetic and molecular investigations into the conserved biological processes of cereals. A common challenge in genetic studies in plants with large genomes arises from the very time-consuming work of associating mutant phenotypes with gene sequence information, especially if insertion mutagenesis is not routine, as in barley. Reverse genetics based on chemical mutagenesis represents the best solution to this obstacle. Findings In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population. The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMSmutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3. A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke

  20. Lower Cretaceous Puez key-section in the Dolomites - towards the mid-Cretaceous super-greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Rehákova, D.; Józsa, Š.; Soták, J.; Kroh, A.; Jovane, L.; Florindo, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Giorgioni, M.; Lukeneder, S.

    2012-04-01

    of Earth Sciences, 103/1, 138-158. Lukeneder A. 2008. The ecological significance of solitary coral and bivalve epibionts on Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian-Aptian) ammonoids from the Italian Dolomites. Acta Geologica Polonica, 58/4, 425-436. Lukeneder, A., Aspmair, C. 2006. Startigraphic implication of a new Lower Cretaceous ammonoid fauna from the Puez area (Valanginaian - Aptian, Dolomites, Southern Alps, Italy). Geo.Alp, 3, 55-91.

  1. Fouling organisms on Perna perna mussels: is it worth removing them?

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    Fabrício S. de Sá

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna mussel spat were suspended from ropes on a long-line cultivation, at Coqueiro´s Beach, Anchieta, South-eastern Brazil, in order to quantify the fouling community structure and its effects on growth and biomass of mussels. Half of the ropes had the fouling removed monthly, half had the foulingleft until the end of the experiment. Monthly samples of thirty mussels from each group were measured and their biomass determined. The fouling organisms were identified, quantified and their biomass evaluated on a monthly basis. After ten months, mussels on the cleaned treatment were significantly larger and heavier (ANOVA; P fouled, showing that fouling reduced mussel development. The most abundant epibiont organisms in terms of biomass were the algae Polysiphonia subtilissima (29% and Ulva rigida (10.3%, followed by the bryozoans Bugula neritina (13.6% and Perna perna spat (10.6%. Over 97 taxa and 42,646 individuals were identified, crustaceans being the most abundant group, predominantly one amphipod Cheiriphotis megacheles (12,980 ind.. Species abundance was positively correlated with algal biomass, revealing the influence of algae on vagile fauna, which provide both food and shelter. The benefits of fouling removal are discussed because the majority of species are important feeding items to fishes and yet, the costs of its fouling control added to the associated mussel spat loss make this fouling removal of questionable value.Sementes de Perna perna foram colocadas em cordas suspensas em long-line na Praia do Coqueiro, Anchieta, ES, objetivando-se determinar a estrutura da comunidade de incrustantes e seu efeito sobre o desenvolvimento dos mexilhões. Metade das cordas teve os incrustantes removidos mensalmente, na outra metade eles foram deixados até o final do experimento. Mensalmente, 30 mexilhões de cada grupo foram retirados e medidos e a biomassa aferida. Os incrustantes foram identificados, quantificados e a biomassa de cada taxon

  2. Evaluation of Seed and Forage Yield of Perennial Plants with Low Water Requirement in Abandoned Farming Lands

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    Ali gazanchian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is a natural phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is created by low precipitation, high evaporation and reduced soil moisture. Today, they are the major threats to agricultural lands due to fluctuations in rainfall, limited water resources, wells salinization and subsequently abandoned farming lands. Iran is located on the world's dry belt and more than 90 percent of its area is located in the arid and semi-arid climatic regions. It has been reported that the annual rate of soil erosion is up to 33 tons per hectare and 5 to 6 times more than the standard limit. Also, 90% of the country's protein production comes from animals sources. Due to the lack of adequate forage production, the main burden of protein production is imposed on the natural resources and pastures. Therefore, In order to enhance soil stabilization and maintain its fertility, optimum use of off-season precipitations, preventing the flow of water and protecting the abandoned farming lands from the flood risk, increasing the water permeability in the soil, and helping to feed the underwater aquifers and finally the production of forage and seeds, the development of perennial plants cultivation is an important conservative practice. The aim of this study is to emphasize on the selection of the best perennial forage species with low water requirements and acceptable performance for renovation of the abandoned farming lands and moving towards sustainable agriculture approaches. Materials and Methods In this experiment, 10 species of perennial grasses (Agropyron elongatum Host., Secale montanum Guss., Festuca arundinaceae Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., Agropyron intermedium Host., Agropyron repense L., Agropyron cristatum L., Panicum antidutale Retz., Bromus inermis Leyss., Bromus riparius Rehmann, Agropyron cristatum L. and two legumes includes Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis sativa Lam. were studied at Asatan-e-Ghods Razavi farm in

  3. Análisis del portafolio como herramienta evaluativa de las prácticas clínicas de enfermería comunitaria en estudiantes de pregrado Portfolio analysis as evaluation tool of Community Nursing Clinical Practice Learning in undergraduates

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    P. Serrano-Gallardo

    2010-09-01

    usefulness of the portfolio as assessment tool for Community Nursing Clinical Practice Learning in the Puerta de Hierro Nursing School of Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM, and to assess the influence of sociodemographic and academic variables in the process of continuous evaluation of the portfolio. Subjects and methods. cross-sectional study in the context of a teaching innovation project funded by the UAM. The target population: students of 2nd and 3rd courses of Puerta de Hierro Nursing School (UAM that made their Community Nursing Clinical Practice Learning in the setting of the Primary Health Care (n = 38. Main outcomes: intermedium and final scores in the works that includes the portfolio ("reflective diary", "clinical case" and "analysis of community health", timeliness of delivery, difficulty, usefulness and perceived improvement of learning, hours spent/week, student self-assessment, qualification of the tutor, final evaluation of the portfolio. Bivariate analysis was done using nonparametric tests. Confidence intervals were calculated for 95% confidence. Results. 38 students were studied. The mean age was of 21.5 ± 4.3 years-old, 81.6% women. Difficulty was high in 56.7%. The utility was noted as high in 72.9%. The student self-assessment average score was 7.68, the evaluation of the tutor: 8.31 and portfolio final score by the teachers: 7,07. Conclusions. The implementation of portfolio has shown the difficulty felt by students in a process requiring reflective writing, daily work and self-evaluation. However, these difficulties translate into a high perception of usefulness and improve learning.