WorldWideScience

Sample records for epa-sponsored terrestrial peer

  1. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  2. Terrestrial Carbon [Environmental Pollution: Part I, Special Issue, March 2002; Part II, Special Issue Supplement to 116/3, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickler, Robert (ed.); McNulty, Steven (ed.)

    2002-03-01

    These issues contain a total of forty-four peer reviewed science papers on terrestrial carbon presented at the Advances in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory, Measurements, and Monitoring Conference held in Raleigh, N.C., in October 2000.

  3. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  4. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel

    2018-01-01

    that the community’s hunger for publication accompanies only a modest appetite for providing the necessary support to sustain the consequent increase in peer-review load. The advent of blockchain technologies and the proliferation of cryptocurrencies presents an opportunity to develop a token-based peer...

  5. Peer Reviewer

    OpenAIRE

    Baru Mansjur, Mansjur

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Reviewer Effects Of Histomorohometric, Bone Tu Implant Contac and Asseointegration On a novel Hybrid Micro/Nano Topografhy Modfie Dental Implant in The Mandibular Canine Premolar Area Of The Mini Pigs

  6. Terrestrial Carbon[Environmental Pollution: Part I, Special Issue, March 2002, Part II, Special Issue Supplement to 116/3, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickler, Robert; McNulty, Steven

    2002-01-01

    These issues contain a total of forty-four peer reviewed science papers on terrestrial carbon presented at the Advances in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory, Measurements, and Monitoring Conference held in Raleigh, N.C., in October 2000

  7. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  8. REPORTING OF SELECTED EPA-SPONSORED FORM EIA-767 DATA FOR 1985-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of 1985-87 data based on the Energy Information Administration's (ElA's) Form 767, "Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report," an annual data collection form whose major output to date has been an annual data tape which is released to the publi...

  9. Peer Relations in Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Hanne; Samara, Akylina; Lillejord, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, much research on peer learning practices has been conducted. Quantitative, experimental designs focusing on problems of cause and effect dominate. Consequently, effects on achievement are well documented, as is the influence of different conditions on the effect rate. In spite of the general acknowledgment of the importance…

  10. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  11. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  12. The "peer" in "peer review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, R. Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin L.; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  13. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  14. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...

  15. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  16. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  17. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Fr...... be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.......This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  18. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  19. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  20. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction...... cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...

  1. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  2. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  3. o'Peer: open peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J H

    2014-01-01

    I have built a ''demonstration'' website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees

  4. o'Peer: open peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    I have built a "demonstration" website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees.

  5. Digital portfolio og peer to peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ditte; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg

    2017-01-01

    studerende og øget transfer mellem teori og praksis. Artiklen tager afsæt i erfaringerne fra udvikling, anvendelse og evaluering af den digitale portfolio og peer to peer feedback. Portfolien er digital og tilknyttet Metropols Learning Management System. De studerende uploader individuelt ugentligt deres...

  6. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...

  7. Simple Peer-to-Peer SIP Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Joakim; Tarkoma, Sasu

    In this paper, we introduce a model for enhancing privacy in peer-to-peer communication systems. The model is based on data obfuscation, preventing intermediate nodes from tracking calls, while still utilizing the shared resources of the peer network. This increases security when moving between untrusted, limited and ad-hoc networks, when the user is forced to rely on peer-to-peer schemes. The model is evaluated using a Host Identity Protocol-based prototype on mobile devices, and is found to provide good privacy, especially when combined with a source address hiding scheme. The contribution of this paper is to present the model and results obtained from its use, including usability considerations.

  8. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  9. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  10. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  11. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  12. Peer Influence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  13. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  14. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  15. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  16. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  17. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  18. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  19. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  20. Peer Review of Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Charles E.; Yu, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided

  1. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in

  2. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the

  3. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  4. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  5. A peer-to-peer traffic safety campaign program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...

  6. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  7. Peer-to-peer computing (Introduction to Topic 7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montresor, A.; Epema, D.H.J.; Jelasity, M.; Jorba, J.; Luque, E.; Margalef, T.; Benítez, D.

    2008-01-01

    After a decade of intensive investigation, peer-to-peer computing has established itself as an accepted research field in the general area of distributed systems. peer-to-peer computing can be seen as the democratization of computing-overthrowing the old regime of hierarchies as in client-server

  8. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  9. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  10. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  11. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  12. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  13. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  14. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  15. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  16. Surveillance of peer to peer payment systems and peer to peer lending platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Faia, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Financial innovation is, as usual, faster than regulation. New forms of speculation and intermediation are rapidly emerging. Largely as a result of the evaporation of trust in financial intermediation, an exponentially increasing role is being played by the so-called peer to peer intermediation. The most prominent example at the moment is Bitcoin. If one expects that shocks in these markets could destabilize also traditional financial markets, then it will be necessary to extend regulatory me...

  17. Peer mentoring works!

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Jane; Clark, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This report draws on the findings of a three year study into peer mentoring conducted at 6 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), 5 of which were in the UK, 1 of which was in Norway. Following a multiple case-study design, quantitative and qualitative research was conducted in collaboration with the project partners. The research findings provide empirical evidence that peer mentoring works! In particular the report provides: - An Executive Summary outlining the main project findings - A synop...

  18. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  19. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  20. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...... that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons....

  1. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  2. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  3. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  4. Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...

  5. Characteristics of file sharing and peer to peer networking | Opara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of file sharing and peer to peer networking. ... distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, ... including in multicast systems, anonymous communications systems, and web caches.

  6. Efficient Skyline Computation in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large-scale applications exploit peer-to-peer network architecture to provide highly scalable and flexible services. Among these applications, data management in peer-to-peer systems is one of the interesting domains. In this paper, we investigate the multidimensional...... skyline computation problem on a structured peer-to-peer network. In order to achieve low communication cost and quick response time, we utilize the iMinMax(\\theta ) method to transform high-dimensional data to one-dimensional value and distribute the data in a structured peer-to-peer network called BATON....... Thereafter, we propose a progressive algorithm with adaptive filter technique for efficient skyline computation in this environment. We further discuss some optimization techniques for the algorithm, and summarize the key principles of our algorithm into a query routing protocol with detailed analysis...

  7. Analysis of peer-to-peer locking of magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cruz, E.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the ''master'' and the other becomes the ''slave.'' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.

  8. Peer Mentoring Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Marinda; Colvin, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Because students starting college are not always prepared to succeed, colleges and universities frequently offer courses designed to help students who need remediation in mathematics, reading, and writing. At Utah Valley University (UVU), peer mentors are integrated into the University Student Success course to help first-year students learn the…

  9. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  10. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Pressure Print en español Cómo lidiar con la presión de grupo "Come on! ALL of us are cutting ... and they learn from you. It's only human nature to listen to and learn from ... another student in your science class taught you an easy way to remember ...

  11. mitigating mitigating free riding in peer-to-peer networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The performance of peer-to-peer systems is based on the quality and quantity of resource contributions from peer systems ... riding [3]. There are several measurement studies ...... J. S. Hua, D. C. Huang, S M Yen, and C. W. Chena, “A dynamic.

  12. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Users of the peer-to-peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn. We model the peer churn through degree-independent as well as ...

  13. Privacy and Cooperation in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilemaker, N.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    P2P networks employ the resources available at peers to reduce the load at, or eliminate the need for a server. In order to achieve these goals, protocols are implemented which aim to allow peers to collaborate efficiently. However, these same protocols can make peers an easy target, as their

  14. Mathematical Framework For Analyzing Incentives In Peer-To-Peer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence and performance of peer-to-peer systems depend on the contribution of resources .... analysis in P2P based on game strategy. The entire P2P ... a robust P2P systems, every peer must be made to contribute by designing efficient free ..... Currently, all P2P can be classified based on structure as structured and ...

  15. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  16. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  17. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  18. Horizontal Curves Virtual Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report provides a summary of a peer-to-peer videoconference sponsored by : the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety. The : videoconference, which piloted a virtual event format, is part of a series of : roadway departure-focuse...

  19. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  20. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  1. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  2. Notes on Adolescent's Peer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    栗本, かおり; Kaori, KURIMOTO; 岩手県立大学社会福祉学部; FACULTY OF SOCIAL WELFARE IWATE PREFECTURAL UNIVERSITY

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the influence of adolescents' peer relationships on their psychosocial development. Adolescents influence on each other, though some psychosocial merit and demerit emerge in peer influence on adolescents. The merit improves adolescents' identity, self-esteem, satisfaction of life and happiness, provides support under the crisis as well. A case of the demerit can be seen as the negative peer pressure. Adolescents are willing to conform to the norm of peer...

  3. The mediatization of peer-to-peer health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla; Ahlmark, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    observations and qualitative interviews from a peer-to-peer programme for men in Copenhagen. The article analyses the tensions that occurred in the media coverage of the programme as well as in the municipal facilitation and management of the peer-to-peer health care programme defined partly...... by a democratization of health expertise and by a broader culture characterized by individualized, risk aware health promotion. We will argue that tensions between media logics and logics of care and of risk created a mediatized conception of health and of the peer programme that highlighted health care...

  4. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  5. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  6. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  7. MELCOR Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Dhir, V.K.; Gieseke, J.A.; Haste, T.J.; Kenton, M.A.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Leonard, M.T.; Viskanta, R.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation

  8. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. On Being a Peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results from...... a case study on social robots as persuasive social actors in education an extension of the persuasive principles is proposed and related design guidelines for Persuasive Technology as social actors in teaching are presented....

  10. Workplace peer educators and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David; Kgatea, Kabelo Duncan

    2008-11-01

    Peer educators form an important component of company responses to HIV and AIDS. Based on interviews with peer educators working in and around a mining company in South Africa's North-West Province, the study examines the relationship between involvement in peer education and stress. The paper discusses how becoming a peer educator can be a response to the often personal stress brought about by the HIV epidemic. In addition, structural difficulties, skills deficiencies and other obstacles to effective communication with their peers can create stress. The stress that active peer education brings to individuals is discussed, particularly in regard to the embeddedness of peer educators within their communities. The need for confidentiality also magnifies stress in the case of individuals who disregard peer educators' advice. Peer educators face many stresses in managing and supporting their own lives, thus their (voluntary) work as peer educators should not be taken out of context. Using this approach, we discuss how the role of peer educator should be conceptualised and how they can be organised and supported in order that their stress be minimised and effective engagement maximised.

  11. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  12. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  13. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  14. Is there something like a peer to peer science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bauwens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.

  15. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  16. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  17. Brugbar peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Helle; Heger, Stine

    Studerende kan være medskabere af undervisning i akademisk skrivning, når de modtager og giver feedback til hinandens ufærdige akademiske tekster. Det ser vi i et udviklingsprojekt, hvor vi afprøver kollektive vejledningsformater. Vi har dog erfaret: 1. at studerende mangler træning i at give og ...... modtage feedback 2. at den manglende træning kan stå i vejen for realiseringen af læringspotentialet ved peer feedback....

  18. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  19. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  20. Peer-to-Peer Networking -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    networking, operating systems and embedded systems. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking in recent times has been touted as .... Gnutella (General file sharing) P2P service at the same time. 2. .... The data processing does not occur in 'real time' ...

  1. Peer Education from the Perspective of Peer Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Aysel; Akkus, Dilek; Sener, Dilek Konuk

    2018-01-01

    Peer educators (PEs) have a significant role in providing education on various health issues like smoking, alcohol, and other substance use. This study aimed to determine the experiences and opinions of PEs regarding a peer education program. Using the qualitative research method, data were collected from the study sample, which consisted of 23…

  2. Peer production & peer support at the Free Technology Academy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex

    2012-01-01

    Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.

  3. Students' use of Facebook for peer-to-peer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    are using Facebook groups to help each other with all kinds of school-related matters, including issues relating directly to academic subjects. Based on the findings from the study, the paper concludes that there is an educational potential of Facebook groups in supporting peer-to-peer learning between...

  4. Key agreement in peer-to-peer wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any ...

  5. Active Minds: Creating Peer-to-Peer Mental Health Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Willliam A.; Abelson, Sara; Malmon, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing student peers is one vital avenue for improving the prevention, detection, and treatment of mental health disorders on college campuses (The Campus Suicide Prevention Center of Virginia, 2011). This article will briefly review research findings indicating the importance of student peers and then focus on a promising model and growing…

  6. Peer-to-peer communication, cancer prevention, and the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S.; Carpenter, Kristen M.; Greene, Paul; Hoffmann, Randi; Kukafka, Rita; Marlow, Laura A.V.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Quillin, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Online communication among patients and consumers through support groups, discussion boards, and knowledge resources is becoming more common. In this paper, we discuss key methods through which such web-based peer-to-peer communication may affect health promotion and disease prevention behavior (exchanges of information, emotional and instrumental support, and establishment of group norms and models). We also discuss several theoretical models for studying online peer communication, including social theory, health communication models, and health behavior models. Although online peer communication about health and disease is very common, research evaluating effects on health behaviors, mediators, and outcomes is still relatively sparse. We suggest that future research in this field should include formative evaluation and studies of effects on mediators of behavior change, behaviors, and outcomes. It will also be important to examine spontaneously emerging peer communication efforts to see how they can be integrated with theory-based efforts initiated by researchers. PMID:19449267

  7. Peer til peer i arbejdet med udsatte mennesker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Norrhäll, Oskar; Jensen, Pernille Hartvig

    Statens Institut for Folkesundhed, Syddansk Universitet har fået til opdrag at lave en formativ procesevaluering af Københavns Kommunes projekt Mænd i København. Projektet omhandler udvikling og implementering af en peer til peer indsats med henblik på at forbedre sundhed og trivsel blandt udsatte...... mænd i risiko for at udvikle type 2 diabetes. En del af evalueringsopdraget har været at tilvejebringe viden om relevant litteratur om peer-metoder. I denne forbindelse er dette notat udarbejdet til Københavns Kommunes Forebyggelsescenter Nørrebro af evaluerings-teamet, som består af forsker, Nanna...... Ahlmark, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Camilla Dindler, praktikant og specialestuderende Oskar Norrhäll og specialestuderende Pernille Hartvig Jensen. Notatet er en sammenfatning af udvalgt forskningslitteratur og rapporter om peer til peer-relaterede projekter målrettet udsatte grupper i forbindelse...

  8. PEER Business and Industry Partnership (BIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    products laboratories publications nisee b.i.p. members education FAQs links bip members PEER Business and Industry Partnership (BIP) Current BIP members Joining the BIP Program Site Map Search PEER Business and PEER. For an annual donation, the PEER Business and Industry Partnership (BIP) involves members in PEER

  9. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  10. Thanking our peer reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Alan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers As 2013 commences I would like to take a moment to reflect and recognize the peer reviewers that made the previous year possible. Listed below are those people who reviewed for Molecular Cancer last year. All are generous individuals who donated their time to assessing and improving our authors’ submissions. Your combined efforts have been invaluable to the editorial staff in maintaining the continued success of the journal in the Open Access forum. The editors of Molecular Cancer would like to thank all the reviewers who contributed to the journal in Volume 11 (2012 by participating in the review process - taking time out of your busy schedules and even to volunteer - without your critical insights, hard work and support for the journal we wouldn’t be able to do what we do.

  11. Developing Peer Mentoring through Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph; Jaugietis, Zarni

    2011-01-01

    Peer mentoring programs are an important component in the strategy to enhance the first year undergraduate experience. The operation of these programs needs to be informed by evidence as to their effectiveness. In this article we report on a six-year study of the development of a peer mentoring program in which feedback is used to improve program…

  12. Peer Mentoring for Bioinformatics presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    A handout used in a HUB (Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics) meeting focused on career development for bioinformaticians. It describes an activity for use to help introduce the idea of peer mentoring, potnetially acting as an opportunity to create peer-mentoring groups.

  13. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  14. Peer Matcher : Decentralized Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdog, Nicolae Vladimir; Voulgaris, Spyros; Bal, Henri; van Halteren, Aart

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents Peer Matcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pair wise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, Peer Matcher

  15. Cultivating Change through Peer Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie; Whittington, M. Susie; Wolf, Kattlyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the impact of peer teaching on both the students and the classroom environment. Students, enrolled in two Introduction to Teaching courses in agricultural and extension education, were asked to engage in peer teaching activities. The researchers utilized discourse analysis, textual…

  16. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, N H

    2015-11-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  17. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  18. How Do Peers Impact Learning? An Experimental Investigation of Peer-To-Peer Teaching and Ability Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Kimbrough, Erik O.; McGee, Andrew; Shigeoka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Classroom peers are believed to influence learning by teaching each other, and the efficacy of this teaching likely depends on classroom composition in terms of peers' ability. Unfortunately, little is known about peer-to-peer teaching because it is never observed in field studies. Furthermore, identifying how peer-to-peer teaching is affected by ability tracking – grouping students of similar ability – is complicated by the fact that tracking is typically accompanied by changes in curriculum...

  19. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  20. Peer Influence on Managerial Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    peers’ reports are higher than they have expected, the opposite is not true. Third, partial transparency reinforces this asymmetry in peer influence. Unlike full transparency, it allows managers to substitute self-serving assumptions for missing information and to thus justify their own dishonesty more......We investigate peer influence on managerial honesty under varying levels of transparency. In a laboratory experiment, managers report their costs to a superior to request budget. We manipulate whether the managers learn each other’s report and cost (full transparency) or the report but not the cost...... (partial transparency). The results show, first, that managers are susceptible to peer influence, as they join peers in reporting honestly and dishonestly both under full and partial transparency. Second, however, the effect of peer influence is asymmetric. While managers’ dishonesty increases much when...

  1. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...

  2. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.; Johansen, Guro G.; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation. PMID:29599738

  3. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G; Johansen, Guro G; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of "private teaching, private learning" has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy ( N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  4. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siw G. Nielsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In higher music education (HME, the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96, where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  5. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  6. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  7. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  8. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  9. A peer-to-peer platform for decentralized logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallay, Olivier; Korpela, Kari; Tapio, Niemi; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Kersten, Wolfgang; Blecker, Thorsten; Ringle, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel platform for decentralized logistics, the aim of which is to magnify and accelerate the impact offered by the integration of the most recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to multi-modal freight operations. The essence of our peer-to-peer (P2P) framework distributes the management of the logistics operations to the multiple actors according to their available computational resources. As a result, this new approach prevents the dominant playe...

  10. Surfing Peer-to-Peer IPTV: Distributed Channel Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.

    It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.

  11. Peer to peer energy trading with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro-Hermana, R.; Fraile-Ardanuy, J.; Zufiria, P.; Knapen, Luk; Janssens, Davy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel peer-to-peer energy trading system between two sets of electric vehicles, which significantly reduces the impact of the charging process on the power system during business hours. This trading system is also economically beneficial for all the users involved in the trading process. An activity-based model is used to predict the daily agenda and trips of a synthetic population for Flanders (Belgium). These drivers can be initially classified into three sets; after d...

  12. Gossip in a Smartphone Peer-to-Peer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Newport, Calvin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the fundamental problem of gossip in the mobile telephone model: a recently introduced variation of the classical telephone model modified to better describe the local peer-to-peer communication services implemented in many popular smartphone operating systems. In more detail, the mobile telephone model differs from the classical telephone model in three ways: (1) each device can participate in at most one connection per round; (2) the network topology can undergo a pa...

  13. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  14. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  15. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  16. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  17. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  18. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  19. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  20. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  1. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  2. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  3. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  4. 2017 Project Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2018-02-06

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2017 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  5. University Data Partnership Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In March 2012, the Connecticut (CTDOT) and New Mexico (NMDOT) Departments of Transportation met in Baton Rouge, Louisiana for a two-day peer session dedicated to exploring the intricate 12-year safety data partnership between the Louisiana Department...

  6. Active gamblers as peer counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, J

    1988-07-01

    Problem gambling is becoming a major social concern. The efficacy of current treatment programs that use a compulsion model which requires abstinence and attendance at Gamblers Anonymous meetings is open to question. The researcher advocates a controlled-gambling approach as a viable alternative to conventional methods. The centerpiece of his program is the use of active gamblers as peer counselors. A suggested format for incorporating peer counselors into an actual treatment program is presented.

  7. Peer assessment in architecture education

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira de Sampayo, Mafalda; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Jimenez-Romero, Cristian; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer assessment in education has become of particular interest in recent years, mainly because of its potential benefits in improving student’s learning and benefits in time management by allowing teachers and tutors to use their time more efficiently to get the results of student’s assessments quicker. Peer assessment has also relevant in the context of distance learning and massive open online courses (MOOCs).

  8. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peer Review: Has It a Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…

  10. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27... § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... barrier evaluation as required in § 194.44. (b) Peer review processes required in paragraph (a) of this...

  11. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must be...

  12. Peer Involvement in University Students' Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlations between peer involvement in students’ education and their self-perception, attachment style, relationships with peers, personality and well-being. We used the Inventory of parent and peer attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991, Questionnaire of the subjects’ self-perceptions (Cugmas, 2012 and The big five questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara et al, 2002. We developed the questionnaires of peer involvement and subjects’ well-being. Positive relationships with peers, secure attachment style, positive self-perceptions, some personal characteristics and well-being were positively associated with peer support, and negatively with peer pressure.

  13. Perception and Management of Risk in Internet-Based Peer-to-Peer Milk-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D.

    2014-01-01

    The perception and management of the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing was explored via a written questionnaire administered to 97 peer milk donors and 41 peer milk recipients who were recruited via Facebook. All recipients' respondents were aware that there were risks associated with using peer-shared milk and took action to mitigate these…

  14. Give-and-take based peer-to-peer content distribution networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared to traditional content distribution schemes, peer- to-peer networks ... are shared among users who desire to download files. In a peer-to-peer ..... randomly generated data points, with 300 segments and 200 peers. From the figure ...

  15. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  16. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  17. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  19. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect...

  20. Robust Reputations for Peer-to-peer Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    a cryptographic protocol that permits persistent pseudonyms: on-line identities that maintain privacy and anonymity yet providing a strong guarantee...July 2005. [106] ——, “Resisting sybils in peer-to-peer markets,” 2007, to appear in the Proceedings of the Joint iTrust and PST Conference on Privacy ...vendors unite to voice their concerns,” Startup Journal, May 2004, http://startup.wsj.com/ ecommerce / ecommerce /20040526-wingfield.html. 179 [117] B. Yu and M

  1. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the Scientific Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Anton ANTONTechnical University of Civil Engineering, BucharestRomania François AVELLANEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland Fidel ARZOLAEDELCAVenezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNERVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Anton BERGANTLitostroj Power d.o.o., LjubljanaSlovenia Gerard BOISENSAM, LilleFrance Hermod BREKKENTNU, TrondheimNorway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc., YorkUSA Eduard EGUSQUIZAPolytechnical University Catalonia BarcelonaSpain Arpad FAYUniversity of MiskolczHungary Richard FISHERVoith Hydro Inc., York USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLAInstitut Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance Aleksandar GAJICUniversity of BelgradeSerbia Arno GEHRERAndritz Hydro GrazAustria José GONZÁLEZUniversidad de OviedoSpain François GUIBAULTEcole Polytechnique de MontrealCanada Chisachi KATOUniversity of TokyoJapan Kwang-Yong KIMInha University, IncheonKorea Jiri KOUTNIKVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Adrian LUNGUDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania Christophe NICOLETPower Vision Engineering Sàrl, LausanneSwitzerland Torbjøm K. NIELSENNTNU, TrodheimNorway Michihiro NISHIKyushu Institute of TechnologyJapan Maryse PAGEHydro Quebec IREQ, VarennesCanada Etienne PARKINSONAndritz Hydro LtdSwitzerland František POCHYLYBrno UniversityCzech Republic Stefan RIEDELBAUCHVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG

  2. Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory Approach. ... In this paper, we model the interactions between peers as a modified gift giving game and proposed an utility exchange incentive ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  4. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  5. Peer effects in risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; Gandelman, Néstor; González, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    We estimate peer effects in risk attitudes in a sample of high school students. Relative risk aversion is elicited from surveys administered at school. Identification of peer effects is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice, and on the use of instrumental variables conditional on school-grade fixed effects. We find a significant and quantitatively large impact of peers' risk attitudes on a male individual's coefficient of risk aversion. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in the group's coefficient of risk aversion increases an individual's risk aversion by 43%. Our findings shed light on the origin and stability of risk attitudes and, more generally, on the determinants of economic preferences. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  7. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Philip; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimi...

  8. Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Berry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest, savannas, deserts, temperate grassland, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and chaparral. The carbon cycle is an important mechanism in the coupling of terrestrial ecosystems with climate through biological fluxes of CO 2 . The influence of terrestrial ecosystems on atmospheric CO 2 can be modeled via several means at different timescales. Important processes include plant dynamics, change in land use, as well as ecosystem biogeography. Over the past several decades, many terrestrial ecosystem models (see the 'Model developments' section) have been developed to understand the interactions between terrestrial carbon storage and CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of these interactions. Early TECMs generally adapted simple box-flow exchange models, in which photosynthetic CO 2 uptake and respiratory CO 2 release are simulated in an empirical manner with a small number of vegetation and soil carbon pools. Demands on kinds and amount of information required from global TECMs have grown. Recently, along with the rapid development of parallel computing, spatially explicit TECMs with detailed process based representations of carbon dynamics become attractive, because those models can readily incorporate a variety of additional ecosystem processes (such as dispersal, establishment, growth, mortality etc.) and environmental factors (such as landscape position, pest populations, disturbances, resource manipulations, etc.), and provide information to frame policy options for climate change

  9. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  10. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  11. Optimization of routing strategies for data transfer in peer-to-peer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Atsushi; Igarashi, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Since peer-to-peer file-sharing systems have become familiar recently, the information traffic in the networks is increasing. Therefore it causes various traffic problems in peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we model some features of the peer-to-peer networks, and investigate the traffic problems. Peer-to-peer networks have two notable characters. One is that each peer frequently searches for a file and download it from a peer who has the requested file. To decide whether a peer has the requested file or not in modelling of the search and download process, we introduce file-parameter P j , which expresses the amount of files stored in peer j. It is assumed that if P j is large, peer j has many files and can meet other peers' requests with high probability. The other character is that peers leave and join into the network repeatedly. Many researchers address traffic problems of data transfer in computer communication networks. To our knowledge, however, no reports focus on those in peer-to-peer networks whose topology changes with time. For routing paths of data transfer, generally, the shortest paths are used in usual computer networks. In this paper, we introduce a new optimal routing strategy which uses weights of peers to avoid traffic congestion. We find that the new routing strategy is superior to the shortest path strategy in terms of congestion frequency in data transfer

  12. Defining Peer-to-Peer Accountability From the Nurse's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Jacqueline Jansen; Barkley, Leslie; Stichler, Jaynelle; Palomo, Jeanne; Kik, Bozena; Walker, Christopher; Donnelly, Janet; Willon, Judy; Sanborn, Julie; O'Byrne, Noeleen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to define and create a conceptual model for peer-to-peer accountability (P to PA). Many organizations cite the importance of peer accountability (PA) as essential in ensuring patient safety. Professionalism in nursing requires self-regulation of practice and PA. Although discussed in the literature, P to PA is not conceptually defined. A grounded theory study design with constant comparative data collection and analysis was used to explore nurses' definitions of P to PA and their perceptions of motivators and barriers to engaging in P to PA. Transcripts of digital recordings of all interviews were analyzed using line-by-line coding until identified themes emerged. P to PA was defined as the act of speaking up when one observes a peer not practicing to acceptable standards. A conceptual model illustrates the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of P to PA. P to PA is the professional responsibility of every nurse and healthcare provider and is essential for safe patient care. The conceptual definition facilitates actualization of P to PA in practice.

  13. Peers for Promotion: Achieving Academic Advancement through Facilitated Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…

  14. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  15. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Learning via Online Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various forms of peer observation and feedback on student learning. We recruited twelve graduate students enrolled in a course entitled, Statistics in Education and Psychology, at a university in northern Taiwan. Researchers adopted the case study method, and the course lasted for ten weeks. Students were…

  16. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  17. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  18. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...

  19. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  20. Predicting Availability of Mobile Peers in Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Ekler, Péter

    2013-01-01

    users and network operators. In these situations, a certain redundancy must be built into the system because the availability of the nodes can vary greatly. The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to minimize the necessary redundancy by predicting the number of available nodes. The prediction......Peer-to-peer (P2P) applications for mobile devices are becoming more and more popular because of increasing bandwidth, computational performance and storage capabilities. Such a mobile based distributed architecture offers significant advantages in several scenarios from the perspective of both...

  1. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  2. Some Limits in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Joan; Martinez, Herminio; Gomariz, Spartacus; Gámiz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the educational methodology known as "peer assessment" constitutes one of the pillars of formative assessment at the different levels of the educational system, particularly at the University level. In fact, in recent years, it has been increasingly used to enhance students' meaningful learning, as it is considered to be an…

  3. Perkiomen Valley Peer Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicole; And Others

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period of life; teens are faced with challenging issues such as stress and suicide. Facilitating informed decision-making among adolescents requires educational programs that present information in compelling and credible ways. With this in mind, a peer education program was developed, using older students to teach…

  4. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  5. Lykkes peer-feedback altid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bente Mosgaard

    Agenda. International Journal of English Studies, 10(2), 171-184. doi:10.6018/ijes.10.2.119251 Lee, I. (2013). Research into Practice: Written Corrective Feedback. Language Teaching, 46(2), 108-119. doi:10.1017/S0261444812000390 Nicol, D. (2014). Guiding Principles for Peer Reveiw: Unlocking Learner...... Aarhus Universitet tilbydes derfor en række større og mindre opgaver, der skal give dem mulighed for at træne denne evne (se paper I, Jensen, in press, 2018). Nogle af de mindre opgaver inkluderer brugen af peer-feedback. Opgaverne afvikles via systemet Peergrade, hvor de studerende online bedømmer...... til at være, (3) pege på hvilke fordele og udfordringer der er med at anvende peer-feedback i det anvendte set-up på den pågældende uddannelse og (4) foreslå hvilke krav der må stilles til et system, der skal understøtte en korrektiv peer feedback proces ? Bredt teoretisk er jura-casen et eksempel på...

  6. The Power of Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In a religion class of 26 bright creative sixth graders, one student demonstrates the power of peer pressure. Part of the morning ritual is to say prayer petitions. Students seems to be calmed by their expressions of care for their families, friends, pets, their military troops, victims of natural disasters, the homeless, etc. However, one student…

  7. Smoking Initiation: Peers and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-S. Hsieh (Chih-Sheng); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions are widely recognized to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we hypothesize that individual with `stronger' personalities (i.e. emotionally stable, conscientious individuals) are better able to resist peer pressure in the

  8. Some limits in peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Domingo Penya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the known as ‘peer assessment’ is one of the pillars of formative assessment in the different levels of the educational system buts, especially, in the University level. Last years, it has been considered in order to enhance students' meaningful learning, considering it as an element of social learning from the lessons learned by other classmates, and the ability to assess their quality, compared with the level of knowledge that each student has about the subject/course evaluated, and using common evaluation criteria. Relating to this, the experience presented in this paper has been developed with two groups of students. It allows to determine how many peer assessments is prudent to ask course students in order to make a serious and reliable activity, and not as a required and mandatory exercise that has to be carried out by students simply to pass the course; in this last case, the activity could become extremely trivial and banal. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that three-peer assessments per student appraised are a good lot. In addition, on the other hand, more than thirty-peer assessments do not provide learning nor serious activities.

  9. Implementing a centralized institutional peer tutoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughf, Natalie White; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-01-01

    Peer tutoring has been found to be beneficial to both students and peer tutors in health sciences education programs. This article describes the implementation of a centralized, institutional peer tutoring program at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, an academic health science center in the U.S. The Program: This multispecialty peer tutoring program paired students experiencing academic difficulties with peer tutors who showed prior academic success, professionalism and effective communication skills. The program allowed students and peer tutors to coordinate their own tutoring services. Evaluations by both students and peer tutors showed satisfaction with the program. Recommendations for developing and implementing an effective peer tutoring program are presented, including utilization of an online system, consistent program policy with high professionalism expectations, funding, program evaluation and data tracking.

  10. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  11. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  12. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  13. Preventing DoS attacks in peer-to-peer media streaming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William; Nahrstedt, Klara; Gupta, Indranil

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for preventing both selfishness and denial-of-service attacks in peer-to-peer media streaming systems. Our framework, called Oversight, achieves prevention of these undesirable activities by running a separate peer-to-peer download rate enforcement protocol along with the underlying peer-to-peer media streaming protocol. This separate Oversight protocol enforces download rate limitations on each participating peer. These limitations prevent selfish or malicious nodes from downloading an overwhelming amount of media stream data that could potentially exhaust the entire system. Since Oversight is based on a peer-to-peer architecture, it can accomplish this enforcement functionality in a scalable, efficient, and decentralized way that fits better with peer-to-peer media streaming systems compared to other solutions based on central server architectures. As peer-to-peer media streaming systems continue to grow in popularity, the threat of selfish and malicious peers participating in such large peer-to-peer networks will continue to grow as well. For example, since peer-to-peer media streaming systems allow users to send small request messages that result in the streaming of large media objects, these systems provide an opportunity for malicious users to exhaust resources in the system with little effort expended on their part. However, Oversight addresses these threats associated with selfish or malicious peers who cause such disruptions with excessive download requests. We evaluated our Oversight solution through simulations and our results show that applying Oversight to peer-to-peer media streaming systems can prevent both selfishness and denial-of-service attacks by effectively limiting the download rates of all nodes in the system.

  14. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  15. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate in...

  16. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  17. 42 CFR 24.5 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 24.5 Section 24.5 Public Health PUBLIC....5 Peer review. An individual may not be considered for appointment into the SBRS unless his/her qualifications have been reviewed by a PHS peer review committee and the committee has recommended appointment to...

  18. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  19. Peer Tutoring at Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…

  20. Peer Assessment of Elementary Science Teaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2007-01-01

    In this study, peer assessment was applied in assessing elementary science teaching skills. Preservice teachers taught a science topic as a team to their peers in an elementary science methods course. The peers participating in the science lesson assessed teacher-groups' elementary science teaching skills on an assessment form provided by the…

  1. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…

  2. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  3. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  4. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  5. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  6. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  7. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  8. Research Paper A comparison of peer and non-peer exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study examined peer and non-peer unwanted early sexual experiences (UESE) among 3,689 university students to establish whether peer UESE is as coercive and bothersome as non-peer UESE. Method: A self-report checklist was administered to all consenting students attending an orientation ...

  9. Peer Programs: An In-Depth Look at Peer Helping: Planning, Implementation, and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Judith A.

    The goal of this book is to provide a program designed to teach peer helping professionals a method and rationale for training peer helpers. Peer helping programs are a major delivery system of affective education or deliberate psychological education. Peer helping programs can provide prevention, intervention, and support systems for people.…

  10. Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulpolder, M.

    2011-01-01

    On today's Internet, millions of people participate in peer-to-peer communities where they share content such as audio and video files. Contrary to websites such as Youtube, which rely on large and expensive computer servers to store and deliver all of their content, peer-to-peer communities rely on

  11. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  12. Understanding peer effects : on the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, lowachieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  13. Understanding peer effects - On the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, low-achieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  14. Peer-to-Peer Teaching Using Multi-Disciplinary Applications as Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Souhan, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Most educators know that the best way to truly understand new material is to teach it. The use of students as peer educators provides numerous benefits to the student teacher and his or her classmates. Student-led instruction or peer-to-peer teaching is not a new concept or teaching technique. Peer teaching traces its roots back to the ancient…

  15. Hierarchical Data Distribution Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Dave, M.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In the past few years, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become an extremely popular mechanism for large-scale content sharing. P2P systems have focused on specific application domains (e.g. music files, video files) or on providing file system like capabilities. P2P is a powerful paradigm, which provides a large-scale and cost-effective mechanism for data sharing. P2P system may be used for storing data globally. Can we implement a conventional database on P2P system? But successful implementation of conventional databases on the P2P systems is yet to be reported. In this paper we have presented the mathematical model for the replication of the partitions and presented a hierarchical based data distribution scheme for the P2P networks. We have also analyzed the resource utilization and throughput of the P2P system with respect to the availability, when a conventional database is implemented over the P2P system with variable query rate. Simulation results show that database partitions placed on the peers with higher availability factor perform better. Degradation index, throughput, resource utilization are the parameters evaluated with respect to the availability factor.

  16. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  17. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  18. Energy-efficient peer-to-peer networking for constrained-capacity mobile environments

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, E. (Erkki)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Energy efficiency is a powerful measure for promoting sustainability in technological evolution and ensuring feasible battery life of end-user devices in mobile computing. Peer-to-peer technology provides decentralized and self-organizing architecture for distributing content between devices in networks that scale up almost infinitely. However, peer-to-peer networking may require lots of resources from peer nodes, which in turn may lead to increased energy consumption on mobile d...

  19. Ancient Terrestrial Carbon: Lost and Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in terrestrial environments dominate the global carbon cycle. The fluxes of terrestrial carbon are strongly tied to regional climate due to the influences of temperature, water, and nutrient dynamics on plant productivity. However, climate also influences the destruction of terrestrial organic matter, through weathering, erosion, and biomass loss via fire and oxidative microbial processes. Organic geochemical methods enable us to interrogate past terrestrial carbon dynamics and learn how continental processes might accelerate, or mitigate carbon transfer to the atmosphere, and the associated greenhouse warming. Terrestrial soil systems represent the weathering rind of the continents, and are inherently non-depositional and erosive. The production, transport, and depositional processes affecting organics in continental settings each impart their own biases on the amount and characteristics of preserved carbon. Typically, the best archives for biomarker records are sediments in ancient lakes or subaqueous fans, which represents a preservation bias that tends to favor wetter environments. Paleosols, or ancient soils, formed under depositional conditions that, for one reason or another, truncated soil ablation, erosion, or other loss processes. In modern soils, widely ranging organic carbon abundances are almost always substantially greater than the trace amounts of carbon left behind in ancient soils. Even so, measureable amounts of organic biomarkers persist in paleosols. We have been investigating processes that preserve soil organic carbon on geologic timescales, and how these mechanisms may be sensitive to past climate change. Climate-linked changes in temperature, moisture, pH, and weathering processes can impact carbon preservation via organo-mineral sorption, soil biogeochemistry, and stability based on the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds. These will be discussed and illustrated with examples from our studies of Cenozoic

  20. Scholarly publishing depends on peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The peer-review crisis is posing a risk to the scholarly peer-reviewed journal system. Journals have to ask many potential peer reviewers to obtain a minimum acceptable number of peers accepting reviewing a manuscript. Several solutions have been suggested to overcome this shortage. From reimbursing for the job, to eliminating pre-publication reviews, one cannot predict which is more dangerous for the future of scholarly publishing. And, why not acknowledging their contribution to the final version of the article published? PubMed created two categories of contributors: authors [AU] and collaborators [IR]. Why not a third category for the peer-reviewer?

  1. Scholarly publishing depends on peer reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Llimos F

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The peer-review crisis is posing a risk to the scholarly peer-reviewed journal system. Journals have to ask many potential peer reviewers to obtain a minimum acceptable number of peers accepting reviewing a manuscript. Several solutions have been suggested to overcome this shortage. From reimbursing for the job, to eliminating pre-publication reviews, one cannot predict which is more dangerous for the future of scholarly publishing. And, why not acknowledging their contribution to the final version of the article published? PubMed created two categories of contributors: authors [AU] and collaborators [IR]. Why not a third category for the peer-reviewer?

  2. Can parental monitoring and peer management reduce the selection or influence of delinquent peers? Testing the question using a dynamic social network approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilton-Weaver, L.C.; Burk, W.J.; Kerr, M.; Stattin, H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether parents can reduce affiliation with delinquent peers through 3 forms of peer management: soliciting information, monitoring rules, and communicating disapproval of peers. We examined whether peer management interrupted 2 peer processes: selection and influence of delinquent peers.

  3. Evolutionary tracks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takafumi; Abe, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the model proposed by Matsui and Abe, the authors show that two major factors - distance from the Sun and the efficiency of retention of accretional energy - control the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. A diagram of accretional energy versus the optical depth of a proto-atmosphere provides a means to follow the evolutionary track of surface temperature of the terrestrial planets and an explanation for why the third planet in our solar system is an 'aqua'-planet. 15 refs; 3 figs

  4. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1

  5. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  6. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  7. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  8. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  9. Peer Review of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Simpson, P.; Munoz, C.; Dufois, F.; Heslop, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the quality of oceanographic data, there is a clear need to employ best practices (BPs) for ocean observation and information management. However, effectively discovering these BPs is a challenge, hindering harmonized quality assurance across projects and programmes. To remedy this, we are prototyping a resource for the stable archiving and efficient discovery of BPs through a granular, semantically indexed, and consistently formatted web resource. While these technical advances have value, they cannot ensure improved oceanographic data quality without effective and inclusive peer review processes. Peer review of digitized best practices can take a number of forms from traditional (blind) peer review as practiced by journal publishers through to the evolving "open" approach where community reviews have both the authors and reviewers identified. This presentation will discuss the options for peer review mechanisms for best practices, including a hybrid approach where both expert panels and open community review are used to improve methodologies and thus downstream data quality. It is not yet clear if the ocean community prefers open versus blind reviews for best practices. It is also unclear the extent to which innovation versus solid technical base should have a higher priority in the reviews. Further, it is not clear whether the reviews should use an internal expert panel of the IODE OceanBestPractices Repository (http://www.oceanbestpractices.net/) or should be done as part of a journal publications process or both, as mentioned above. Thus, we will also describe our future approach to `field test' these review models on a multi-stakeholder compendium of digitized best practice documents.

  10. 28 CFR 34.102 - Peer review procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review procedures. 34.102 Section 34.102 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.102 Peer review procedures. The OJJDP peer review process is contained in an OJJDP “Peer...

  11. Peer social support training in UK prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel

    2017-10-11

    To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  12. The ethics of peer review in bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved. PMID:24131903

  13. Breastfeeding peer support: are there additional benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Deborah; Haining, Shona; Day, Ann

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal discussion among breastfeeding peer supporters and the infant-feeding co-ordinator suggested that breastfeeding peer support provided by breastfeeding peer supporters may offer benefits to breastfeeding women and their families other than increasing breastfeeding initiation and sustainability. The aim of this research was to determine whether there was evidence to support this. The research team used focus groups to obtain information from 16 local women who had received breastfeeding peer support from breastfeeding peer supporters. The key themes that emerged were--improved mental health, increased self-esteem or confidence, parenting skills, improved family diet, breastfeeding sustainability and poor hospital experience.The findings suggest that breastfeeding peer supporters supporting mothers to breastfeed, with the intention of increasing both breastfeeding rates and sustainability, may have additional benefits in several aspects of families' lives. Breastfeeding peer support may play an important role in helping to attain targets such as reducing obesity and postnatal depression.

  14. Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snydman, Laura; Chandler, Daniel; Rencic, Joseph; Sung, Yung-Chi

    2013-02-01

    Resident doctors (residents) play a significant role in the education of medical students. Morning work rounds provide an optimal venue to assess resident teaching. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of peer observation of resident work rounds, to evaluate resident perceptions of peer observation and to evaluate resident perceptions of peer feedback.   Twenty-four internal medicine residents were simultaneously observed by an attending physician and a peer while teaching during work rounds (between August2008 and May 2009). At year-end, residents received a survey to characterise their attitudes towards peer observation and feedback. Twenty-one residents (87.5%) completed the survey. Half (52.4%) felt that participating in the peer observation study stimulated their interest in teaching during work rounds. Prior to participation in the study, fewer than half (42.9%) felt comfortable being observed by their peers, compared with 71.4 percent after participation (p=0.02). The proportion of residents who felt comfortable giving feedback to peers increased from 26.3 to 65.0percent (p=0.004), and the proportion of residents who felt comfortable receiving feedback from peers increased from 76.2 to 95.2 percent (p=0.02). Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching during work rounds is feasible and rewarding for the residents involved. Comfort with regards to being observed by peers, with receiving feedback from peers and with giving feedback to peers significantly increased after the study. Most residents reported changes in their teaching behaviour resulting from feedback. Residents felt that observing a peer teach on work rounds was one of the most useful activities to improve their own teaching on work rounds. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  15. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  16. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents’ Intentions to Volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other’s prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental “chat room” paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55 % female, 45 % male; Mage = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., “e-confederates”), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants’ intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent “public” and “private” experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates’ prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors. PMID:26525387

  17. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.

  19. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  20. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  1. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  2. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  3. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  4. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  5. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Brent E. Ewers; Bryan N. Shuman; David G. Williams; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; William K. Lauenroth

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of evapotranspiration (ET) attributed to plant transpiration (T) is an important source of uncertainty in terrestrial water fluxes and land surface modeling (Lawrence et al. 2007, Miralles et al. 2011). Jasechko et al. (2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) and T in ET...

  6. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  7. Cooptation of Peer Support Staff: Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Alberta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective In 2007, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS sent a letter to state Medicaid directors outlining requirements for implementing peer-based recovery support services (P-BRSS as a Medicaid-funded service. Since then, 30 states have implemented these services. Although the literature describing implementation of P-BRSS has identified the cooptation of peer support staff (PSS as a barrier to the effective provision of P-BRSS, the evidence for it remains anecdotal. This study attempts to determine if the context of employment in either a treatment organization or peer organization affected cooptation. Methods We conducted a survey of PSS in the fall of 2013. In all, 92 of the 181 respondents were working as PSS at the time, 53 in treatment organizations. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if the context of employment had an effect on the cooptation of peer staff. Results Peer staff working in treatment organizations reported that they were supervised by treatment staff and participated in employment-related training to improve their skills at providing treatment services more frequently than their counterparts in peer organizations. Peer staff working in treatment organizations also participated in training and education to prepare for employment as treatment professionals more frequently than peer staff working in peer organizations. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Peer staff members working in treatment organizations are subject to processes of acculturation into professional cultures that peer staff working in peer organizations are not. Effective implementation of P-BRSS should include specific efforts to minimize the cooptation of peer staff.

  8. Peer-to-peer as a travel accommodation option and the customer value

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovets, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the concept of peer-to-peer accommodation as a travel lodging option from the customers’ point of view and the reasons for choosing that. Airbnb and Couchsurfing were used as examples of peer-to-peer accommodation. The theoretical section of the thesis covers the history of the homestay concept as the original form of peer-to-peer accommodation, its features as a part of hospitality exchange network, and the influence of modern technologies. The...

  9. PSG: Peer-to-Peer semantic grid framework architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Soliman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The grid vision, of sharing diverse resources in a flexible, coordinated and secure manner, strongly depends on metadata. Currently, grid metadata is generated and used in an ad-hoc fashion, much of it buried in the grid middleware code libraries and database schemas. This ad-hoc expression and use of metadata causes chronic dependency on human intervention during the operation of grid machinery. Therefore, the Semantic Grid is emerged as an extension of the grid in which rich resource metadata is exposed and handled explicitly, and shared and managed via grid protocols. The layering of an explicit semantic infrastructure over the grid infrastructure potentially leads to increase interoperability and flexibility. In this paper, we present PSG framework architecture that offers semantic-based grid services. PSG architecture allows the explicit use of semantics and defining the associated grid services. PSG architecture is originated from the integration of Peer-to-Peer (P2P computing with semantics and agents. Ontologies are used in annotating each grid component, developing users/nodes profiles and organizing framework agents. While, P2P is responsible for organizing and coordinating the grid nodes and resources.

  10. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, L F; Caiafa, C F; Ausloos, M; Proto, A N

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity.

  11. Inspiring peer-to-peer educations with film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.

  12. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  13. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  14. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  15. [Adaptation of a peer pressure scale in French and German: the Peer Pressure Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, S; Studer, J; Daeppen, J-B; Gmel, G

    2013-06-01

    Peer pressure is regarded as an important determinant of substance use, sexual behavior and juvenile delinquency. However, few peer pressure scales are validated, especially in French or German. Little is known about the factor structure of such scales or the kind of scale needed: some scales takes into account both peer pressure to do and peer pressure not to do, while others consider only peer pressure to do. The aim of the present study was to adapt French and German versions of the Peer Pressure Inventory, which is one of the most widely used scales in this field. We considered its factor structure and concurrent validity. Five thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven young Swiss men filled in a questionnaire on peer pressure, substance use, and other variables (conformity, involvement) in a cohort study. We identified a four-factor structure, with the three factors of the initial Peer Pressure Inventory (involvement, conformity, misconduct) and adding a new one (relationship with girls). A non-valued scale (from no peer pressure to peer pressure to do only) showed stronger psychometric qualities than a valued scale (from peer pressure not to do to peer pressure to do). Concurrent validity was also good. Each behavior or attitude was significantly associated with peer pressure. Peer pressure seems to be a multidimensional concept. In this study, peer pressure to do showed the strongest influence on participants. Indeed, peer pressure not to do did not add anything useful. Only peer pressure to do affected young Swiss men's behaviors and attitudes and was reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matt D; Loughead, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction. A total of 444 intercollegiate athletes (272 well-peer mentored and 172 non-peer mentored) from a variety of sport teams participated in the study. Athletes from both well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored groups reported their satisfaction levels using the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results of a MANOVA and follow-up post hoc ANOVAs showed that well-peer mentored athletes were significantly more satisfied than their non-peer mentored counterparts in terms of individual performance, personal dedication, team task contribution, team social contribution, team integration, ethics, ability utilisation and training and instruction. Overall, the findings suggest that athletes who are well-peer mentored by a teammate perceive higher satisfaction levels with various aspects of their athletic experience than athletes who are not peer mentored by a teammate. Given these positive findings, practitioners (i.e., coaches, sport psychology consultants) should inform athletes on the benefits of peer-to-peer mentoring. The practical implications of the results and strategies to promote peer athlete mentoring relationships in sport are highlighted.

  17. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  18. Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nitta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.

  19. MODIS-derived terrestrial primary production [chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of...

  20. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  1. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  2. Leveraging position bias to improve peer recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lerman

    Full Text Available With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation.

  3. The Biosphere International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    Abe van Luik (US DOE- YM, USA), ended the presentation by giving feedback from the IAEA peer review on the biosphere modelling strategy developed by the DOE Yucca Mountain Site Characterisation Office (YMSCO). This review was based on available international standards and guidance. The peer review team was constituted of both experts from regulatory and waste management organisations and national advisory committees. The implementation of the review consisted of an examination of biosphere reports mainly regarding the modelling and question and answer exchanges. The final report was submitted in April 2000. It contained twenty-three recommendations within two broad classifications; one concerning the regulatory framework, the other one regarding the framework to increase stakeholders' confidence in modelling. The three main categories of recommendations were outlined, namely (i) the DOE' s Biosphere assessment Approach, (ii) the definition of the biosphere system, and (iii) the model development, data and results. Regarding in particular the treatment of the uncertainties in the biosphere, it was viewed as a key issue during the review and thus it will be re-evaluated in the future performance assessment. The summary highlighted most of the recommendations received are to be acted on, and are to be included in the License Application plan for biosphere modelling

  4. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  5. 2012 national state safety engineers and traffic engineers peer-to-peer workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the : 2012 National State Safety Engineers and Traffic Engineers Peer-to-Peer Workshop on November 14 and 15, 2012, at the : Hyatt ...

  6. ENcentive: A Framework for Intelligent Marketing in Mobile Peer-To-Peer Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratsimor, Olga; Finin, Tim; Joshi, Anupam; Yesha, Yelena

    2005-01-01

    .... eNcentive facilitates peer-to-peer electronic marketing in mobile ad hoc environments. Our framework employs an intelligent marketing scheme, by providing users the capability to collect information like sales promotions and discounts...

  7. A digital peer-to-peer learning platform for clinical skills development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Paul Basnak

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Students found the practice OSCEs and digital platform effective for learning clinical skills. Thus, peer-to-peer learning and computer automation can be useful adjuncts to traditional medical curricula.

  8. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 9 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Region 9 Local Road Safety Peer : Exchange held in Sacramento, California on September 17 and 18, 2013. The Federal Highway : Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety (HSA) sponsored the peer exc...

  9. Minnesota Peer Exchange : Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) Implementation - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN DOT) hosted a peer exchange February 3-4, 2015, in St. Paul, Minnesota. The event included peer representatives from the Nevada Department of Transportation (NV DOT), the Ohio Department of Transportatio...

  10. Kentucky Peer Exchange : Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a peer exchange hosted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) and the Kentucky Office of Highway Safety (KOHS) on June 16-17, 2015, in Frankfort, KY. The event included peer representatives from the Georgia Department of...

  11. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our goal is to adapt the peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, as the basis for development of...

  12. A Local Asynchronous Distributed Privacy Preserving Feature Selection Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we develop a local distributed privacy preserving algorithm for feature selection in a large peer-to-peer environment. Feature selection is often used...

  13. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  14. Client-side Web Mining for Community Formation in Peer-to-Peer Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we present a framework for forming interests-based Peer-to-Peer communities using client-side web browsing history. At the heart of this framework is...

  15. Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Global Carbon Project; Pataki, D.E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Pitelka, L.F. (eds.) [Maryland Univ., Frostburg, MD (United States). Appalachian Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: * key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, * ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and * sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system. (orig.)

  16. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  17. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  18. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  19. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...... and attributes to monitor in the plan related to soil invertebrates. Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) of the soil decomposer system include the soil living invertebrates such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and earthworms and the functions performed by microorganisms such as nitrification, decomposition...

  20. Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of a...

  1. The Tragedy of the Commons : Arms Race Within Peer-to-Peer Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The two major concerns about peer-to-peer are anonymity and non-censorship of documents. Music industry has highlighted these questions by forcing Napster to filter out copyright protected MP3 files and taking legal actions against local users by monitoring their stored MP3 files. Our investigation shows that when copyright protected files are filtered out, users stop downloading public music as well. The success of a distributed peer-to-peer system is dependent on both cooperating coalitions...

  2. MAFF monitoring of the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the food surveillance programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), in particular the Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) and the estimation of dietary intake of radionuclides. To define the surveillance programme the following issues need to be decided upon: 1) the type of food which should be analysed; 2) the nature of the contaminants which should be analysed; and 3) the geographical location from which the food samples should be taken. (author)

  3. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land......, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’....

  4. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial

  5. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  6. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…

  7. Help Seeking among Peers: The Role of Goal Structure and Peer Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    With a sample of 373 middle school students, the present longitudinal study examined the role of the classroom peer climate in mediating the relation between perceptions of classroom goal structures and academic help seeking among peers. Classroom goal structures were measured in the fall and classroom peer climate and help seeking among peers…

  8. Information Propagation in Peer-to-Peer Networking : Modeling and Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although being a young technology, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has spurred dramatic evolution on the Internet over the recent twenty years. Unlike traditional server-client mode, P2P networking applications are user-centric. Users (peers) generate their own content and share it with others across

  9. The Role of Child Characteristics and Peer Experiences in the Development of Peer Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Cox, R.F.A; Hunnius, Sabine

    Cooperation with peers is challenging for young children, and there are large individual differences in the development of cooperation. The roles of child characteristics and peer experiences for peer interaction during free play have been studied extensively, but it is unclear which factors predict

  10. Peer Assessment in the Digital Age: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Xiong, Yao; Zang, Xiaojiao; Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Lyu, Youngsun; Chung, Kyung Sun; Suen, Hoi K.

    2016-01-01

    Given the wide use of peer assessment, especially in higher education, the relative accuracy of peer ratings compared to teacher ratings is a major concern for both educators and researchers. This concern has grown with the increase of peer assessment in digital platforms. In this meta-analysis, using a variance-known hierarchical linear modelling…

  11. Peer Teaching among Physical Therapy Students during Human Gross Anatomy: Perceptions of Peer Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W.; Hoffarth, Brianna L.; Kohlwey, Scott R.; Kramer, Christine M.; Petro, Jaime L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite nearly 200 accredited entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States that culminate in a doctoral degree, only a paucity of reports have been published regarding the efficacy of peer teaching in gross anatomy. No one has described the usefulness of peer teaching from the viewpoint of the peer teacher. An organized…

  12. Designing student peer assessment in higher education: Analysis of written and oral peer feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, I.; Admiraal, W.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback Relating it to design features, the present article describes the nature of written and oral peer feedback as it occurred in seven writing courses, each with a different PA design. Results indicate that

  13. System optimization for peer-to-peer multi hop video broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedeoglu, V.; Atici, C.; Salman, F.S.; Sunay, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    We consider peer-to-peer video broadcasting using cooperation among peers in an ad hoc wireless network. As opposed to the traditional single hop broadcasting, multiple hops cause an increase in broadcast video quality while creating interference and increasing transmission delay. We develop

  14. The Effects of Young Children's Affiliations with Prosocial Peers on Subsequent Emotionality in Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, Richard A.; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Moss, Alicia; Reesing, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Preschoolers' (60 boys and 64 girls, "M" age = 50.73 months) affiliations with prosocial peers were observed in naturally occurring interactions and then examined in relation to positive and negative emotionality within their peer interactions one semester later. Greater affiliation with prosocial peers in the fall was related to enhanced positive…

  15. Sampling Terrestrial Environments for Bacterial Polyketides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyketides are highly biologically active molecules that are frequently used as drugs, particularly as antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus the discovery of new polyketides is of major interest. Since the 1980s discovery of polyketides has slowed dramatically due in large part to the repeated rediscovery of known compounds. While recent scientific and technical advances have improved our ability to discover new polyketides, one key area has been under addressed, namely the distribution of polyketide-producing bacteria in the environment. Identifying environments where producing bacteria are abundant and diverse should improve our ability to discover (bioprospect new polyketides. This review summarizes for the bioprospector the state-of-the-field in terrestrial microbial ecology. It provides insight into the scientific and technical challenges limiting the application of microbial ecology discoveries for bioprospecting and summarizes key developments in the field that will enable more effective bioprospecting. The major recent efforts by researchers to sample new environments for polyketide discovery is also reviewed and key emerging environments such as insect associated bacteria, desert soils, disease suppressive soils, and caves are highlighted. Finally strategies for taking and characterizing terrestrial samples to help maximize discovery efforts are proposed and the inclusion of non-actinomycetal bacteria in any terrestrial discovery strategy is recommended.

  16. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  17. Developing future nurse educators through peer mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenau PA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patricia A Rosenau, Rita F Lisella, Tracey L Clancy, Lorelli S NowellFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: The nursing workforce and nursing education demographic trends reinforce the urgency to cultivate future nursing leaders, educators, and mentors. The changing realities of health care environments, involving crowded student placements, overtaxed clinical mentors and preceptors, and inexperienced staff, hamper student learning and professional development. Peer mentoring has been used successfully in nursing education to enhance student engagement and the quality of the student learning experience. Although various terms like peer mentor have been used to describe the role of senior students facilitating junior student learning, the literature is silent about how peer mentoring fosters the development of future nursing education leaders.Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how peer mentorship fosters the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in an elective undergraduate peer-mentoring credit course, Introductory Concepts in Nursing Education and Leadership Through Peer-Led Learning.Design and method: This phenomenological study explored the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate students through the analysis of critical reflections of individual senior students and online discussions between triads of senior students teaching/learning across diverse junior-level theory and practice courses.Participants: Seventeen senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in the elective course participated in the study.Results: From the critical reflections and online discussions, four themes emerged: "developing teaching philosophies and pedagogies", "learning teaching strategies", "supportive peer relationship", and "benefits of the peer mentorship program".Conclusion: The creation and promotion of peer leadership

  18. Medical faculty opinions of peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudland, Joy R; Rennie, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a well-researched and established method of learning defined as 'a medical student facilitating the learning of another medical student'. While it has been adopted in many medical schools, other schools may be reluctant to embrace this approach. The attitude of the teaching staff, responsible for organizing and or teaching students in an undergraduate medical course to formal peer teaching will affect how it is introduced and operationalized. This study elicits faculty opinions on how best to introduce peer tutoring for medical students. Structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The interviews were with medically qualified staff responsible for organizing or teaching undergraduate medical students at a New Zealand medical school. Six questions were posed regarding perceived advantages and disadvantages of peer tutoring and how the school and staff could support a peer-tutoring scheme if one was introduced. Staff generally supported the peer tutoring concept, offering a safe environment for learning with its teachers being so close in career stage to the learners. They also say disadvantages when the student-teachers imparted wrong information and when schools used peer tutoring to justify a reduction in teaching staff. Subjects felt that faculty would be more accepting of peer tutoring if efforts were made to build staff 'buy in' and empowerment, train peer tutors and introduce a solid evaluation process. Staff of our school expressed some concerns about peer tutoring that are not supported in the literature, signaling a need for better communication about the benefits and disadvantages of peer tutoring.

  19. Adolescent personality factors in self-ratings and peer nominations and their prediction of peer acceptance and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, R H; van Aken, M A; van Lieshout, C F

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the robustness of the Big Five personality factors in adolescents' self-ratings and peer nominations was investigated. Data were obtained on 2,001 adolescents attending secondary school (885 girls; 1,116 boys; M age = 14.5 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the self-ratings confirmed the Big Five personality factors. In contrast, exploratory analysis on the peer nominations revealed five different factors: Aggression-Inattentiveness, Achievement-Withdrawal, Self-Confidence, Sociability, and Emotionality-Nervousness. It is suggested that peers evaluate group members not in terms of their personality but in terms of their group reputation. Peer evaluations contributed substantially to the prediction of peer acceptance and rejection; the Big Five personality factors based on self-ratings did not.

  20. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  1. Psychopathic Traits Moderate Peer Influence on Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…

  2. Students' Informal Peer Feedback Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headington, Rita

    2018-01-01

    The nature and significance of students' informal peer feedback networks is an under-explored area. This paper offers the findings of a longitudinal investigation of the informal peer feedback networks of a cohort of student teachers [n = 105] across the three years of a UK primary education degree programme. It tracked the dynamic nature of these…

  3. The Problem of Humiliation in Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Schwartz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of vituperative feedback from peer reviewers. We argue that such feedback is morally unacceptable, insofar as it humiliates authors and damages their dignity. We draw from social-psychological research to explore those aspects of the peer-review process in general and the anonymity of blind reviewing in particular…

  4. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  5. Peer Tutoring: A Training and Facilitation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirini, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Students can make huge gains in academic grades and confidence with the help of peer tutoring. This book provides practical, research-based strategies for anyone wanting to run a peer tutoring programme or to improve their own tutoring practice. The book focuses on two key components of tutoring: the tutoring relationship and tutoring tools. The…

  6. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  7. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  8. Peer/Self Assessment and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, Abdou

    2017-01-01

    Effective and durable learning achievements can result from students' engagement in their own learning. This study explored students' perceptions of the mechanisms and processes through which peer and self-assessment can contribute to their learning. More specifically, the study investigated students' perceived ways in which peer and…

  9. Effect of Peer Mentors on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate peer mentoring programs strive to retain students who solve their own problems, develop options, unravel obstacles, and establish a process of figuring out solutions. A crucial component of obtaining that goal is to effectively train peer mentors to serve as advocates to freshman undergraduate students. Terrion and Philion (2008)…

  10. Peer Mentors Can Improve Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…

  11. Positive Peer Culture with German Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Children and youth develop the ability to surmount difficult life challenges through a combination of external supports and internal strengths. Positive peers can contribute substantially to growth in resilient coping and problem-solving skills. Positive Peer Culture (PPC) programs are designed to strengthen supportive social bonds, competence,…

  12. University students' attitudes towards peer assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the whole, the findings show that students were happy to peer assess but not so much to be peer assessed. Also, half of the participants estimated that their assessments did not match those to be expected by their course instructor even if the same assessment criteria were to be used. Some recommendations are ...

  13. Age Differences in Resistance to Peer Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2007-01-01

    Prior research describes the development of susceptibility to peer pressure in adolescence as following an inverted U-shaped curve, increasing during early adolescence, peaking around age 14, and declining thereafter. This pattern, however, is derived mainly from studies that specifically examined peer pressure to engage in antisocial behavior. In…

  14. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  15. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  16. Peer Helpers: Encouraging Kids to Confide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Gail; Reid, Kelley

    1997-01-01

    In peer-helping programs, a professional counselor or teacher trains a group of students who then help other students by listening, providing information, and referring them to others with the necessary expertise. Peer helpers can help improve the school climate by contributing to its health and security. Since 1979, Seattle's Natural Helpers…

  17. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  18. Item Response Theory for Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Masaki; Ueno, Maomi

    2016-01-01

    As an assessment method based on a constructivist approach, peer assessment has become popular in recent years. However, in peer assessment, a problem remains that reliability depends on the rater characteristics. For this reason, some item response models that incorporate rater parameters have been proposed. Those models are expected to improve…

  19. Reducing Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…

  20. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  1. Peer Observation of Teaching: A Decoupled Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John Martyn; D'Artrey, Meriel; Rowe, Deborah-Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article details the findings of research into the academic teaching staff experience of peer observation of their teaching practice. Peer observation is commonly used as a tool to enhance a teacher's continuing professional development. Research participants acknowledged its ability to help develop their teaching practice, but they also…

  2. Teaching peers to talk to peers: the time has come for science to create a respectable, full-time career track for "peer-peer communication teachers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Armando Chapin

    2012-11-01

    Scientists should learn to communicate effectively with their colleagues through long-term, sustained training instead of ad hoc, one-off "interventions" that may or may not occur during graduate school or postdoctoral work. Since such training may place unreasonable demands on research advisors, institutions should create career opportunities for "peer-peer communication teachers." Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Peer Learning for Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsdon, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws upon small scale, qualitative research at a UK university to present a Learning Development (LD) perspective on peer learning. This approach is offered as a lens for exploring social aspects of learning, cultural change in higher education and implications for pedagogy and policy. Views of a small group of peer learning leaders…

  4. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  5. Peer Assessment in Engineering Group Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has proved to be beneficial in project-based environments by involving students in the process and encouraging them to take ownership of their learning. This article reviews how peer assessment has been employed within group work for different engineering programs. Since the administr...

  6. PeerMatcher: Decentralized Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdog, N.V.; Voulgaris, S.; Bal, H.E.; van Halteren, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents PeerMatcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pairwise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, PeerMatcher

  7. Peer Learning in Specialist Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2016-01-01

    Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…

  8. Ontology-Based Peer Exchange Network (OPEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui

    2010-01-01

    In current Peer-to-Peer networks, distributed and semantic free indexing is widely used by systems adopting "Distributed Hash Table" ("DHT") mechanisms. Although such systems typically solve a. user query rather fast in a deterministic way, they only support a very narrow search scheme, namely the exact hash key match. Furthermore, DHT systems put…

  9. Peer Rejection and Internalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Peer Victimization in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Aslan, Özge

    2018-05-23

    The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization. Relational victimization indirectly affected the association between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of victimization behaviors on the relationship among peer rejection, victimization, and internalizing behaviors.

  10. Peer-Mentoring Program and Academic Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endah Kusmartini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of Sriwijaya State Polytechnic believes that peer-mentoring program has positive effects on students’ academic success. Moreover, it is also believed that good academic atmosphere should be developed. In line with these, researchers tried to investigate whether peer-mentoring program and academic atmosphere correlated significantly to students’ writing achievement partially and simultaneously. The research was conducted in English Department, Sriwijaya State Polytechnic with 60 samples taken randomly. Measures of Peer-mentoring Program and Academic Atmosphere were used sequentially to measure peer-mentoring program and academic atmosphere as perceived by the students. Meanwhile, writing score was used to find out writing achievement of the students. The hypotheses were tested by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Linear Regression. The results showed that peer-mentoring program and academic atmosphere as perceived by the students correlated significantly towards students’ writing achievement partially and simultaneously. Therefore it is recommended to continue the programs.

  11. Gender bias in scholarly peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Markus; Schottdorf, Manuel; Neef, Andreas; Battaglia, Demian

    2017-03-21

    Peer review is the cornerstone of scholarly publishing and it is essential that peer reviewers are appointed on the basis of their expertise alone. However, it is difficult to check for any bias in the peer-review process because the identity of peer reviewers generally remains confidential. Here, using public information about the identities of 9000 editors and 43000 reviewers from the Frontiers series of journals, we show that women are underrepresented in the peer-review process, that editors of both genders operate with substantial same-gender preference (homophily), and that the mechanisms of this homophily are gender-dependent. We also show that homophily will persist even if numerical parity between genders is reached, highlighting the need for increased efforts to combat subtler forms of gender bias in scholarly publishing.

  12. Are peer specialists happy on the job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Dissecting "Peer Presence" and "Decisions" to Deepen Understanding of Peer Influence on Adolescent Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Haddara, Nadia; Sasse, Stephanie F; Skwara, Alea C; Moran, Joseph M; Figner, Bernd

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the aspects of complex decisions influenced by peers, and components of peer involvement influential to adolescents' risky decisions. Participants (N = 140) aged 13-25 completed the Columbia Card Task (CCT), a risky choice task, isolating deliberation-reliant and affect-reliant decisions while alone, while a friend monitors choices, and while a friend is merely present. There is no condition in which a nonfriend peer is present. Results demonstrated the risk-increasing peer effect occurred in the youngest participants in the cold CCT and middle-late adolescents in the hot CCT, whereas other ages and contexts showed a risk-decreasing peer effect. Mere presence was not sufficient to influence risky behavior. These boundaries in age, decision, and peer involvement constrain prevailing models of adolescent peer influence. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  14. 28 CFR 34.110 - Management of peer reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of peer reviews. 34.110 Section 34.110 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES... the peer review process. ...

  15. Art-mediated peer-to-peer learning of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan; Chen, Julie

    2014-08-01

    Making experiential art in a clinical clerkship offers opportunities for students to gain self-awareness and enhance their empathic understanding of patients. The student-created art can be further used as teaching material for other students. The graduating class of 2012 from Ajou University School of Medicine in South Korea was interested in learning about medical humanities initiatives at the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (HKU), and made an educational visit in May 2012. As part of the core family medicine curriculum, third-year HKU medical students created poetry and art based on their experiences witnessing patients in pain and suffering. Twenty of the artworks and accompanying reflective writing were chosen for an exhibition. The visiting students viewed the exhibit and created their own art based on their emotional response to one piece selected from the exhibit. The combination of viewing art made by their peers and creating art in response resulted in empathic understanding of patient pain and suffering, and an appreciation of holistic care and the value of the doctor-patient relationship. Medical student-generated artwork has the potential to educate both students and professionals on humanistic aspects of medical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Terrestrial Planet Formation from an Annulus -- Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.; Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, Harold F.

    2018-04-01

    Numerous recent theories of terrestrial planet formation suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed large Earth to Mars mass ratio, planets formed from an annulus of material within 1 au. The success of these models typically rely on a Mars sized embryo being scattered outside 1 au (to ~1.5 au) and starving, while those remaining inside 1 au continue growing, forming Earth and Venus. In some models the scattering is instigated by the migration of giant planets, while in others an embryo-instability naturally occurs due to the dissipation of the gaseous solar nebula. While these models can typically succeed in reproducing the overall mass ratio among the planets, the final angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the present terrestrial planets in our Solar System, and their radial mass concentration (RMC), namely the position where Mars end up in the simulations, are not always well reproduced. Assuming that the gas nebula may not be entirely dissipated when such an embryo-instability happens, here, we study the effects that the time of such an instability can have on the final AMD and RMC. In addition, we also included energy dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions by assuming a given coefficient of restitution for collisions. Our results show that: i) dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions do not play any important role in the final terrestrial planetary system; ii) the final AMD decreases only when the number of final planets formed increases; iii) the RMC tends to always be lower than the present value no matter the number of final planets; and iv) depending on the time that the embryo-instability happen, if too early, with too much gas still present, a second instability will generally happen after the dissipation of the gas nebula.

  17. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track

  18. Global analytic treatment of terrestrial photogrammetric networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoud, M

    1980-01-01

    In order to solve certain special CERN metrology problems, analytical terrestrial photogrammetry may have some advantages which are first discussed along with their drawbacks and limitations. In this application, it is necessary to carry out a rigorous and global adjustment of the observations and simultaneously process all the perspective ray bundles. The basic principles, the least squares solution and the stochastic analysis of the results are presented. However, for the CERN project, one wonders if the production of digital theodolites is going to reduce the advantages of the photogrammetric method. (12 refs).

  19. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In its first two years of operation, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed 79 Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs). The thick Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are excellent for TGF spectroscopy, having a high probability of recording the full energy of an incident photon, spanning a broad energy range from 150 keV to 40 MeV, and recording a large number of photons per TGF. Correlations between GBM TGF triggers and lightning sferics detected with the World-Wide Lightning Location Network indicate that TGFs and lightning are simultaneous to within tens of microseconds.

  20. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  1. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  2. MAFF monitoring of the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the MAFF food surveillance programme, in particular our Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP), and the estimation of dietary intake of radionuclides. The MAFF programme exists primarily to demonstrate that authorized discharges of radioactivity to the environment do not result in individuals receiving doses of radiation in excess of accepted limits. The estimation radionuclide intake ensures over estimation rather than underestimation of dose. Improvements in detection limits and absorption level research could lower the calculated dose to man from radionuclides in food without losing their validity. (author)

  3. Bryophyte in the Beginning of Terrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of life has been wondered by human beings since ancient ages. The widely accepted opinion is that life began in water and after that landed. In this process, the landing of plants and adapting to terrestrial life of plants are important stages. The last 20 years it’s been done many researches to find out the relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes. The results of these researches revealed that in evolutionary development process bryophytes and tracheophytes are sister groups. Thesis about earliest land plants are bryophytes is widely accepted recent years. To understand evolutionary process and plants of today’s better, researches about bryophytes must increase.

  4. Grand scheme for solar-terrestrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The study of solar wind and its interaction with magnetic fields and electrical currents is examined. The effects of magnetic storms caused by solar wind interaction with magnetic fields in the magnetosphere and ionosphere are described. The effect of magnetospheric plasma processes on spacecraft operations and the operation of ground-based systems are explained. The development of an International Solar Terrestrial Physics program, which will be designed to place diagnostic experiments on a collection of spacecraft positioned near space is discussed; the components of the program are described

  5. A New Furostanol Glycoside from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonghua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S-5α-furostane-20(22-en-12-one-3β, 26-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1 on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  6. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  7. A new furostanol glycoside from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yajuan; Liu, Yonghong; Xu, Tunhai; Xie, Shengxu; Si, Yunshan; Liu, Yue; Zhou, Haiou; Liu, Tonghua; Xu, Dongming

    2010-01-27

    Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostane-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta, 26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  8. Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kamide, Y

    2007-01-01

    The Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment is a unique compendium. Recognized international leaders in their field contribute chapters on basic topics of solar physics, space plasmas and the Earth's magnetosphere, and on applied topics like the aurora, magnetospheric storms, space weather, space climatology and planetary science. This book will be of highest value as a reference for researchers working in the area of planetary and space science. However, it is also written in a style accessible to graduate students majoring in those fields.

  9. The ethics of peer review in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-10-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Peer-to-peer mentoring for individuals with early inflammatory arthritis: feasibility pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sharron; Veinot, Paula; Embuldeniya, Gayathri; Brooks, Sydney; Sale, Joanna; Huang, Sicong; Zhao, Alex; Richards, Dawn; Bell, Mary J

    2013-03-01

    To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of early peer support to improve the health and quality of life of individuals with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Feasibility study using the 2008 Medical Research Council framework as a theoretical basis. A literature review, environmental scan, and interviews with patients, families and healthcare providers guided the development of peer mentor training sessions and a peer-to-peer mentoring programme. Peer mentors were trained and paired with a mentee to receive (face-to-face or telephone) support over 12 weeks. Two academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Nine pairs consisting of one peer mentor and one mentee were matched based on factors such as age and work status. Mentee outcomes of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/biological treatment use, self-efficacy, self-management, health-related quality of life, anxiety, coping efficacy, social support and disease activity were measured using validated tools. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes. Peer mentor self-efficacy was assessed using a self-efficacy scale. Interviews conducted with participants examined acceptability and feasibility of procedures and outcome measures, as well as perspectives on the value of peer support for individuals with EIA. Themes were identified through constant comparison. Mentees experienced improvements in the overall arthritis impact on life, coping efficacy and social support (effect size >0.3). Mentees also perceived emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental support. Mentors also reported benefits and learnt from mentees' fortitude and self-management skills. The training was well received by mentors. Their self-efficacy increased significantly after training completion. Participants' experience of peer support was informed by the unique relationship with their peer. All participants were unequivocal about the need for

  11. Peer-review: An IOP Publishing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Online publishing is challenging, and potentially changing, the role of publishers in both managing the peer-review process and disseminating the work that they publish in meeting contrasting needs from diverse groups of research communities. Recognizing the value of peer-review as a fundamental service to authors and the research community, the underlying principles of managing the process for journals published by IOP Publishing remain unchanged and yet the potential and demand for alternative models exists. This talk will discuss the traditional approach to peer-review placed in the context of this changing demand.

  12. Science, Policy, and Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.

    2006-12-01

    These are intense times at the convergence between science and public policy. Because issues like climate change, stem cell research and environmental protection are being contested in choppy political water, political interests are being deployed to challenge science and researchers, and also to generate pseudo- scientific claims made in the interest of particular policy ends. In a number of cases reported in Science, administration officials have silenced their own employees, or withheld data selectively from draft reports. Added to that challenge to integrity, there is a new statutory environment that adds some complexity of its own. Beginning with the Data Quality Act, more familiarly the "Shelby Amendment," research results with significant economic impacts through regulation are now available through the Freedom of Information Act. Its successor, the Data Quality Act -- which opens a route of challenge to information released by government or gathered by others and used in advice or regulation has exposed scientists not only to having their primary data reanalyzed for the purposes of others, but to charges of research misconduct. These influences have made journal peer review more challenging in several ways, and I will outline some case examples.

  13. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Garwood, Russell J

    2018-02-05

    The Early Devonian Rhynie and Windyfield cherts remain a key locality for understanding early life and ecology on land. They host the oldest unequivocal nematode worm (Nematoda), which may also offer the earliest evidence for herbivory via plant parasitism. The trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) preserve the oldest book lungs and were probably predators that practiced liquid feeding. The oldest mites (Arachnida: Acariformes) are represented by taxa which include mycophages and predators on nematodes today. The earliest harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) includes the first preserved tracheae, and male and female genitalia. Myriapods are represented by a scutigeromorph centipede (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha), probably a cursorial predator on the substrate, and a putative millipede (Diplopoda). The oldest springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) were probably mycophages, and another hexapod of uncertain affinities preserves a gut infill of phytodebris. The first true insects (Hexapoda: Insecta) are represented by a species known from chewing (non-carnivorous?) mandibles. Coprolites also provide insights into diet, and we challenge previous assumptions that several taxa were spore-feeders. Rhynie appears to preserve a largely intact community of terrestrial animals, although some expected groups are absent. The known fossils are (ecologically) consistent with at least part of the fauna found around modern Icelandic hot springs.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Phil; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-05-06

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The results show that the choice of source rocks and material comminution technique dominate the CO2 efficiency of enhanced weathering. CO2 emissions from transport amount to on average 0.5-3% of potentially sequestered CO2. The emissions of material mining and application are negligible. After accounting for all emissions, 0.5-1.0 t CO2 can be sequestered on average per tonne of rock, translating into a unit cost from 1.6 to 9.9 GJ per tonne CO2 sequestered by enhanced weathering. However, to control or reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations substantially with enhanced weathering would require very large amounts of rock. Before enhanced weathering could be applied on large scales, more research is needed to assess weathering rates, potential side effects, social acceptability, and mechanisms of governance.

  16. Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.

  17. Resources from waste peer reviews : peer reviews and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, C.I. [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States). Environment and Energy Group; Hamilton, D.A. [Lewis and Zimmerman Associates Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Nilsen, C. [Altus Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dawson, R.N. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2008-02-29

    The Resources from Waste Integrated Resource Management (IRM) study was commissioned by the British Columbia Ministry of Community Services to examine the feasibility of using solid and liquid waste to create energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, conserve water and recover nutrients. The Ministry of Community Services wanted to know if IRM could be applied province-wide as well as to the Capital Region District (CRD). The study assessed the potential contribution that the IRM approach can make to achieve the province's climate change agenda and Green Cities Program. This document provided comments on the IRM study report by 4 peer reviewers who generally agreed about the usefulness of the IRM concept. However, there were differences of opinion about how best to apply the concept and about potential costs and revenues. IRM is a concept and process that mimics ecological cycles of reuse and offers a means to address future challenges regarding climate change and population growth. In its optimal deployment, IRM can potentially result in zero waste. The reviewers indicated that IRM has the potential to be a viable solution to water, solid and liquid waste management that should be less expensive, result in fewer environmental impacts, and provide greater flexibility than traditional approaches to waste management. The advent of a graduated carbon tax on fossil based fuels will add value over time to the IRM model because it can generate significant amounts of non-fossil-based energy sources and contribute to GHG reduction targets. All the technologies presented in the IRM study are well-established, currently operational and in use in various jurisdictions. It was concluded, however, that further work is needed to evaluate IRM before it can be adopted without reservation. refs.

  18. Consequences of simulating terrestrial N dynamics for projecting future terrestrial C storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S.; Friend, A. D.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of a new land surface model, O-CN, which includes a process-based coupling between the terrestrial cycling of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen. The model represents the controls of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling on carbon (C) pools and fluxes through photosynthesis, respiration, changes in allocation patterns, as well as soil organic matter decomposition, and explicitly accounts for N leaching and gaseous losses. O-CN has been shown to give realistic results in comparison to observations at a wide range of scales, including in situ flux measurements, productivity databases, and atmospheric CO2 concentration data. Notably, O-CN simulates realistic responses of net primary productivity, foliage area, and foliage N content to elevated atmospheric [CO2] as evidenced at free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) sites (Duke, Oak Ridge). We re-examine earlier model-based assessments of the terrestrial C sequestration potential using a global transient O-CN simulation driven by increases in atmospheric [CO2], N deposition and climatic changes over the 21st century. We find that accounting for terrestrial N cycling about halves the potential to store C in response to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; mainly due to a reduction of the net C uptake in temperate and boreal forests. Nitrogen deposition partially alleviates the effect of N limitation, but is by far not sufficient to compensate for the effect completely. These findings underline the importance of an accurate representation of nutrient limitations in future projections of the terrestrial net CO2 exchanges and therefore land-climate feedback studies.

  19. Intersystem Interference Reduction for Overlaid HAPS-Terrestrial CDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeng-Ji; Wang, Wei-Ting; Li, Mingfu; Shiung, David; Ferng, Huei-Wen

    In this letter, we propose that directional antennas, combined with power management, be incorporated to reduce intersystem interference in a shared band overlaid high altitude platform station (HAPS)-terrestrial code division multiple access (CDMA) system. To eliminate the HAPS to terrestrial interference, the HAPS is accessed only via directional antennas under the proposed scheme. By doing so, the uplink power to the HAPS can accordingly be increased, so that the terrestrial to HAPS interference is also effectively suppressed.

  20. Equilibration of the terrestrial water, nitrogen, and carbon cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Schimel, David S.; Braswell, B. H.; Parton, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in biologically based ecosystem models of the coupled terrestrial, hydrological, carbon, and nutrient cycles have provided new perspectives on the terrestrial biosphere’s behavior globally, over a range of time scales. We used the terrestrial ecosystem model Century to examine relationships between carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics. The model, run to a quasi-steady-state, shows strong correlations between carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes that l...

  1. Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of adolescents and young adults. The aim of this review was to systematically identify available evidence for the effectiveness of online peer-to peer support for young people with mental health problems. The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (n=3934) were double screened and coded. Studies were included if they (1) investigated an online peer-to-peer interaction, (2) the interaction discussed topics related to mental health, (3) the age range of the sample was between 12 to 25 years, and (4) the study evaluated the effectiveness of the peer-to-peer interaction. Six studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies targeted a range of mental health problems including depression and anxiety (n=2), general psychological problems (n=1), eating disorders (n=1), and substance use (tobacco) (n=2). The majority of studies investigated Internet support groups (n=4), and the remaining studies focused on virtual reality chat sessions (n=2). In almost all studies (n=5), the peer support intervention was moderated by health professionals, researchers or consumers. Studies employed a range of study designs including randomized controlled trials (n=3), pre-post studies (n=2) and one randomized trial. Overall, two of the randomized controlled trials were associated with a significant positive outcome in comparison to the control group at post-intervention. In the remaining four

  2. Conversion of native terrestrial ecosystems in Hawai‘i to novel grazing systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    The remote oceanic islands of Hawai‘i exemplify the transformative effects that non-native herbivorous mammals can bring to isolated terrestrial ecosystems. We reviewed published literature containing systematically collected, analyzed, and peer-reviewed original data specifically addressing direct effects of non-native hoofed mammals (ungulates) on terrestrial ecosystems, and indirect effects and interactions on ecosystem processes in Hawai‘i. The effects of ungulates on native vegetation and ecosystems were addressed in 58 original studies and mostly showed strong short-term regeneration of dominant native trees and understory ferns after ungulate removal, but unassisted recovery was dependent on the extent of previous degradation. Ungulates were associated with herbivory, bark-stripping, disturbance by hoof action, soil erosion, enhanced nutrient cycling from the interaction of herbivory and grasses, and increased pyrogenicity and competition between native plants and pasture grasses. No studies demonstrated that ungulates benefitted native ecosystems except in short-term fire-risk reduction. However, non-native plants became problematic and continued to proliferate after release from herbivory, including at least 11 species of non-native pasture grasses that had become established prior to ungulate removal. Competition from non-native grasses inhibited native species regeneration where degradation was extensive. These processes have created novel grazing systems which, in some cases, have irreversibly altered Hawaii’s terrestrial ecology. Non-native plant control and outplanting of rarer native species will be necessary for recovery where degradation has been extensive. Lack of unassisted recovery in some locations should not be construed as a reason to not attempt restoration of other ecosystems.

  3. Commercialization of terrestrial applications of aerospace power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for commercialization of terrestrial energy systems based upon aerospace power technology's explored. Threats to the aerospace power technology industry, caused by the end of the cold war and weak world economy are described. There are also new opportunities caused by increasing terrestrial energy needs and world-wide concern for the environment. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of the aerospace power industry in commercializing terrestrial energy technologies are reviewed. Finally, actions which will enable the aerospace power technology industry to commercialize products into terrestrial energy markets are described

  4. Factors Supporting the Employment of Young Adult Peer Providers: Perspectives of Peers and Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, Jonathan; Klodnick, Vanessa V

    2017-10-01

    Peer providers are a promising practice for transition-age youth community mental health treatment engagement and support, yet little is known about the experience of being a young adult peer provider or what helps to make an individual in this role successful. Utilizing a capital theory lens, this study uses data from focus groups (two with young adult peer providers and two with their supervisors) to examine facilitators of young adult peer provider success in community mental health treatment settings. Eight factors were identified as critical to young adult peer provider on-the-job success: persistence, job confidence, resilience, job training, skilled communications with colleagues, regular and individualized supervision, support from colleagues, and family support. Findings suggest that young adult peer providers may benefit immensely from an agency level focus on fostering social organizational capital as well as more individualized efforts to increase cultural, social, and psychological capital through training and supervision.

  5. A peer-led approach to promoting health education in schools: The views of peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Frantz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of the 10 peer educators. Information from the interviews was transcribed verbatim, analysed, and coded thematically. The themes that emerged from the analysis of the informal discussion and in-depth interviews were grouped into categories, which included peer educators' experience of implementing the intervention, personal growth and experience with interacting with young people, and personal reflection on the presentation of the intervention. The role of peer educators was shown to be crucial to the success of peer-led programmes, but it is clear that equipping and supporting them through the process of implementation is essential.

  6. Science and Technology Peer Review: GPRA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kostoff, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This report describes practical issues for federal agencies to consider if they choose program peer review for internal purposes and/ or to contribute to satisfying the requirements of the Government...

  7. NCI Consumers Guide to Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To define the role consumer advocate in the peer review of applications that support extramural clinical and population-based research and clinical career development and training by various grant and cooperative agreement mechanisms.

  8. Peer tutoring programs in health professions schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, Jennifer; Garavalia, Linda

    2006-06-15

    Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention.

  9. Peer ja Protassov tuuleveskite vastu / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    1999-01-01

    H. Ibseni "Peer Gynt" "Endlas", lavastaja A.-E. Kerge, peaosas Raivo Trass,.esietendus 10. okt. 1998. L. Tolstoi "Elav laip" "Ugalas", lavastaja K. Komissarov, peaosas Andres Lepik, esietendus 26. sept. 1998. Kokkuvõte inglise keeles lk. 94

  10. Gendered-peer relationships in educational contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A; Hanish, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them.

  11. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  12. Tri-state research peer exchange 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The research offices of the Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire departments of transportation : hosted a peer exchange on October 26-28, 2010 in Berlin, Vermont. Representatives from three : other state DOTs, the Transportation Research Board (TRB), an...

  13. MoDOT research peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation hosted a peer exchange on April 11-12, 2011 in Jefferson City, Missouri. Participants included representatives from four state DOTs, The National Academies, USDOT-RITA, FHWA, and both public and private resea...

  14. Peer support: helping to influence cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Breastfeeding peer support schemes in Blackpool and Lancashire work closely with midwifery and other partners to offer additional support and encouragement to breastfeeding mothers. Employed and volunteer peer supporters deliver a systematic service in target areas delivering workshops to pregnant mothers, supporting new mothers in hospital, including in the neonatal units, in mothers' homes and in groups at children's centres. Working with health, children's centres, public health and councils, the peer supporters were instrumental in Fleetwood town agreeing to always welcome breastfeeding. They worked with teachers, public health and infant feeding coordinators to deliver a month-long breastfeeding campaign at a local college and, working with health visitors, have engaged with grandmothers to find out how they feel they can help support new mothers. Skilled supervision is essential to ensuring peer supporters work safely and continue to develop their skills and knowledge. Volunteer coordinators play a key role in valuing and organising volunteers.

  15. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  16. EERE Peer Review Guide - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Provides guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE research, development, demonstration, & deployment (supporting business administration) programs, both retrospective and pr

  17. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  18. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the `tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  19. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  20. Iowa DOT project management peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This project supported the planning and conduct of a two-day Iowa Department of Transportationhosted peer exchange for state : agencies that have implemented some or all of the suggested strategies outlined in the Second Strategic Highway Research...

  1. Inducing peer pressure to promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the 'tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  2. A peer-led approach to promoting health education in schools: The views of peers

    OpenAIRE

    Frantz, JM

    2015-01-01

    Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of the 10 peer educators. Information from the interviews was transcribed verbatim, analysed, and coded thematically. The themes that emerged from the a...

  3. Securing Resources in Collaborative Environments: A Peer-to-peerApproach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo; Essiari, Abdelilah; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-09-19

    We have developed a security model that facilitates control of resources by autonomous peers who act on behalf of collaborating users. This model allows a gradual build-up of trust. It enables secure interactions among users that do not necessarily know each other and allows them to build trust over the course of their collaboration. This paper describes various aspects of our security model and describes an architecture that implements this model to provide security in pure peer-to-peer environments.

  4. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  5. 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-01

    The 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers for the 109 Building Technologies Office (BTO) projects presented at the 2017 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  6. The changing face of peer review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hames

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a time of great innovation in peer review. Traditional models are being adapted and completely new ones introduced. Independent peer-review services are also starting to be offered by organizations outside the traditional journal ecosphere. In both new and established systems, the importance of increasing openness, transparency, and interaction between peer-review participants is being recognized, and these are being introduced to varying degrees. Concern with the ‘wastage’ of review effort in traditional peer review, where manuscripts often go from journal to journal, being reviewed afresh at each, before being accepted for publication, is also being addressed. Reviews are being transferred (‘cascaded’ and shared between some journals. The separation of the two basic functions of peer review—critical review and selection—as originally introduced by the journal PLOS ONE has been a major innovation, leading to the publication of sound work irrespective of its perceived novelty, interest, or importance. Post-publication review is also becoming more important and is another growth area. The concept of ‘portable’ reviews has been introduced, where authors can take reviews with them—either after they have obtained them from a peer-review provider in return for a fee or had their manuscript reviewed and declined at some journals—and include them with submissions to journals. The dynamics of publication are changing alongside, with journals able to ‘bid’ for papers that have been reviewed by independent organizations and make publishing offers to the authors. A number of innovations and ‘alternative’ peer-review models are described. They all, however, face many of the same issues as traditional peer review, and the same basic principles of good and ethical practice apply.

  7. 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers of the 67 BTO projects presented at the 2016 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  8. Random Versus Nonrandom Peer Review: A Case for More Meaningful Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Donithan, Adam; Patel, Sohil H

    2018-05-10

    Random peer review programs are not optimized to discover cases with diagnostic error and thus have inherent limitations with respect to educational and quality improvement value. Nonrandom peer review offers an alternative approach in which diagnostic error cases are targeted for collection during routine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to compare error cases identified through random and nonrandom peer review approaches at an academic center. During the 1-year study period, the number of discrepancy cases and score of discrepancy were determined from each approach. The nonrandom peer review process collected 190 cases, of which 60 were scored as 2 (minor discrepancy), 94 as 3 (significant discrepancy), and 36 as 4 (major discrepancy). In the random peer review process, 1,690 cases were reviewed, of which 1,646 were scored as 1 (no discrepancy), 44 were scored as 2 (minor discrepancy), and none were scored as 3 or 4. Several teaching lessons and quality improvement measures were developed as a result of analysis of error cases collected through the nonrandom peer review process. Our experience supports the implementation of nonrandom peer review as a replacement to random peer review, with nonrandom peer review serving as a more effective method for collecting diagnostic error cases with educational and quality improvement value. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. DOLCLAN – Middleware Support for Peer-to-Peer Distributed Shared Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob; Mogensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary object-oriented programming seeks to enable distributed computing by accessing remote objects using blocking remote procedure calls. This technique, however, suffers from several drawbacks because it relies on the assumption of stable network connections and synchronous method...... invocations. In this paper we present an approach to support distributed programming, which rely on local object replicas keeping themselves synchronized using an underlying peer-to-peer infrastructure. We have termed our approach Peer-to-peer Distributed Shared Objects (PDSO). This PDSO approach has been...

  11. Peer harassment, school connectedness, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Perry, Cheryl L

    2003-10-01

    This study described peer harassment in a large, multiethnic sample of adolescents, and explored the relationship between experiencing peer harassment and both school connectedness and achievement. Survey data came from 4,746 students in grades 7-12 at 31 public schools in ethnically and socioeconomically diverse communities in a Midwestern state. Frequency of five types of harassment were analyzed with data on school connectedness and grades. Multivariate analysis controlled for gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that most students periodically experience mistreatment; 10% to 17% report being treated disrespectfully, having others act superior, or being insulted at least once per week, and an additional 14% to 22% of students report suffering these behaviors a few times per month. Girls, Whites, Native Americans, and middle school students reported more harassment than boys, other ethnic groups, and high school students, respectively. Peer harassment related significantly to both aspects of school life; those who disliked school tended to suffer more mistreatment, and "B" students reported the least harassment on average. Young people mistreated by peers may not want to be in school and may thereby miss out on the benefits of school connectedness as well as educational advancement. The high prevalence of peer harassment and its association with school connectedness and school achievement provide justification for interventions aimed at prevention of peer harassment. A schoolwide approach using educational and policy components may provide an appropriate prevention strategy.

  12. Peer-assisted teaching: An interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Olaussen, Alexander; Peterson, Evan L

    2015-07-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) as an educational philosophy benefits both the peer-teacher and peer-learner. The changing role of paramedicine towards autonomous and professional practice demands future paramedics to be effective educators. Yet PAL is not formally integrated in undergraduate paramedic programs. We aimed to examine the effects of an educational intervention on students' PAL experiences as peer-teachers. Two one-hour workshops were provided prior to PAL teaching sessions including small group activities, individual reflections, role-plays and material notes. Peer-teachers completed the Teaching Style Survey, which uses a five-point Likert scale to measure participants' perceptions and confidence before and after PAL involvement. Thirty-eight students were involved in an average of 3.7 PAL sessions. The cohort was predominated by males (68.4%) aged ≤ 25 (73.7%). Following PAL, students reported feeling more confident in facilitating tutorial groups (p = 0.02). After the PAL project peer-teachers were also more likely to set high standards for their learners (p = 0.009). This PAL project yielded important information for the continual development of paramedic education. Although PAL increases students' confidence, the full role of PAL in education remains unexplored. The role of the university in this must also be clearly clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  14. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training and...

  15. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training and...

  16. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section... Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based upon their training or experience in relevant scientific or...

  17. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group...

  18. Peer Review as a Strategy for Improving Students' Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is an established strategy for improving the quality of students' writing. This study moves beyond the focus on outcomes to assess the peer-review process. In particular, this study focuses on the timing of the peer review, a highly structured feedback form, and student writers' revisions after engaging in peer review. This study draws…

  19. The Impact of Peer Mentoring on Pupils' Emotional Literacy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that peer mentoring can positively impact on emotional literacy competencies. This study explored the effects of peer mentoring on the emotional literacy competencies of Year 7 peer mentees using a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design. Results supported the hypothesis that peer mentoring has a positive…

  20. Peer Tutoring Effects on Omani Students' English Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…

  1. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...

  2. The Influence of Peer Groups on Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.; Tierney, William G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine how peer relationships influence students' academic success. After defining peer groups, the article considers the ways in which students' peer networks facilitate or inhibit access to academic resources. The authors argue that the composition and purpose of a peer group influences academic achievement and students' likelihood…

  3. Pubertal Development and Peer Influence on Risky Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…

  4. Separating Gender Composition Effects from Peer Effects in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of controlling for endogenous peer effects in estimating the influence of gender peer effects on educational outcomes. Using Manski's linear-in-means model, this paper illustrates that the estimation of gender peer effects is potentially biased in the presence of endogenous peer effect in education.…

  5. Peer Observation of Teaching: Enhancing Academic Engagement for New Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…

  6. Can Near-Peer Teaching Improve Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Fowler, James

    2014-01-01

    Near peer teaching is becoming increasingly popular within healthcare education. The experiences and effects of near-peer teaching upon the near-peer teachers' academic performance are poorly understood. In order to address this, the objective of this study was to examine whether a near-peer teaching program improved the overall clinical unit…

  7. Peer Evaluation of Teaching in an Online Information Literacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega García, Susan A.; Stacy-Bates, Kristine K.; Alger, Jeff; Marupova, Rano

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and implementation of a process of peer evaluation of teaching to assess librarian instruction in a high-enrollment online information literacy course for undergraduates. This paper also traces a shift within libraries from peer coaching to peer evaluation models. One common model for peer evaluation, using…

  8. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  9. Nonlinear Waves in the Terrestrial Quasiparallel Foreshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B; Kolotkov, D Y; O'Connell, D; Nakariakov, V M; Rowlands, G

    2016-12-02

    We provide strongly conclusive evidence that the cubic nonlinearity plays an important part in the evolution of the large amplitude magnetic structures in the terrestrial foreshock. Large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency are identified after nonharmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. Numerical solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, predicted analytically by the use of a pseudopotential approach, are found to be consistent with the observed wave forms. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfvén speed. We suggest that the feedback of the large amplitude fluctuations on background plasma is reflected in the evolution of the pseudopotential.

  10. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  11. Visual interface for space and terrestrial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Edmund G.; Williams, Jason R.; George, Arthur A.; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Snyder, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The management of large geophysical and celestial data bases is now, more than ever, the most critical path to timely data analysis. With today's large volume data sets from multiple satellite missions, analysts face the task of defining useful data bases from which data and metadata (information about data) can be extracted readily in a meaningful way. Visualization, following an object-oriented design, is a fundamental method of organizing and handling data. Humans, by nature, easily accept pictorial representations of data. Therefore graphically oriented user interfaces are appealing, as long as they remain simple to produce and use. The Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) system, currently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory's Backgrounds Data Center (BDC), has been designed with these goals in mind. Its graphical user interface (GUI) allows the user to perform queries, visualization, and analysis of atmospheric and celestial backgrounds data.

  12. Radio techniques for probing the terrestrial ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    The subject of the book is a description of the basic principles of operation, plus the capabilities and limitations of all generic radio techniques employed to investigate the terrestrial ionosphere. The purpose of this book is to present to the reader a balanced treatment of each technique so they can understand how to interpret ionospheric data and decide which techniques are most effective for studying specific phenomena. The first two chapters outline the basic theory underlying the techniques, and each following chapter discusses a separate technique. This monograph is entirely devoted to techniques in aeronomy and space physics. The approach is unique in its presentation of the principles, capabilities and limitations of the most important presently used radio techniques. Typical examples of data are shown for the various techniques, and a brief historical account of the technique development is presented. An extended annotated bibliography of the salient papers in the field is included.

  13. Terrestrial nitrogen cycles: Some unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered to be the element which most often limits the growth of plants in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. It regulates plant growth because photosynthetic rates are strongly dependent on the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, and because relatively large mounts of protein are required for cell division and growth. Yet nitrogen is abundant in the biosphere - the well-mixed pool in the atmosphere is considered inexhaustible compared to biotic demand, and the amount of already fixed organic nitrogen in soils far exceeds annual plant uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. In regions where natural vegetation is not nitrogen limited, continuous cultivation induces nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen loss from cultivated lands is more rapid than that of other elements, and nitrogen fertilization is generally required to maintain crop yield under any continuous system. The pervasiveness of nitrogen deficiency in many natural and most managed sites is discussed.

  14. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  15. The Digital Dividend of Terrestrial Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The “digital revolution” of the last two decades has pervaded innumerable aspects of our daily lives and changed our planet irreversibly. The shift from analog to digital broadcasting has facilitated a seemingly infinite variety of new applications—audience interactivity being but one example. The greater efficiency and compression of digital media have endowed broadcasters with a “digital dividend” of spare transmission capacity over and above the requirements of terrestrial broadcasting. The question is, who will use it, and how? Comparing the European experience with that of broadcasters elsewhere in the world, the author sketches the current status of international frequency management, quantifies the value of the “dividend” itself, analyzes the details of the analog-to-digital switchovers already completed, and posits what the future holds for the sector. As we grapple with new devices, inconceivable a mere generation ago, that allow us to access digital media instantly, anywhere and at any...

  16. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  17. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  18. An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

    2012-12-15

    As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration.

  19. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  20. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  1. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  2. Intermittent Astrophysical Radiation Sources and Terrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial life is exposed to a variety of radiation sources. Astrophysical observations suggest that strong excursions in cosmic ray flux and spectral hardness are expected. Gamma-ray bursts and supernovae are expected to irradiate the atmosphere with keV to GeV photons at irregular intervals. Supernovae will produce large cosmic ray excursions, with time development varying with distance from the event. Large fluxes of keV to MeV protons from the Sun pose a strong threat to electromagnetic technology. The terrestrial record shows cosmogenic isotope excursions which are consistent with major solar proton events, and there are observations of G-stars suggesting that the rate of such events may be much higher than previously assumed. In addition there are unknown and unexplained astronomical transients which may indicate new classes of events. The Sun, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts are all capable of producing lethal fluences, and some are expected on intervals of 10^8 years or so. The history of life on Earth is filled with mass extinctions at a variety of levels of intensity. Most are not understood. Astrophysical radiation may play a role, particularly from large increases in muon irradiation on the ground, and changes in atmospheric chemistry which deplete ozone, admitting increased solar UVB. UVB is strongly absorbed by DNA and proteins, and breaks the chemical bonds---it is a known carcinogen. High muon fluxes will also be damaging to such molecules, but experiments are needed to pin down the rate. Solar proton events which are not directly dangerous for the biota may nevertheless pose a major threat to modern electromagnetic technology through direct impact on satellites and magnetic induction of large currents in power grids, disabling transformers. We will look at the kind of events that are expected on timescales from human to geological, and their likely consequences.

  3. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION FROM AN ANNULUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F., E-mail: kwalsh@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that some aspects of the terrestrial planets can be explained, particularly the Earth/Mars mass ratio, when they form from a truncated disk with an outer edge near 1.0 au. This has been previously modeled starting from an intermediate stage of growth utilizing pre-formed planetary embryos. We present simulations that were designed to test this idea by following the growth process from km-sized objects located between 0.7 and 1.0 au up to terrestrial planets. The simulations explore initial conditions where the solids in the disk are planetesimals with radii initially between 3 and 300 km, alternately including effects from a dissipating gaseous solar nebula and collisional fragmentation. We use a new Lagrangian code known as LIPAD, which is a particle-based code that models the fragmentation, accretion, and dynamical evolution of a large number of planetesimals, and can model the entire growth process from km-sizes up to planets. A suite of large (∼ Mars mass) planetary embryos is complete in only ∼1 Myr, containing most of the system mass. A quiescent period then persists for 10–20 Myr characterized by slow diffusion of the orbits and continued accretion of the remaining planetesimals. This is interrupted by an instability that leads to embryos crossing orbits and embryo–embryo impacts that eventually produce the final set of planets. While this evolution is different than that found in other works exploring an annulus, the final planetary systems are similar, with roughly the correct number of planets and good Mars-analogs.

  4. The terrestrial record of Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, the known impact record of the early Solar System lay exclusively on the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and other bodies where it has not been erased by later weathering, erosion, impact gardening, and/or tectonism. Study of the cratered surfaces of these bodies led to the concept of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), an interval from about 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which the surfaces of the planets and moons in the inner Solar System were subject to unusually high rates of bombardment followed by a decline to present low impact rates by about 3.5 Ga. Over the past 30 years, however, it has become apparent that there is a terrestrial record of large impacts from at least 3.47 to 3.22 Ga and from 2.63 to 2.49 Ga. The present paper explores the earlier of these impact records, providing details about the nature of the 8 known ejecta layers that constitute the evidence for large terrestrial impacts during the earlier of these intervals, the inferred size of the impactors, and the potential effects of these impacts on crustal development and life. The existence of this record implies that LHB did not end abruptly at 3.8-3.7 Ga but rather that high impact rates, either continuous or as impact clusters, persisted until at least the close of the Archean at 2.5 Ga. It implies that the shift from external, impact-related controls on the long-term development of the surface system on the Earth to more internal, geodynamic controls may have occurred much later in geologic history than has been supposed previously.

  5. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  6. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L; Isaeus, M [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T; Schueldt, R [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results in a

  7. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M.

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m 2 for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results in a coarse

  8. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results

  9. Exploiting peer group concept for adaptive and highly available services

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, M A; Fraz, M M; Ali, A; Ali, Arshad; Fraz, Mohammad Moazam; Jan, Muhammad Asif; Zahid, Fahd Ali

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype for redundant, highly available and fault tolerant peer to peer framework for data management. Peer to peer computing is gaining importance due to its flexible organization, lack of central authority, distribution of functionality to participating nodes and ability to utilize unused computational resources. Emergence of GRID computing has provided much needed infrastructure and administrative domain for peer to peer computing. The components of this framework exploit peer group concept to scope service and information search, arrange services and information in a coherent manner, provide selective redundancy and ensure availability in face of failure and high load conditions. A prototype system has been implemented using JXTA peer to peer technology and XML is used for service description and interfaces, allowing peers to communicate with services implemented in various platforms including web services and JINI services. It utilizes code mobility to achieve role interchange amo...

  10. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, J A; Aschbrenner, K A; Marsch, L A; Bartels, S J

    2016-04-01

    People with serious mental illness are increasingly turning to popular social media, including Facebook, Twitter or YouTube, to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health conditions. This emerging form of unsolicited communication among self-forming online communities of patients and individuals with diverse health concerns is referred to as peer-to-peer support. We offer a perspective on how online peer-to-peer connections among people with serious mental illness could advance efforts to promote mental and physical wellbeing in this group. In this commentary, we take the perspective that when an individual with serious mental illness decides to connect with similar others online it represents a critical point in their illness experience. We propose a conceptual model to illustrate how online peer-to-peer connections may afford opportunities for individuals with serious mental illness to challenge stigma, increase consumer activation and access online interventions for mental and physical wellbeing. People with serious mental illness report benefits from interacting with peers online from greater social connectedness, feelings of group belonging and by sharing personal stories and strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of living with a mental illness. Within online communities, individuals with serious mental illness could challenge stigma through personal empowerment and providing hope. By learning from peers online, these individuals may gain insight about important health care decisions, which could promote mental health care seeking behaviours. These individuals could also access interventions for mental and physical wellbeing delivered through social media that could incorporate mutual support between peers, help promote treatment engagement and reach a wider demographic. Unforeseen risks may include exposure to misleading information, facing hostile or derogatory comments from others, or feeling more uncertain

  11. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  12. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Bloom, J.; Exbrayat, J.; Feng, L.; Williams, M.

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  13. Microplastics as an emerging threat to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Anderson Abel; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane; Hempel, Stefan; Rillig, Matthias C

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics (plastics plastic litter or from direct environmental emission. Their potential impacts in terrestrial ecosystems remain largely unexplored despite numerous reported effects on marine organisms. Most plastics arriving in the oceans were produced, used, and often disposed on land. Hence, it is within terrestrial systems that microplastics might first interact with biota eliciting ecologically relevant impacts. This article introduces the pervasive microplastic contamination as a potential agent of global change in terrestrial systems, highlights the physical and chemical nature of the respective observed effects, and discusses the broad toxicity of nanoplastics derived from plastic breakdown. Making relevant links to the fate of microplastics in aquatic continental systems, we here present new insights into the mechanisms of impacts on terrestrial geochemistry, the biophysical environment, and ecotoxicology. Broad changes in continental environments are possible even in particle-rich habitats such as soils. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that microplastics interact with terrestrial organisms that mediate essential ecosystem services and functions, such as soil dwelling invertebrates, terrestrial fungi, and plant-pollinators. Therefore, research is needed to clarify the terrestrial fate and effects of microplastics. We suggest that due to the widespread presence, environmental persistence, and various interactions with continental biota, microplastic pollution might represent an emerging global change threat to terrestrial ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; John Frank; William J. Massman

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes...

  15. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  16. Training Peer-Feedback Skills on Geometric Construction Tasks: Role of Domain Knowledge and Peer-Feedback Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqassab, Maryam; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Ufer, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used to train assessment skills and to support collaborative learning of various learning tasks, but research on peer feedback in the domain of mathematics is limited. Although domain knowledge seems to be a prerequisite for peer-feedback provision, it only recently received attention in the peer-feedback literature. In…

  17. Effects of Script Training on the Peer-to-Peer Communication of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Moore, Melissa; Lee, Allyson; Howell, Alexandria; Drew, Christine; Dawson, Dana; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Falcomata, Terry; O'Reilly, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to demonstrate the effects of a script-training procedure on the peer-to-peer communication of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder during group play with peers. Both scripted and unscripted initiations as well as responses to peers increased for all 3 participants. Stimulus…

  18. Growing technology earthy Tribulus terrestris (Tribulus terrestris L.) and its use

    OpenAIRE

    HUDSKÁ, Miluše

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) as for planting, content substances, pharmacological use and with influences of planting technology or elicitors upon the active substance contents. Saponines, flavonoids, and phytosterols are the main active substances of Puncturevine. The saponines act as aphrodisiacs, the flavonoids treat with heart diseases and the phytosterols decrease the cholesterol concentration in blood plasma. The active substance contents depend on ...

  19. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring Programs in Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...

  20. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  1. Peer Influences on Risk-taking in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school-aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, identified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high- and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...

  2. Peer assessment in university teaching: Evaluating seven course designs

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, I.; Admiraal, W.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Peer assessment in university teaching: evaluating seven course designs Abstract Peer assessment is understood to be an arrangement with students assessing the quality of their fellow students’ writings and giving feedback to each other. This multiple-case study of seven designs of peer assessment focuses on the contribution of peer assessment to the acquisition of undergraduates’ writing skills. Its aim is to arrive at an optimal design of peer assessment. Factors included in this study are:...

  3. The early evolution of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Raulin, François; Muller, Christian; Nixon, Conor; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings : Volume 35

    2013-01-01

    “The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets” presents the main processes participating in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. A group of experts in the different fields provide an update of our current knowledge on this topic. Several papers in this book discuss the key role of nitrogen in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. The earliest setting and evolution of planetary atmospheres of terrestrial planets is directly associated with accretion, chemical differentiation, outgassing, stochastic impacts, and extremely high energy fluxes from their host stars. This book provides an overview of the present knowledge of the initial atmospheric composition of the terrestrial planets. Additionally it includes some papers about the current exoplanet discoveries and provides additional clues to our understanding of Earth’s transition from a hot accretionary phase into a habitable world. All papers included were reviewed by experts in their respective fields. We are ...

  4. Accelerator mass analyses of meteorites - carbon-14 terrestrial ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Rucklidge, J.; Beukens, R.; Fireman, E.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon-14 terrestrial ages of ten Antarctic meteorites have been measured by the IsoTrace accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The 14 C terrestrial age of 1 gram sample was determined from 14 C concentrations collected at melt and re-melt temperatures, compared with the 14 C concentration of the known Bruderheim chondrite. Yamato-790448 (LL3) chondrite was found to be the oldest terrestrial age of 3x10 4 years in the nine Yamato chondrites, whereas Yamato-791630 (L4) chondrite is considered to be the youngest chondrites less than thousand years. Allan Hills chondrite of ALH-77231 (L6) shows older terrestrial age than the nine Yamato chondrites. New accelerator data of the terrestrial age show higher accuracy with smaller sample than the previous counting method. (author)

  5. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Design. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. Results. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. PMID:27694560

  6. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-09-30

    The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes' holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Positive and Negative Peer Influence in Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C; Smith, Gail L; Stevens, Amy L

    2017-10-13

    The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time. Negative peer influence, where the majority of youth in a home manifested above the average number of serious behavior problems, occurred 13.7% of the time. Positive peer influence, where the majority of youth manifested no serious problem behaviors for the month, occurred 47.7% of the time. Overall, youth problem behavior improved over time. There were significantly lower rates of serious problem behavior in target youth during positive peer influence months. Conversely, there were significantly higher rates of serious problem behaviors in target youth during negative peer influence months. Negative peer influence had a relatively greater impact on target peers' serious behavior problems than did positive peer influence. Caregiver experience significantly reduced the impact of negative peer influence, but did not significantly augment positive peer influence. Months where negative peer influence was combined with inexperienced caregivers produced the highest rates of serious problem behavior. Our results support the view that residential programs for troubled youth need to create circumstances that promote positive and control for negative peer influence.

  8. Introduction to the special section on peer-to-peer computing and web data management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aoying ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    @@ Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing has been attracting attention from quite a few researchers and practitioners from different fields of computer science, such as networking, distributed computing, and database. Over P2P environment, the data management becomes a challenging issue.

  9. A Peer-Led Approach to Promoting Health Education in Schools: The Views of Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of…

  10. A Database Query Processing Model in Peer-To-Peer Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer-to-peer databases are becoming more prevalent on the internet for sharing and distributing applications, documents, files, and other digital media. The problem associated with answering large-scale ad hoc analysis queries, aggregation queries, on these databases poses unique challenges. This paper presents an ...

  11. Peer-to-peer over mobile ad hoc networks (Chapter 11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qadri, N.N.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we review various approaches for the convergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), identifying strengths and weaknesses, and putting things in perspective. P2P and MANETs are among the most active research topics in pervasive computing. The convergence of P2P

  12. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Peer Moderation of Asynchronous Online Discussions: An Exploratory Study of Peer E-Moderating Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd

    2017-01-01

    This study explored patterns of e-moderating behaviour students performed when they were assigned as peer moderators of asynchronous online discussions in a reciprocal manner. Eighty-four students from an undergraduate blended course were observed during a 7-week-long online discussions. Using quantitative content analysis peer moderators'…

  14. Studying the Effects of Peer-to-Peer Sharing Economy Platforms on Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, J.; Ubacht, J.; van der Voort, H.G.; ten Heuvelhof, E.F.; Scholl, Hans Jochem; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Klievink, Bram; Lindgren, Ida; Parycek, Peter; Tambouris, Efthimios; Wimmer, Maria; Janowski, Tomasz; Sa Soares, Delfina

    2016-01-01

    Peer-to-peer sharing economy platforms potentially have big effects on values in society. Policymakers need to develop governance arrangements to benefit from the positive effects, while simultaneously mitigate the negative effects. This requires having a structured overview of the effects of these

  15. Agent-oriented Modeling for Collaborative Learning Environments: A Peer-to-Peer Helpdesk Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Wagner, G.; Aroyo, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the analysis and modelling of Help&Learn, an agent-based peer-to-peer helpdesk system to support extra-class interactions among students and teachers. Help&Learn expands the student’s possibility of solving problems, getting involved in a cooperative learning experience

  16. A peer-to-peer file search and download protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekkalmaz, M.; Korpeoglu, I.

    Deployment of traditional peer-to-peer file sharing systems on a wireless ad-hoc network introduces several challenges. Information and workload distribution as well as routing are major problems for members of a wireless ad-hoc network, which are only aware of their immediate neighborhood. In this

  17. Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Peer Victimization in Taiwanese Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationships between social withdrawal, peer rejection and peer victimization among Taiwanese middle school students as well as to explore the applicability of relevant models in an East Asia culture context. The sample of this study consists of 219 7th grade students from middle schools in Taiwan. Data from…

  18. Road Safety Peer Exchange for Tribal Governments : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Road Safety Peer Exchange for Tribal : Governments held in Albuquerque, New Mexico on December 9th and 10th, 2014. The peer exchange : brought together safety practitioners from across the Unit...

  19. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 4 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Atlanta, Georgia on March 6th and 7th, 2013. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with Region 4 Local Te...

  20. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 7 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Denver, Colorado from May 31 to June 1, 2012. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with Region 7 Local a...

  1. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 1 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Piscataway, New Jersey October 10th and 11th, 2012. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with Region 1 L...

  2. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Regions 3 & 5 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Columbus, Ohio on June 12 and 13, 2013. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with the Region 3 & 5 Local...

  3. Peer Mentoring and Peer Tutoring among K-12 Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine research on peer mentoring among K-12 students to assist practitioners with how to incorporate these instructional techniques into their own music programs. Primary themes across the music education literature of peer mentoring include the role of music teachers, the role of students as they…

  4. In Peer Matters, Teachers Matter: Peer Group Influences on Students' Engagement Depend on Teacher Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…

  5. A multi-tiered architecture for content retrieval in mobile peer-to-peer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address content retrieval in Mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks. We design a multi-tiered architecture for content : retrieval, where at Tier 1, we design a protocol for content similarity governed by a parameter that trades accu...

  6. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  7. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Hypertension Intervention for Veterans: Impact on Peer Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Patterson, Leslie; Brouwer, Amanda M.; Wendorf, Angela R.; Ertl, Kristyn; Eastwood, Dan; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Kathlyn; Whittle, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Volunteer peer leaders (PLs) benefit from their involvement in health interventions but we know little about how they compare with other non-PL volunteers or with the intervention recipients themselves. We randomized 58 veterans' service organizations' posts (e.g. VFW) to peer- versus professionally led self-management support interventions. Our…

  8. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  9. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical linear…

  10. A Peer-to-Peer Health Education Program for Vulnerable Children in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…

  11. Which Peers Matter : How Social Ties Affect Peer-group Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poldin, O.; Valeeva, D.; Yudkevich, M.

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals’ social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence

  12. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  13. Student Voices: Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    Background: This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North…

  14. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or

  15. A survey of anonymous peer-to-peer file-sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chothia, T.; Chatzikokolakis, K.; Enokido, T.; Yan, L.; Xiao, B.; Kim, D.; Dai, Y.S.; Yang, L.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of searchable, peer-to-peer file-sharing systems that offer the user some form of anonymity. We start this survey by giving a brief description of the most popular methods of providing anonymous communication. These include the Ants protocol, Onion routing, Multicasting,

  16. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  17. DServO: A Peer-to-Peer-based Approach to Biomedical Ontology Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambone, Zakaria; Savadogo, Mahamadi; Some, Borlli Michel Jonas; Diallo, Gayo

    2015-01-01

    We present in this poster an extension of the ServO ontology server system, which adopts a decentralized Peer-To-Peer approach for managing multiple heterogeneous knowledge organization systems. It relies on the use of the JXTA protocol coupled with information retrieval techniques to provide a decentralized infrastructure for managing multiples instances of Ontology Repositories.

  18. Streaming Multimedia via Overlay Networks using Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    Short range ad-hoc wireless networks can be used to deliver streaming multimedia for information, entertainment and advertisement purposes. To enable short-range communication between various devices, the Wi-Fi Alliance proposed an extension to the IEEE802.11 Wi-Fi standard called Wi-Fi Peer......-to-Peer (P2P). It allows compliant devices to form ad-hoc communication groups without interrupting conventional access point-based Wi-Fi communication. This paper proposes to use Wi-Fi P2P connectivity to distribute streaming multimedia in ah-hoc formed user groups. The exchange of multimedia data...... is performed by forming an overlay network using Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol (PPSPP). In order to make PPSPP function over WiFi P2P connections, this paper proposes a number of changes to the protocol. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using a computer networks emulator...

  19. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2014-01-01

    : Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. METHODS: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). RESULTS...... study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth....

  20. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  1. Potential Benefits of Incorporating Peer-to-Peer Interactions Into Digital Interventions for Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Quraishi, Sophia H; Schlosser, Danielle A

    2018-04-01

    Peer-to-peer interactions and support groups mitigate experiences of social isolation and loneliness often reported by individuals with psychotic disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication can promote broader use of this form of social support. Peer-to-peer interactions occur naturally on social media platforms, but they can negatively affect mental health. Recent digital interventions for persons with psychotic disorders have harnessed the principles of social media to incorporate peer-to-peer communication. This review examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of recent digital interventions in order to identify strategies to maximize benefits of online peer-to-peer communication for persons with psychotic disorders. An electronic database search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Health Technology Assessment Database was conducted in February 2017 and yielded a total of 1,015 results. Eight publications that reported data from six independent trials and five interventions were reviewed. The technology supporting peer-to-peer communication varied greatly across studies, from online forums to embedded social networking. When peer-to-peer interactions were moderated by facilitators, retention, engagement, acceptability, and efficacy were higher than for interventions with no facilitators. Individuals with psychotic disorders were actively engaged with moderated peer-to-peer communication and showed improvements in perceived social support. Studies involving service users in intervention design showed higher rates of acceptability. Individuals with psychotic disorders value and benefit from digital interventions that include moderated peer-to-peer interactions. Incorporating peer-to-peer communication into digital interventions for this population may increase compliance with other evidence-based therapies by producing more acceptable and engaging online environments.

  2. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  3. [Improving patient safety through voluntary peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S; Bause, H

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is one area of the hospital in which processes and communication are of primary importance. Errors in intensive care units can lead to serious adverse events with significant consequences for patients. Therefore quality and risk-management are important measures when treating critically ill patients. A pragmatic approach to support quality and safety in intensive care is peer review. This approach has gained significant acceptance over the past years. It consists of mutual visits by colleagues who conduct standardised peer reviews. These reviews focus on the systematic evaluation of the quality of an ICU's structure, its processes and outcome. Together with different associations, the State Chambers of Physicians and the German Medical Association have developed peer review as a standardized tool for quality improvement. The common goal of all stakeholders is the continuous and sustainable improvement in intensive care with peer reviews significantly increasing and improving communication between professions and disciplines. Peer reviews secure the sustainability of planned change processes and consequently lead the way to an improved culture of quality and safety.

  4. Promoting Physical Understanding through Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Huesmann, A.; Hooper, E.; Moore, C.; Watson, L.; Trestrail, A.; Weber, J.; Timbie, P.; Jacob, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning community for students studying introductory physics, as well as teaching and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors who receive extensive training and supervision. Many of our Peer Tutors were former Physics Learning Center participants. A central goal of the Physics Learning Center is to address achievement/equity gaps (e.g. race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, age, transfer status, etc.) for undergraduate students pursuing majors and coursework in STEM fields. Students meet twice a week in small learning teams of 3-8 students, facilitated by a trained Peer Mentor Tutor or staff member. These active learning teams focus on discussing core physical concepts and practicing problem-solving. The weekly training of the tutors addresses both teaching and mentoring issues in science education such as helping students to build confidence, strategies for assessing student understanding, and fostering a growth mindset. A second weekly training meeting addresses common misconceptions and strategies for teaching specific physics topics. For non-science majors we have a small Peer Mentor Tutor program for Physics in the Arts. We will discuss the Physics Learning Center's approaches to promoting inclusion, understanding, and confidence for both our participants and Peer Mentor Tutors, as well as examples from the geosciences that can be used to illustrate introductory physics concepts.

  5. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  6. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    reports on what weve learned peering into CR7s interior with ALMA.ALMA observations of [C II] (white contours) are overlaid on an ultraviolet image of the galaxy CR7 taken with Hubble (background image). The presence of [C II] throughout the galaxy indicate that CR7 does not primarily consist of metal-free gas, as had been previously proposed. [Matthee et al. 2017]Metals yet No Dust?Matthee and collaborators deep spectroscopic observations of CR7 targeted the far-infrared dust continuum emission and a gas emission line, [C II]. The authors detected [C II] emission in a large region in and around the galaxy, including near the ultraviolet clumps. This clearly indicates the presence of metals in these star-forming regions, and it rules out the possibility that CR7s gas is mostly primordial and forming metal-free Pop III stars.The authors do not detect far infrared continuum emission from dust, which sets an unusually low upper limit on the amount of dust that may be present in this galaxy. This limit allows them to better interpret their measurements of star formation rates in CR7, providing more information about the galaxys properties.Lastly, Matthee and collaborators note that the [C II] emission is detected in multiple different components that have different velocities. The authors propose that these components are accreting satellite galaxies. If this is correct, then CR7 is not only a target to learn about early sources of light in the universe its also a rare opportunity to directly witness the build-up of a central galaxy in the early universe.CitationJ. Matthee et al 2017 ApJ 851 145. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9931

  7. The Relationship between Class Attitudes towards Peers with a Disability and Peer Acceptance, Friendships and Peer Interactions of Students with a Disability in Regular Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Students with a disability in inclusive classes often face problems with peer acceptance, friendships and peer interactions. In this paper, the relationship between these difficulties in social participation and the attitudes that typically developing adolescents hold towards peers with a disability at the level of the class was explored. A…

  8. Effects That Facebook-Based Online Peer Assessment with Micro-Teaching Videos Can Have on Attitudes toward Peer Assessment and Perceived Learning from Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that Facebook-based online peer assessment with micro-teaching videos can have on attitudes toward peer assessment and perceived learning from peer assessment. The study recruited a sample of 31 university students who were enrolled in a teacher-training course. Using assessees' microteaching videos, the…

  9. Pupils as Victims of Peer Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The school is an educational institution that has to provide appropriate control of adults over pupils, which they do. Nevertheless, violence cannot be avoided. Pupils encounter peer violence in different roles, as observers, victims, perpetrators, or both. The objective of our research was to examine how often pupils are victims of peer violence, and to what extent the latter depends on pupils’ gender and age. The results of the research made among pupils in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grades of various primary schools across Slovenia showed that 24.1 per cent of pupils had already been victims of peer violence. The ones that they tend to tell about such episodes are their parents. The results have also shown that school is really a place where violence is very common, and that psychological and verbal abuse are the most common types of violence used.

  10. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    This study explores the interaction between professional imprinting and age in the context of industry-science collaboration. Specifically, we examine the impact of localized and personal peer effects on academics’ involvement with industry and how these effects are moderated by the career age...... of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...

  11. Thank You to Our 2017 Peer Reviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Steven A.; Baratoux, David; Stanley, Sabine; Stanley

    2018-02-01

    Science operates best by sharing accurate new knowledge in clear ways. In order to check our assumptions, our methods, and our interpretations of the observations, experiments, analyses, and calculations that we do, we ask others to look at our work. We call this peer review—other experts who were not involved in a given study read and critically evaluate the descriptions of our work. They look for completeness, accuracy, whether work is new, and how clearly we have written the descriptions. We continue to be humbled by the time, effort, and careful insights that our colleagues share with each other through the process of peer review. In 2017, JGR Planets benefited from more than 610 reviews provided by 398 of our peers for papers submitted to the journal. Thank you all for your awesome efforts toward advancing planetary science now and for the future.

  12. Peer-to-peer mentoring for individuals with early inflammatory arthritis: feasibility pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sharron; Veinot, Paula; Embuldeniya, Gayathri; Brooks, Sydney; Sale, Joanna; Huang, Sicong; Zhao, Alex; Richards, Dawn; Bell, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of early peer support to improve the health and quality of life of individuals with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Design Feasibility study using the 2008 Medical Research Council framework as a theoretical basis. A literature review, environmental scan, and interviews with patients, families and healthcare providers guided the development of peer mentor training sessions and a peer-to-peer mentoring programme. Peer mentors were trained and paired with a mentee to receive (face-to-face or telephone) support over 12 weeks. Setting Two academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants Nine pairs consisting of one peer mentor and one mentee were matched based on factors such as age and work status. Primary outcome measure Mentee outcomes of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/biological treatment use, self-efficacy, self-management, health-related quality of life, anxiety, coping efficacy, social support and disease activity were measured using validated tools. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes. Peer mentor self-efficacy was assessed using a self-efficacy scale. Interviews conducted with participants examined acceptability and feasibility of procedures and outcome measures, as well as perspectives on the value of peer support for individuals with EIA. Themes were identified through constant comparison. Results Mentees experienced improvements in the overall arthritis impact on life, coping efficacy and social support (effect size >0.3). Mentees also perceived emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental support. Mentors also reported benefits and learnt from mentees’ fortitude and self-management skills. The training was well received by mentors. Their self-efficacy increased significantly after training completion. Participants’ experience of peer support was informed by the unique

  13. Peer Teaching to Foster Learning in Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Tripti K; Waghmare, Lalitbhushan S; Mishra, Ved Prakash; Rawekar, Alka T; Quazi, Nazli; Jagzape, Arunita T

    2015-08-01

    Peer teaching is an effective tool to promote learning and retention of knowledge. By preparing to teach, students are encouraged to construct their own learning program, so that they can explain effectively to fellow learners. Peer teaching is introduced in present study to foster learning and pedagogical skills amongst first year medical under-graduates in physiology with a Hypothesis that teaching is linked to learning on part of the teacher. Non-randomized, Interventional study, with mixed methods design. Cases experienced peer teaching whereas controls underwent tutorials for four consecutive classes. Quantitative Evaluation was done through pre/post test score analysis for Class average normalized gain and tests of significance, difference in average score in surprise class test after one month and percentage of responses in closed ended items of feedback questionnaire. Qualitative Evaluation was done through categorization of open ended items and coding of reflective statements. The average pre and post test score was statistically significant within cases (p = 0.01) and controls (p = 0.023). The average post test scores was more for cases though not statistically significant. The class average normalized gain (g) for Tutorials was 49% and for peer teaching 53%. Surprise test had average scoring of 36 marks (out of 50) for controls and 41 marks for cases. Analysed section wise, the average score was better for Long answer question (LAQ) in cases. Section wise analysis suggested that through peer teaching, retention was better for descriptive answers as LAQ has better average score in cases. Feedback responses were predominantly positive for efficacy of peer teaching as a learning method. The reflective statements were sorted into reflection in action, reflection on action, claiming evidence, describing experience, and recognizing discrepancies. Teaching can stimulate further learning as it involves interplay of three processes: metacognitive awareness

  14. The fragmentation of Pangaea and Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    During the Mesozoic (242-66 million years ago), terrestrial regions underwent a massive shift in their size, position and connectivity. At the beginning of the era, the land masses were joined into a single supercontinent called Pangaea. However, by the end of the Mesozoic, terrestrial regions had become highly fragmented, both owing to the drifting apart of the continental plates and the extremely high sea levels that flooded and divided many regions. How terrestrial biodiversity was affected by this fragmentation and large-scale flooding of the Earth's landmasses is uncertain. Based on a model using the species-area relationship (SAR), terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity would be expected to nearly double through the Mesozoic owing to continental fragmentation, despite a decrease of 24% in total terrestrial area. Previous studies of Mesozoic vertebrates have generally found increases in terrestrial diversity towards the end of the era, although these increases are often attributed to intrinsic or climatic factors. Instead, continental fragmentation over this time may largely explain any observed increase in terrestrial biodiversity. This study demonstrates the importance that non-intrinsic effects can have on the taxonomic success of a group, and the importance of geography to understanding past biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-08-11

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.

  16. THE COMPOSITIONAL DIVERSITY OF EXTRASOLAR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS. II. MIGRATION SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter-Bond, Jade C.; O'Brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2012-01-01

    Prior work has found that a variety of terrestrial planetary compositions are expected to occur within known extrasolar planetary systems. However, such studies ignored the effects of giant planet migration, which is thought to be very common in extrasolar systems. Here we present calculations of the compositions of terrestrial planets that formed in dynamical simulations incorporating varying degrees of giant planet migration. We used chemical equilibrium models of the solid material present in the disks of five known planetary host stars: the Sun, GJ 777, HD4203, HD19994, and HD213240. Giant planet migration has a strong effect on the compositions of simulated terrestrial planets as the migration results in large-scale mixing between terrestrial planet building blocks that condensed at a range of temperatures. This mixing acts to (1) increase the typical abundance of Mg-rich silicates in the terrestrial planets' feeding zones and thus increase the frequency of planets with Earth-like compositions compared with simulations with static giant planet orbits, and (2) drastically increase the efficiency of the delivery of hydrous phases (water and serpentine) to terrestrial planets and thus produce waterworlds and/or wet Earths. Our results demonstrate that although a wide variety of terrestrial planet compositions can still be produced, planets with Earth-like compositions should be common within extrasolar planetary systems.

  17. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  18. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  19. Pollen and spores of terrestrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.; Shennan, Ian; Long, Antony J.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen and spores are valuable tools in reconstructing past sea level and climate because of their ubiquity, abundance, and durability as well as their reciprocity with source vegetation to environmental change (Cronin, 1999; Traverse, 2007; Willard and Bernhardt, 2011). Pollan is found in many sedimentary environments, from freshwater to saltwater, terrestrial to marine. It can be abundant in a minimal amount of sample material, for example half a gram, as concentrations can be as high as four million grains per gram (Traverse, 2007). The abundance of pollen in a sample lends it to robust statistical analysis for the quantitative reconstruction of environments. The outer cell wall is resistant to decay in sediments and allows palynomorphs (pollen and spores) to record changes in plant communities and sea level over millions of years. These characteristics make pollen and spores a powerful tool to use in sea-level research.This chapter describes the biology of pollen and spores and how they are transported and preserved in sediments. We present a methodology for isolating pollen from sediments and a general language and framework to identify pollen as well as light micrographs of a selection of common pollen grains, We then discuss their utility in sea-level research.

  20. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel