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Sample records for epa test methods

  1. EPA flow reference method testing and analysis: Findings report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report describes an experimental program sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate potential improvements to the Agency's current reference method for measuring volumetric flow (Method 2, 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix B). Method 2 (Determination of Stack Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate (Type S Pitot Tube)) specifies measurements to determine volumetric flow, but does not prescribe specific procedures to account for yaw or pitch angles of flow when the flow in the stack is not axial. Method 2 also allows the use of only two probe types, the Type S and the Prandtl

  2. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  3. Laboratory testing of geomembrane for waste containment EPA Method 9090, March 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlock, R.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-15

    This report describes the work performed by TRI/Environmental, Inc. (TRI) to determine the chemical compatibility of one geomembrane and one seamed geomembrane with four synthetically generated leachates. The objective was to determine the resistance of the geomembrane to changes caused by exposure to the leachates. Changes in physical and mechanical properties were measured after exposure to the leachates at 23 C and 50 C for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Exposures were performed in accordance with the exposure regimen specified in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 9090A. Methods, results and discussion are provided. Test results are also provided in the Tables of Results which accompany this report.

  4. 78 FR 22540 - Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    .... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management.../fem/agency_methods.htm . USEPA. 2009. Method Validation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2013-0213; FRL-9803-5] Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar...

  5. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  6. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative... may test any portable fuel container subject to the standards of this subpart. (a) Certification and...

  7. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  8. EPA's analytical methods for water: The next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hites, R.A.; Budde, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    By the late 1970s, it had become clear to EPA that organic compounds were polluting many of the nation's waters. By 1977, as a result of a lawsuit by several environmentally concerned plaintiffs, EPA had focused on a list of 114 'priority' organic pollutants. Its long-term goal was the regulation of specific compounds that were found to pose significant environmental problems, a daunting task. Tens of thousands of samples needed to be measured by hundreds of different laboratories. Clearly, there were concerns about the comparability of data among laboratories. The result was a series of laboratory-based analytical 'methods.' These EPA methods are detailed, step-by-step directions (recipes) that describe everything the analyst needs to know to complete a satisfactory analysis. During the 1970s the first set of methods was developed; this was the '600 series' for the analysis of organic compounds in wastewater. In 1979 and the 1980s, a set of '500 series' methods, focusing on drinking water, was developed. By now, many of the 500 and 600 series methods are in widespread use, and it is clear that there are considerably overlaps among the methods in terms of both procedures and analytes. Indiana University was asked by EPA to consider the question, 'Is it possible to revise or eliminate some of the 500 and 600 series methods and effect a savings of time and money?' This and related questions were studied and recommendations were developed

  9. Evaluation of mercury speciation by EPA (Draft) Method 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Nott, B. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with mercury emissions. Also, the law requires a separate assessment of health risks posed by the emission of 189 tract chemicals (including mercury) for electric utility steam-generating units. In order to conduct a meaningful assessment of health and environmental effects, we must have, among other things, a reliable and accurate method to measure mercury emissions. In addition, the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend upon the type of mercury emitted (i.e., whether it is in the oxidized or elemental form). It has been speculated that EPA (Draft) Method 29 can speciate mercury by selective absorption; however, this claim has yet to be proven. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at University of North Dakota to evaluate EPA (Draft) Method 29 at the pilot-scale level. The objective of the work is to determine whether EPA (Draft) Method 29 can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers.

  10. Test Report Emission Test Program EPA Information Collection Request for Delayed Coking Units 736 Coker Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARI Environmental, Inc. (ARI) was retained by Houston Refining LP (HRO) to conduct an emission test program at their refinery located in Houston, Texas. The testing was conducted on on the 736 Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) in response to EPA's ICR.

  11. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... the selection criteria for endocrine testing under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). EPA has no...) because the chemicals meet the selection criteria. EPA has no plans to issue further test orders for the... Screening Program (EDSP) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). In response to the test...

  12. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standardized method is required when national studies on virus occurrence in environmental and drinking waters utilize multiple analytical laboratories. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Method 1615 was developed with the goal of providing such a standard for measuring Enterovirus and Norovirus in these waters. Virus is concentrated from water using an electropositive filter, eluted from the filter surface with beef extract, and then concentrated further using organic flocculation. Herein we present the protocol from Method 1615 for filter elution, secondary concentration, and measurement of total culturable viruses. A portion of the concentrated eluate from each sample is inoculated onto ten replicate flasks of Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cells. The number of flasks demonstrating cytopathic effects is used to quantify the most probable number (MPN) of infectious units per liter. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. Laboratories must meet defined performance standards. Method 1615 was evaluated by examining virus recovery from reagent-grade and ground waters seeded with Sabin poliovirus type 3. Mean poliovirus recoveries with the total culturable assay were 111% in reagent grade water and 58% in groundwaters. EPA Method 1615 is being used by a number of national and international labs. This paper and the accompanying video will provide training oppo

  13. Performance Testing of Homeland Security Technologies in U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Thomas J; Hofacre, Kent C; Derringer, Tricia L; Riggs, Karen B; Koglin, Eric N

    2004-01-01

    ... (reports and test plans available at www.epa.gov/etv). In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the ETV approach has also been employed in performance tests of technologies relevant to homeland security (HS...

  14. EPA Biofuels Research: Biofuel Vapor Generation and Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in renewable fuels and alternative energy sources has stimulated development of alternatives to traditional petroleum-based fuels. The EPA's Office of Transportation Air Quality (OTAQ) requires information regarding the potential health hazards ofthese fuels regardin...

  15. Quality Assurance Testing of Version 1.3 of U.S. EPA Benchmark Dose Software (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA benchmark dose software (BMDS) issued to evaluate chemical dose-response data in support of Agency risk assessments, and must therefore be dependable. Quality assurance testing methods developed for BMDS were designed to assess model dependability with respect to curve-fitt...

  16. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an update to EPA’s 2013 published alternative testing approach (using in vitro/ex vivo assays) for determination of eye irritation potential in the pesticide program under EPA's classification and labeling system.

  17. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Chemical Warfare Agent Analytical Standards Facilitate Lab Testing (Published November 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the EPA chemists' efforts to develop methods for detecting extremely low concentrations of nerve agents, such as sarin, VX, soman and cyclohexyl sarin, and the blister agent sulfur mustard.

  18. An Alternative to EPA Method 9 -- Field Validation of the Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasmussen, Steve L; Stone, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) software translates images from a commercial digital camera into visual plume opacity measurements, and is proposed as an alternate reporting method to EPA Method 9...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must I send to EPA? 1045.345 Section 1045.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... nonroutine adjustment, modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, or test for the test engine if you did... sample-size calculation required in § 1045.310 for each engine family. (9) Report on each failed engine...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must I send to EPA? 1048.345 Section 1048.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... nonroutine adjustment, modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, or test for the test engine if you did... the sample-size calculation required in § 1048.310 for each engine family. (9) Report on each failed...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recall purposes. For recall program testing, in-use vehicles will be set to manufacturer's specifications... five seconds in any one excursion, except during the allowable engine-off periods. The total duration...-duty trucks. For recall testing, a pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode...

  2. The joint EC/EPA mid-Connecticut test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgroe, J.D.; Brna, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    In early 1989, Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a comprehensive test program on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) unit of the Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford. The program, conducted in cooperation with the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA), the facility's operator, included characterization and performance test phases. The results of the characterization tests were used in defining both the combustion and flue gas cleaning system operating conditions for the performance tests. The results of the performance tests are emphasized in this paper and are summarized in three parts. First, the combustion tests results will be addressed and related to good combustion practice for RDF combustors. Then, the performance of the lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter system in controlling acid gas (hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide), trace organic [polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF)], trace metal [arsenic (as), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)], and particulate matter (PM) emissions will be discussed. Finally, the results of ash/residue analyses will be presented

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60. 2...

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in...

  5. EPA Method 245.2: Mercury (Automated Cold Vapor Technique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 245.2 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of drinking water samples for analysis of mercury using acid digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption. Samples are prepared using an acid digestion technique.

  6. Project-Based Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory: Using EPA Methods to Guide Student Method Development for Pesticide Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J.; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Presented is a project-based learning (PBL) laboratory approach for an upper-division environmental chemistry or quantitative analysis course. In this work, a combined laboratory class of 11 environmental chemistry students developed a method based on published EPA methods for the extraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its…

  7. EPA Nonregulatory Nonroad Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA nonregulatory, nonroad duty cycles for equipment such as agricultural tractors, backhoe loaders,crawlers tractors, excavators, arc welding skid steer loaders, and wheel loaders. Also,test procedures, laboratory methods, and emissions for this equipmen

  8. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  9. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. The viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates is extracted and tested for enterovirus and norovirus RNA using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). V...

  10. E85 and fuel efficiency: An empirical analysis of 2007 EPA test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Matthew C.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that ethanol has less energy per unit volume than gasoline. Differences in engine design and fuel characteristics affect the efficiency with which the chemical energy in gasoline and ethanol is converted into mechanical energy, so that the change in fuel economy may not be a linear function of energy content. This study analyzes the fuel economy tests performed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 2007 model year E85-compliant vehicles and finds that the difference in average fuel economy is not statistically different from the differential in energy content

  11. 40 CFR 63.1257 - Test methods and compliance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or properties... flow rate and concentration; temperature; and the reaction kinetics of the constituents with the... Method 8260 or 8270 in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA...

  12. Optimization of One-Step In Situ Transesterification Method for Accurate Quantification of EPA in Nannochloropsis gaditana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a valuable source of lipid feedstocks for biodiesel and valuable omega-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis gaditana has emerged as a promising producer of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA due to its fast growth rate and high EPA content. In the present study, the fatty acid profile of Nannochloropsis gaditana was found to be naturally high in EPA and devoid of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, thereby providing an opportunity to maximize the efficacy of EPA production. Using an optimized one-step in situ transesterification method (methanol:biomass = 90 mL/g; HCl 5% by vol.; 70 °C; 1.5 h, the maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultivated under rich condition was quantified as 10.04% ± 0.08% by weight with EPA-yields as high as 4.02% ± 0.17% based on dry biomass. The total FAME and EPA yields were 1.58- and 1.23-fold higher separately than that obtained using conventional two-step method (solvent system: methanol and chloroform. This one-step in situ method provides a fast and simple method to measure fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yields and could serve as a promising method to generate eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester from microalgae.

  13. Semiconductor testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen.

    1992-01-01

    In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)

  14. Materials and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide, in cooperation with ORNL and LANL, specimens required for studies to develop organic insulators having the cryogenic neutron irradiation resistance required for MFE systems utilizing superconducting magnetic confinement. To develop test methods and analytical procedures for assessing radiation damage. To stimulate and participate in international cooperation directed toward accomplishing these objectives. The system for producing uniaxially reinforced, 3-4 mm (0.125 in) diameter rod specimens has been refined and validated by production of excellent quality specimens using liquid-mix epoxy resin systems. The methodology is undergoing further modification to permit use of hot-melt epoxy and polyimide resin systems as will be required for the experimental program to be conducted in the NLTNIF reactor at ORNL. Preliminary studies indicate that short beam and torsional shear test methods will be useful in evaluating radiation degradation. Development of these and other applicable test methods are continuing. A cooperative program established with laboratories in Japan and in England has resulted in the production and testing of specimens having an identical configuration

  15. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Method Study 12, cyanide in water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.; Britton, P.; Kroner, R.

    1984-05-01

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode and Roberts-Jackson were used by 112 laboratories in Federal and State agencies, municipalities, universities, and the private/industrial sector. Sample concentrates were prepared in pairs with similar concentrations at each of three levels. Analysts diluted samples to volume with distilled and natural waters and analyzed them. Precision, accuracy, bias and the natural water interference were evaluated for each analytical method and comparisons were made between the four methods.

  16. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  17. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves

  18. EPA Releases Guidance on a Voluntary Pilot Program to Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the start of a voluntary pilot program to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a mathematical tool that estimates the toxicological classification of a chemical, which is used in the GHS.

  19. Cheminformatics Analysis of EPA ToxCast Chemical Libraries ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of toxicology research is the development of robust methods that use in vitro and chemical structure information to predict in vivo toxicity endpoints. The US EPA ToxCast program is addressing this goal using ~600 in vitro assays to create bioactivity profiles on a set of 320 compounds, mostly pesticide actives, that have well characterized in vivo toxicity. These 320 compounds (EPA-320 set evaluated in Phase I of ToxCast) are a subset of a much larger set of ~10,000 candidates that are of interest to the EPA (called here EPA-10K). Predictive models of in vivo toxicity are being constructed from the in vitro assay data on the EPA-320 chemical set. These models require validation on additional chemicals prior to wide acceptance, and this will be carried out by evaluating compounds from EPA-10K in Phase II of ToxCast. We have used cheminformatics approaches including clustering, data visualization, and QSAR to develop models for EPA-320 that could help prioritizing EPA-10K validation chemicals. Both chemical descriptors, as well as calculated physicochemical properties have been used. Compounds from EPA-10K are prioritized based on their similarity to EPA-320 using different similarity metrics, with similarity thresholds defining the domain of applicability for the predictive models built for EPA-320 set. In addition, prioritized lists of compounds of increasing dissimilarity from the EPA-320 have been produced, to test the ability of the EPA-320

  20. A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU's and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers

  1. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions... INFORMATION CONTACT: An electronic copy of each alternative test method approval document is available on the...

  2. EPA scientists develop Federal Reference & Equivalent Methods for measuring key air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA operates a nationwide air monitoring network to measure six primary air pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment.

  3. Notification: Evaluating the Internal Controls for EPA's Vehicle Emissions Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.

  4. Test system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    at a second distance from the centre, the second distance being larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged...... larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged for sensing the at least one optical detectable member...

  5. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  6. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  7. Development and Evaluation of EPA Method 1615 for Detection of Enterovirus and Norovirus in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA developed a sample concentration and preparation assay in conjunction with the Total Culturable Virus Assay for concentrating and measuring culturable viruses in source and drinking waters as part of the Information Collection Rule promulgated in 1996. In an effort...

  8. VALIDATION OF EPA METHOD 1682: SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS BY MODIFIED, SEMISOLID RAPPAPORT-VASSILIADIS (MSRV) MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treated biosolids may be applied to land as a crop nutrient and soil conditioner. However, land application of biosolids may pose the risk of releasing pathogens into the environment if disinfection and use criteria established by EPA at 40 CFR part 503 are not met. Among these c...

  9. Standardization of enterococci density estimates by EPA qPCR methods and comparison of beach action value exceedances in river waters with culture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.EPA has published recommendations for calibrator cell equivalent (CCE) densities of enterococci in recreational waters determined by a qPCR method in its 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The CCE quantification unit stems from the calibration model used to ...

  10. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  11. Methods and Guidance for Testing the Efficacy of Antimicrobials against Biofilm Bacteria on Hard, Non-Porous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the availability of two test methods (MB-19 and MB-20) for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial pesticides against two biofilm bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  13. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  14. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: (a...group. A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  15. Introduction to benchmark dose methods and U.S. EPA's benchmark dose software (BMDS) version 2.1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J. Allen; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Zhao, Q. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) approach has been used to determine the point of departure (POD) from animal toxicology data for use in human health risk assessments. However, this approach is subject to substantial limitations that have been well defined, such as strict dependence on the dose selection, dose spacing, and sample size of the study from which the critical effect has been identified. Also, the NOAEL approach fails to take into consideration the shape of the dose-response curve and other related information. The benchmark dose (BMD) method, originally proposed as an alternative to the NOAEL methodology in the 1980s, addresses many of the limitations of the NOAEL method. It is less dependent on dose selection and spacing, and it takes into account the shape of the dose-response curve. In addition, the estimation of a BMD 95% lower bound confidence limit (BMDL) results in a POD that appropriately accounts for study quality (i.e., sample size). With the recent advent of user-friendly BMD software programs, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS), BMD has become the method of choice for many health organizations world-wide. This paper discusses the BMD methods and corresponding software (i.e., BMDS version 2.1.1) that have been developed by the U.S. EPA, and includes a comparison with recently released European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BMD guidance.

  16. Test equating methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

  17. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data

  18. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  19. Near-source mobile methane emission estimates using EPA Method33a and a novel probabilistic approach as a basis for leak quantification in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions from underground pipeline leaks remain an ongoing issue in the development of accurate methane emission inventories for the natural gas supply chain. Application of mobile methods during routine street surveys would help address this issue, but there are large uncertainties in current approaches. In this paper, we describe results from a series of near-source (< 30 m) controlled methane releases where an instrumented van was used to measure methane concentrations during both fixed location sampling and during mobile traverses immediately downwind of the source. The measurements were used to evaluate the application of EPA Method 33A for estimating methane emissions downwind of a source and also to test the application of a new probabilistic approach for estimating emission rates from mobile traverse data.

  20. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  1. EPA Releases Draft Policy to Reduce Animal Testing for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document, Draft Interim Science Policy: Use of Alternative Approaches for Skin Sensitization as a Replacement for Laboratory Animal Testing, describes the science behind the non-animal alternatives that can now be used to identify skin sensitization.

  2. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents progress to date under a three-year contract for developing ''Methods for Testing Transport Models.'' The work described includes (1) choice of best methods for producing ''code emulators'' for analysis of very large global energy confinement databases, (2) recent applications of stratified regressions for treating individual measurement errors as well as calibration/modeling errors randomly distributed across various tokamaks, (3) Bayesian methods for utilizing prior information due to previous empirical and/or theoretical analyses, (4) extension of code emulator methodology to profile data, (5) application of nonlinear least squares estimators to simulation of profile data, (6) development of more sophisticated statistical methods for handling profile data, (7) acquisition of a much larger experimental database, and (8) extensive exploratory simulation work on a large variety of discharges using recently improved models for transport theories and boundary conditions. From all of this work, it has been possible to define a complete methodology for testing new sets of reference transport models against much larger multi-institutional databases

  3. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATION IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in the U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Test House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, den a...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1920 - What in-use testing information must I report to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... type or application (such as delivery, line haul, or dump truck). Also, identify the type of trailer... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Manufacturer-Run In-Use Testing Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines § 86.1920 What in-use...

  5. 40 CFR 85.2230 - Steady state test dynamometer-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance... applicability. The requirements of § 85.2229 apply concurrently for tests conducted under Emission Performance... capable of applying a load to the vehicle's driving tire surfaces at the horsepower and speed levels...

  6. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  7. Field and laboratory test methods for geomembranes during waste management facility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.R.; McCutchan, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous waste management facilities are required to use approved lining and leak detection systems to prevent the migration of waste into the environment. Synthetic flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have effectively served as the critical barrier for waste containment and fluid migration. The U.S. EPA has established minimum technology requirements for the construction of lined facilities that include detailed and documented Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) plans. The U.S. EPA (EPA) recognizes that CQA during field construction is imperative for successful completion of project work and long-term facility operation. This paper discusses the importance of CQA during FML installation and the practical aspects of implementing a successful CQA program. Standard methods used for FML evaluation, in both the field and laboratory, are discussed and specific aspects of seam testing and data evaluation are addressed. The general importance of comprehensive definition of geomembrane seam field failures is strongly emphasized so that an appropriate response to test failures can be recommended

  8. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ... Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test .... test by Prism 4.0 software, and differences between ...

  9. Studies on Hepa filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Jon, K.S.; Park, W.J.; Ryoo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare testing methods of the HEPA filter adopted in other countries with each other, and to design and construct a test duct system to establish testing methods. The American D.O.P. test method, the British NaCl test method and several other independently developed methods are compared. It is considered that the D.O.P. method is most suitable for in-plant and leak tests

  10. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based bioanalytical method for quantification of ethyl esters of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sekarbabu; Verma, P R P; Ganesan, Muniyandithevar; Manivannan, Jeganathan

    2017-07-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are clinically useful and the two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in fish and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations should undergo a rigorous regulatory step in order to obtain United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approval as prescription drug. In connection with that, despite quantifying EPA and DHA fatty acids, there is a need for quantifying the level of ethyl esters of them in biological samples. In this study, we make use of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS)technique for the method development. Here, we have developed a novel multiple reaction monitoring method along with optimized parameters for quantification of EPA and DHA as ethyl esters. Additionally, we attempted to validate the bio-analytical method by conducting the sensitivity, selectivity, precision accuracy batch, carryover test and matrix stability experiments. Furthermore, we also implemented our validated method for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of omega fatty acid ethyl ester formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. EPA Method 614: The Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 614 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of samples for determination of organophosphate pesticides in industrial and municipal discharges using a GC with a phosphorus-specific flame photometric detector (FPD).

  12. Methods for Estimating the Social Benefits of EPA Land Cleanup and Reuse Programs (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation’s National Center for Environmental Economics, and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response’s Land Revitalization Office convened a workshop on risk assessment and benefit estimation methods in 2006.

  13. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  14. Lessons learned in preparing method 29 filters for compliance testing audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, R F; McCartney, J E; Bursey, J T; Riley, C E

    2000-01-01

    Companies conducting compliance testing are required to analyze audit samples at the time they collect and analyze the stack samples if audit samples are available. Eastern Research Group (ERG) provides technical support to the EPA's Emission Measurements Center's Stationary Source Audit Program (SSAP) for developing, preparing, and distributing performance evaluation samples and audit materials. These audit samples are requested via the regulatory Agency and include spiked audit materials for EPA Method 29-Metals Emissions from Stationary Sources, as well as other methods. To provide appropriate audit materials to federal, state, tribal, and local governments, as well as agencies performing environmental activities and conducting emission compliance tests, ERG has recently performed testing of blank filter materials and preparation of spiked filters for EPA Method 29. For sampling stationary sources using an EPA Method 29 sampling train, the use of filters without organic binders containing less than 1.3 microg/in.2 of each of the metals to be measured is required. Risk Assessment testing imposes even stricter requirements for clean filter background levels. Three vendor sources of quartz fiber filters were evaluated for background contamination to ensure that audit samples would be prepared using filters with the lowest metal background levels. A procedure was developed to test new filters, and a cleaning procedure was evaluated to see if a greater level of cleanliness could be achieved using an acid rinse with new filters. Background levels for filters supplied by different vendors and within lots of filters from the same vendor showed a wide variation, confirmed through contact with several analytical laboratories that frequently perform EPA Method 29 analyses. It has been necessary to repeat more than one compliance test because of suspect metals background contamination levels. An acid cleaning step produced improvement in contamination level, but the

  15. Radon and radon daughter measurements and methods utilized by EPA's Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), Office of Radiation Programs, has the responsibility for conducting the Environmental Protection Agency's study of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry. Numerous measurements in structures constructed on land reclaimed from phosphate mining showed that working levels in these structures range from 0.001 to 0.9 WL. Sampling is performed by drawing air through a 0.8 micrometer pore size, 25 mm diameter filter at a flow rate of 10 to 15 liters/minute for from 5 to 20 minutes, depending on the daughter levels anticipated. The detection system consists of a ruggedized silicon surface barrier detector (450 mm 2 -100 micrometer depletion) connected through an appropriate pre-amplifier-amplifier to a 1024-channel multichannel analyzer. Other measurement methods are also discussed

  16. Analysis of cascade impactor and EPA method 29 data from the americium/curium pilot melter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The offgas system of the Am/Cm pilot melter at TNX was characterized by measuring the particulate evolution using a cascade impactor and EPA Method 29. This sampling work was performed by John Harden of the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, under SCUREF Task SC0056. Elemental analyses were performed by the SRTC Mobile Laboratory.Operation of the Am/Cm melter with B2000 frit has resulted in deposition of PbO and boron compounds in the offgas system that has contributed to pluggage of the High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Sampling of the offgas system was performed to quantify the amount of particulate in the offgas system under several sets of conditions. Particulate concentration and particle size distribution were measured just downstream of the melter pressure control air addition port and at the HEME inlet. At both locations, the particulate was measured with and without steam to the film cooler while the melter was idled at about 1450 degrees Celsius. Additional determinations were made at the melter location during feeding and during idling at 1150 degrees Celsius rather than 1450 degrees Celsius (both with no steam to the film cooler). Deposition of particulates upstream of the melter sample point may have, and most likely did occur in each run, so the particulate concentrations measured do no necessarily reflect the total particulate emission at the melt surface. However, the data may be used in a relative sense to judge the system performance

  17. 49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Testing methods. (a) All tests shall be constructed in... must be at least as stringent as the Federal standards. (c) States shall determine specific methods for...

  18. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.547 Section 63.547... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary Lead Smelting § 63.547 Test methods. (a) The following test methods...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number of...

  19. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  20. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Focus on MG Newsletter MG Quarterly Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events 2018 MG ...

  1. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. First Update. (3rd edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman; Sellers.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed Update is for Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, SW-846, Third Edition. Attached to the report is a list of methods included in the proposed update indicating whether the method is a new method, a partially revised method, or a totally revised method. Do not discard or replace any of the current pages in the SW-846 manual until the proposed update I package is promulgated. Until promulgation of the update package, the methods in the update package are not officially part of the SW-846 manual and thus do not carry the status of EPA-approved methods. In addition to the proposed Update, six finalized methods are included for immediate inclusion into the Third Edition of SW-846. Four methods, originally proposed October 1, 1984, will be finalized in a soon to be released rulemaking. They are, however, being submitted to subscribers for the first time in the update. These methods are 7211, 7381, 7461, and 7951. Two other methods were finalized in the 2nd Edition of SW-846. They were inadvertantly omitted from the 3rd Edition and are not being proposed as new. These methods are 7081 and 7761

  2. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A methane...

  3. EPA assessment of fallout in the United States from atmospheric nuclear testing on September 26 and November 17, 1976 by the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.B.; Smith, J.M.; Johnson, R.H. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Following the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests by the People's Republic of China on September 26 and November 17, 1976, the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) network was fully activated and frequent samples of air particulates, precipitation, and pasteurized milk were collected for several weeks after each event. Population doses for the United States were calculated using the levels of radioactivity measured in these samples. Based on the calculated doses, health effects to the population of the United States were estimated. This report is a summary of EPA's assessment regarding the radiation doses and potential health effects which may be attributed to radioactive fallout from these nuclear weapons tests

  4. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods in...

  6. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  7. Method for critical current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, M.B.; Smathers, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting critical current testing software was developed with four important features not feasible with analog test equipment. First, quasi-steady-state sample current conditions are achieved by incrementing sample current, followed by holding some milliseconds until the transient voltage decays before voltage sampling. Then the self-field correction from a helically wound sample is computed and subtracted from each sampled field reading. A copper wire inductively wound shunt which is used for quench protection has a constant measured resistance from which the shunt leakage current is computed and subtracted from the sample current by measuring the shunt voltage after each sample current reading. Finally, the critical current is recomputed from a least squares curve fit to the power law: E=A*In when the correlation coefficient for the fit is high enough to ensure a better result than the raw datum. Comparison with NBS Standard Reference Material (NbTi) and current round robin Nb/sub 3/Sn testing is examined

  8. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy...

  9. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  10. US EPA overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    EPA believes that effective and efficient solutions to problems in all radioactive waste disposal areas will require close coordination and cooperation among all agencies involved. In this regard, EPA already has participated in meetings with the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Council on Environmental Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Office of Management and Budget to lay the groundwork for the development of a consolidated national radioactive waste disposal plan. The EPA program is directed first toward developing goals and requirements; and then, in cooperation with the public, industry, the States and Federal agencies, towards determining by what means these goals can be achieved for each waste management option. In addition, the program will develop criteria for determining when the goals of the waste management options have been achieved. In summary, EPA will provide fundamental environmental criteria and generally applicable environmental standards for permanent disposal of high level radwastes. Concurrently, ERDA will develop the necessary technology; and NRC will conduct necessary studies, develop waste-related regulations, and license specific sites and methods of control. Together, we will be able to manage the disposal of the Nation's radioactive waste in an environmentally adequate manner

  11. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... of the barrier with the low air pressure, through a well-defined opening, as a modification of the test method in general. Results, obtained using the improved test method, are shown for a number of radon barriers tested....

  12. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted for...

  13. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section for...

  14. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  15. Easy, fast and environmental friendly method for the simultaneous extraction of the 16 EPA PAHs using magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Navarro, Mercedes; Martín-Valero, María Jesús; Fernández-Torres, Rut Maria; Callejón-Mochón, Manuel; Bello-López, Miguel Ángel

    2017-02-15

    An easy and environmental friendly method, based on the use of magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs) is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of the 16 U.S. EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) priority pollutants. The mag-MIPs based extraction protocol is simple, more sensitive and low organic solvent consuming compared to official methods and also adequate for those PAHs more retained in the particulate matter. The new proposed extraction method followed by HPLC determination has been validated and applied to different types of water samples: tap water, river water, lake water and mineral water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New Graphical Methods and Test Statistics for Testing Composite Normality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S. Paolella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several graphical methods for testing univariate composite normality from an i.i.d. sample are presented. They are endowed with correct simultaneous error bounds and yield size-correct tests. As all are based on the empirical CDF, they are also consistent for all alternatives. For one test, called the modified stabilized probability test, or MSP, a highly simplified computational method is derived, which delivers the test statistic and also a highly accurate p-value approximation, essentially instantaneously. The MSP test is demonstrated to have higher power against asymmetric alternatives than the well-known and powerful Jarque-Bera test. A further size-correct test, based on combining two test statistics, is shown to have yet higher power. The methodology employed is fully general and can be applied to any i.i.d. univariate continuous distribution setting.

  17. Methodology for developing new test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology for developing new test methods and forming solutions for the development of new test methods. The basis of the methodology for developing new test methods is the individual elements of the system and process approaches. They contribute to the development of an effective research strategy for the object, the study of interrelations, the synthesis of an adequate model of the test method. The effectiveness of the developed test method is determined by the correct choice of the set of concepts, their interrelations and mutual influence. This allows you to solve the tasks assigned to achieve the goal. The methodology is based on the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. The question of the choice of the method on the basis of which the model for the formation of solutions is based is considered. The methodology provides for recording a model for a new test method in the form of a finite set of objects. These objects are significant for the test method characteristics. Then a causal relationship is established between the objects. Further, the values of fitness indicators and the observability of the method and metrological tolerance for the indicator are established. The work is aimed at the overall goal of ensuring the quality of tests by improving the methodology for developing the test method.

  18. Cathodic Delamination Accelerated Life Test Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramotowski, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    A method for conducting an accelerated life test of a polymer coated metallic sample includes placing the sample below the water surface in a test tank containing water and an oxygen containing gas...

  19. Thermal test requirements and their verification by different test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Wieser, G.; Probst, U.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the parameters influencing the thermal test conditions for type B-packages. Criteria for different test methods (by analytical as well as by experimental means) will be developed. A comparison of experimental results from fuel oil pool and LPG fire tests will be given. (J.P.N.)

  20. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  1. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or importer...

  2. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2012-01-01

    It saddens us deeply to learn of the passing away of Jean-Paul Diss who died suddenly on 7 June 2012 at his home.  A tribute can be read on the GAC-EPA site. * * * * * Information: http://gac-epa.org/ e-mail: gac-epa@gac-epa.org

  3. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots.

  4. Automated Test Methods for XML Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    8933 Com (661) 277 8933 email jon.morgan.2.ctr@us.af.mil Secretariat, Range Commanders Council ATTN: TEDT-WS-RCC 1510 Headquarters Avenue White...Sands Missile Range, New Mexico 88002-5110 Phone: DSN 258-1107 Com (575) 678-1107 Fax: DSN 258-7519 Com (575) 678-7519 email ...Method for Testing Syntax The test method is as follows. 1. Initialize the programming environment. 2. Write test application code to use the

  5. Comparison of testing methods for particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.; Przyborowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four testing methods for particulate filters were compared by using the test rigs of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection: 1) Measurement of filter penetration P as a function of particle size d by using a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol and a scintillation particle counter; 2) Modified sodium flame test for measurement of total filter penetration P for various polydisperse NaC1 test aerosols; 3) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol labelled with short-lived radon daughter products; 4) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a special paraffin oil test aerosol (oil fog test used in FRG according DIN 24 184, test aerosol A). The investigations were carried out on sheets of glass fibre paper (five grades of paper). Detailed information about the four testing methods and the used particle size distributions is given. The different results of the various methods are the base for the discussion of the most important parameters which influence the filter penetration P. The course of the function P=f(d) shows the great influence of the particle size. As expected there was also found a great dependence both from the test aerosol as well as from the principle and the measuring range of the aerosol-measuring device. The differences between the results of the various test methods are greater the lower the penetration. The use of NaCl test aerosol with various particle size distributions gives great differences for the respective penetration values. On the basis of these results and the values given by Dorman conclusions are made about the investigation of particulate filters both for the determination of filter penetration P as well as for the leak test of installed filters

  6. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  7. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  8. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as...

  9. MODERN METHODS OF FOOD INTOLERANCE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Rosensteyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Аn analytical review of modern methods of food intolerance diagnostics based on interpretation of markers used in the various tests is рresented. It is shown that tests based on observation of the reaction of specific antibodies of the immune system to food antigens tested, are the most accurate, reliable and representative for the diagnosis of food intolerance.

  10. Comparison of Enterococcus quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis results from midwest U.S. river samples using EPA Method 1611 and Method 1609 PCR reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided recommended beach advisory values in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) for states wishing to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the monitoring of Enterococcus fecal indicator bacteria...

  11. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  12. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...

  14. 40 CFR 85.2233 - Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuing the test until HC levels drop below 20 ppm. (2) Automatic zero and span. The analyzer conducts an automatic zero and span check prior to each test. The span check must include the HC, CO, and CO2 channels... adjustment range of the analyzer, it must lock out from testing. (3) Low flow. The system locks out from...

  15. EPA eXcats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA eXcats is an enterprise-level data tracking application that provides management complaint tracking information for the EPA's Office of Civil Rights (OCR)...

  16. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  17. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  18. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  19. Multipath interference test method for distributed amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takahiro; Aida, Kazuo

    2005-12-01

    A method for testing distributed amplifiers is presented; the multipath interference (MPI) is detected as a beat spectrum between the multipath signal and the direct signal using a binary frequency shifted keying (FSK) test signal. The lightwave source is composed of a DFB-LD that is directly modulated by a pulse stream passing through an equalizer, and emits the FSK signal of the frequency deviation of about 430MHz at repetition rate of 80-100 kHz. The receiver consists of a photo-diode and an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). The base-band power spectrum peak appeared at the frequency of the FSK frequency deviation can be converted to amount of MPI using a calibration chart. The test method has improved the minimum detectable MPI as low as -70 dB, compared to that of -50 dB of the conventional test method. The detailed design and performance of the proposed method are discussed, including the MPI simulator for calibration procedure, computer simulations for evaluating the error caused by the FSK repetition rate and the fiber length under test and experiments on singlemode fibers and distributed Raman amplifier.

  20. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  1. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  2. Supplementary test method for carbon filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Pettersson, S.-O.

    1980-11-01

    A test method for carbon filters using freon to detect leakage is described. The filters are used in nuclear power plants and in air-raid shelters to separate radioactive iodine.Sampling and detection limits are described and a proposal for a complete equipment is made.(G.B.)

  3. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  4. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  5. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  6. EPA's Benchmark Dose Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA developed the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) as a tool to help Agency risk assessors facilitate applying benchmark dose (BMD) method’s to EPA’s human health risk assessment (HHRA) documents. The application of BMD methods overcomes many well know limitations ...

  7. Thermal Testing Methods for Solar Dryers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Solar food drying is a complex heat and mass transfer phenomena which depend on a number of drying process-dependent parameters such as operating conditions and characteristics of the food product to be dried. The variation in these parameters significantly affects the overall performance...... of the dryer system. Since commercial growth and acceptance of any solar dryer system momentously depend on its performance guarantee, the development of a standard methodology for their thermal testing has become necessary. The standard testing method not only provides better performance management...... of the dryer system but allows the manufacturers to achieve competitive efficiency and good product quality by comparing the available designs. In this chapter, an extensive review of solar dryer performance evaluation has been carried out. Furthermore, the chapter describes the existing testing procedures...

  8. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: NIST Traceability and Comparability (And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  9. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  10. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  11. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities

  12. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  13. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods were developed as guidance in judging the suitability of solidified waste as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. The criteria follow from the assumption that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property for judging the effectiveness of a waste form. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier consists of a leach test designed to determine the net, forward leach rate of the solidified waste and a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second tier of tests is to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impacts its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leachates

  14. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  15. "Slicer" for EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    During the design of the Electron-Positron-Accumulator (EPA), there was an apprehension about the stability-limit of positron bunch-intensity in the SPS. In case that EPA would be able to produce bunches with intensities exceeding what the SPS could digest, an electrostatic septum was to slice up the EPA beam over 2 or 4 turns, thus lowering the bunch intensity while maintaining fast filling of LEP. The "slicer" septum was built and installed, but thanks to the good appetite of the SPS its use never became necessary. The slicer was removed from EPA to lower the machine impedance.

  16. EPA Envirofacts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Envirofacts integrates information from a variety of EPA's environmental databases. Each of these databases contains information about facilities that are required...

  17. EPA Method 3135.2I: Cyanide, Total and Amenable in Aqueous and Solid Samples Automated Colorimetric With Manual Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, water and wipe samples for detection and measurement of cyanide amendable to chlorination using acid digestion and spectrophotometry.

  18. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...... using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...

  19. EPA Method 3031 (SW-846): Acid Digestion of Oils for Metals Analysis by Atomic Absorption or ICP Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  20. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  1. EPA Library Network Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish Agency-wide procedures for the EPA National Library Network libraries to communicate, using a range of established mechanisms, with other EPA libraries, EPA staff, organizations and the public.

  2. Self-test Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1996-01-01

    The Self-Test Monte Carlo (STMC) method resolves the main problems in using algebraic pseudo-random numbers for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations: that they can interfere with MC algorithms and lead to erroneous results, and that such an error often cannot be detected without known exact solution. STMC is based on good randomness of about 10 10 bits available from physical noise or transcendental numbers like π = 3.14---. Various bit modifiers are available to get more bits for applications that demands more than 10 10 random bits such as lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These modifiers are designed so that a) each of them gives a bit sequence comparable in randomness as the original if used separately from each other, and b) their mutual interference when used jointly in a single MC calculation is adjustable. Intermediate data of the MC calculation itself are used to quantitatively test and adjust the mutual interference of the modifiers in respect of the MC algorithm. STMC is free of systematic error and gives reliable statistical error. Also it can be easily implemented on vector and parallel supercomputers. (author)

  3. EPA Requests Nominations for Experts to Serve on the May 8-10, 2018 FIFRA SAP on Efficacy Testing of Pesticides used for Invertebrate Pests and Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRN requesting nominations of experts to serve as ad hoc members for the May 8-10, 2018 FIFRA SAP meeting to consider and review methods for efficacy testing of pesticides used for treatments of invertebrate pests and fire ants.

  4. HUBUNGAN KECUKUPAN ASAM EIKOSAPENTANOAT (EPA, ASAM DOKOSAHEKSANOAT (DHA IKAN DAN STATUS GIZI DENGAN PRESTASI BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaihah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Background: Fish contain of high protein, EPA, DHA needed for the formation of brain cell and improving intelligence. Consuming fish and other sea food make healthy and improve the brain ability to reach optimum study achievement. In 2003, fish consumption in Indonesia is still low 24,67kg/capita/year. Based on BPS 2002, fish consumption in Semarang is 5,38%. The fish consumption has a big influence on nutrition sufficiency especially EPA and DHA, nutrition status and attaining healthy and smart Indonesian human resources. Goal: To analyze the relationship between fish meal frequency, fish EPA and DHA recommended and nutrition status with student's study achievement. Method: The research used survey method, analytical research, and cross -sectional time approach. This research was conducted on September-October 2004. Sample was 100 subject of SD Taqwiyatui Wathon (grade IV are 54 person, grade V are 46 person by using Stratified Random Sampling method. The data preparation used NUTRISOFT. Result: Fish frequently consumed by responden was bandeng (Chanos chanos 5%, tongkol (Euthynnus allitteratus rafmescue 4%, kembung (Scomber kanoguria russei 1% and mujair (Tilapia mossambica 1 %. EPA, DHA % RDA defisit 62%, normal nutritional status 93% and average category of study achievement 55%. There was relation between fish meal frequency and fish EPA, DHA % RDA (ρ=0,000, there was no relation between fish meal frequency and nutritional status (ρ=0,213, there was relation between fish meal frequency and study achievement (ρ=0,000, there was relation between fish EPA, DHA recommendation and study achievement (ρ=0,000, and there was no relation between nutrition status and study achievement (ρ=0.378. Based on Pearson correlation test, there was no relation between fish EPA, DHA recommendation and nutritional status (ρ=0,000. Conclution: Students with frequent fish consumption and high RDA of EPA, DHA % RDA showed better study achievement

  5. US EPA CARE Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for the subset of Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) grants given out by the US EPA. CARE...

  6. EPA User Personas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA's three web user personas (Information Consumer, Information Intermediary, and Information Interpreter) can help you identify appropriate top audiences and top tasks for a topic or web area.

  7. EPA's Efforts in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has been collaborating with Russia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and Ukraine for over 20 years and continues to work with their governments and non-governmental organizations on environment, science and technology issues.

  8. US EPA EJ Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for all Environmental Justice (EJ) grants given out by the US EPA. There are many limitations to the data...

  9. EPA Nanorelease Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA Nanorelease Dataset. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wohlleben, W., C. Kingston, J. Carter, E. Sahle-Demessie, S. Vazquez-Campos, B....

  10. Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  11. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  12. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Determination of Hydrogen Halide and Halogen Emissions from Stationary Sources—Isokinetic Method,” to determine... shall be 60 minutes and the minimum sample volume 0.85 dry standard cubic meters (30 dry standard cubic...(mg/dscm) is concentration in milligrams per dry standard cubic meter as calculated by the procedure...

  14. [Intramuscular injection of lentivirus-mediated EPAS1 gene improves hind limb ischemia and its mechanism in a rat model of peripheral artery vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Gu, Hongbin; Yang, Fan; Xie, Huajie; Sheng, Lei; Li, Mingfei

    2017-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of over-expressed endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 1 (EPAS1) on peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a rat model. Methods PAD rat model was established by external iliac artery ligation followed by lentivirus-mediated EPAS1 gene injection into rat right adductor magnus. The models were evaluated by quantitative analysis of gait disturbance. The changes of blood flow in the posterior extremity of the rats were detected using laser Doppler. The expressions of EPAS1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNAs were tested by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Compared with lenti-EGFP group, rat hind limb function and circulation got recovered obviously 7 days after lenti-EPAS1 injection. The mRNA expressions of EPAS1, HGF, bFGF, and VEGF were up-regulated in the lenti-EPAS1-treated sites.The expression of αSMA showed an obvious increase in the lenti-EPAS1-treated muscles. Conclusion Over-expressed lenti-EPAS1 can promote angiogenesis via the up-regulation of EPAS1-related angiogenic factors in the muscles of the affected hind limb and reduce gait disturbance.

  15. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has......Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...

  16. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2014-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 4 février de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org. * * * * * Carte de membre de l'Association du personnel du CERN Les membres GAC-EPA qui souhaitent recevoir une carte de membre AP en 2014 doivent  en faire la demande par email à secretariat@gac-epa.org, ou par lettre au secrétaire ...

  17. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods A Appendix A to Part 63... to Part 63—Test Methods Method 301—Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media 1. Applicability and principle 1.1Applicability. This method, as specified in the applicable...

  19. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1990-01-01

    Methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests, that is, tests with the same test information function. A mathematical programing model for constructing tests with a prespecified test information function and a heuristic for assigning items to tests such that their information

  20. 76 FR 9780 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA Transit and Guaranteed Ride Home... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is deleting the systems of records for EPA Parking Control Office File... through the EPA Internet under the ``Federal Register'' listings at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/ . Dated...

  1. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  2. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Gallet, G.

    1980-01-01

    Monitoring by multi-frequency eddy currents has been used since 1975 in French nuclear stations; this method applies perfectly to examinations in non-irradiated surroundings. The restrictions connected with operations in controlled zones (radioactivity) have led to the development of a delayed analysis device which in no way changes the principle of the method, but allows greater flexibility of use by reducing the volume of equipment needed and by limiting the intervention of personnel to a strict minimum [fr

  3. Review of Test Theory and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    literature, although some books , technical reports, and unpub- lished literature have been included where relevant. The focus of the review is on practical...1977) and Abu-Sayf (1977) developed new versions of formula scores, and Molenaar (1977) took a Bayesian approach to correcting for random guessing. The...Snow’s (1977) book on aptitude and instructional methods is a landmark review of the research on the interaction between instructional methods and

  4. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 3 mars de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 7 avril, 5 mai, 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2013. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  5. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er octobre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 5 novembre et 3 décembre 2013. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  6. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre décembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  7. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : le mardi 29 novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  8. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : le mardi 1er novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel. La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  9. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 3 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre décembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  10. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  11. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 4 octobre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  12. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er décembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  13. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 2 février de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 1er mars, 5 avril, 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  14. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er mars de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 5 avril, 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  15. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 3 novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  16. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    Carte de membre de l'Association du personnel du CERN Comme cela a été précisé dans le bulletin d'automne n° 43, les membres GAC-EPA qui souhaitent recevoir une carte de membre AP en 2013 devront en faire la demande, avant le 31 janvier, par email à secretariat@gac-epa.org, ou par lettre au secrétaire du GAC-EPA, p/a Association du personnel CERN, CH-1211 GENEVE 23. Il n'y a pas de tacite reconduction de ces cartes et par conséquent une demande doit être faite chaque année par l'intéressé(e).

  17. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS..., gradually apply a 33-lbf (147-N) force in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the large end of the... Figure 2 of this part into the portion of the boundary to be tested, with the plane of the template in...

  18. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY... orientation”). Then gradually apply a 33-lbf (147-N) force in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the... Figure 2 of this part into the portion of the boundary of the opening to be tested, with the plane of the...

  19. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  20. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  1. On the assessment of usability testing methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markopoulos, P.; Bekker, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper motivates the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing. It introduces a methodological framework for delineating comparative assessments of usability testing methods for children participants. This framework consists in three

  2. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes two atmomospheric methods for the monitoring and detection of underground nuclear explosions: Near infrasound technique, and ionospheric monitoring. Ground motion from underground explosions cause induced air pressure perturbations. The ionospheric technique utilizes the very strong air pressure pulse which is launched straight up above an underground explosion. When the pressure disturbance reaches the ionosphere, it becomes a 10 % pressure perturbation. Detection involves sending radio waves through the ionosphere with transmitters and recievers on the ground. Radar analysis yields interpretable signals. The near infrasound method detects the signal which is projected into the side lobes of the main signal. Both of the atmospheric methods were utilized on the monitoring of the NPE underground chemical explosion experiment. Results are described.

  3. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...

  4. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. DOE sponsored research investigating atmospheric infrasound as a means of detecting both atmospheric and underground nuclear tests. Various detection schemes were examined and were found to be effective for different situations. It has been discovered that an enhanced sensitivity is realizable for the very lowest frequency disturbances by detecting the infrasound at the top of the atmosphere using ratio sound techniques. These techniques are compared to more traditional measurement schemes

  5. Systematic evaluation of nondestructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.; Notea, A.; Segal, E.

    1977-01-01

    The main task of an NDT engineer is to select the best method, considering the cost-benefit value of different available systems and taking into account the special existing constraints. The aim of the paper is to suggest a tool that will enable characterization of measuring systems. The derivation of the characterization parameters and functions has to be general, i.e., suitable for all possible measuring methods, independent of their principle of operation. Quite often the properties measured during the NDT procedure are not the wanted ones, but there must be a correlation between the measured property and the performance of the product. One has to bear in mind that the ultimate choice between systems is not, in practice, just based on the mathematical optimization approach that is presented. Factors like cost-benefit, availability of trained manpower, service, real-time information, weight, volume, etc., may be crucial problems, and they may well dictate the final selection

  6. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests [i.e., tests with the same test information function (TIF)]. A mathematical programming model that constructs tests containing a prespecified TIF and a heuristic that assigns items to tests with information functions that are

  7. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  8. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  9. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  10. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  11. Reliability of non-destructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven, M.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This contribution regards the results of an evaluation of the reliability of radiography (X-rays and gamma-rays), manual-, and mechanized/automated ultrasonic examination by generally accepted codes/rules, with respect to detection, characterization and sizing/localization of defects. The evaluation is based on the results of examinations, by a number of teams, of 30 test plates, 30 and 50 mm thickness, containing V,U, X and K-shaped welds each containing several types of imperfections (211) in total) typical for steel arc fusion welding, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of fusion or penetration and cracks. Besides, some results are presented obtained from research on advanced UT-techniques, viz. the time-of-flight-diffraction and flaw-tip deflection technique. (author)

  12. Reliability of non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven, M J.G. [Ministry of Social Affairs, (Netherlands)

    1988-12-31

    This contribution regards the results of an evaluation of the reliability of radiography (X-rays and gamma-rays), manual-, and mechanized/automated ultrasonic examination by generally accepted codes/rules, with respect to detection, characterization and sizing/localization of defects. The evaluation is based on the results of examinations, by a number of teams, of 30 test plates, 30 and 50 mm thickness, containing V,U, X and K-shaped welds each containing several types of imperfections (211) in total) typical for steel arc fusion welding, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of fusion or penetration and cracks. Besides, some results are presented obtained from research on advanced UT-techniques, viz. the time-of-flight-diffraction and flaw-tip deflection technique. (author). 4 refs.

  13. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  14. EPA Communications Stylebook: Writing Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the most part, EPA follows the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook. Other requirements of basic punctuation and grammar and usage in EPA writing modify, supplement, or in some cases reiterate AP style.

  15. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  16. A probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yungang; Wang, Minxian; Huang, Xin; Li, Ran; Xu, Hongyang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    Human populations around the world encounter various environmental challenges and, consequently, develop genetic adaptations to different selection forces. Identifying the differences in natural selection between populations is critical for understanding the roles of specific genetic variants in evolutionary adaptation. Although numerous methods have been developed to detect genetic loci under recent directional selection, a probabilistic solution for testing and quantifying selection differences between populations is lacking. Here we report the development of a probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations. By use of a probabilistic model of genetic drift and selection, we showed that logarithm odds ratios of allele frequencies provide estimates of the differences in selection coefficients between populations. The estimates approximate a normal distribution, and variance can be estimated using genome-wide variants. This allows us to quantify differences in selection coefficients and to determine the confidence intervals of the estimate. Our work also revealed the link between genetic association testing and hypothesis testing of selection differences. It therefore supplies a solution for hypothesis testing of selection differences. This method was applied to a genome-wide data analysis of Han and Tibetan populations. The results confirmed that both the EPAS1 and EGLN1 genes are under statistically different selection in Han and Tibetan populations. We further estimated differences in the selection coefficients for genetic variants involved in melanin formation and determined their confidence intervals between continental population groups. Application of the method to empirical data demonstrated the outstanding capability of this novel approach for testing and quantifying differences in natural selection. © 2015 He et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Methods for testing of geometrical down-scaled rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. Those methods are presented in [1]. Current experimental test performed on full...

  18. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  19. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  20. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  1. Experimental data of Se and B released from FGDG, soil and soil-FGDG mixture in EPA-Method 1314 and optimization of fate and transport model simulation results of Se and B leaching from FGDG in an agricultural field and a landfill.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The leachate concentrations of Se and B released from FGDG, soil and soil-FGDG mixture obtained from EPA-method 1314 is included in the data set. The non-equilibrium...

  2. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  3. 40 CFR 725.370 - EPA review of the TME application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unreasonable risk of injury to health and the environment as a result of test marketing. ... Marketing § 725.370 EPA review of the TME application. General procedures for review of all submissions... with test marketing activities after receipt of EPA approval. (c) In approving a TME application, EPA...

  4. Standard test methods for arsenic in uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are applicable to the determination of total arsenic in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Two test methods are given: Test Method A—Arsine Generation-Atomic Absorption (Sections 5-10), and Test Method B—Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (Appendix X1). 1.2 The test methods are equivalent. The limit of detection for each test method is 0.1 μg As/g U when using a sample containing 0.5 to 1.0 g U. Test Method B does not have the complete collection details for precision and bias data thus the method appears as an appendix. 1.3 Test Method A covers the measurement of arsenic in uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) solutions by converting arsenic to arsine and measuring the arsine vapor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.4 Test Method B utilizes a solvent extraction to remove the uranium from the UO2F2 solution prior to measurement of the arsenic by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.5 Both insoluble and soluble arsenic are measured when UF6 is...

  5. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  6. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  7. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-78 Section... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-78 EPA driving cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be... driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the highway fuel economy data is specified in this...

  8. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this...

  9. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php  

  10. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 31 octobre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  11. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 29 août de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php  

  12. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 28 novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  13. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 30 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  14. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 26 septembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  15. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  16. A Teaching Method on Basic Chemistry for Freshman : Teaching Method with Pre-test and Post-test

    OpenAIRE

    立木, 次郎; 武井, 庚二

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with a teaching method on basic chemistry for freshman. This teaching method contains guidance and instruction to how to understand basic chemistry. Pre-test and post-test have been put into practice each time. Each test was returned to students at class in the following weeks.

  17. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 31 janvier de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 28 février, 28 mars, 25 avril, 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  18. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split

  19. The relation between the omega-3 index and arachidonic acid is bell shaped : Synergistic at low EPA plus DHA status and antagonistic at high EPA plus DHA status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. arachidonic acid (AA) seems characterized by both synergism and antagonism. Materials and methods: Investigate the relation between EPA + DHA and AA in populations with a wide range of EPA + DHA status and across

  20. TESTING METHODS FOR MECHANICALLY IMPROVED SOILS: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petkovšek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of in-situ mechanical improvement for reducing the liquefaction potential of silty sands was investigated by using three different techniques: Vibratory Roller Compaction, Rapid Impact Compaction (RIC and Soil Mixing. Material properties at all test sites were investigated before and after improvement with the laboratory and the in situ tests (CPT, SDMT, DPSH B, static and dynamic load plate test, geohydraulic tests. Correlation between the results obtained by different test methods gave inconclusive answers.

  1. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  2. A pilot effectiveness study of the Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme for parents of children with behaviour problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring ...

  3. Generating and testing methods for consumer-oriented product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In order to obtain a good insight into various design methods that can be used by product developers to enable them to develop and test useful domotics products (domotics: intelligent systems for the home), an inventory has been made of the methods used in the Netherlands. The inventory is directed at two categories of methods: (1) Methods of getting better acquainted with the user and/or the problem, and of generating novel solutions: generative methods; and (2) Methods of assessing solutions (through various phases of the designing process): testing methods. The first category of methods concentrates on the designing process. In other words: how can the designer realise as much as possible of the workability of (domotics) products during the designing process? The second category aims at testing a design (in whatever shape: drawing, prototype, functional computer animation, etc.) through its users. These are methods of assessing a design at various stages of the designing process [nl

  4. US EPA - A*Star Partnership - Accelerating the Acceptance of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The path for incorporating new alternative methods and technologies into quantitative chemical risk assessment poses a diverse set of scientific challenges. Some of these challenges include development of relevant and predictive test systems and computational models to integrate and extrapolate experimental data, and rapid characterization and acceptance of these systems and models. The series of presentations will highlight a collaborative effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) that is focused on developing and applying experimental and computational models for predicting chemical-induced liver and kidney toxicity, brain angiogenesis, and blood-brain-barrier formation. In addressing some of these challenges, the U.S. EPA and A*STAR collaboration will provide a glimpse of what chemical risk assessments could look like in the 21st century. Presentation on US EPA – A*STAR Partnership at international symposium on Accelerating the acceptance of next-generation sciences and their application to regulatory risk assessment in Singapore.

  5. 40 CFR 63.705 - Performance test methods and procedures to determine initial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per gram-mole. 24.055 = Ideal gas molar volume at 293° Kelvin and 760 millimeters of mercury, liters... consideration of the potential presence of interfering gases. Except as indicated in paragraphs (b)(3) (i) and... used for velocity and volumetric flow rates. (6) EPA Method 3 of appendix A of part 60 is used for gas...

  6. Comparison of test methods for mould growth in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup, Sirid; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Knudsen, Sofie Marie

    2016-01-01

    renovation needs. This is of importance when hidden surface testing would require destructive measures and subsequent renovation. After identifying available methods on the Danish market for assessing mould growth in dwellings, a case study was conducted to test the usefulness of the methods in four......The purpose of this work is to compare a range of test methods and kits for assessing whether a building structure is infested by mould fungi. A further purpose of this work is to evaluate whether air-based methods for sampling fungal emissions provide information qualifying decisions concerning...... methods measure different aspects relating to mould growth and vary in selectivity and precision. The two types of air samples indicated low levels of mould growth, even where the results of the other methods indicated high to moderate growth. With methods based on culture and DNA testing some differences...

  7. Procedures for EPA Libraries to Obtain Materials through Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to establish Agency-wide procedures by which EPA libraries obtain materials for Agency employees and authorized EPA contractors through interlibrary loan (ILL) and other document delivery methods.

  8. Comparative study of fracture mechanical test methods for concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Olesen, John Forbes

    2004-01-01

    and the interpretation, i.e. the analysis needed to extract the stress-crack opening relationship, the fracture energy etc. Experiments are carried out with each test configuration using mature, high performance concrete. The results show that the UTT is a highly complicated test, which only under very well controlled...... circumstances will yield the true fracture mechanical properties. It is also shown that both the three point bending test and the WST are well-suited substitutes for the uniaxial tension test.......This paper describes and compares three different fracture mechanical test methods; the uniaxial tension test (UTT), the three point bending test (TPBT) and the wedge splitting test (WST). Potentials and problems with the test methods will be described with regard to the experiment...

  9. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  10. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The...

  11. Methods of Usability Testing in Libraries Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Fawzy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A Study about libraries' web sites evaluation, that is the Usability, the study talking about methods of usability testing and define it, and its important in web sites evaluation, then details the methods of usability: questionnaire, core groups, testing experimental model, cards arrangement, and composed evaluation.

  12. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection

  13. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the

  14. Application of Bayesian Methods for Detecting Fraudulent Behavior on Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Producers and consumers of test scores are increasingly concerned about fraudulent behavior before and during the test. There exist several statistical or psychometric methods for detecting fraudulent behavior on tests. This paper provides a review of the Bayesian approaches among them. Four hitherto-unpublished real data examples are provided to…

  15. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  16. Stopping test of iterative methods for solving PDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bangrong

    1991-01-01

    In order to assure the accuracy of the numerical solution of the iterative method for solving PDE (partial differential equation), the stopping test is very important. If the coefficient matrix of the system of linear algebraic equations is strictly diagonal dominant or irreducible weakly diagonal dominant, the stopping test formulas of the iterative method for solving PDE is proposed. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the applications of the stopping test formulas

  17. 40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and sample volume for each run of Methods 306... Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test requirements and test methods. (a) Performance test... Emissions From Decorative and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this...

  18. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximat...... and the sky temperature. Based on the investigations, recommendations for change of the test methods and test conditions are considered. The investigations are carried out within the NEGST (New Generation of Solar Thermal Systems) project financed by EU.......The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated...... equation where Tin is the inlet temperature to the collector and Tout is the outlet temperature from the collector. The specific heat of the solar collector fluid is in the test method as an approximation determined as a constant equal to the specific heat of the solar collector fluid at the temperature Tm...

  19. Study of test methods for radionuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Guo Zede; Wang Zhiming

    1993-01-01

    Aerated zone is an important natural barrier against transport of radionuclides released from disposal facilities of LLRW. This paper introduces study methods for radionuclide migration in aerated zone, including determination of water movement, laboratory simulation test, and field tracing test. For one purpose, results obtained with different methods are compared. These methods have been used in a five-year cooperative research project between CIRP and JAERI for an establishment of methodology for safety assessment on shallow land disposal of LLRW

  20. Evaluation of snubber functional test methods: Tier 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the research is to establish technical bases in support of efforts on the part of the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG) and the Subsection ISTD Working Group of the ASME O ampersand M Code in developing guidelines and methodologies for snubber functional testing to ensure that snubbers are tested in a manner that ensures reliable and meaningful test results. The methodology used in this research includes both a review of available industry information as well as the testing of different snubber models using various test machines. Information is provided pertaining to current industry practices in regard to snubber testing including recommended test procedures, technical description of various test machines, and the number and types of snubbers used in the nuclear power industry. A review of previous test methodology research conducted by the Snubber Utility Group is also included. The effects of variations in controllable test parameters on snubber test results are discussed. Also included are the results of confirmatory tests in which various snubber models were tested using various test machines. Recommendations are provided for standard test methods to be included in Subsection ISTD of the ASME O ampersand M Code [4]. General information and recommendations are provided that may be used by utility personnel in specifying snubber test equipment that is most suited for plant-specific needs as well as information that may be effectively used in the review and interpretation of test results

  1. A Teaching Method on Basic Chemistry for Freshman (II) : Teaching Method with Pre-test and Post-test

    OpenAIRE

    立木, 次郎; 武井, 庚二

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with review of a teaching method on basic chemistry for freshman in this first semester. We tried to review this teaching method with pre-test and post-test by means of the official and private questionnaires. Several hints and thoughts on teaching skills are obtained from this analysis.

  2. US EPA Region 4 Brownfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest. Through the Geospatial Data Download Service, the public is now able to download the EPA Geodata shapefile containing facility and site information from EPA's national program systems. The file is Internet accessible from the Envirofacts Web site (https://www3.epa.gov/enviro/). The data may be used with geospatial mapping applications. (Note: The shapefile omits facilities without latitude/longitude coordinates.) The EPA Geospatial Data contains the name, location (latitude/longitude), and EPA program information about specific facilities and sites. In addition, the file contains a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which allows mapping applications to present an option to users to access additional EPA data resources on a specific facility or site. This dataset shows Brownfields listed in the 2012 Facility Registry System.

  3. Standard test method for galling resistance of material couples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory test that ranks the galling resistance of material couples using a quantitative measure. Bare metals, alloys, nonmetallic materials, coatings, and surface modified materials may be evaluated by this test method. 1.2 This test method is not designed for evaluating the galling resistance of material couples sliding under lubricated conditions, because galling usually will not occur under lubricated sliding conditions using this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. New methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.

    2017-11-01

    This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya [1] explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert [6] is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton [10] explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich [8]. The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al. [12] discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene [13] examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton [14] and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter [15] provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.

  5. Nuclear EMP: stripline test method for measuring transfer impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1975-11-01

    A method for measuring the transfer impedance of flat metal joints for frequencies to 100 MHz has been developed which makes use of striplines. The stripline method, which has similarities to the quadraxial method used for cylindrical components, is described and sets of test results are given. The transfer impedance of a simple joint is modeled as a spurious hyperbolic curve, and a close curve fit to transfer impedance test data from various samples is demonstrated for both the stripline and the quadraxial methods. Validity checks of the test data are discussed using the curve model and other criteria. The method was developed for testing riveted joints which form the avionics bays on B-1s. The joints must provide shielding from EMP currents

  6. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems Volume 1: Test Methods for Vehicle Telemetry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Noise Test .......................................................................... 5-106 5.29 Transmitter Bit Error Probability ( BEP ) versus Eb/N0...modulation BC Bus controller BCD Binary coded decimal BCM Bit code modulation BEP Bit error probability BER Bit error rate BPF Band-pass filter BW...5.29 Transmitter Phase Noise Test X X 5.30 Transmitter Bit Error Probability ( BEP ) versus Eb/N0 X (5) X (5) X X X X 5.31 Software

  7. The influence of technical testing methods on perceptions of constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestberg, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    In principle, methods of testing the reliability and safety of constructions are designed with the aim of representing critical conditions for their use. Because of variations within technical systems, including the one for which a certain test was once developed, the validity of the method also varies. The adoption of a standardized test for different applications had to be based on the assumption that the test deals adequately with a real situation. As a consequence of this acceptance of a trustworthy relationship between test and reality, an imprint of the former on the latter occurs. This effect may even cause the perception of a reality to be defined by the corresponding test. Examples of such an influence may be found in the field of materials testing. Related phenomena can be dealt with by reference to current concepts of cognitive science and psychology of the perception of images

  8. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as accurately and reliably as current long-term atmospheric exposure tests. This new accelerated test method will shorten the time needed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of coatings for NASA's critical ground support structures. Lifetime prediction for spaceport structure coatings has a 5-year qualification cycle using atmospheric exposure. Current accelerated corrosion tests often provide false positives and negatives for coating performance, do not correlate to atmospheric corrosion exposure results, and do not correlate with atmospheric exposure timescales for lifetime prediction.

  9. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  10. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 25 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  11. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 28 février de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 28 mars, 25 avril, 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  12. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 28 mars de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 25 avril, 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  13. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 30 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  14. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  15. The Validation of NAA Method Used as Test Method in Serpong NAA Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina-Mulyaningsih, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The Validation Of NAA Method Used As Test Method In Serpong NAA Laboratory. NAA Method is a non standard testing method. The testing laboratory shall validate its using method to ensure and confirm that it is suitable with application. The validation of NAA methods have been done with the parameters of accuracy, precision, repeatability and selectivity. The NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIES 10C Rice flour unpolished and standard elements were used in this testing program. The result of testing with NIST 1573a showed that the elements of Na, Zn, Al and Mn are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, whereas Co is rejected. The result of testing with NIES 10C showed that Na and Zn elements are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, but Mn element is rejected. The result of selectivity test showed that the value of quantity is between 0.1-2.5 μg, depend on the elements. (author)

  16. Mechanical/structural performance test method of a spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho

    2000-06-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. In order to develop the spacer grid with the high mechanical performance, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, the mechanical/structural test methods, i.e. the characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple, static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid and dynamic impact test of them are described. The characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple is accomplished with universal tensile test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied compressive load. The characteristic test data is saved at loading and unloading event. The static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid is executed with the same universal tensile testing machine, a specimen is fixed between cross-heads and then applied the compressive load. The buckling strength is decided the maximum strength at load vs. displacement curve. The dynamic impact test of a partial or full size spacer grid is performed with pendulum type impact machine and free fall shock test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied the impact load by impact hammer. Specially, the pendulum type impact test machine is also possible under the operating temperature because a furnace is separately attached with test machine

  17. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  18. Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand repeated immersion or splash exposure by seawater as might be encountered when installed in a marine environment, such as a floating aid-to-navigation. A combined environmental cycling exposure with modules repeatedly submerged in simulated saltwater at varying temperatures and under repetitive pressurization provides an accelerated basis for evaluation of aging effects of a marine environment on module materials and construction. 1.2 This test method defines photovoltaic module test specimens and requirements for positioning modules for test, references suitable methods for determining changes in electrical performance and characteristics, and specifies parameters which must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be ...

  19. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  20. Methods and characteristics of assembly language software testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingfang

    2001-01-01

    Single chip micro-controllers are widely implemented to the controlling and testing products in industrial controlling and national defence embedded controlling systems. The invalidation of the source programs could lead to the unreliability of the whole systems, even to cause fatal results. Therefore, software testing is the necessary measures to reduce the mistakes and to improve the quality of the software. In the paper, the development of the software testing is presented. The distinctions between the assembly language testing and those of the high level languages is introduced. And the essential flow and methods of software testing are discussed in detail

  1. Relative Merits of Four Methods for Scoring Cloze Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1980-01-01

    Describes study comparing merits of exact answer, acceptable answer, clozentropy and multiple choice methods for scoring tests. Results show differences among reliability, mean item facility, discrimination and usability, but not validity. (BK)

  2. A True-False Test on Methods of Typewriting Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leonard J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)

  3. Test Methods for Effects on Organisms:Springtails

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    NORD-UTTE er Nordisk koordineringsgrupp för utvekling av testmetoder inom toxicologi och ekotoxicology. The Nordic Co-ordination Group for the Development of Test Methods for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

  4. Report: Improvements Needed in Key EPA Information System Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0146, June 15, 2010. Williams Adley found that EPA program offices lacked evidence that they planned and executed tests of information system security controls as required by federal requirements.

  5. Meet EPA Scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D., has worked for the EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center since 2005. He conducts and manages water security research projects at EPA’s Test and Evaluation facility.

  6. EPA Toxicologists Focus Innovative Research on PFAS Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have partnered with researchers at the National Toxicology Program to develop a tiered testing approach to quickly generate toxicity and kinetic information for approximately 75 PFAS compounds.

  7. From the Kirsch-Kress potential method via the range test to the singular sources method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, R; Schulz, J

    2005-01-01

    We review three reconstruction methods for inverse obstacle scattering problems. We will analyse the relation between the Kirsch-Kress potential method 1986, the range test of Kusiak, Potthast and Sylvester (2003) and the singular sources method of Potthast (2000). In particular, we show that the range test is a logical extension of the Kirsch-Kress method into the category of sampling methods employing the tool of domain sampling. Then we will show how a multi-wave version of the range test can be set up and we will work out its relation to the singular sources method. Numerical examples and demonstrations will be provided

  8. Two micro fatigue test methods for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunomura, Shigetomo; Noguchi, Shinji; Okamura, Yuichi; Kumai, Shinji

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two miniature fatigue test methods in response to the requirements of the fusion reactor wall materials development program. It is known that the fatigue strength evaluated by the axial loading test is independent of the specimen size, while that evaluated by the bend test or torsion test is dependent upon the size of specimen. The new type of gripping system for the axial, tension-tension, fatigue testing of TEM disk-size specimens that has been developed is described in this paper. An alignment tool assists in gripping the miniature specimen. The miniature tension-tension fatigue test method seems to provide reliable S-N curves for SUS304 and SUS316L stainless steels. An indentation method has also been developed to determine fatigue properties. A hard steel ball or ceramic ball was used for cyclically loading the specimen, and an S-N curve was subsequently obtained. The merit of this method is primarily simple handling. S-N curves obtained from four materials by this indentation method compared well with those obtained from the rotary bend fatigue test employing a standard-size specimen

  9. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  10. Methodical approaches to solving special problems of testing. Seminar papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This Seminar volume introduces concepts and applications from different areas of application of ultrasonic testing and other non-destructive test methods in 18 lectures, in order to give an idea of new trends in development and stimuli for special solutions to problems. 3 articles were recorded separately for the ENERGY data bank. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Nondestructive testing methods in building industry '83. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conference heard 52 papers of which 11 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these was the use of radiometric methods and instruments for nondestructive testing of building materials and ways of testing the quality of concrete during nuclear power plant construction. (J.P.)

  12. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... between each leak detection. The duration of the purge shall be in excess of two instrument response times...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1046 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1046 Test methods... vapor leakage could occur) on the cover and associated closure devices shall be checked. Potential leak... test, the cover and closure devices shall be secured in the closed position. (3) The detection...

  14. Moisture distribution in sludges based on different testing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi Deng; Xiaodong Li; Jianhua Yan; Fei Wang; Yong Chi; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Moisture distributions in municipal sewage sludge, printing and dyeing sludge and paper mill sludge were experimentally studied based on four different methods, i.e., drying test, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test, thermogravimetricdifferential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) test and water activity test. The results indicated that the moistures in the mechanically dewatered sludges were interstitial water, surface water and bound water. The interstitial water accounted for more than 50% wet basis (wb) of the total moisture content. The bond strength of sludge moisture increased with decreasing moisture content, especially when the moisture content was lower than 50% wb. Furthermore, the comparison among the four different testing methods was presented.The drying test was advantaged by its ability to quantify free water, interstitial water, surface water and bound water; while TG-DSC test, TG-DTA test and water activity test were capable of determining the bond strength of moisture in sludge. It was found that the results from TG-DSC and TG-DTA test are more persuasive than water activity test.

  15. Mirror bootstrap method for testing hypotheses of one mean

    OpenAIRE

    Varvak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The general philosophy for bootstrap or permutation methods for testing hypotheses is to simulate the variation of the test statistic by generating the sampling distribution which assumes both that the null hypothesis is true, and that the data in the sample is somehow representative of the population. This philosophy is inapplicable for testing hypotheses for a single parameter like the population mean, since the two assumptions are contradictory (e.g., how can we assume both that the mean o...

  16. Overview of multi-input frequency domain modal testing methods with an emphasis on sine testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Robert W.; Brown, David L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the current state of the art multiple-input, multiple-output modal testing technology is discussed. A very brief review of the current time domain methods is given. A detailed review of frequency and spatial domain methods is presented with an emphasis on sine testing.

  17. 40 CFR 60.1300 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Administrator for approval under § 60.8(b) to use a reference method with minor changes in... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods must I use to stack test? 60.1300 Section 60.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  18. Test report for cesium powder and pellets inner container decontamination method determination test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the decontamination method determination testing that was performed on three cesium powder and pellets inner container test specimens The test specimens were provided by B and W Hanford Company (BVMC). The tests were conducted by the Numatec Hanford Company (NHC), in the 305 Building. Photographic evidence was also provided by NHC. The Test Plan and Test Report were provided by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations. Witnesses to testing included a test engineer, a BC project engineer, and a BC Quality Assurance (QA) representative. The Test Plan was modified with the mutual decision of the test engineer, the BWHC project engineer, and the BVMC QA representative. The results of this decision were written in red (permanent type) ink on the official copy of the test procedure, Due to the extent of the changes, a summary of the test results are provided in Section 3.0 of this Test Report. In addition, a copy of the official copy field documentation obtained during testing is included in Appendix A. The original Test Plan (HNF-2945) will be revised to indicate that extensive changes were required in the field during testing, however, the test documentation will stand as is (i.e., it will not be retyped, text shaded, etc.) due to the inclusion of the test parameters and results into this Test Report

  19. Satellite Vibration Testing: Angle optimisation method to Reduce Overtesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Charly; Remedia, Marcello; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Richardson, Guy

    2018-06-01

    Spacecraft overtesting is a long running problem, and the main focus of most attempts to reduce it has been to adjust the base vibration input (i.e. notching). Instead this paper examines testing alternatives for secondary structures (equipment) coupled to the main structure (satellite) when they are tested separately. Even if the vibration source is applied along one of the orthogonal axes at the base of the coupled system (satellite plus equipment), the dynamics of the system and potentially the interface configuration mean the vibration at the interface may not occur all along one axis much less the corresponding orthogonal axis of the base excitation. This paper proposes an alternative testing methodology in which the testing of a piece of equipment occurs at an offset angle. This Angle Optimisation method may have multiple tests but each with an altered input direction allowing for the best match between all specified equipment system responses with coupled system tests. An optimisation process that compares the calculated equipment RMS values for a range of inputs with the maximum coupled system RMS values, and is used to find the optimal testing configuration for the given parameters. A case study was performed to find the best testing angles to match the acceleration responses of the centre of mass and sum of interface forces for all three axes, as well as the von Mises stress for an element by a fastening point. The angle optimisation method resulted in RMS values and PSD responses that were much closer to the coupled system when compared with traditional testing. The optimum testing configuration resulted in an overall average error significantly smaller than the traditional method. Crucially, this case study shows that the optimum test campaign could be a single equipment level test opposed to the traditional three orthogonal direction tests.

  20. Comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the classical sequential probability ratio testing method (SPRT) is reconsidered. Every individual boundary crossing event of the SPRT is regarded as a new piece of evidence about the problem under hypothesis testing. The Bayes method is applied for belief updating, i.e. integrating these individual decisions. The procedure is recommended to use when the user (1) would like to be informed about the tested hypothesis continuously and (2) would like to achieve his final conclusion with high confidence level. (Author).

  1. INTER LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-26

    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  2. 40 CFR 63.750 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... method in production on actual production parts or assemblies for a period of time sufficient to coat an... a laboratory or pilot production area, using parts and coatings representative of the process(es) where the alternative method is to be used. The laboratory test will use the same part configuration(s...

  3. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  4. 40 CFR 60.46 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material balance over the steam generating system shall be used to confirm the rate. (d) The owner or...-Fired Steam Generators for Which Construction Is Commenced After August 17, 1971 § 60.46 Test methods... D2015, or D5865 (solid fuels), D240 (liquid fuels), or D1826 (gaseous fuels) (all of these methods are...

  5. A Complementary Isothermal Amplification Method to the U.S. EPA Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for the Detection of Enterococci in Environmental Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, Claudia; Martzy, Roland; Brunner, Kurt; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Heinze, Georg; Sommer, Regina; Reischer, Georg H; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2017-06-20

    We report a novel molecular assay, based on helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), for the detection of enterococci as markers for fecal pollution in water. This isothermal assay targets the same Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene region as the existing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods 1611 and 1609 but can be entirely performed on a simple heating block. The developed Enterococcus HDA assay successfully discriminated 15 enterococcal from 15 non-enterococcal reference strains and reliably detected 48 environmental isolates of enterococci. The limit of detection was 25 target copies per reaction, only 3 times higher than that of qPCR. The applicability of the assay was tested on 30 environmental water sample DNA extracts, simulating a gradient of fecal pollution. Despite the isothermal nature of the reaction, the HDA results were consistent with those of the qPCR reference. Given this performance, we conclude that the developed Enterococcus HDA assay has great potential as a qualitative molecular screening method for resource-limited settings when combined with compatible up- and downstream processes. This amplification strategy can pave the way for developing a new generation of rapid, low-cost, and field-deployable molecular diagnostic tools for water quality monitoring.

  6. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  7. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  8. Comparative study of in-situ filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.; Stevens, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Available methods of testing high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filters in-situ have been reviewed. In order to understand the relationship between the results produced by different methods a selection has been compared. Various pieces of equipment for generating and detecting aerosols have been tested and their suitability assessed. Condensation-nuclei, DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and sodium-flame in-situ filter test methods have been studied, using the 500 cfm (9000 m 3 /h) filter test rig at Harwell and in the field. Both the sodium-flame and DOP methods measure the penetration through leaks and filter material. However the measured penetration through filtered leaks depends on the aerosol size distribution and the detection method. Condensation-nuclei test methods can only be used to measure unfiltered leaks since condensation nuclei have a very low penetration through filtered leaks. A combination of methods would enable filtered and unfiltered leaks to be measured. A condensation-nucleus counter using n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid has the advantage of being able to detect any particle up to 1 μm in diameter, including DOP, and so could be used for this purpose. A single-particle counter has not been satisfactory because of interference from particles leaking into systems under extract, particularly downstream of filters, and because the concentration of the input aerosol has to be severely limited. The sodium-flame method requires a skilled operator and may cause safety and corrosion problems. The DOP method using a total light scattering detector has so far been the most satisfactory. It is fairly easy to use, measures reasonably low values of penetration and gives rapid results. DOP has had no adverse effect on HEPA filters over a long series of tests

  9. Standard Test Method for Contamination Outgassing Characteristics of Spacecraft Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a technique for generating data to characterize the kinetics of the release of outgassing products from materials. This technique will determine both the total mass flux evolved by a material when exposed to a vacuum environment and the deposition of this flux on surfaces held at various specified temperatures. 1.2 This test method describes the test apparatus and related operating procedures for evaluating the total mass flux that is evolved from a material being subjected to temperatures that are between 298 and 398 K. Pressures external to the sample effusion cell are less than 7 × 10−3 Pa (5 × 10−5 torr). Deposition rates are measured during material outgassing tests. A test procedure for collecting data and a test method for processing and presenting the collected data are included. 1.3 This test method can be used to produce the data necessary to support mathematical models used for the prediction of molecular contaminant generation, migration, and deposition. 1.4 Al...

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  11. Test of a method for phase retrieval in HRTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeching, M.J.; Spargo, A.E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods of phase retrieval from the high resolution transmission electron microscopy image intensity distributions have been proposed but no standard method has emerged. The results achieved using a technique based on a development of the focus variation method, are reported. The dependence of the retrieved wavefunction on various experimental parameters is investigated and the method tested using computer simulated images. The method is shown to be useful in finding the complex wavefield at the exit surface of the specimen but the relationship of this to the specimen structure is considered as a separate issue. 1 ref., 3 figs

  12. Testing methods of steel wi re ropes at the anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kropuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic andthermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobilesteel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. Firstmeasurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methodsare shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widelyused magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presentsa problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enableincreased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  13. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander W.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Fladung, William A.; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Inertia Measurement (DIM) method uses a ground vibration test setup to determine the mass properties of an object using information from frequency response functions. Most conventional mass properties testing involves using spin tables or pendulum-based swing tests, which for large aerospace vehicles becomes increasingly difficult and time-consuming, and therefore expensive, to perform. The DIM method has been validated on small test articles but has not been successfully proven on large aerospace vehicles. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) conducted mass properties testing on an "iron bird" test article that is comparable in mass and scale to a fighter-type aircraft. The simple two-I-beam design of the "iron bird" was selected to ensure accurate analytical mass properties. Traditional swing testing was also performed to compare the level of effort, amount of resources, and quality of data with the DIM method. The DIM test showed favorable results for the center of gravity and moments of inertia; however, the products of inertia showed disagreement with analytical predictions.

  14. EPA'S strategy to reduce risk of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988 (IRAA) directed EPA to undertake a variety of activities to address the growing public concern over dangers posed by exposure to indoor radon. Among other requirements, the law directed the Agency to study radon levels, evaluate mitigation methods, establish proficiency programs, assist states with program development, develop training centers, and provide public information. EPA has developed and implemented programs to address each of the key provisions of this statute. This paper presents EPA's broad national strategy to reduce radon risks. It combines and reinforces EPA's basic foundation, including its guiding policies and cooperative partnerships, with an overall management approach and focus for the future. The paper starts with an overview that introduces the strategy's four key elements: underlying policies and scientific principles, a decentralized system of states and other partners for targeting the public, multiple strategies for achieving radon risk reduction, and a strong focus on five key program priorities. This paper then discusses each of these elements in more detail and describes how they interact to guide future efforts and directions of the Agency

  15. NNWSI waste form test method for unsaturated disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-03-01

    A test method has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated NNWSI repository conditions, and to provide information concerning materials interactions that may occur in the repository. Data are presented from Unsaturated testing of simulated Savannah River Laboratory 165 glass completed through 26 weeks. The relationship between these results and those from parametric and analog testing are described. The data indicate that the waste form test is capable of producing consistent, reproducible results that will be useful in evaluating the role of the waste package in the long-term performance of the repository. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Valid methods: the quality assurance of test method development, validation, approval, and transfer for veterinary testing laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, Ann L

    2003-07-01

    Third-party accreditation is a valuable tool to demonstrate a laboratory's competence to conduct testing. Accreditation, internationally and in the United States, has been discussed previously. However, accreditation is only I part of establishing data credibility. A validated test method is the first component of a valid measurement system. Validation is defined as confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled. The international and national standard ISO/IEC 17025 recognizes the importance of validated methods and requires that laboratory-developed methods or methods adopted by the laboratory be appropriate for the intended use. Validated methods are therefore required and their use agreed to by the client (i.e., end users of the test results such as veterinarians, animal health programs, and owners). ISO/IEC 17025 also requires that the introduction of methods developed by the laboratory for its own use be a planned activity conducted by qualified personnel with adequate resources. This article discusses considerations and recommendations for the conduct of veterinary diagnostic test method development, validation, evaluation, approval, and transfer to the user laboratory in the ISO/IEC 17025 environment. These recommendations are based on those of nationally and internationally accepted standards and guidelines, as well as those of reputable and experienced technical bodies. They are also based on the author's experience in the evaluation of method development and transfer projects, validation data, and the implementation of quality management systems in the area of method development.

  17. Testing and Validation of Computational Methods for Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Laurent; Hansen, Kasper D; Hoopmann, Michael R; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Beyer, Andreas

    2016-03-04

    High-throughput methods based on mass spectrometry (proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, etc.) produce a wealth of data that cannot be analyzed without computational methods. The impact of the choice of method on the overall result of a biological study is often underappreciated, but different methods can result in very different biological findings. It is thus essential to evaluate and compare the correctness and relative performance of computational methods. The volume of the data as well as the complexity of the algorithms render unbiased comparisons challenging. This paper discusses some problems and challenges in testing and validation of computational methods. We discuss the different types of data (simulated and experimental validation data) as well as different metrics to compare methods. We also introduce a new public repository for mass spectrometric reference data sets ( http://compms.org/RefData ) that contains a collection of publicly available data sets for performance evaluation for a wide range of different methods.

  18. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  19. Meet EPA Scientist Jody Shoemaker, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA research chemist Jody Shoemaker, Ph.D., works to support Agency efforts to protect drinking water. She helps develop methods for analyzing organic chemicals on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).

  20. Meet EPA Chemist Mark Strynar, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Mark Strynar is a physical scientist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His research interests include developing methods to measure and analyze the movement of PFCs and other xenobiotic compounds in biological and environmental media

  1. EPA's Information Architecture and Web Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Information Architecture creates a topical organization of our website, instead of an ownership-based organization. The EPA Web Taxonomy allows audiences easy access to relevant information from EPA programs, by using a common vocabulary.

  2. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  3. Comparative study of durability test methods for pellets and briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, Michaeel; Rabier, Fabienne [Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques (CRA-W), 146, chaussee de Namur, B-5030, Gembloux (Belgium); Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg [Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe-TFZ, Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Different methods for the determination of the mechanical durability (DU) of pellets and briquettes were compared by international round robin tests including different laboratories. The DUs of five briquette and 26 pellet types were determined. For briquettes, different rotation numbers of a prototype tumbler and a calculated DU index are compared. For pellets testing, the study compares two standard methods, a tumbling device according to ASAE S 269.4, the Lignotester according to ONORM M 7135 and a second tumbling method with a prototype tumbler. For the tested methods, the repeatability, the reproducibility and the required minimum number of replications to achieve given accuracy levels were calculated. Additionally, this study evaluates the relation between DU and particle density. The results show for both pellets and briquettes, that the measured DU values and their variability are influenced by the applied method. Moreover, the variability of the results depend on the biofuel itself. For briquettes of DU above 90%, five replications lead to an accuracy of 2%, while 39 replications are needed to achieve an accuracy of 10%, when briquettes of DU below 90% are tested. For pellets, the tumbling device described by the ASAE standard allows to reach acceptable accuracy levels (1%) with a limited number of replications. Finally, for the tested pellets and briquettes no relation between DU and particle density was found. (author)

  4. Applicability and interpretation of fracture test methods for metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, W.J.

    1978-05-01

    Fracture tests are conducted usually out of a conviction (sometimes only vaguely defined) that they will guarantee a certain level of protecton from metal failure. Qualitative tests, such as the Charpy V-notch, produce results which cannot be rigorously related to a measure of fracture tolerance: rather, they indicate metal quality so that fracture tolerance may be inferred. Quantitative tests on the other hand provide parameters which may be used directly in equations to determine the likelihood of fracture. Both types of tests have limitations which should be understood: the paper tries to provide guidance on the relative merits of either approach for a particular purpose, and gives an insight into near-future test methods which will extend the range of usefullness of quantitative tests. (author)

  5. Antifungal susceptibility testing method for resource constrained laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In resource-constrained laboratories of developing countries determination of antifungal susceptibility testing by NCCLS/CLSI method is not always feasible. We describe herein a simple yet comparable method for antifungal susceptibility testing. Methods: Reference MICs of 72 fungal isolates including two quality control strains were determined by NCCLS/CLSI methods against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and cancidas. Dermatophytes were also tested against terbinafine. Subsequently, on selection of optimum conditions, MIC was determined for all the fungal isolates by semisolid antifungal agar susceptibility method in Brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% agar (BHIA without oil overlay and results were compared with those obtained by reference NCCLS/CLSI methods. Results: Comparable results were obtained by NCCLS/CLSI and semisolid agar susceptibility (SAAS methods against quality control strains. MICs for 72 isolates did not differ by more than one dilution for all drugs by SAAS. Conclusions: SAAS using BHIA without oil overlay provides a simple and reproducible method for obtaining MICs against yeast, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes in resource-constrained laboratories.

  6. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  7. Test cases for interface tracking methods: methodology and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebaigue, O.; Jamet, D.; Lemonnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:In the past decade, a large number of new methods have been developed to deal with interfaces in the numerical simulation of two-phase flows. We have collected a set of 36 test cases, which can be seen as a tool to help engineers and researchers selecting the most appropriate method(s) for their specific fields of application. This set can be use: - To perform an initial evaluation of the capabilities of available methods with regard to the specificity of the final application and the most important features to be recovered from the simulation. - To measure the maximum mesh size to be used for a given physical problem in order to obtain an accurate enough solution. - To assess and quantify the performances of a selected method equipped with its set of physical models. The computation of a well-documented test case allows estimating the error due to the numerical technique by comparison with reference solutions. This process is compulsory to gain confidence and credibility on the prediction capabilities of a numerical method and its physical models. - To broaden the capabilities of a given numerical technique. The test cases may be used to identify the need for improvement of the overall numerical scheme or to determine the physical part of the model, which is responsible for the observed limitations. Each test case falls within one of the following categories: - Analytical solutions of well-known sets of equations corresponding to simple geometrical situations. - Reference numerical solutions of moderately complex problems, produced by accurate methods (e.g., boundary Fitted coordinate method) on refined meshes. - Separate effects analytical experiments. The presentation will suggest how to use the test cases for assessing the physical models and the numerical methods. The expected fallout of using test cases is indeed on the one hand to identify the merits of existing methods and on the other hand to orient further research towards

  8. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  9. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Testing methods for seed quality of Bletilla striata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Da-Hui; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Ji, Peng-Zhang; Wang, Li; Shi, Ya-Na; Ma, Cong-Ji

    2016-06-01

    In order to provide a basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of Bletilla striata, the seed quality of B.striata from different producing area was measured referring to the Rules for Agricultural Seed Testing(GB/T 3543-1995).The results showed that the seeds of B.striata passed through 20-mesh sieve for purity analysis.The weight of seeds was measured by 1000-seed method and the water content was measured at the higher temperature (133±2) ℃ for 3 hours.The seeds were cultured on the wet filter paper at 30 ℃ for 4-20 days in light for germination testing.The method of testing seed viability was that seeds were dipped into 1% TTC solution for 7 hours at temperature of 40 ℃. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...... wall shear stress of 3 Pa for the standardised EHEDG cleaning test method. The cleaning tests were performed on a test disc placed in a radial flowcell assay. Turbulent flow conditions were generated and the corresponding wall shear stresses were predicted from CFD simulations. Combining wall shear...... stress predictions from a simulation using the low Re k-epsilon and one using the two-layer model of Norris and Reynolds were found to produce reliable predictions compared to empirical solutions for the ideal flow case. The comparison of wall shear stress curves predicted for the real RFC...

  12. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  13. Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, R; Valgimigli, L

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the importance of antioxidants in the protection of both natural and man-made materials, a large variety of testing methods have been proposed and applied. These include methods based on inhibited autoxidation studies, which are better followed by monitoring the kinetics of oxygen consumption or of the formation of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. Analytical determination of secondary oxidation products (e.g. carbonyl compounds) has also been used. The majority of testing methods, however, do not involve substrate autoxidation. They are based on the competitive bleaching of a probe (e.g. ORAC assay, β-carotene, crocin bleaching assays, and luminol assay), on reaction with a different probe (e.g. spin-trapping and TOSC assay), or they are indirect methods based on the reduction of persistent radicals (e.g. galvinoxyl, DPPH and TEAC assays), or of inorganic oxidizing species (e.g. FRAP, CUPRAC and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). Yet other methods are specific for preventive antioxidants. The relevance, advantages, and limitations of these methods are critically discussed, with respect to their chemistry and the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. A variety of cell-based assays have also been proposed, to investigate the biological activity of antioxidants. Their importance and critical aspects are discussed, along with arguments for the selection of the appropriate testing methods according to the different needs.

  14. An accelerated test method for efflorescence in clay bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggan, John Edward

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the creation of accelerated efflorescence in clay bricks was undertaken with a view to creating a viable test procedure for determining efflorescence potential. The testing programme incorporated ambient conditions similar to those which promote efflorescence growth in bricks in use. Theoretical investigations into the physical mechanism underlying the creation of efflorescence directed the attempts to accelerate the process. It was found that calcium sulphate efflorescence could not be sufficiently accelerated such that a useful efflorescence test procedure could be proposed. The inability to produce accelerated efflorescence in brick samples was attributed to limitations associated with time dependent salt diffusion in the efflorescence mechanism. The preliminary testing that was undertaken into the creation of efflorescence prompted the use of acid assisted methods to accelerate efflorescence. The acid assisted method that was adopted to provide a possible indication of efflorescence potential relies upon the transformation of low solubility calcium to a more soluble form. The movement of the transformed salt is then induced by cyclic temperature exposure at temperatures similar to those experienced in Spring. The appearance of the transformed calcium salt on the surface of the brick specimen provides an indication of the efflorescence potential. Brick piers constructed on an exposed site and monitored over a 12 month period provided information on the validity of the acid assisted test method. The efflorescence observed on the piers correlated well with that predicted by the acid assisted test, suggesting that the new test has the potential to accurately predict the efflorescence potential of clay bricks Relationships between other properties such as air permeability, sorptivity and tensile strength were investigated such that an alternative method of predicting efflorescence could be achieved. It was found that (within the bounds of the

  15. Testing methods of ECR ion source experimental platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan

    2006-12-01

    The principle and structure of ECR ion source experimental platform were introduce. The testing methods of the parameters of single main component and the comprehensive parameters under the condition of certain beam current and beam spot diameter were summarized in process of manufacturing. Some appropriate testing dates were given. The existent questions (the parameters of plasma density in discharge chamber and accurate hydrogen flow, etc. can not be measured in operation) and resolutions were also put forward. (authors)

  16. Towards Automatic Testing of Reference Point Based Interactive Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ojalehto, Vesa; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand strengths and weaknesses of optimization algorithms, it is important to have access to different types of test problems, well defined performance indicators and analysis tools. Such tools are widely available for testing evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms. To our knowledge, there do not exist tools for analyzing the performance of interactive multiobjective optimization methods based on the reference point approach to communicating ...

  17. A model based security testing method for protocol implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  18. Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 μm. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

  19. Test methods for determining asphaltene stability in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asomaning, S. [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The development of test methods for the determination of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils was rendered necessary, due to the high cost of remediating asphaltene deposition in harsh production environments, namely the underwater systems in offshore deepwater. The Oliensis Spot Test, two saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA)-based screens (the Colloidal Instability Index and Asphaltene-Resin ratio), a solvent titration method with near infrared radiation (NIR) solids detection, and live oil depressurization were used for the purposes of this study, to predict the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils with different API gravity. A complete description of the test methods was provided, and the experimental data obtained as a result was presented. Correlation with data on the deposition histories of the oils was used to validate the experimental stability data. The author discussed the effectiveness of the different tests for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils. The prediction of a crude oil's propensity towards asphaltene precipitation was more accurate with the Colloidal Instability Index and the solvent titration method. Live oil depressurization proved to be very effective for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes for light oils, where most stability tests fail. tabs., 31 figs.

  20. Evaluation of clinical methods for peroneal muscle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig-Bahat, Hilla; Krasovsky, Andrei; Sprecher, Elliot

    2013-03-01

    Manual muscle testing of the peroneal muscles is well accepted as a testing method in musculoskeletal physiotherapy for the assessment of the foot and ankle. The peroneus longus and brevis are primary evertors and secondary plantar flexors of the ankle joint. However, some international textbooks describe them as dorsi flexors, when instructing peroneal muscle testing. The identified variability raised a question whether these educational texts are reflected in the clinical field. The purposes of this study were to investigate what are the methods commonly used in the clinical field for peroneal muscle testing and to evaluate their compatibility with functional anatomy. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using an electronic questionnaire sent to 143 Israeli physiotherapists in the musculoskeletal field. The survey questioned on the anatomical location of manual resistance and the combination of motions resisted. Ninety-seven responses were received. The majority (69%) of respondents related correctly to the peronei as evertors, but asserted that resistance should be located over the dorsal aspect of the fifth metatarsus, thereby disregarding the peroneus longus. Moreover, 38% of the respondents described the peronei as dorsi flexors, rather than plantar flexors. Only 2% selected the correct method of resisting plantarflexion and eversion at the base of the first metatarsus. We consider this technique to be the most compatible with the anatomy of the peroneus longus and brevis. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test indicated that there was a significant relationship between responses on the questions (P = 0.0253, 95% CI 0.0249-0.0257), thus justifying further correspondence analysis. The correspondence analysis found no clustering of the answers that were compatible with anatomical evidence and were applied in the correct technique, but did demonstrate a common error, resisting dorsiflexion rather than plantarflexion, which was in agreement with the described

  1. U.S. EPA Water Technology Innovation Cluster Leaders Meeting - "Successfully Supporting Early-Stage Companies: The Role of Technology Testing" Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this workshop were to: (1) increase the cluster leaders’ level of knowledge regarding past and current water technology testing programs, facilities and requirements; (2) learn from the experiences of technology vendors in getting innovative, commercial-ready product...

  2. A Fuzzy Logic Based Method for Analysing Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Vinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Network operators must perform many tasks to ensure smooth operation of the network, such as planning, monitoring, etc. Among those tasks, regular testing of network performance, network errors and troubleshooting is very important. Meaningful test results will allow the operators to evaluate network performanceof any shortcomings and to better plan for network upgrade. Due to the diverse and mainly unquantifiable nature of network testing results, there is a needs to develop a method for systematically and rigorously analysing these results. In this paper, we present STAM (System Test-result Analysis Method which employs a bottom-up hierarchical processing approach using Fuzzy logic. STAM is capable of combining all test results into a quantitative description of the network performance in terms of network stability, the significance of various network erros, performance of each function blocks within the network. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated in assisting the testing of a VoIP system at the Research Instiute of Post and Telecoms in Vietnam. The paper is organized as follows. The first section gives an overview of fuzzy logic theory the concepts of which will be used in the development of STAM. The next section describes STAM. The last section, demonstrating STAM’s capability, presents a success story in which STAM is successfully applied.

  3. Application of the X-in-the-Loop Testing Method in the FCV Hybrid Degree Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of fuel cell vehicle technology, an effective testing method that can be applied to develop and verify the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system is urgently required. This paper presents the X-in-the-Loop (XiL testing method in the fuel cell vehicle (FCV hybrid degree test to resolve the first and key issues for the powertrain system design, and the test process and scenarios were designed. The hybrid degree is redefined into the static hybrid degree for system architecture design and the dynamic hybrid degree for vehicle control strategy design, and an integrated testing platform was introduced and a testing application was implemented by following the designed testing flowchart with two loops. Experimental validations show that the sizing of the FCE (Fuel Cell Engine, battery pack, and traction motor with the powertrain architecture can be determined, the control strategy can be evaluated seamlessly, and a systematic powertrain testing solution can be achieved through the whole development process. This research has developed a new testing platform and proposed a novel testing method on the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system, which will be a contribution to fuel cell vehicle technology and its industrialization.

  4. EPA Metadata Style Guide Keywords and EPA Organization Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following keywords and EPA organization names listed below, along with EPA’s Metadata Style Guide, are intended to provide suggestions and guidance to assist with the standardization of metadata records.

  5. EPA Office Points, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA office location in Tutila Island in American Samoa. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the United States, and administered by...

  6. Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: A Report by the EPA Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    followed during testing, are needed. In addition, the EPA 3 Protists refers to various one-celled...should develop metrics and methods appropriate for compliance monitoring and enforcement as soon as possible. Limits for selected protists < 10 µm...as “ protist -sized” organisms, or organisms ≥10 µm and < 50 µm in minimum dimension), and the ETV Protocol provides examples with a more stringent

  7. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  8. Testing of VVER reactor pressure vessels by TOFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, Z.; Vit, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Time of Flight Diffraction Method (TOFD) - one of the new testing methods capable to obtain the real dimensions of flaws - is presented in the paper.The laboratory experiments on samples with artificial flaws and samples with artificially prepared cracks confirmed the high accuracy of flaw through wall extent sizing by TOFD. This accuracy was confirmed by qualification of methods and systems used by Skoda JS for the in-service inspections of WWER 440 vessel circumferential weld. The qualification also confirmed the ability of TOFD to detect reliably flaws, which can are not reliably detected by standard pulse echo testing. Based on the result of experiments and qualification, the TOFD method shall be used routinely by Skoda JS for the inspection of vessel circumferential welds root area and for sizing of flaws exceeding the acceptance level

  9. An analytic data analysis method for oscillatory slug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Shyun

    2006-01-01

    An analytical data analysis method is developed for slug tests in partially penetrating wells in confined or unconfined aquifers of high hydraulic conductivity. As adapted from the van der Kamp method, the determination of the hydraulic conductivity is based on the occurrence times and the displacements of the extreme points measured from the oscillatory data and their theoretical counterparts available in the literature. This method is applied to two sets of slug test response data presented by Butler et al.: one set shows slow damping with seven discernable extremities, and the other shows rapid damping with three extreme points. The estimates of the hydraulic conductivity obtained by the analytic method are in good agreement with those determined by an available curve-matching technique.

  10. Instrumentation and measurement method for the ATLAS test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Byong Jo; Chu, In Chul; Eu, Dong Jin; Kang, Kyong Ho; Kim, Yeon Sik; Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, Won Pil

    2007-03-15

    An integral effect test loop for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS is constructed by thermal-hydraulic safety research division in KAERI. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400 which is a Korean evolution type nuclear reactors. A total 1300 instrumentations is equipped in the ATLAS test facility. In this report, the instrumentation of ATLAS test facility and related measurement methods were introduced.

  11. MCC-15: waste/canister accident testing and analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Scott, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing standard tests to characterize the performance of nuclear waste forms under normal and accident conditions. As part of this effort, the MCC is developing MCC-15, Waste/Canister Accident Testing and Analysis. MCC-15 is used to test canisters containing simulated waste forms to provide data on the effects of accidental impacts on the waste form particle size and on canister integrity. The data is used to support the design of transportation and handling equipment and to demonstrate compliance with repository waste acceptance specifications. This paper reviews the requirements that led to the development of MCC-15, describes the test method itself, and presents some early results from tests on canisters representative of those proposed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). 13 references, 6 figures

  12. Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

  13. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  14. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Doherty Travis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by describing a novel method using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA for feasibility testing of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of towns and villages in Ireland. Feasibility results are provided for 40 frequently cited policy interventions tested for 18 settlements in Ireland. Policies were selected in the arenas of transport, food, housing and urban form, energy, waste and water. Policies are feasibility tested through analysis of operational evidence from both quantitative and qualitative data sources. Following testing, policies are ranked in terms of feasibility. This research examines the effectiveness of local and national level policies and the importance of both local community involvement and central government regulation in policy success. The inter-settlement variation in feasibility testing scores prioritises policy selection and aims to reduce cherry-picking of policies to support the viewpoints of the decision maker. Although developed for an Irish urban context the methods described here may have applicability elsewhere.

  15. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    Dear GAC-EPA members, This year, owing to works in the main Auditorium, we have to hold our General assembly in the auditorium of the Globe on 27 March 2013 and we really hope that you can be present. We wish to give you some preliminary practical recommendations: Do not forget your CERN access card, the guards may carry out checks. As far as possible, use public transport because there is very limited parking. If you come by car, park your vehicle on the car parks inside CERN because the outside car park cannot be used by visitors. Refreshments cannot be organized in the Globe; they will be held in cafeteria n°1, which will force us to move by using CERN entrances A or B or via building 33 (access cards required here too). We thank you for your attention and hope to see you soon. Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 2 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l&rsquo...

  16. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    En tant que Président du GAC-EPA, je porte à votre connaissance ce communiqué émanant de la Direction du CERN. Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang, un parcours touristique et scientifique formé de dix plates-formes d'exposition devant dix sites du CERN dans le Pays de Gex et le Canton de Genève. Les plateformes sont reliées par des itinéraires balisés et par un jeu de piste. C'est un projet est mené en collaboration avec les communes du Pays de Gex, Meyrin et Genève Tourisme dans un souci de renforcer notre dialogue avec nos voisins : http://passeport-big-bang.web.cern.ch/fr. A l’occasion de cette inauguration, nous organisons un événement populaire et festif : le matin, les familles pourront participer à des randonnées à vélo tandis que les sportifs pourront tester les 5...

  17. A method for evaluating horizontal well pumping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, David E; Smyth, Andrew H; May, James

    2004-01-01

    Predicting the future performance of horizontal wells under varying pumping conditions requires estimates of basic aquifer parameters, notably transmissivity and storativity. For vertical wells, there are well-established methods for estimating these parameters, typically based on either the recovery from induced head changes in a well or from the head response in observation wells to pumping in a test well. Comparable aquifer parameter estimation methods for horizontal wells have not been presented in the ground water literature. Formation parameter estimation methods based on measurements of pressure in horizontal wells have been presented in the petroleum industry literature, but these methods have limited applicability for ground water evaluation and are based on pressure measurements in only the horizontal well borehole, rather than in observation wells. This paper presents a simple and versatile method by which pumping test procedures developed for vertical wells can be applied to horizontal well pumping tests. The method presented here uses the principle of superposition to represent the horizontal well as a series of partially penetrating vertical wells. This concept is used to estimate a distance from an observation well at which a vertical well that has the same total pumping rate as the horizontal well will produce the same drawdown as the horizontal well. This equivalent distance may then be associated with an observation well for use in pumping test algorithms and type curves developed for vertical wells. The method is shown to produce good results for confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in the absence of delayed yield response. For unconfined aquifers, the presence of delayed yield response increases the method error.

  18. Validation and Verification (V and V) Testing on Midscale Flame Resistant (FR) Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    materials . The results demonstrated that the Midscale test is a quick and cost-effective method for evaluation of FR performance of design features...standard and novel FR materials and design configurations during fire engulfment. Details of the test method and its development can be found in the...employed in the FRACU is a ripstop fabric blend of 65% FR rayon, 25% para- aramid and 10% nylon. The iCVC material is Nylon/Cotton/Nomex. All three

  19. Natural tracer test simulation by stochastic particle tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerer, P.; Mose, R.; Semra, K.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic particle tracking methods are well adapted to 3D transport simulations where discretization requirements of other methods usually cannot be satisfied. They do need a very accurate approximation of the velocity field. The described code is based on the mixed hybrid finite element method (MHFEM) to calculated the piezometric and velocity field. The random-walk method is used to simulate mass transport. The main advantages of the MHFEM over FD or FE are the simultaneous calculation of pressure and velocity, which are considered as unknowns; the possibility of interpolating velocities everywhere; and the continuity of the normal component of the velocity vector from one element to another. For these reasons, the MHFEM is well adapted for particle tracking methods. After a general description of the numerical methods, the model is used to simulate the observations made during the Twin Lake Tracer Test in 1983. A good match is found between observed and simulated heads and concentrations. (Author) (12 refs., 4 figs.)

  20. Linear shrinkage test: justification for its reintroduction as a standard South African test method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, LR

    2009-06-04

    Full Text Available Several problems with the linear shrinkage test specified in Method A4 of the THM 1 1979 were addressed as part of this investigation in an effort to improve the alleged poor reproducibility of the test and justify its reintroduction into THM 1. A...

  1. The new null testing method for the special optical window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun

    2009-07-01

    The high speed, high precision and wide range specifications are requirement for the modern aircraft, which the traditional hemispherical dome can't achieve now, and the novel conformal window instead can enhance the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft obviously. To reduce the aerodynamic drag and radar cross-section, the window geometry is generally aspheric in shape. As a result, the involved fabrication and testing processes are much more challenging than that of conventional optics and must be mastered before these windows and systems can be implemented at an acceptable cost and risk. Metrology is one of the critical areas required to advance the conformal window technology. But as the surface of these conformal windows is not the traditional sphere lens, the measurement method for it is infeasible with the conventional optics measurement processes. This paper we express the development of testing technology for the special conformal windows in brief, and emphatically introduces one available novel testing method- a new null testing, and here based on the theory of compensation methods, The principle of Offner's refractive null lens has been extended to test the transmission wavefront through conformal window optics and provide feedback during surface fabrication. a compensator system for the was designed for the conformal window is given which parameters are 100mm for its aperture and two parabolic surface as conformal window, the final residual wavefront error(RMS) of which is less than 1/20λ(λ=632.8nm).

  2. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single-family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings. Builders and practitioners have found that fire-resistance rated wall assemblies are a major source of difficulty in air sealing/compartmentalization, particularly in townhouse construction. This problem is exacerbated when garages are “tucked in” to the units and living space is located over the garages. In this project, Building Science Corporation examined the taping of exterior sheathing details to improve air sealing results in townhouse and multifamily construction, when coupled with a better understanding of air leakage pathways. Current approaches are cumbersome, expensive, time consuming, and ineffective; these details were proposed as a more effective and efficient method. The effectiveness of these air sealing methods was tested with blower door testing, including “nulled” or “guarded” testing (adjacent units run at equal test pressure to null out inter-unit air leakage, or “pressure neutralization”). Pressure diagnostics were used to evaluate unit-to-unit connections and series leakage pathways (i.e., air leakage from exterior, into the fire-resistance rated wall assembly, and to the interior).

  3. Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene Hjortboe; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Brooks, Eva Irene

    2017-01-01

    of these methods is that they are designed for adults and are not necessarily appropriate to investigations including children. The guiding questions for this systematic literature review are (1) the motivation for conducting usability tests with children, and (2) the kind of methodological, practical, and ethical...

  4. The added value of proficiency tests: choosing the proper method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, den A.P.M.; Berg, van den W.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into the different extraction processes used in laboratories in various European countries and the effect these methods might have on the number of Meloidogyne second-stage juveniles (J2) extracted from soil samples, a ring test with 2 elements was conducted. The first element used

  5. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... applied to the wedge perpendicular to the plane of the crib side. ...

  6. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  7. Field test of a new Australian method of rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Mayne; Neil West

    2001-01-01

    Managers need more efficient means of monitoring changes on the lands they manage. Accordingly, a new Australian approach was field tested and compared to the Daubenmire method of assessing plant cover, litter, and bare soil. The study area was a 2 mile wide by 30.15 mile long strip, mostly covered by salt desert shrub ecosystem types, centered along the SE boundary of...

  8. Comparative study of heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.

  9. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over

  10. Harmonisation of microbial sampling and testing methods for distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G.C.; Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Increased incidence of microbial infection in distillate fuels has led to a demand for organisations such as the Institute of Petroleum to propose standards for microbiological quality, based on numbers of viable microbial colony forming units. Variations in quality requirements, and in the spoilage significance of contaminating microbes plus a tendency for temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of microbes, makes such standards difficult to implement. The problem is compounded by a diversity in the procedures employed for sampling and testing for microbial contamination and in the interpretation of the data obtained. The following paper reviews these problems and describes the efforts of The Institute of Petroleum Microbiology Fuels Group to address these issues and in particular to bring about harmonisation of sampling and testing methods. The benefits and drawbacks of available test methods, both laboratory based and on-site, are discussed.

  11. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA from seafood have been observed.Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and chronic psychological stress.Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022. The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA, or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding. The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia.Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes was 5.2% in both groups (SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group. After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% (SD = 1.6% for the control group but increased to 8.9% (SD = 1.5% for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention (b = 1.21, p = 0.30 after adjusting for sex (b = 2.36, p = 0.079, baseline PSS (b = 0.42, p = 0.001 and baseline logEPA [b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F(3, 86 = 8.47, p < 0.01, n = 89, R-square = 0.243].Discussion: Treatment increased cell membrane EPA but, contrary to the hypothesis, there was no effect on perceived stress. Limitations

  12. Rheological Method for Alpha Test Evaluation of Developing Superplasticizers’ Performance: Channel Flow Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advance in high-range water-reducing admixture revolutionizes the workability and constructability of conventional vibrated concrete as well as self-consolidating concrete. Its need from construction fields has increased, and consequently a variety of new-type polycarboxylates, base polymers for the admixture, are being formulated in these days. Synthesizing new polymers needs a quick, but reliable, test to evaluate its performance on concrete. The test is also asked for selecting the best applicable brand of them before a test concrete will be mixed. This paper proposes a “channel flow test” and its usage for the purpose. The proposed procedure for the test includes the mix proportion of a test mortar, the test method, and rheological interpretation of the test results.

  13. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  14. EPA scientific integrity policy draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its draft scientific integrity policy on 5 August. The draft policy addresses scientific ethical standards, communications with the public, the use of advisory committees and peer review, and professional development. The draft policy was developed by an ad hoc group of EPA senior staff and scientists in response to a December 2010 memorandum on scientific integrity from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The agency is accepting public comments on the draft through 6 September; comments should be sent to osa.staff@epa.gov. For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/stpc/pdfs/draft-scientific-integrity-policy-aug2011.pdf.

  15. Standard Test Methods for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide procedures to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) module, i.e. the electrical resistance between the module's internal electrical components and its exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces. 1.2 The insulation integrity procedures are a combination of wet insulation resistance and wet dielectric voltage withstand test procedures. 1.3 These procedures are similar to and reference the insulation integrity test procedures described in Test Methods E 1462, with the difference being that the photovoltaic module under test is immersed in a wetting solution during the procedures. 1.4 These test methods do not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of these test methods. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.6 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety conce...

  16. High sensitive quench detection method using an integrated test wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Tavergnier, J.P.; Nithart, H.; Kiblaire, M.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A high sensitive quench detection method which works even in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field is reported. The quench signal is obtained from the difference in voltages at the superconducting winding terminals and at the terminals at a secondary winding strongly coupled to the primary. The secondary winding could consist of a ''zero-current strand'' of the superconducting cable not connected to one of the winding terminals or an integrated normal test wire inside the superconducting cable. Experimental results on quench detection obtained by this method are described. It is shown that the integrated test wire method leads to efficient and sensitive quench detection, especially in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field

  17. Standard test method for tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes procedures for the tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium. The format is similar to that of other ASTM tension test standards, but the contents include modifications for cryogenic testing which requires special apparatus, smaller specimens, and concern for serrated yielding, adiabatic heating, and strain-rate effects. 1.2 To conduct a tension test by this standard, the specimen in a cryostat is fully submerged in normal liquid helium (He I) and tested using crosshead displacement control at a nominal strain rate of 10−3 s−1 or less. Tests using force control or high strain rates are not considered. 1.3 This standard specifies methods for the measurement of yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area. The determination of the elastic modulus is treated in Test Method E 111. Note 1—The boiling point of normal liquid helium (He I) at sea level is 4.2 K (−269°C or −452.1°F or 7.6°R). It decreases with geographic elevation and is...

  18. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  20. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  1. PVC's role in dioxin emissions from open burning. New analysis of US EPA data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, C. [Work on Waste, Canton, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Experimental studies have revealed high rates of dioxin emission from open burning of domestic waste. Based on these studies and estimates of activity level, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dioxin inventory now projects that open burning is the single largest source of dioxin to the atmosphere in the US. They estimate it is ten times greater than the next largest source category (incineration) and that open burning produces more airborne dioxin than all other categories combined. Beginning in 1997, the EPA has published five reports of their experimental studies on open burning emissions. The latest report includes complete data from 25 test runs. An important question the EPA set out to answer was: What conditions of open burning most affect dioxin emissions? The results of their first screening level experiments suggested that the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic content of the waste might have been a key determinant of dioxin levels. The EPA also measured many variables such as temperatures and gas concentrations during the runs. They conducted statistical analysis to determine correlations between these measurements and dioxin emissions. The EPA presented three main conclusions about the role of chlorine (Cl) and PVC input in creating dioxin: ''In summary, although Cl in the waste does appear to influence emissions of PCDDs/Fs from burn barrels, [1] this effect can be observed only at high levels of Cl, atypical of household trash, [2] and is independent of the source of the Cl (organic or inorganic). [3] At moderate levels of Cl, a statistically significant effect of waste Cl concentration is not observed, because other more important variables have a much greater influence on the emissions of PCDDs/Fs.'' These three conclusions contradict the findings of other studies. Also, some EPA analyses used less powerful statistical methods than were possible. For these reasons, a re-evaluation of the EPA data was undertaken.

  2. Application of EPA regulations to low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The survey reported here was conducted with the intent of identifying categories of low-level radioactive wastes which would be classified under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261 as hazardous due to the chemical properties of the waste. Three waste types are identified under these criteria as potential radioactive mixed wastes: wastes containing organic liquids; wastes containing lead metal; and wastes containing chromium. The survey also indicated that certain wastes, specific to particular generators, may also be radioactive mixed wastes. Ultimately, the responsibility for determining whether a facility's wastes are mixed wastes rest with the generator. However, the uncertainties as to which regulations are applicable, and the fact that no legal definition of mixed wastes exists, make such a determination difficult. In addition to identifying mixed wastes, appropriate methods for the management of mixed wastes must be defined. In an ongoing study, BNL is evaluating options for the management of mixed wastes. These options will include segregation, substitution, and treatments to reduce or eliminate chemical hazards associated with the wastes listed above. The impacts of the EPA regulations governing hazardous wastes on radioactive mixed waste cannot be assessed in detail until the applicability of these regulations is agreed upon. This issue is still being discussed by EPA and NRC and should be resolved in the near future. Areas of waste management which may affect generators of mixed wastes include: monitoring/tracking of wastes before shipment; chemical testing of wastes; permits for treatment of storage of wastes; and additional packaging requirements. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Nondestructive testing method for a new generation of electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Smart City system needs reliable and smoothly operating electronic equipment. The study is aimed at developing a nondestructive testing method for electronic equipment and its components. This method can be used to identify critical design defects of printed circuit boards (PCB and to predict their service life, taking into account the nature of probable operating loads. The study uses an acoustic emission method to identify and localize critical design defects of printed circuit boards. Geometric dimensions of detected critical defects can be determined by the X-ray tomography method. Based on the results of the study, a method combining acoustic emission and X-ray tomography was developed for nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards. The stress-strain state of solder joints containing detected defects was analyzed. This paper gives an example of using the developed method for estimating the degree of damage to joints between PCB components and predicting the service life of the entire PCB.

  4. Seismic test qualification of electrical equipment - testing methods in use to EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabries, R.

    1981-01-01

    At the beginning, for the 900 MW Power Plant level, the testing method in application used the single axis test by sine beat of 10 cycles according to the specifications of the guide IEEE 344-71. When the french guide UTEC 20-420 came into force we have had to define another testing method (EDF standard: HN20 E52) which utilize the single-axis test either by a sine beat of 5-cycles or by a synthetized time history. We present here the mains criterions allowing to justify: -The single-axis test. The single frequency wave (when the Initial Response Spectrum (IRS) present a narrow band). The use of one sine beat of 5-cycles or one synthetized time history. The need of taking into account the high stress level. This oligocyclic stress fatigue explains why one beat of 5-cycles may be as severe as one time history of 20 seconds (with the same level of strong response spectrum). Then, we conclude that the durating of the testing wave applied to the equipment shall be considered as a relative parameter only. The weight of the SSE tests by respect to the OBE tests. The precautions to take in order to: generate and check accurately the synthetized time history, choice the test frequencies when the sine beat is used. (orig./HP)

  5. Small punch test evaluation methods for material characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janča, Adam, E-mail: adam.janca@fjfi.cvut.cz; Siegl, Jan, E-mail: jan.siegl@fjfi.cvut.cz; Haušild, Petr, E-mail: petr.hausild@fjfi.cvut.cz

    2016-12-01

    The Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most widespread mechanical testing methods using miniaturized specimens. The paper presented deals with the time independent SPT, in which a flat specimen is bent by means of a (hemi)spherical punch moving at a constant velocity. The main goal is to relate the measured data to deformation processes taking place during specimen loading. Understanding of such relations is crucial for characterizing a material using any non-standardized experimental procedure. Using enhanced instrumentation, not only traditional load-displacement or load-deflection curves could be obtained, but also specimen thinning could be continuously measured and evaluated. Five alloys having a broad range of mechanical properties were tested. The results obtained were evaluated using both traditional and newly proposed methods and they were correlated with results of the conventional tensile test. The methods proposed seem to lead to a universal correlation between SPT results and tensile characteristics. - Highlights: • The newly proposed methodology significantly improved results of SPT. • Plastic deformation starts inside the specimen from the very beginning of loading. • Specimen thinning = punch displacement−specimen deflection. • Material response to loading is well illustrated by the novel load-thinning curve.

  6. Hydrocoin level 3 - Testing methods for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.; Lindbom, B.; Larsson, A.; Andersson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The HYDROCOIN study is an international cooperative project for testing groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The study was initiated in 1984 by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the technical work was finalised in 1987. The participating organisations are regulatory authorities as well as implementing organisations in 10 countries. The study has been performed at three levels aimed at studying computer code verification, model validation and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis respectively. The results from the first two levels, code verification and model validation, have been published in reports in 1988 and 1990 respectively. This paper focuses on some aspects of the results from Level 3, sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, for which a final report is planned to be published during 1990. For Level 3, seven test cases were defined. Some of these aimed at exploring the uncertainty associated with the modelling results by simply varying parameter values and conceptual assumptions. In other test cases statistical sampling methods were applied. One of the test cases dealt with particle tracking and the uncertainty introduced by this type of post processing. The amount of results available is substantial although unevenly spread over the test cases. It has not been possible to cover all aspects of the results in this paper. Instead, the different methods applied will be illustrated by some typical analyses. 4 figs., 9 refs

  7. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  8. Comparison of a New and Rapid Method: Brucella Coombs Gel Test With Other Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Fatma; Ergün, Ayşe Gül; Durmaz, Süleyman; Doğan, Metin; Ertuğrul, Ömür; Gündem, Seval

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect reliability of Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT) by comparing with with ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination methods in serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT), Brucella ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination tests of 78 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis which were sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Konya Numune Hospital from various regions of Konya were studied. Of 78 patients with ELISA IgG and IgM, STA, BICA and BCGT; 26, 21, 10, 12 and 12 were positive. When compared with BICA, the sensitivity and specifity of BCGT were 100% and 100%, respectively. According to results BCGT can be used as a diagnostic test in routine laboratories after more comprehensive studies in control groups and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. II. Total Culturable Virus Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standardized method is required when national studies on virus occurrence in environmental and drinking waters utilize multiple analytical laboratories. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Method 1615 was developed with the goal of providing such a standard ...

  10. Optimisation of test and maintenance based on probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method, which based on models and results of probabilistic safety assessment, minimises the nuclear power plant risk by optimisation of arrangement of safety equipment outages. The test and maintenance activities of the safety equipment are timely arranged, so the classical static fault tree models are extended with the time requirements to be capable to model real plant states. A house event matrix is used, which enables modelling of the equipment arrangements through the discrete points of time. The result of the method is determination of such configuration of equipment outages, which result in the minimal risk. Minimal risk is represented by system unavailability. (authors)

  11. Conventional cable testing methods: strengths, weaknesses and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews the major conventional methods that can be used to test power plant cables. It assesses their usefulness in diagnosing the condition of the insulation of the cable and then proposes some possible directions for innovation. The methods examined are dc insulation resistance measurement, ac signal injection for continuous monitoring and fault location, and the ac measurement of capacitance and loss angle. Specific subjects considered are the effects of temperature, cable construction and installation, and the validity of insulation resistance or loss angle measurement. The innovative proposals refer to the use of automation in the measurement and of computer-based Expert Systems for the evaluation of the results

  12. Test Method for Rheological Behavior of Mortar for Building Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobko Bogdan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a test method for rheological behavior of mortars with different mobility and different composition, which are used for execution of construction work. This method is based on investigation of the interaction between the valve ball and the mortar under study and allows quick defining of experimental variables for any composition of building mortars. Certain rheological behavior will permit to calculate the design parameters of machines for specific conditions of work performance – mixing (pre-operation, pressure generation, pumping to the work site, workpiece surfacing.

  13. Method for studying the plastic buckling of shells. Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, M.; Combescure, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Roche, R.

    1980-05-01

    In this article a description is given of the method selected for studying the elasto-plastic buckling of shells of any shape. The emphasis is mainly on three points: the difficulty in making a strict formulation with respect to plasticity, the model selected (MOTAN model) is presented; the effect of so called 'non conservative' forces; and the effect of great deformations that might precede the buckling. The method is compared to tests: basket handle buckling of bottoms, buckling of elliptical bottoms under internal pressure, of compresses thin tubes, of metal drums, spherical diaphragm, shearing rings [fr

  14. Standard Test Method for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) array (or its component strings), that is, the electrical resistance between the array's internal electrical components and is exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces of the array. 1.2 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  16. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  17. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  18. EPA Method 8321B (SW-846): Solvent-Extractable Nonvolatile Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Thermospray-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-TS-MS) or Ultraviolet (UV) Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 8321B describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, aqueous liquid, drinking water and wipe samples using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for extractable non-volatile compounds.

  19. Performing Allen's test in immobile hand: The Esmarch bandage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebil Yesiloglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an alternative method of assessing hand vascular flow using a modification of Allen's test is presented. This technique may be helpful for patients who have immobile hands due to severe trauma, patients scheduled for free tissue transfer reconstruction, patients under general anesthesia in intensive care units that require serial arterial blood gas analyses, and emergency coronary by-pass candidates who decided to receive radial arterial grafts. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(3.000: 83-85

  20. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  1. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  2. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2012-02-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  3. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  4. New test and characterization methods for PV modules and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.; Sommeling, P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Scholten, H. [Solland, Heerlen (Netherlands); Muller, J. [Moser-Baer, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Grossiord, N. [Holst Centre, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Smits, C.; Blanco Mantecon, M. [Holland Innovative, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Verheijen, M.; Van Berkum, J. [Philips Innovation Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The results of the project geZONd (shared facility for solar module analysis and reliability testing) are described. The project was set up by Philips, ECN, Holst, Solland, OM and T and Holland Innovative. The partners have shared most of their testing and analysis equipment for PV modules and cells, and together developed new or improved methods (including the necessary application know-how). This enables faster and more efficient innovation projects for each partner, and via commercial exploitation for other interested parties. The project has concentrated on five failure modes: corrosion, delamination, moisture ingress, UV irradiation, and mechanical bending. Test samples represented all main PV technologies: wafer based PV and rigid and flexible thin-film PV. Breakthroughs are in very early detection of corrosion, in quantitative characterization of adhesion, in-situ detection of humidity and oxygen inside modules, and ultra-fast screening of materials on UV stability.

  5. Experimental method for testing diffraction properties of reflection waveguide holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Kang, Ming-Wu; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Waveguide holograms' diffraction properties include peak wavelength and diffraction efficiency, which play an important role in determining their display performance. Based on the record and reconstruction theory of reflection waveguide holograms, a novel experimental method for testing diffraction properties is introduced and analyzed in this paper, which uses a plano-convex lens optically contacted to the surface of the substrate plate of the waveguide hologram, so that the diffracted light beam can be easily detected. Then an experiment is implemented. The designed reconstruction wavelength of the test sample is 530 nm, and its diffraction efficiency is 100%. The experimental results are a peak wavelength of 527.7 nm and a diffraction efficiency of 94.1%. It is shown that the tested value corresponds well with the designed value.

  6. Hepatitis A virus: a test method for virucidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M H; Schmitt, J; Rahaus, M; König, A

    2001-08-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is closely related to the genus enterovirus. HAV is very stable and resistant to acid pH and elevated temperature, as well as to chemicals and environmental influences. Human poliovirus is still one of the model viruses for testing disinfectants but there are discussions about changing to hepatitis A virus. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for using adapted hepatitis A virus to test hand disinfectants. Using HAV strains HM175/24a and FRhK-4 cytopathic effects were visible rarely, and not before 14 days. To verify virus growth in cells a RT-PCR was developed. Two disinfectants tested did not show the required virucidal activity to satisfy current German guidelines.

  7. A new method for testing Newton's gravitational law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, J.; Klein, N.; Meyer, H.; Piel, H.; Walesch, H.

    1991-01-01

    A new experimental method is reported for determining the gravitational force of a laboratory test mass on a Fabry-Perot microwave resonator. The resonator consists of two Fabry-Perot mirrors suspended as pendulums. Changes of 2·10 -11 m in the pendulum separation can be resolved as a shift of the resonance frequency of the resonator. This limit corresponds to an acceleration of 7·10 -11 m s -2 of one mirror with respect to the other. In a first experiment, the gravitational acceleration generated by a 125 kg test mass was measured as a function of distance in the range of 10 to 15 cm and tested Newton's gravitational law with an accuracy of 1%. No deviation is found. Furthermore, the gravitational constant G is determined with similar precision. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Development of fracture toughness test method for nuclear grade graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, J. S.; Cho, H. C.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, D. J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Because of its high strength and stability at very high temperature, as well as very low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, graphite has been widely used as a structural material in Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR). Recently, many countries are developing the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) because of the potentials of hydrogen production, as well as its safety and viable economics. In VHTR, helium gas serves as the primary coolant. Graphite will be used as a reflector, moderator and core structural materials. The life time of graphite is determined from dimensional changes due to neutron irradiation, which closely relates to the changes of crystal structure. The changes of both lattice parameter and crystallite size can be easily measured by X-ray diffraction method. However, due to high cost and long time of neutron irradiation test, ion irradiation test is being performed instead in KAERI. Therefore, it is essential to develop the technique for measurement of ion irradiation damage of nuclear graphite. Fracture toughness of nuclear grade graphite is one of the key properties in the design and development of VHTR. It is important not only to evaluate the various properties of candidate graphite but also to assess the integrity of nuclear grade graphite during operation. Although fracture toughness tests on graphite have been performed in many laboratories, there have been wide variations in values of the calculated fracture toughness, due to the differences in the geometry of specimens and test conditions. Hence, standard test method for nuclear graphite is required to obtain the reliable fracture toughness values. Crack growth behavior of nuclear grade graphite shows rising R-curve which means the increase in crack growth resistance as the crack length increases. Crack bridging and microcracking have been proposed to be the dominant mechanisms of rising R-curve behavior. In this paper, the technique to measure the changes of crystallite size and

  9. Well test imaging - a new method for determination of boundaries from well test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slevinsky, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A new method has been developed for analysis of well test data, which allows the direct calculation of the location of arbitrary reservoir boundaries which are detected during a well test. The method is based on elements of ray tracing and information theory, and is centered on the calculation of an instantaneous {open_quote}angle of view{close_quote} of the reservoir boundaries. In the absence of other information, the relative reservoir shape and boundary distances are retrievable in the form of a Diagnostic Image. If other reservoir information, such as 3-D seismic, is available; the full shape and orientation of arbitrary (non-straight line or circular arc) boundaries can be determined in the form of a Reservoir Image. The well test imaging method can be used to greatly enhance the information available from well tests and other geological data, and provides a method to integrate data from multiple disciplines to improve reservoir characterization. This paper covers the derivation of the analytical technique of well test imaging and shows examples of application of the technique to a number of reservoirs.

  10. Applications of Automation Methods for Nonlinear Fracture Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Using automated and standardized computer tools to calculate the pertinent test result values has several advantages such as: 1. allowing high-fidelity solutions to complex nonlinear phenomena that would be impractical to express in written equation form, 2. eliminating errors associated with the interpretation and programing of analysis procedures from the text of test standards, 3. lessening the need for expertise in the areas of solid mechanics, fracture mechanics, numerical methods, and/or finite element modeling, to achieve sound results, 4. and providing one computer tool and/or one set of solutions for all users for a more "standardized" answer. In summary, this approach allows a non-expert with rudimentary training to get the best practical solution based on the latest understanding with minimum difficulty.Other existing ASTM standards that cover complicated phenomena use standard computer programs: 1. ASTM C1340/C1340M-10- Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program 2. ASTM F 2815 - Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program 3. ASTM E2807 - Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange, Version 1.0 The verification, validation, and round-robin processes required of a computer tool closely parallel the methods that are used to ensure the solution validity for equations included in test standard. The use of automated analysis tools allows the creation and practical implementation of advanced fracture mechanics test standards that capture the physics of a nonlinear fracture mechanics problem without adding undue burden or expense to the user. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.

  11. Standard test method for measuring pH of soil for use in corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the pH of a soil in corrosion testing. The principle use of the test is to supplement soil resistivity measurements and thereby identify conditions under which the corrosion of metals in soil may be accentuated (see G 57 - 78 (1984)). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Integrated circuit test-port architecture and method and apparatus of test-port generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teifel, John

    2016-04-12

    A method and apparatus are provided for generating RTL code for a test-port interface of an integrated circuit. In an embodiment, a test-port table is provided as input data. A computer automatically parses the test-port table into data structures and analyzes it to determine input, output, local, and output-enable port names. The computer generates address-detect and test-enable logic constructed from combinational functions. The computer generates one-hot multiplexer logic for at least some of the output ports. The one-hot multiplexer logic for each port is generated so as to enable the port to toggle between data signals and test signals. The computer then completes the generation of the RTL code.

  13. New engine method for biodiesel cetane number testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of fossil fuels with fuels that come from part renewable sources has been a subject of many studies and researches in the past decade. Considering the higher cost and limits of production resources, a special attention is focused on raising the energy efficiency of biofuel usage, mainly through optimization of the combustion process. Consequently, in biofuel applications, there is a need for determination of auto-ignition quality expressed by cetane number as a dominant characteristic that influences combustion parameters. The fact that the method for cetane number determination is comparative in nature has led us to try to develop substitute engine method for cetane number determination, by the use of the available laboratory equipment and serial, mono-cylinder engine with direct injection, DMB LDA 450. Description of the method, results of optimization of engine’s working parameters for conduction of the test and method’s Accuracy estimation are given in the paper. The paper also presents the results of domestic biodiesel fuels cetane number testing with the application of described engine method, developed at the Laboratory for internal combustion engines and fuels and lubricants of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac, Serbia.

  14. Finite test sets development method for test execution of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Kim, Hee Eun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sung Jiun

    2014-01-01

    The V and V method has been utilized for this safety critical software, while SRGM has difficulties because of lack of failure occurrence data on developing phase. For the safety critical software, however, failure data cannot be gathered after installation in real plant when we consider the severe consequence. Therefore, to complement the V and V method, the test-based method need to be developed. Some studies on test-based reliability quantification method for safety critical software have been conducted in nuclear field. These studies provide useful guidance on generating test sets. An important concept of the guidance is that the test sets represent 'trajectories' (a series of successive values for the input variables of a program that occur during the operation of the software over time) in the space of inputs to the software.. Actually, the inputs to the software depends on the state of plant at that time, and these inputs form a new internal state of the software by changing values of some variables. In other words, internal state of the software at specific timing depends on the history of past inputs. Here the internal state of the software which can be changed by past inputs is named as Context of Software (CoS). In a certain CoS, a software failure occurs when a fault is triggered by some inputs. To cover the failure occurrence mechanism of a software, preceding researches insist that the inputs should be a trajectory form. However, in this approach, there are two critical problems. One is the length of the trajectory input. Input trajectory should long enough to cover failure mechanism, but the enough length is not clear. What is worse, to cover some accident scenario, one set of input should represent dozen hours of successive values. The other problem is number of tests needed. To satisfy a target reliability with reasonable confidence level, very large number of test sets are required. Development of this number of test sets is a herculean

  15. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  16. EPA urges schools to check for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    In April recommended that schools test their facilities for radioactive radon gas after examining preliminary test data from 130 schools scattered across the country which indicated that elevated radon levels may be at least as prevalent in schools as in private residences. EPA is recommending that schools test 100 percent of frequently-used rooms on the basement-level and ground-level floors. The agency also recommends that testing be conducted in the cooler months of the year when doors and windows are likely to be closed. As part of a study to gather more information about measuring radon in schools, EPA tested approximately 3000 classrooms in 16 states. The states are widely distributed across the country. Of the total number of rooms, 54 percent had at least one room with a radon level above four picocuries per liter of air pCi/L. Nineteen percent had radon levels above four pCi/L. Three percent of the classrooms measured had radon level over 20 pCi/L. Each of the 16 states had a school with one measurement over four pCi/L, and one school had levels as high as 136 pCi/L

  17. Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure to determine the ability of a photovoltaic (PV) module to endure the long-term effects of periodic “hot spot” heating associated with common fault conditions such as severely cracked or mismatched cells, single-point open circuit failures (for example, interconnect failures), partial (or non-uniform) shadowing or soiling. Such effects typically include solder melting or deterioration of the encapsulation, but in severe cases could progress to combustion of the PV module and surrounding materials. 1.2 There are two ways that cells can cause a hot spot problem; either by having a high resistance so that there is a large resistance in the circuit, or by having a low resistance area (shunt) such that there is a high-current flow in a localized region. This test method selects cells of both types to be stressed. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method....

  18. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-test operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a production or injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties in the vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In our approach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain time interval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it form conventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter, an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derived based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, we account for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning of testing time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. By synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of the matching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin and wellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this new parameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equally well and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed data interval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to the choice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedure has been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhanced our analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoir pressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported here have been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A beta version of the code is available for free testing and evaluation to interested parties

  19. A Test Method for Monitoring Modulus Changes during Durability Tests on Building Joint Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston; Kar Tean Tan; Gregory T. Schueneman

    2012-01-01

    The durability of building joint sealants is generally assessed using a descriptive methodology involving visual inspection of exposed specimens for defects. It is widely known that this methodology has inherent limitations, including that the results are qualitative. A new test method is proposed that provides more fundamental and quantitative information about...

  20. Standard test method for electrochemical critical pitting temperature testing of stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the evaluation of the resistance of stainless steel and related alloys to pitting corrosion based on the concept of the determination of a potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT). 1.2 This test methods applies to wrought and cast products including but not restricted to plate, sheet, tubing, bar, forgings, and welds, (see Note 1). Note 1—Examples of CPT measurements on sheet, plate, tubing, and welded specimens for various stainless steels can be found in Ref (1). See the research reports (Section 14). 1.3 The standard parameters recommended in this test method are suitable for characterizing the CPT of austenitic stainless steels and other related alloys with a corrosion resistance ranging from that corresponding to solution annealed UNS S31600 (Type 316 stainless steel) to solution annealed UNS S31254 (6 % Mo stainless steel). 1.4 This test method may be extended to stainless steels and other alloys related to stainless steel that have a CPT...

  1. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  2. Alternative method of inservice hydraulic testing of difficult to test pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.; Shangari, S.

    1994-01-01

    The pump test codes require that system resistance be varied until the independent variable (either the pump flow rate or differential pressure) equals its reference value. Variance from this fixed reference value is not specifically allowed. However, the design of many systems makes it impractical to set the independent variable to an exact value. Over a limited range of pump operation about the fixed reference value, linear interpolation between two points of pump operation can be used to accurately determine degradation at the reference value without repeating reference test conditions. This paper presents an overview of possible alternatives for hydraulic testing of pumps and a detailed discussion of the linear interpolation method. The approximation error associated with linear interpolation is analyzed. Methods to quantify and minimize approximation error are presented

  3. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  4. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Parametric effects on glass reaction in the unsaturated test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodland, A.B.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The Unsaturated Test Method has been applied to study glass reaction under conditions that may be present at the potential Yucca Mountain site, currently under evaluation for storage of reprocessed high-level nuclear waste. The results from five separate sets of parametric experiments are presented wherein test parameters ranging from water contact volume to sensitization of metal in contact with the glass were examined. The most significant effect was observed when the volume of water, as controlled by the water inject volume and interval period, was such to allow exfoliation of reacted glass to occur. The extent of reaction was also influenced to a lesser extent by the degree of sensitization of the 304L stainless steel. For each experiment, the release of cations from the glass and alteration of the glass were examined. The major alteration product is a smectite clay that forms both from precipitation from solution and from in-situ alteration of the glass itself. It is this clay that undergoes exfoliation as water drips from the glass. A comparison is made between the results of the parametric experiments with those of static leach tests. In the static tests the rates of release become progressively reduced through 39 weeks while, in contrast, they remain relatively constant in the parametric experiments for at least 300 weeks. This differing behavior may be attributable to the dripping water environment where fresh water is periodically added and where evaporation can occur

  6. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  7. Method and data analysis example of fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    In the design and operation of a nuclear fusion reactor, it is important to accurately assess the fatigue life. Fatigue life is evaluated by preparing a database on the relationship between the added stress / strain amplitude and the number of cycles to failure based on the fatigue tests on standard specimens, and by comparing this relationship with the generated stress / strain of the actual constructions. This paper mainly chooses low-cycle fatigue as an object, and explains standard test methods, fatigue limit, life prediction formula and the like. Using reduced-activation ferrite steel F82H as a material, strain controlled low-cycle fatigue test was performed under room temperature atmosphere. From these results, the relationship between strain and the number of cycles to failure was analyzed. It was found that the relationship is asymptotic to the formula of Coffin-Manson Law under high-strain (low-cycle condition), and asymptotic to the formula of Basquin Law under low-strain (high-cycle condition). For F82H to be used for the blanket of a nuclear fusion prototype reactor, the arrangement of fatigue life data up to about 700°C and the establishment of optimal fatigue design curves are urgent tasks. As for fusion reactor structural materials, the evaluation of neutron irradiation effect on fatigue damage behavior and life is indispensable. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish standardized testing techniques when applied to small specimens. (A.O.)

  8. Generic testability and test methods guidelines for ASIC devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, K.; Takeda, H.

    1996-04-01

    Many industries are switching from analog equipment to digital equipment. This change has become desirable because digital devices have become cost-effective, easily available, highly reliable, easy to qualify and easy to test and replace when needed. The nuclear power industry is beginning to upgrade some of its instrumentation and control equipment from an analog design to digital design. A digital application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device can be designed to perform the same functions as performed by analog modules. However, the ASIC must be designed for cost-effective testability and qualification. This report provides generic guidelines for designing cost-effective methods for testing and characterizing ASIC devices to accomplish qualification

  9. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  10. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  11. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure (3 ACH50) for single-family and multifamily construction (in climate zones 3–8). The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification program and ASHRAE Standard 189 have comparable compartmentalization requirements. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 will soon be responsible for all multifamily ventilation requirements (low rise and high rise); it has an exceptionally stringent compartmentalization requirement. These code and program requirements are driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  13. Development of a vacuum leak test method for large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed leak detection technology for liquid helium temperature experiments in large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities. In JAEA, a cryosorption pump that uses an absorbent cooled by liquid nitrogen with a conventional helium leak detector, is used to detect helium gas that is leaking from pressurized welded joints of pipes and valves in a vacuum chamber. The cryosorption pump plays the role of decreasing aerial components, such as water, nitrogen and oxygen, to increase the sensitivity of helium leak detection. The established detection sensitivity for helium leak testing is 10 -10 to 10 -9 Pam 3 /s. A total of 850 welded and mechanical joints inside the cryogenic test facility for the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) experiments have been tested. In the test facility, 73 units of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) insulation break are used. The amount of helium permeation through the GFRP was recorded during helium leak testing. To distinguish helium leaks from insulation-break permeation, the helium permeation characteristic of the GFRP part was measured as a function of the time of helium charging. Helium permeation was absorbed at 6 h after helium charging, and the detected permeation is around 10 -7 Pam 3 /s. Using the helium leak test method developed, CSMC experiments have been successfully completed. (author)

  14. Test of a mosquito eggshell isolation method and subsampling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P A; Streever, W J

    1997-03-01

    Production of Aedes vigilax, the common salt-marsh mosquito, can be assessed by determining eggshell densities found in soil. In this study, 14 field-collected eggshell samples were used to test a subsampling technique and compare eggshell counts obtained with a flotation method to those obtained by direct examination of sediment (DES). Relative precision of the subsampling technique was assessed by determining the minimum number of subsamples required to estimate the true mean and confidence interval of a sample at a predetermined confidence level. A regression line was fitted to cube-root transformed eggshell counts obtained from flotation and DES and found to be significant (P eggshells present. Eggshells obtained with the flotation method can be used to predict those from DES using the following equation: DES count = [1.386 x (flotation count)0.33 - 0.01]3.

  15. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, C.A.; Mayo, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ''Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,'' required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications

  16. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  17. Standard Test Method for Oxyacetylene Ablation Testing of Thermal Insulation Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the screening of ablative materials to determine the relative thermal insulation effectiveness when tested as a flat panel in an environment of a steady flow of hot gas provided by an oxyacetylene burner. 1.2 This test method should be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test method may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limi...

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated are“thin” compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

  19. An improved dynamic test method for solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive improvement of the mathematical model for the so called transfer function method is presented in this study. This improved transfer function method can estimate the traditional solar collector parameters such as zero loss coefficient and heat loss coefficient. Two new collector...... parameters t and mfCf are obtained. t is a time scale parameter which can indicate the heat transfer ability of the solar collector. mfCf can be used to calculate the fluid volume content in the solar collector or to validate the regression process by comparing it to the physical fluid volume content...... for the second-order differential term with 6–9min as the best averaging time interval. The measured and predicted collector power output of the solar collector are compared during a test of 13days continuously both for the ITF method and the QDT method. The maximum and averaging error is 53.87W/m2 and 5.22W/m2...

  20. Corrosion evaluation in insulated pipes by non destructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Razak Hamzah; Azali Muhammad; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Sufian Saad; Saharuddin Sayuti; Shukri Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    In engineering plants, detection of corrosion and evaluation of deposit in insulated pipes using radiography method are considered as a very challenging tasks. In General this degradation problem is attributed to water condensation. It causes the formation of deposit and scale inside the pipe, as well as between the insulation and pipe in cold temperature pipes. On the other hand, for hot temperature pipes the main problem is mainly due to corrosion/erosion attack inside the pipe. In the study of corrosion in pipelines, one of the most important parameters to be monitored and measured is the wall thickness. Currently, most pipeline corrosion monitoring and evaluation for both insulated and non-insulated pipes is performed using an ultrasonic method. The most common technique is that based on the A-Scan, using either a normal flaw detector or some form of dedicated equipment. However, with recent development of ultrasonic technology, more advance method, namely B-Scan and C-scan techniques are also available. The most notable disadvantage of using this method is that the insulation covering the pipe has to be removed before the inspection can be carried out and this is considered as not so cost effective. Due to this reason, the possibility of employing other alternative NDT method, namely radiographic testing method were studied. The technique used in this studied are known as tangential technique. In this study it was found that the result found using tangential technique is consistent with the actual thickness of the pipe. Result of this study is presented and discussed in this paper. (Author)

  1. Standard test method for drop-weight tear tests of ferritic steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers drop-weight tear tests (DWTT) on ferritic steels with thicknesses between 3.18 and 19.1 mm. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Testing System Encryption-Decryption Method to RSA Security Documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyono

    2008-01-01

    A model of document protection which was tested as one of the instruments, especially text document. The principle of the document protection was how the system was able to protect the document storage and transfer processes. Firstly, the text-formed document was encrypted; therefore, the document cannot be read for the text was transformed into random letters. The letter-randomized text was then unfolded by the description in order that the document owner was able to read it. In the recent research, the method adopted was RSA method, in which it used complicated mathematics calculation and equipped with initial protection key (with either private key or public key), thus, it was more difficult to be attacked by hackers. The system was developed by using the software of Borland Delphi 7. The results indicated that the system was capable to save and transfer the document, both via internet and intranet in the form of encrypted letter and put it back to the initial form of document by way of description. The research also tested for encrypted and decrypted process for various memory size documents. (author)

  3. Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Wilson, John T.; Moran, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental agencies, private organizations, and the academic community that provided data and interpretations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report. This report documents the sources of data and methods used to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the report compiled by USEPA. Stream and ground?water?quality data collected nationally in a consistent manner as part of the USGS?s National Water?Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) were provided for several water?quality indicators, including Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; Pesticides in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; and Nitrate and Pesticides in Shallow Ground Water in Agricultural Watersheds. In addition, the USGS provided nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite) and phosphorus riverine load estimates calculated from water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of its National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and its Federal?State Cooperative Program for the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge from Large Rivers indicator.

  4. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  5. Comparison of parametric and bootstrap method in bioequivalence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byung-Jin; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2009-10-01

    The estimation of 90% parametric confidence intervals (CIs) of mean AUC and Cmax ratios in bioequivalence (BE) tests are based upon the assumption that formulation effects in log-transformed data are normally distributed. To compare the parametric CIs with those obtained from nonparametric methods we performed repeated estimation of bootstrap-resampled datasets. The AUC and Cmax values from 3 archived datasets were used. BE tests on 1,000 resampled datasets from each archived dataset were performed using SAS (Enterprise Guide Ver.3). Bootstrap nonparametric 90% CIs of formulation effects were then compared with the parametric 90% CIs of the original datasets. The 90% CIs of formulation effects estimated from the 3 archived datasets were slightly different from nonparametric 90% CIs obtained from BE tests on resampled datasets. Histograms and density curves of formulation effects obtained from resampled datasets were similar to those of normal distribution. However, in 2 of 3 resampled log (AUC) datasets, the estimates of formulation effects did not follow the Gaussian distribution. Bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) CIs, one of the nonparametric CIs of formulation effects, shifted outside the parametric 90% CIs of the archived datasets in these 2 non-normally distributed resampled log (AUC) datasets. Currently, the 80~125% rule based upon the parametric 90% CIs is widely accepted under the assumption of normally distributed formulation effects in log-transformed data. However, nonparametric CIs may be a better choice when data do not follow this assumption.

  6. ADM guidance-Ceramics: Fracture toughness testing and method selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Della Bona, Alvaro; Scherrer, Susanne S; Tholey, Michael; van Noort, Richard; Vichi, Alessandro; Kelly, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    The objective is within the scope of the Academy of Dental Materials Guidance Project, which is to provide dental materials researchers with a critical analysis of fracture toughness (FT) tests such that the assessment of the FT of dental ceramics is conducted in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible way. Fracture mechanics theory and FT methodologies were critically reviewed to introduce basic fracture principles and determine the main advantages and disadvantages of existing FT methods from the standpoint of the dental researcher. The recommended methods for FT determination of dental ceramics were the Single Edge "V" Notch Beam (SEVNB), Single Edge Precracked Beam (SEPB), Chevron Notch Beam (CNB), and Surface Crack in Flexure (SCF). SEVNB's main advantage is the ease of producing the notch via a cutting disk, SEPB allows for production of an atomically sharp crack generated by a specific precracking device, CNB is technically difficult, but based on solid fracture mechanics solutions, and SCF involves fracture from a clinically sized precrack. The IF test should be avoided due to heavy criticism that has arisen in the engineering field regarding the empirical nature of the calculations used for FT determination. Dental researchers interested in FT measurement of dental ceramics should start with a broad review of fracture mechanics theory to understand the underlying principles involved in fast fracture of ceramics. The choice of FT methodology should be based on the pros and cons of each test, as described in this literature review. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VALIDATION OF THE ASSR TEST THROUGH COMPLEMENTARY AUDIOLOGYICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mârtu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR is an objective method for determining the auditive threshold, applicable and necessary especially in children. The test is extremely important for recommending cochlear implant in children. The aim of the study was to compare pure tone audiometry responses and auditory steady-state thresholds. Materials and method: The study was performed on a group including both patients with normal hearing and with hearing loss. The main inclusion criteria accepted only patients with normal otomicroscopic aspect, normal tympanogram, capable to respond to pure tone audiometry, and with ear conduction thresholds between 0 and 80 dB NHL. The patients with suppurative otic processes or ear malformations were excluded. The research protocol was followed, the tests being performed in soundproofed rooms, starting with pure tone audiometry followed, after a pause, by ASSR determinations at frequencies of 0.5, 1.2 and 4 KHz. The audiological instruments were provided by a single manufacturer. ASSR was recorded at least two times for both borderline intensities, namely the one defining the auditory threshold and the first no-response intensity. The recorded responses were stored in a database and further processed in Excel. Discussion: The differences observed between pure tone audiometry and ASSR thresholds are important at 500 Hz and insignificant at the other frequencies. When approaching the PTA-ASSR relation, whatever the main characteristic between the PTA and ASSR thresholds in one ear, the profile of the lines gap maintains the same shape on the opposite ear. Conclusions: ASSR is a confident objective test, maintaining attention to low frequencies, where some differences might occur.

  8. Teaching Analytical Method Transfer through Developing and Validating Then Transferring Dissolution Testing Methods for Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaru, Irene; Koether, Marina; Chichester, Kimberly; Eaton, Lafayette

    2017-01-01

    Analytical method transfer (AMT) and dissolution testing are important topics required in industry that should be taught in analytical chemistry courses. Undergraduate students in senior level analytical chemistry laboratory courses at Kennesaw State University (KSU) and St. John Fisher College (SJFC) participated in development, validation, and…

  9. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A goal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office and Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) and its many partners is to preserve and restore land by promoting and using protective waste management practices and by assessing and cleaning..

  10. GET SMART: EPA'S SMARTE INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development with the assistance of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools (SMART) that will help stakeholders over...

  11. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Atomizer Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1965-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of fractional molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces, the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Standard test method for guided bend test for ductility of welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a guided bend test for the determination of soundness and ductility of welds in ferrous and nonferrous products. Defects, not shown by X rays, may appear in the surface of a specimen when it is subjected to progressive localized overstressing. This guided bend test has been developed primarily for plates and is not intended to be substituted for other methods of bend testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Note 1—For additional information see Terminology E 6, and American Welding Society Standard D 1.1. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  16. Specific binding-adsorbent assay method and test means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of an improved specific binding assay method and test means employing a nonspecific adsorbent for the substance to be determined, particularly hepatitis B surface (HBsub(s)) antigen, in its free state or additionally in the form of its immune complex. The invention is illustrated by 1) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen, 2) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen in the form of immune complex with antibody, 3) a study of adsorption characteristics of various anion exchange materials for HBsub(s) antigen, 4) the use of hydrophobic adsorbents in a radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen and 5) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for antibody to HBsub(s) antigen. The advantages of the present method for detecting HBsub(s) antigen compared to previous methods include the manufacturing advantages of eliminating the need for insolubilised anti-HBsub(s) and the advantages of a single incubation step, fewer manipulations, storability of adsorbent materials, increased sensitivity and versatility of detecting HBsub(s) antigen in the form of its immune complex if desired. (U.K.)

  17. ''In situ'' electronic testing method of a neutron detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Levai, F.

    1987-01-01

    The method allows detection of any important change in the electrical characteristics of a neutron sensor channel. It checks the response signal produced by an electronic detector circuit when a pulse generator is connected as input signal in the high voltage supply. The electronic circuit compares the detector capacitance value, previously measured, against a reference value, which is adjusted in a window type comparator electronic circuit to detect any important degrading condition of the capacitance value in a detector-cable system. The ''in-situ'' electronic testing method of neutron detector performance has been verified in a laboratory atmosphere to be a potential method to detect any significant change in the capacitance value of a nuclear sensor and its connecting cable, also checking: detector disconnections, cable disconnections, length changes of the connecting cable, electric short-opened circuits in the sensor channel, and any electrical trouble in the detector-connector-cable system. The experimental practices were carried out by simulation of several electric changes in a nuclear sensor-cable system from a linear D.C. channel which measures reactor power during nuclear reactor operation. It was made at the Training Reactor Electronic Laboratory. The results and conclusions obtained at the Laboratory were proved, satisfactorily, in the Electronic Instrumentation of Budapest Technical University Training Reactor, Hungary

  18. EPA Research in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s collaboration with the DEC and the Air Force on PFAS sampling and analytical methods is key to ensuring valid, defensible data are collected on these emerging contaminants that are being found in soil, groundwater and drinking water in Alaska.

  19. New methods of pregnancy testing in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, B B

    1981-05-01

    The knowledge and use of newer, more sensitive, and reliable pregnancy tests which are easily accessible and of moderate cost are the 1st steps in the early diagnosis and management of pregnancy, especially in adolescent girls. Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy soon after conception offers the option of abortion by simple, effective, and inexpensive procedures or early initiation of prenatal maternity care. Discussion focuses on the symptoms of pregnancy and the historical development and basis of pregnancy tests as well as the specific types of pregnancy tests. The most familiar sign of pregnancy is the missed period. Other symptoms that provide presumptive evidence of pregnancy include fatigue and lassitude, increased body temperature, and breast fullness or pain. Feelings of nausea, vomiting, and weight gain may appear after 2 weeks. The diagnosis of pregnancy by the detection of the human chorionic gonadotropin was initially described 53 years ago by Selmar Aschheim and Bernhardt Zondek. Improvements in the techniques for the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been directly related to the progress in the purification and isolation of hCG and elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the hormone-nonspecific alpha subunit and hormone-specific beta subunit of hCG. The history, physical examination, and pregnancy tests will generally provide sufficient information for a definite diagnosis of pregnancy. The presence of hCG in the urine or blood is the most accurate of all the indications of pregnancy. During the last century, 4 different techniques for the determination of hCG in blood and/or urine have been developed. These include the following and are reviewed in detail: 1) bioassays in intact laboratory animals; 2) immunologic tube or slide methods with heme- or latex-agglutination inhibition, as well as the more recently developed competitive protein binding method such as 3) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the use of radioisotope labeled hormone

  20. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  1. Comparison of Three Different Methods for Pile Integrity Testing on a Cylindrical Homogeneous Polyamide Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Y. D.; Soldatov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Three different methods for pile integrity testing are proposed to compare on a cylindrical homogeneous polyamide specimen. The methods are low strain pile integrity testing, multichannel pile integrity testing and testing with a shaker system. Since the low strain pile integrity testing is well-established and standardized method, the results from it are used as a reference for other two methods.

  2. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative...

  3. U.S. EPA Metadata Editor (EME)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Metadata Editor (EME) allows users to create geospatial metadata that meets EPA's requirements. The tool has been developed as a desktop application that...

  4. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  5. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  6. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  7. Test methods and load simulation at roller test stand; Pruefmethoden und Lastsimulation auf Rollenpruefstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Juergen [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany); Koenig, Manfred [VISPIRON AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The development of vehicles is a time expensive process and requires a worldwide mobility, since the vehicles are tested for different environmental conditions, which only occur in specified regions and within predefined seasonal periods. To become independent of weather conditions and the local and seasonal variation, it is necessary to shift particular tests to a climatic wind tunnel. Although this offers an ideal environment for precise and reproducible results, many tests need to be performed in order to acquire knowledge about the differences between real road investigations and wind tunnel experiments. It is the work of Method developers to properly transfer specified road tests to the test facility such that comparable results are obtained. These details will be discussed in the first chapter. An important aspect, within this objective, is the realistic simulation of drive resistance on the road by dynamometers. Therefore the different forces, contributing to the drive resistance on the road, are determined in order to simulate the realistic load on the vehicle drive train by the electric drive units of the dynamometers. To increase the accuracy of the load simulation, a special feature has been added to the dyno-control. This feature includes the influence of air-density on the drive resistance at a given environmental temperature, pressure and humidity. (orig.)

  8. A method for grindability testing using the Scirocco disperser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Tina; Ali, Muzammil; Dogbe, Selasi; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Tinke, Arjen

    2016-03-30

    In the early stages of development of a new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API), insufficient material quantity is available for addressing processing issues, and it is highly desirable to be able to assess processability issues using the smallest possible powder sample quantity. A good example is milling of new active pharmaceutical ingredients. For particle breakage that is sensitive to strain rate, impact testing is the most appropriate method. However, there is no commercially available single particle impact tester for fine particulate solids. In contrast, dry powder dispersers, such as the Scirocco disperser of the Malvern Mastersizer 2000, are widely available, and can be used for this purpose, provided particle impact velocity is known. However, the distance within which the particles can accelerate before impacting on the bend is very short and different particle sizes accelerate to different velocities before impact. As the breakage is proportional to the square of impact velocity, the interpretation of breakage data is not straightforward and requires an analysis of particle velocity as a function of size, density and shape. We report our work using an integrated experimental and CFD modelling approach to evaluate the suitability of this device as a grindability testing device, with the particle sizing being done immediately following dispersion by laser diffraction. Aspirin, sucrose and α-lactose monohydrate are tested using narrow sieve cuts in order to minimise variations in impact velocity. The tests are carried out at eight different air nozzle pressures. As intuitively expected, smaller particles accelerate faster and impact the wall at a higher velocity compared to the larger particles. However, for a given velocity the extent of breakage of larger particles is larger. Using a numerical simulation based on CFD, the relationship between impact velocity and particle size and density has been established assuming a spherical shape, and using one

  9. Partial Discharge Tests using the Cigré II method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casale, M. Di Lorenzo del; Schifani, R.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the results of an experimental project on insulating material aging, performed in both Denmark and Italy, are reported. This study was concerned with partial discharge (PD) behavior at temperatures between 30 and 80°C using CIGRE method II. The material tested was a commercial...... polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which was chosen not for its good dielectric properties but rather because much of its discharge resistance data at ambient temperature is already well documented. A description is given of the theoretical and experimental methodology followed in this work. Mixed Weibull analysis techniques...... in terms of the PD amplitude and phase distribution characteristics were employed to distinguish the presence of different aging mechanisms. Such a difference was observed at 30 and at 80°C. At 30°C the analysis inferred a single discharge aging process acting until breakdown, while at 80°C the results...

  10. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  11. Development of a high velocity rain erosion test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Teak; Jin, Doo Han [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyung [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The nose of a missile, flying through raining region with a supersonic speed, is subjected to the rain erosion because the nose is made of a brittle ceramic material. A simple yet very effective rain erosion test method is developed. The sabot assembly similar to the hypodermic syringe carries specific amount of water is launched by a low pressure air gun. After the stopper stop the sabot assembly by impact, the steel plunger continues moving toward to squeeze the silicon rubber in front. The pressurized silicon rubber then is squeezed through the orifice in front of the sabot at high velocity, thus, accelerates the water droplet to higher velocity. The droplet velocity up to 800m/s is successfully attained using a low pressure air gun. The ceramic specimen assembly is placed in front of the high speed water droplet and the rain erosion damage on the surface of the specimen is observed.

  12. Leak test fixture and method for using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Lawrence S.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided which are especially useful for leak testing seams such as an end closure or joint in an article. The test does not require an enclosed pressurized volume within the article or joint section to be leak checked. A flexible impervious membrane is disposed over an area of the seamed surfaces to be leak checked and sealed around the outer edges. A preselected vacuum is applied through an opening in the membrane to evacuate the area between the membrane and the surface being leak checked to essentially collapse the membrane to conform to the article surface or joined adjacent surfaces. A pressure differential is concentrated at the seam bounded by the membrane and only the seam experiences a pressure differential as air or helium molecules are drawn into the vacuum system through a leak in the seam. A helium detector may be placed in a vacuum exhaust line from the membrane to detect the helium. Alternatively, the vacuum system may be isolated at a preselected pressure and leaks may be detected by a subsequent pressure increase in the vacuum system.

  13. Latency in Visionic Systems: Test Methods and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2005-01-01

    A visionics device creates a pictorial representation of the external scene for the pilot. The ultimate objective of these systems may be to electronically generate a form of Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to eliminate weather or time-of-day as an operational constraint and provide enhancement over actual visual conditions where eye-limiting resolution may be a limiting factor. Empirical evidence has shown that the total system delays or latencies including the imaging sensors and display systems, can critically degrade their utility, usability, and acceptability. Definitions and measurement techniques are offered herein as common test and evaluation methods for latency testing in visionics device applications. Based upon available data, very different latency requirements are indicated based upon the piloting task, the role in which the visionics device is used in this task, and the characteristics of the visionics cockpit display device including its resolution, field-of-regard, and field-of-view. The least stringent latency requirements will involve Head-Up Display (HUD) applications, where the visionics imagery provides situational information as a supplement to symbology guidance and command information. Conversely, the visionics system latency requirement for a large field-of-view Head-Worn Display application, providing a Virtual-VMC capability from which the pilot will derive visual guidance, will be the most stringent, having a value as low as 20 msec.

  14. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  15. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface

  16. EPA METHODS FOR VIRUS DETECTION IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  17. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  18. Using Response Surface Methods to Correlate the Modal Test of an Inflatable Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a practical application of response surface methods (RSM) to correlate a finite element model of a structural modal test. The test article is a quasi-cylindrical inflatable structure which primarily consists of a fabric weave, with an internal bladder and metallic bulkheads on either end. To mitigate model size, the fabric weave was simplified by representing it with shell elements. The task at hand is to represent the material behavior of the weave. The success of the model correlation is measured by comparing the four major modal frequencies of the analysis model to the four major modal frequencies of the test article. Given that only individual strap material properties were provided and material properties of the overall weave were not available, defining the material properties of the finite element model became very complex. First it was necessary to determine which material properties (modulus of elasticity in the hoop and longitudinal directions, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, etc.) affected the modal frequencies. Then a Latin Hypercube of the parameter space was created to form an efficiently distributed finite case set. Each case was then analyzed with the results input into RSM. In the resulting response surface it was possible to see how each material parameter affected the modal frequencies of the analysis model. If the modal frequencies of the analysis model and its corresponding parameters match the test with acceptable accuracy, it can be said that the model correlation is successful.

  19. Finite test sets development method for test execution of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bordany Ayman; Yun, Won Young

    2014-01-01

    It reads inputs, computes new states, and updates output for each scan cycle. Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) has recently developed a fully digitalized Reactor Protection System (RPS) based on PLD. As a digital system, this RPS is equipped with a dedicated software. The Reliability of this software is crucial to NPPs safety where its malfunction may cause irreversible consequences and affect the whole system as a Common Cause Failure (CCF). To guarantee the reliability of the whole system, the reliability of this software needs to be quantified. There are three representative methods for software reliability quantification, namely the Verification and Validation (V and V) quality-based method, the Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM), and the test-based method. An important concept of the guidance is that the test sets represent 'trajectories' (a series of successive values for the input variables of a program that occur during the operation of the software over time) in the space of inputs to the software.. Actually, the inputs to the software depends on the state of plant at that time, and these inputs form a new internal state of the software by changing values of some variables. In other words, internal state of the software at specific timing depends on the history of past inputs. Here the internal state of the software which can be changed by past inputs is named as Context of Software (CoS). In a certain CoS, a software failure occurs when a fault is triggered by some inputs. To cover the failure occurrence mechanism of a software, preceding researches insist that the inputs should be a trajectory form. However, in this approach, there are two critical problems. One is the length of the trajectory input. Input trajectory should long enough to cover failure mechanism, but the enough length is not clear. What is worse, to cover some accident scenario, one set of input should represent dozen hours of successive values

  20. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Standard test methods for elevated temperature tension tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedure and equipment for the determination of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area of metallic materials at elevated temperatures. 1.2 Determination of modulus of elasticity and proportional limit are not included. 1.3 Tension tests under conditions of rapid heating or rapid strain rates are not included. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Testing of acoustic emission method during pressure tests of WWER-440 steam generators and pressurizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerfl, K.; Crha, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are discussed of measuring acoustic emission in output pressure testing of steam generators and pressurizers for WWER-440 reactors. The objective of the measurements was to test the reproducibility of measurements and to find the criterion which would be used in assessing the condition of the components during manufacture and in operation. The acoustic emission was measured using a single-channel Dunegan/Endevco apparatus and a 16-channel LOCAMAT system. The results showed that after the first assembly, during a repeat dismantle of the lids and during seal replacement, processes due to seal contacts and bolt and washer deformations were the main source of acoustic emission. A procedure was defined of how to exclude new acoustic emission sources in such cases. The acoustic emission method can be used for the diagnostics of plastic deformation processes or of crack production and propagation in components during service. (Z.M.)

  3. A One-Sample Test for Normality with Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner , Jérémie; Celisse , Alain

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new one-sample test for normality in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS). Namely, we test the null-hypothesis of belonging to a given family of Gaussian distributions. Hence our procedure may be applied either to test data for normality or to test parameters (mean and covariance) if data are assumed Gaussian. Our test is based on the same principle as the MMD (Maximum Mean Discrepancy) which is usually used for two-sample tests such as homogeneity or independence testing. O...

  4. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  5. Standardized methods for in-place filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, M.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawski, J.

    1997-08-01

    The conference minutes of a US DOE meeting held on in-place filter testing are presented. The purpose of the conference was to transfer technical in-place testing knowledge throughout the DOE complex. Major items discussed included purchase requisitions, in-place testing, instrumentation, and in-place test personnel qualifications and training. Future actions identified by conference attendees centered on establishing complex-wide DOE policies on training, inspection and testing, and filter specifications.

  6. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test, eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test, mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test, and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test. Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  8. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  9. Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-12-06

    (with spatial and/or temporal dependence). Statistical approaches to uncertainty forecasting basically consist of estimating the uncertainty based on observed forecasting errors. Quantile regression (QR) is currently a commonly used approach in uncertainty forecasting. In Chapter 3, we propose new statistical approaches to the uncertainty estimation problem by employing kernel density forecast (KDF) methods. We use two estimators in both offline and time-adaptive modes, namely, the Nadaraya-Watson (NW) and Quantilecopula (QC) estimators. We conduct detailed tests of the new approaches using QR as a benchmark. One of the major issues in wind power generation are sudden and large changes of wind power output over a short period of time, namely ramping events. In Chapter 4, we perform a comparative study of existing definitions and methodologies for ramp forecasting. We also introduce a new probabilistic method for ramp event detection. The method starts with a stochastic algorithm that generates wind power scenarios, which are passed through a high-pass filter for ramp detection and estimation of the likelihood of ramp events to happen. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the results of the application of ITL training criteria to deterministic WPF; Chapter 3 reports the study on probabilistic WPF, including new contributions to wind power uncertainty forecasting; Chapter 4 presents a new method to predict and visualize ramp events, comparing it with state-of-the-art methodologies; Chapter 5 briefly summarizes the main findings and contributions of this report.

  10. Custom Search | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  11. Watershed Statistics | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  12. The Method of System Test using I/O Stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Chang Hoi

    2016-01-01

    In general, the software development life cycle consists of the requirement phase, design phase, implementation phase, testing phase, integration phase (software-software integration, software-hardware integration), installation phase, and operation and maintenance phase. The fundamental parts to the testing phase are component test, software integration test, software hardware integration test, and system test. Among these tests, we focused in particular on system test using I/O stimulator. The system test operates the functionality, performance, and interface because system testing falls within the scope of black box testing, which should not require knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic. The purpose of developing a system test using a I/O stimulator is to save time and effort from the functionality and performance tests. We developed an I/O stimulator for the burning system test based on the operational scenario. The hardware, software, and manmachine- interface (MMI) are fundamental parts to the I/O stimulator. Signal sources from the I/O stimulator contain analog input, analog output, digital input, digital output, a Programmable Power Supply, an RS232C Serial interface and a dual port Ethernet interface. While automation cannot reproduce everything that a software engineer can do, it can be extremely useful for the system test. However, it does require the test criteria and a well-developed test suite of the testing scripts in order to be useful. In this study, we developed a multipurpose and cost-efficient I/O stimulator using LabVIEW program instead of the testing scripts

  13. The Method of System Test using I/O Stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Chang Hoi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In general, the software development life cycle consists of the requirement phase, design phase, implementation phase, testing phase, integration phase (software-software integration, software-hardware integration), installation phase, and operation and maintenance phase. The fundamental parts to the testing phase are component test, software integration test, software hardware integration test, and system test. Among these tests, we focused in particular on system test using I/O stimulator. The system test operates the functionality, performance, and interface because system testing falls within the scope of black box testing, which should not require knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic. The purpose of developing a system test using a I/O stimulator is to save time and effort from the functionality and performance tests. We developed an I/O stimulator for the burning system test based on the operational scenario. The hardware, software, and manmachine- interface (MMI) are fundamental parts to the I/O stimulator. Signal sources from the I/O stimulator contain analog input, analog output, digital input, digital output, a Programmable Power Supply, an RS232C Serial interface and a dual port Ethernet interface. While automation cannot reproduce everything that a software engineer can do, it can be extremely useful for the system test. However, it does require the test criteria and a well-developed test suite of the testing scripts in order to be useful. In this study, we developed a multipurpose and cost-efficient I/O stimulator using LabVIEW program instead of the testing scripts.

  14. Pressure test method for reactor pressure vessel in construction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masakado; Ushiroda, Koichi; Miyahara, Ryohei; Takano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Tadashi; Sato, Keiya.

    1998-01-01

    Plant constitutional parts as targets of both of a primary pressure test and a secondary pressure test are disposed in communication with a reactor pressure vessel, and a pressure of the primary pressure test is applied to the targets of both tests, so that the primary pressure test and the second pressure test are conducted together. Since the number of pressure tests can be reduced to promote construction, and the number of workers can also be reduced. A pressure exceeding the maximum pressure upon use is applied to the pressure vessel after disposing the incore structures, to continuously conduct the primary pressure test and the secondary pressure test joined together and an incore flowing test while closing the upper lid of the pressure vessel as it is in the construction field. The number of opening/closing of the upper lid upon conducting every test can be reduced, and since the pressure resistance test is conducted after arranging circumference conditions for the incore flowing test, the tests can be conducted collectively also in view of time. (N.H.)

  15. Application of ISRM testing methods to fracture toughness testing of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashida, T.; Fukasawa, T.; Takahashi, H.; Ishiyama, S.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Fracture toughness measurements of nuclear grade graphites, IG11 and PGX, were made by means of AE technique. Tests were conducted on edge-notched round bend bar, edge-notched short bar and round compact tension specimens. These round-shaped specimens used in this study have been proposed for standard fracture toughness tests of rock as a draft of testing standard of International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). Taking the observed nonlinear deformation behavior into account, J-integral approach was utilized to determine the fracture toughness of the graphites. It is shown that the critical J integral determined by AE technique, J iAE , is independent of specimen geometry. Based on this experimental results, the fracture toughness K IC of the graphites was determined from the J iAE values. K IC value of IG11 was 1.04 MPa√m, and 0.77 MPa√m for PGX respectively. Furthermore, the specimen size effect of the fracture toughness determined by the J-integral/AE method is discussed. (author)

  16. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

  17. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are 137 Cs, 238 U (and its daughters), 60 Co, 90 Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 x 10 8 ft 2 or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling

  18. Permeated defect detecting test method and device in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshishige.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device capable of performing a test for entire inner surfaces of the reactor upon periodical inspection of a BWR type reactor while sufficiently taking countermeasures for radiation rays into consideration. Namely, the present invention comprises following steps. (1) A provisional step for taking a shroud head of a reactor core shroud and incore structural components above and below the shroud out of the reactor, discharging reactor water and water tightly closing openings such as reactor wall perforation holes, (2) a pretreatment step for washing exposed inner surfaces of the reactor and peeling deteriorated materials, (3) a first drying step for drying portions washed and peeled in the step (2), (4) a permeation step for applying a permeation liquid of a defect detecting medium on the exposed inner surfaces of the reactor, (5) a permeation liquid removing step for removing the an excess permeation liquid in the step (4), (6) a second drying step for drying corresponding portions after performing the step (5), and (7) a flaw detecting step for optically observing the corresponding portions after performing the step (6) and detecting flaws. (I.S.)

  19. Mathematical methods for quantification and comparison of dissolution testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranić, Edina; Mehmedagić, Aida; Hadzović, Sabira

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, drug release/dissolution from solid dosage forms has been the subject of intense and profitable scientific developments. Whenever a new solid dosage form is developed or produced, it is necessary to ensure that drug dissolution occurs in an appropriate manner. The pharmaceutical industry and the registration authorities do focus, nowadays, on drug dissolution studies. The quantitative analysis of the values obtained in dissolution/release tests is easier when mathematical formulas that express the dissolution results as a function of some of the dosage forms characteristics are used. This work discusses the analysis of data obtained for dissolution profiles under different media pH conditions using mathematical methods of analysis described by Moore and Flanner. These authors have described difference factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2), which can be used to characterise drug dissolution/release profiles. In this work we have used these formulas for evaluation of dissolution profiles of the conventional tablets in different pH of dissolution medium (range of physiological variations).

  20. Low Frequencies of Interference to EPA Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) Methods for Microbial Water Quality Monitoring in U.S. Rivers and Streams and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with U.S States and Tribes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts periodic and rotating, statistically based surveys of U.S. rivers and streams (National Rivers and Streams Assessment, NRSA), estuarine and Great Lakes nearshore coastal ...

  1. Journal Article: Average Method Blank Quantities of Dioxin-Like Congeners and Their Relationship to the Detection Limits of the U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs throughout the United States. Currently operating at 33 stations, NDAMN has, as one of its tasks, the dete...

  2. SMORN-III benchmark test on reactor noise analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Hirota, Jitsuya

    1984-02-01

    A computational benchmark test was performed in conjunction with the Third Specialists Meeting on Reactor Noise (SMORN-III) which was held in Tokyo, Japan in October 1981. This report summarizes the results of the test as well as the works made for preparation of the test. (author)

  3. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

  5. Evaluation of full-scope simulator testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, M P; Moray, N; Senders, J W; Biron, K [Human Factors North Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. Since existing methods are judged inadequate, conceptual bases for designing a system for licensing are discussed, and a method proposed which would make use of objective scoring methods based on data collection in full-scope simulators. A field trial of such a method is described. The practicality of such a method is critically discussed and possible advantages of subjective methods of evaluation considered. (author). 32 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Evaluation of full-scope simulator testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, M.P.; Moray, N.; Senders, J.W.; Biron, K.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. Since existing methods are judged inadequate, conceptual bases for designing a system for licensing are discussed, and a method proposed which would make use of objective scoring methods based on data collection in full-scope simulators. A field trial of such a method is described. The practicality of such a method is critically discussed and possible advantages of subjective methods of evaluation considered. (author). 32 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Test methods for evaluating hot cracking: Review and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon of hot cracking is described and discussed, and criteria for tests to assess hot cracking are elucidated. The historical development of hot cracking tests is traced from the 1930s to present, with categorization of tests into several types. It is noted that the number of tests developed continues to increase dramatically. The number of literature citations also increases with time, with few popular tests receiving a major share of interest. Predominant countries of origin of both tests and citations shift with time, and a few journals account for most of the published information. Reviews of hot cracking are reviewed, and it is predicted that modeling and other developing analytical techniques will contribute greatly to an increase in our understanding of hot cracking. 30 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  8. HEURISTIC METHODS FOR TEST SEQUENCING IN TELECOMMUNICATION SATELLITES

    OpenAIRE

    Boche-Sauvan , Ludivine; Cabon , Bertrand; Huguet , Marie-José; Hébrard , Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; The increasing complexity in telecommunication satellite payload design demands new test sequencing approaches to face the induced increase of validation complexity. In such a sequencing problem, each test requires specific payload equipment states at a dedicated temperature range. The industrial objectives are both to reduce the total time of tests and to keep the thermal stability of the payload. For solving ...

  9. Development of a new test method for Mineral Based Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Orosz, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    The well-known wedge splitting test, often used for characterizing brittle materials has been modified and adapted to testing MBC-reinforced concrete under splitting load. MBC (Mineral Based Composites) is a newly developed strengthening system for existing concrete structures where FRPs, mainly...... CFRP grids are externally bonded to the concrete surface by means of cementitious bonding agents. Crack development, crack patterns, crack opening displacement (COD) versus splitting load and fracture energy are investigated and evaluated. Development of a suitable test specimen and test setup has been...

  10. VHTRC experiment for verification test of H∞ reactivity estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Suzuki, Katsuo; Akino, Fujiyoshi; Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Fujisaki, Shingo; Takeuchi, Motoyoshi; Ono, Toshihiko

    1996-02-01

    This experiment was performed at VHTRC to acquire the data for verifying the H∞ reactivity estimation method. In this report, the experimental method, the measuring circuits and data processing softwares are described in details. (author)

  11. Appropriate statistical methods are required to assess diagnostic tests for replacement, add-on, and triage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, Andrew; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Bossuyt, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    To explain which measures of accuracy and which statistical methods should be used in studies to assess the value of a new binary test as a replacement test, an add-on test, or a triage test. Selection and explanation of statistical methods, illustrated with examples. Statistical methods for

  12. Methodic recommendations on ultrasonic testing of pipeline austenitic butt joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.S.; Lantukh, V.M.; Tajts, M.Z.; Ermolov, I.N.; Volkov, A.S.; Vyatskov, I.A.; Kesler, N.A.; Shchedrin, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Recommendations for the application of ultrasonic testing of austenitic welded joints of the Du 500 pipelines with the walls 32-34 mm thick made of steel Kh18N10T are developed. The optimal values of the main parameters of ultrasonic testing are determined experimentally. Principles of calculation of the optimal parameters are considered. 1 ref.; 4 figs

  13. Simulation and Verificaiton of Flow in Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    Simulations and experimental results of L-box and slump flow test of a self-compacting mortar and a self-compacting concrete are compared. The simulations are based on a single fluid approach and assume an ideal Bingham behavior. It is possible to simulate the experimental results of both tests...

  14. Automated ultrasonic testing--capabilities, limitations and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, L.S.; Mikesell, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for precision and reproducibility of ultrasonic testing during inservice inspection of nuclear reactors are both quantitatively and qualitatively more severe than most current practice in the field can provide. An automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) system, which provides a significant advancement in field examination capabilities, is described. Properties of the system, its application, and typical results are discussed

  15. Improving the Traditional Testing Methods in Learning Foreign Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachovski, Veno; Dimova, Slobodanka; Vaneva, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    A model for gathering oral answers as part of testing the speaker skills (i.e. command of language, native or foreign) is presented, as well as the software used in the experimentation. The research presented here is a result of more than six (6) months’ work with TESOL experts, based on 60 test...

  16. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  17. Statistical tests for equal predictive ability across multiple forecasting methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Daniel; Thyrsgaard, Martin

    We develop a multivariate generalization of the Giacomini-White tests for equal conditional predictive ability. The tests are applicable to a mixture of nested and non-nested models, incorporate estimation uncertainty explicitly, and allow for misspecification of the forecasting model as well as ...

  18. Methods for testing the logical structure of plant procedure documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, C.P.; Colley, R.; Fahley, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing EPRI project to investigate computer based methods to improve the development, maintenance, and verification of plant operating procedures. This project began as an evaluation of the applicability of structured software analysis methods to operating procedures. It was found that these methods offer benefits, if procedures are transformed to a structured representation to make them amenable to computer analysis. The next task was to investigate methods to transform procedures into a structured representation. The use of natural language techniques to read and compile the procedure documents appears to be viable for this purpose and supports conformity to guidelines. The final task was to consider possibilities of automated verification methods for procedures. Methods to help verify procedures were defined and information requirements specified. These methods take the structured representation of procedures as input. The software system being constructed in this project is called PASS, standing for Procedures Analysis Software System

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods B Appendix... FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. B Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods In addition to the method prescribed in § 178.604 of this subchapter, the following leakproofness test methods...

  20. Low-level and narm radioactive wastes. Model documentation: accounting model for PRESTO-EPA-POP, PRESTO-EPA-DEEP, and PRESTO-EPA-BRC. Methodology and users manual. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.; Hung, C.

    1987-12-01

    The accounting model was used as a utility model for assessing the cumulative health effects to the general population residing in the downstream regional water basin as a result of the disposal of LLW when a unit response analysis method is used. The utility model is specifically designed to assess the cumulative population health effects in conjunction with the PRESTO-EPA-POP, PRESTO-EPA-BRC, or PRESTO-EPA-DEEP model simply for the purpose of reducing the cost of analysis. Therefore, the assessment of the cumulative population health effects may also be conducted with one of the above appropriate models without the aid of this accounting model