Sample records for eosinophil specific ige

  1. Association of skin test reactivity, specific IgE, total IgE, and eosinophils with nasal symptoms in a community-based population study

    Droste, JHJ; Kerkhof, M; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B


    Background: Skin prick tests and measurement of specific IgE are important markers possible allergic causes of disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Objective: In this study we investigated the association of skin test reactivity and specific IgE positivity to five common aeroallergens separatel

  2. IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in atopic dermatitis.

    Liu, Fu-Tong; Goodarzi, Heidi; Chen, Huan-Yuan


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with specific immune and inflammatory mechanisms. Atopy is among the major features of the diagnosis criteria for AD but is not an essential feature. Thus, patients diagnosed with AD can be atopic or non-atopic. This review focuses on the role of IgE, mast cells, and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of AD. The known functions of IgE in allergic inflammation suggest that IgE and IgE-mediated mast cell and eosinophil activation contribute to AD, but direct evidence supporting this is scarce. The level of IgE (thus the degree of allergic sensitization) is associated with severity of AD and contributed by abnormality of skin barrier, a key feature of AD. The function of IgE in development of AD is supported by the beneficial effect of anti-IgE therapy in a number of clinical studies. The role of mast cells in AD is suggested by the increase in the mast cell number and mast cell activation in AD lesions and the association between mast cell activation and AD. It is further suggested by their role in mouse models of AD as well as by the effect of therapeutic agents for AD that can affect mast cells. The role of eosinophils in AD is suggested by the presence of eosinophilia in AD patients and eosinophil infiltrates in AD lesions. It is further supported by information that links AD to cytokines and chemokines associated with production, recruitment, and activation of eosinophils.

  3. Role of IgE in Eosinophilic Otitis Media

    Yukiko Iino


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM is an intractable otitis media characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellow effusion containing eosinophils. It mainly occurs in patients with bronchial asthma and is resistant to conventional treatments for otitis media. Here we discuss the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of EOM. In middle ear effusion, a significantly higher IgE level was detected in EOM patients than in control patients with common otitis media with effusion. This IgE level was significantly higher (about 10 fold than the serum IgE level. In addition, many IgE-immunopositive cells were found in the middle ear mucosa. The IgE staining was mainly observed on mast cell surfaces, but also partially in the cytoplasm of cells that appeared to be plasma cells. These results suggested that IgE is produced locally in the middle ear mucosa. The existence of high-level IgE may exacerbate eosinophilic inflammation in the middle ear. One of the most distinct characteristics of EOM is the high incidence of sensory hearing loss independent of age. High-tone hearing loss is more frequently found and more severe in EOM patients than in control patients with common chronic otitis media. The concentration of IgE in middle ear effusion significantly and positively correlated with bone conduction hearing levels at 2 kHz and 4 kHz in EOM patients. Overproduction of IgE locally in the middle ear may be related to the pathological condition of EOM and eventually cause inner ear damage.

  4. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    Kelly N Messingham

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen. Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1 To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2 To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16 with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils.

  5. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.


    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  6. Rapidly boosted Plasma IL-5 induced by treatment of human Schistosomiasis haematobium is dependent on antigen dose, IgE and eosinophils

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; Fofana, Hassan K. M.


    IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA) and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate if praz...

  7. Idiopathic obstructive eosinophilic enteritis with raised IgE: response to oral disodium cromoglycate

    Gilinsky, N. H.; Kottler, R. E.


    A 65-year-old man with a 20-year history of recurrent abdominal pain and vomiting was found to have eosinophilic enteritis affecting the muscularis layer of the distal ileum. Tests for malabsorption were negative. The IgE was raised but there was no evidence of an allergic predisposition. The symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiological abnormality responded to oral disodium cromoglycate. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6810329

  8. Rapidly boosted Plasma IL-5 induced by treatment of human Schistosomiasis haematobium is dependent on antigen dose, IgE and eosinophils.

    Shona Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate if praziquantel treatment of human schistosomiasis haematobium also boosts circulating IL-5, the immunological and parasitological factors that predispose to this, and the relationship between these and subsequent immunity to post-treatment re-infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The relationship between pre-treatment SWA-IgE, eosinophil number and infection intensity and the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost was investigated in a Malian cohort (aged 5-40 yrs, exposed to S. haematobium. Eotaxin levels were measured at 24-hr post-treatment as a proxy of eosinophil migration. The relationship between the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost and later eosinophil numbers and SWA-IgE levels (9-wk post-treatment was examined, then investigated in the context of subsequent levels of re-infection (2-yr post-treatment. Circulating IL-5 levels increased 24-hr post-treatment and were associated with pre-treatment infection intensity, SWA-IgE levels, eosinophil number, as well as 24-hr post-treatment eotaxin levels. 24-hr IL-5 levels were, in turn, significantly associated with eosinophil number and elevated SWA-IgE 9-wk later. These SWA-IgE levels were significantly associated with immunity to re-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Early IL-5 production after treatment-induced exposure to S. haematobium worm antigen is positively associated with antigen dose (infection intensity, IgE availability for arming of effector cells at time of treatment and subsequent eosinophil migration response (as indicated by eotaxin levels. The IL-5 produced is positively associated with increased downstream eosinophil number and increases in specific IgE levels, implicating this

  9. IgE basement membrane zone antibodies induce eosinophil infiltration and histological blisters in engrafted human skin on SCID mice.

    Zone, John J; Taylor, Ted; Hull, Christopher; Schmidt, Linda; Meyer, Laurence


    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by the deposition of IgG in the basement membrane zone, infiltration of eosinophils, and blister formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a potential role of IgE basement membrane antibodies in the histological findings of BP. LABD97 is a component of the shed ectodomain of bullous pemphigoid antigen 2. We have developed an IgE hybridoma to LABD97 antigen. This hybridoma was injected subcutaneously in SCID mice with engrafted human skin. A subcutaneous hybridoma secreting IgE antibodies developed. An IgE mouse hybridoma to trinitrophenyl was used as a control. Human grafts and mouse skin were examined grossly over 21 days, histologically, and immunopathologically at day 21 after injection of the hybridoma. A visible subcutaneous tumor developed in 10-14 days. Erythema and intense scratching developed 2-3 days before the tumor in test mice, but not in controls. At day 21, 16/16 test mice developed intense eosinophil infiltration and degranulation of the human mast cells within the grafts and 13/16 developed histological, but not clinically visible, basement membrane blisters. Human skin grafts of control mice and normal mouse skin on the test mice and control mice did not develop any histological abnormalities. IgE antibodies to LABD97 recapitulate the histological inflammatory process seen in BP.

  10. Intranasal sensitization with Blomia Tropicalis antigens induces allergic responses in mice characterized by elevated antigen-specific and non-specific serum ige and peripheral blood eosinophil counts Sensibilização intranasal com antígenos de Blomia tropicalis induz respostas alérgicas em camundos caracterizadas pela elevada contagem de soro IgE antígeno-específico e não específico e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico

    Fumiko Takeda


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential allergenicity of Blomia tropicalis (Bt antigen, IgE production of both specific and non-specific for Bt antigen was monitored in BALB/c mice after exposure to the antigen by nasal route. It was evidenced that B. tropicalis contains a functional allergen in its components. The allergenic components, however, when administered intranasally without any adjuvant, did not function to induce IgE response within a short period. On the other hand, intranasal inoculation of Bt antigens augmented serum IgE responses in mice pretreated by a subcutaneous priming injection of the same antigens. Inoculation of Bt antigen without subcutaneous priming injections induced IgE antibody production only when the antigen was continuously administered for a long period of over 24 weeks. Even when the priming injection was absent, the Bt antigen inoculated with cholera toxin (CT as a mucosal adjuvant also significantly augmented the Bt antigen-specific IgE responses depending on the dose of CT co-administered. The present study also demonstrated that Bt antigen/CT-inoculated mice showed increased non-specific serum IgE level and peripheral blood eosinophil rates without noticeable elevations of the total leukocyte counts. The immunoblot analysis demonstrated 5 main antigenic components reactive to IgE antibodies induced. These components at about 44-64 kDa position were considered to be an important candidate antigen for diagnosis of the mite-related allergy.Para avaliar a capacidade alergizante do antígeno da Blomia tropicalis (Bt a produção de IgE específica e não específica a antígeno Bt foi monitorada em camundongos BALB/c após exposição ao antígeno por via nasal. Foi evidenciado que Bt contem um alérgeno funcional em seus componentes. Os componentes alergênicos entretanto, quando administrados por via intra-nasal, sem qualquer adjuvante, não induzem resposta IgE durante um pequeno período. Por outro lado, a inocula

  11. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  12. The analysis of IgE and eosinophil determinations in acute and chronic urticaria children%儿童急、慢性荨麻疹 IgE 及嗜酸性粒细胞检测分析

    蔡德丰; 陆元善; 袁艳; 杨晓林; 吴跃平; 马东礼


    Objective To investigate IgE levels,eosinophil change and their clinical significance in acute and chronic urticaria children.Methods Respectively by chemiluminescence,enzyme-linked immunofluorescence and volume,conductivity and scattering (VCS)principle,serum total IgE levels,food,mites and plant-specific IgE levels and eosinophil percentages were determined,and the samples were collected from 77 acute and 46 chronic urticaria children.The differences between acute and chronic urticaria children were analyzed comparatively.Results There was no statistical significance in total IgE levels and positive rates to food,mites and plant-specific IgE levels between acute and chronic urticaria children with other allergic diseases(P >0.05),but there was a significantly higher total IgE level in chronic group than that in acute group in acute and chronic urticaria children without other allergic diseases (P 0.05).Conclusions Eosinophil percentage is not a good index for differential diagnosis in acute and chronic urticaria children.IgE has a certain significance for diagnosing acute and chronic urticaria without other allergic diseases.However,in other cases,serum level of total IgE is not a good index for differential diagnosis in acute and chronic urticaria children.Integrating case history,course of disease and clinical symptom can help with making a correct diagnosis.%目的:探讨儿童急、慢性荨麻疹 IgE 水平和嗜酸性粒细胞变化及其临床意义。方法分别用化学发光法、酶免荧光法和 VCS(体积、电导性和散射)原理检测77例急性和46例慢性荨麻疹患儿血清总 IgE 水平,食物、螨虫及植物类特异性 IgE 和嗜酸性粒细胞比例,比较急、慢性荨麻疹患儿间上述指标的差异。结果伴有其它过敏性疾病的急、慢性荨麻疹患儿间血清总 IgE 水平,食物、螨虫及植物类特异性 IgE 阳性率差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),但不伴有其它过敏性疾

  13. The predictive value of total serum IgE for a positive allergen specific IgE result


    Background: Measurement of total serum IgE and allergen specific IgE is often requested to assess possible allergy. As public awareness increases, so do requests for allergy assessment; unless there is a clear “allergen suspect” in the history, several allergen specific IgE requests may be made. This increases the likelihood of detecting borderline increases in allergen specific IgE of uncertain relevance, and has important cost implications for the service.

  14. Correlation of the severity of atopic dermatitis with absolute eosinophil counts in peripheral blood and serum IgE levels

    Dhar Sandipan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .

  15. Detection of specific IgE antibodies in parasite diseases

    Souza-Atta M.L.B.


    Full Text Available Activation of Th1 or Th2 cells is associated with production of specific immunoglobulin isotypes, offering the opportunity to use antibody measurement for evaluation of T cell function. Schistosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are diseases associated with Th2 activation. However, an IgE response is not always detected in these patients. In the present study we evaluated specific IgE antibodies to S. mansoni and L. chagasi antigens by ELISA after depletion of serum IgG with protein G immobilized on Sepharose beads or RF-absorbent (purified sheep IgG antibodies anti-human IgG. In schistosomiasis patients, specific IgE to SWAP antigen was demonstrable in only 10 of 21 patients (48% (mean absorbance ± SD = 0.102 ± 0.195 when unabsorbed serum was used. Depletion of IgG with protein G increased the number of specific IgE-positive tests to 13 (62% and the use of RF-absorbent increased the number of positive results to 20 (95% (mean absorbances ± SD = 0.303 ± 0.455 and 0.374 ± 0.477, respectively. Specific IgE anti-L. chagasi antibodies were not detected in unabsorbed serum from visceral leishmaniasis patients. When IgG was depleted with protein G, IgE antibodies were detected in only 3 (11% of 27 patients, and the use of RF-absorbent permitted the detection of this isotype in all 27 visceral leishmaniasis sera tested (mean absorbance ± SD = 0.104 ± 0.03. These data show that the presence of IgG antibodies may prevent the detection of a specific IgE response in these parasite diseases. RF-absorbent, a reagent that blocks IgG-binding sites and also removes rheumatoid factor, was more efficient than protein G for the demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  16. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    O`Connell, L.J. [ed.


    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  17. Correlations Between Allergen-Specific IgE Serum Levels in Patients With Ocular Allergy.

    Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães


    To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.

  18. Specific IgE density assay: A new reverse enzyme allergosorbent test-based procedure for the quantitative detection of allergen-specific IgE

    Paolo Falagiani


    Full Text Available A new method is described for the quantitative detection of IgE antibodies, based on IgE capture with a specific antibody, reaction with liquid-biotinylated allergens and biotinylated anti-IgE and immunoenzymatic development of the reaction (reverse enzyme allergosorbent test. Using a reference system based on the World Health Organization IgE International standard, this method determines total IgE in the range 2-100kU/L and specific IgE in the range 0.2-100 kU/L, from which the specific/total ratio, called 'specific IgE density', can be calculated. This procedure has been applied to the study of specific IgE in 23 sera from patients polysensitized to pollen and mite allergens: 11 with asthma and 12 with rhinitis. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were evaluted. Sera from asthmatic patients showed higher cumulative levels of specific IgE (mean density 57.7% than sera from rhinitic patients (mean density 32.6%. The clinical significance of specific IgE density in patients with multiple sensitizations is discussed.

  19. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M


    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities.

  20. Strongyloides stercoralis excretory/secretory protein strongylastacin specifically recognized by IgE antibodies in infected human sera.

    Varatharajalu, Ravi; Parandaman, Vijayalakshmi; Ndao, Momar; Andersen, John F; Neva, Franklin A


    The infective, microscopic Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in contaminated soil can penetrate human skin with the help of excretory/secretory proteases. These proteases play a critical role in infection and transmigration of the parasite to the intestines. Strongylastacin is similar to astacin (from the digestive gland of the crayfish Astacus astacus), a multi-domain protein with a signal peptide, a pro-enzyme, a catalytic domain containing the zinc binding consensus astacin family signature sequence HEXXHXXGFXHEXXRXDR, and a second conserved zinc binding motif SIMHY at N- terminal region. An EGF-1 like domain and a CUB domain are located at the COOH- terminal. In this study, the excretory/secretory Strongylastacin gene from S. stercoralis infective larval stage was cloned and expressed as a 45 kDa in Escherichia coli. Immunoblot analysis showed the presence of natural IgG antibodies against strongylastacin in six infected and six non-endemic normal sera. These findings were confirmed in an ELISA of 32 S. stercoralis infected and 32 presumed normal human sera; all contained natural anti-strongylastacin IgG antibodies. By contrast, IgE antibodies specific to strongylastacin were present in sera from individuals infected with S. stercoralis but not in uninfected control sera. Moreover, recombinant strongylastacin did not cross-react with IgE antibodies either from patients infected with filaria or patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilic (TPE) who had increased IgE antibodies. The present authors conclude that strongylastacin, an excretory/secretory antigen, elicits specific IgE antibodies in S. stercoralis infected humans. Non-specific IgG antibodies to strongylastacin are present in both infected and normal humans. Further investigation is needed to understand the role of the host protective response against strongylastacin.

  1. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    Sybilski AJ


    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  2. What is the source of serum allergen-specific IgE?

    Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Niederberger, Verena


    Immunoglobulin E (IgE), the key effector element in the induction and propagation of allergic diseases, is the least abundant antibody class. In allergic patients, class switch recombination to IgE in B cells is induced by allergen contact in conjunction with T cell interaction and a Th2 cytokine environment. With regard to future therapeutic approaches, the sites of IgE production in human subjects and the nature and characteristics of IgE-producing cells are of great interest. In this context, it has been shown that allergen-specific IgE levels can be boosted by contact with allergens via the respiratory mucosa of the nose. Also, it has been proposed that allergy effector organs (e.g., the nasal mucosa and the lung) may be important sites of IgE production in allergic patients. IgE-producing cells have also been found in the blood, but their numbers are extremely low. Transfer of specific sensitization during bone marrow transplantation indicates the presence of IgE-producing B memory cells or plasma cells also in the bone marrow. This review summarizes data on the induction of IgE production, IgE memory and the sites of IgE production in human allergic patients.

  3. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  4. Involvement of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants-specific IgE in pollen allergy testing

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yuma; Kawada, Michitsugu; Takato, Yoshiki; Shinagawa, Kiyomi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Saito, Koichiro


    Background Specific IgE antibodies against the low-molecular-weight carbohydrate antigen that does not bridge IgE molecules on mast cells are not associated with clinical symptoms. Cross reactivity can be determined in allergen-specific IgE detection assays when the carbohydrate structures between pollen allergens and plant derived food allergens are similar; in such cases, false positive results for grain or legume allergens can be reported for pollen allergic patients who are not sensitized to those allergens. This phenomenon arises owing to the presence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of CCD interference on the results for pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the general adult population and to perform CCD inhibition tests evaluating the involvement of CCD on samples positive to pollen allergens. Methods Serum samples from 322 subjects were tested for IgE antibodies to pollens and CCD. The research subjects were given questionnaires about pollen allergic symptoms to help assess the presence of allergies. Allergen IgE antibodies for Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, orchard grass, ragweed, MUXF, bromelain, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate oxidase (ASOD) were analyzed. Results It was observed that among individuals who tested positive to any of the pollen allergens, the positive ratio of CCD-specific IgE antibody was the highest for HRP (13.5%–50.0%). The results from the inhibition tests revealed that CCD was marginally present. Although IgE antibodies for cedar pollen did not react with CCD, IgE antibodies for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed might be detected by the presence of CCD. Conclusion The results of the inhibition tests revealed the obvious presence of CCD suggesting its involvement. Considering these findings, careful evaluation of patient IgE results should be performed for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed. PMID:28154803

  5. Immediate hypersensitivity to penicillins with negative skin tests--the value of specific IgE.

    Silva, R; Cruz, L; Botelho, C; Castro, E; Cadinha, S; Castel-Branco, M G; Rodrigues, J


    The determination of specific IgE in patients with history of penicillins hypersensitivity is simple, safe and widely available. The positive and negative predictive values of this determination, however, are not yet established. In order to evaluate them, we performed specific IgE determination and diagnostic drug challenges in a group of 22 patients with a clear history of immediate penicillins hypersensitivity but negative skin tests. In this sample, the positive and negative predictive values were 29% and 87%, respectively. This seems to indicate that a positive specific IgE is not enough to confirm the diagnosis, and further study is necessary.

  6. Distribution of total serum IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age, and their relationship to each other in a random sample of the Dutch general population aged 20-70 years

    Kerkhof, M; Droste, JHJ; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B


    To describe the distribution of serum total IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age and to study their relationship to each other, we measured serum total IgE and specific IgE (CAP) to house-dust mile, timothy grass, cat, birch, and Cladosporium in a random sample of 2496 subject

  7. Usefulness of Wheat and Soybean Specific IgE Antibody Titers for the Diagnosis of Food Allergy

    Takatsugu Komata


    Conclusions: We found a relationship between the probability of failed challenge and the concentration of IgE antibodies to both wheat and soybean. Age influences the relationship of allergen specific IgE levels to wheat and oral food challenge outcome. Younger children are more likely to react to low levels of specific IgE antibody concentration to wheat than older children.

  8. [Evaluation of allergen-specific IgE antibodies by a newly developed mast allergy system].

    Nakagawa, T; Iwasaki, E; Baba, M; Matsushita, T; Baba, S; Ito, K; Miyamoto, T


    MAST, which stand for multiple antigen simultaneous test, uses enzyme-linked anti-human IgE and chemiluminogenic substate to determine IgE. This system is characterized by simultaneous analysis of multiple allergen items, up to 35, together with total IgE determination. We evaluated usefulness of this MAST system using 191 serum samples obtained from patients with bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis. It was found that there were statistically significant correlations between IgE antibody quantification by MAST and RAST in 24 out of 35 allergen items, with correlation coefficients more than r = 0.60. These included Dermatophagoides farinae and pteronyssinus, Japanese cedar pollen, orchard grass, Alternaria, Candida as inhalant allergens; egg white, milk, soybeans, wheat and rice as food allergens. It was also evaluated how many allergen-specific IgE antibodies could be detected in one serum sample. More than six allergen-specific IgE antibodies were simultaneously detected in 33% of 191 cases, indicating the importance of multiple-allergen analysis. These results indicate the clinical usefulness of the MAST allergy system in detecting IgE antibodies in allergic subjects.

  9. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.


    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  10. [Histamine liberation and specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in parasitized patients].

    Moneo, I; Puente, S; Subirats, M; Ruiz, A; Lozano, M; González-Muñoz, M


    We studied 98 patients with different parasitosis, without clinical symptoms of mite sensitization, most of them coming from Guinea. Histamine release to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was performed using whole blood. Specific IgE to the same antigen was measured by EAST, as well as by an immunodot with the same antigen extract employed for the histamine release test. Finally, the EAST positive sera were studied by immunoblotting. The presence of specific IgE by EAST could be proved in 31 patients, but these antibodies were nor detected by dot, blot and histamine release. On the other hand, only two patients showed a positive histamine release test to D. pteronyssinus and in these two cases the EAST to mites was negative. There was no relation between total IgE levels and specific IgE to mites. The presence of mite-specific IgE showed a significative association to the parasite Trichuris trichiura (odds ratio 3.09). This fact suggest that the specific IgE values found in this population can reflect some cross-reaction between parasites and allergens. It is the author's opinion that the same study should be performed in european patients in order to test the relationship between mite-specific antibodies and the presence of parasites, specially of Trichuris trichiura.

  11. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim


    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.

  12. Specific regulator of eosinophil apoptosis: Siglec-8-new hope for bronchial asthma treatment

    FENG Yin-he; MAO Hui


    Objective It is known that Siglec-8 is selectively expressed on human eosinophils at a high level and mediates eosinophil apoptosis when crosslinked with its antibody.The aim of our review is to elucidate the molecular and biological characteristic of Siglec-8 and then discuss the function and possible mechanisms of Siglec-8 in eosinophils.Thereby,we will expand our understanding to the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis,and provide important clues to the treatment of asthma and other hyper-eosinophilic diseases.Data sources Most articles were identified by searching of PubMed online resources using the key term Siglecs.Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected.Results Siglec-8 is selectively expressed on human eosinophil and can specifically induce eosinophil apoptosis.Conclusion The restricted expression of Siglec-8 on human eosinophil and the rapid progress in understanding its role as cell signaling and activation of death receptors have made it an attractive target for treatment of asthma and other hyper-eosinophilic diseases.

  13. Effect of anti-IgE therapy on food allergen specific T cell responses in eosinophil associated gastrointestinal disorders

    Prussin Calman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-IgE therapy inhibits mast cell and basophil activation, blocks IgE binding to both FcεRI and CD23 and down regulates FcεRI expression by antigen (Ag presenting cells (APCs. In addition to its classical role in immediate hypersensitivity, IgE has been shown in vitro to facilitate Ag presentation of allergens, whereby APC bound IgE preferentially takes up allergens for subsequent processing and presentation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anti-IgE therapy, by blocking facilitated Ag presentation in vivo, attenuates allergen specific Th2 cell responses. Methods To test this hypothesis, food allergen specific T cell responses were examined during a 16-week clinical trial of omalizumab in nine subjects with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and food sensitization. Allergen specific T cell responses were measured using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dye dilution coupled with intracellular cytokine staining and polychromatic flow cytometry. Four independent indices of allergen specific T cell response (proliferation, Ag dose response, precursor frequency, and the ratio of Th2:Th1 cytokine expression were determined. Results Eight of the 9 subjects had measurable food allergen specific responses, with a median proliferation index of 112-fold. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was limited to CD4 T cells, whereas CD8 T cell did not proliferate. Food allergen specific responses were Th2 skewed relative to tetanus specific responses in the same subjects. In contradistinction to the original hypothesis, anti-IgE treatment did not diminish any of the four measured indices of allergen specific T cell response. Conclusions In sum, using multiple indices of T cell function, this study failed to demonstrate that anti-IgE therapy broadly or potently inhibits allergen specific T cell responses. As such, these data do not support a major role for IgE facilitated Ag presentation augmenting allergen specific T cell

  14. Small intestinal mucosa IgE plasma cells and specific anti-cow milk IgE in children with cow milk protein intolerance.

    Schrander, J J; Dellevoet, J J; Arends, J W; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R


    In a prospective study we looked for the presence of both IgE plasma cells in small bowel mucosa and specific serum IgE antibodies to cow milk in children suspected of cow milk protein intolerance. Thirty-one children with complaints possibly due to cow milk intolerance were submitted to two consecutive cow milk elimination/challenge tests. The diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance was confirmed in 16 of our 31 patients on the basis of two positive elimination/challenge tests. IgE plasma cells were found in nine of 16 patients with proven cow milk protein intolerance and in only one of the 15 patients without cow milk protein intolerance (p < .01). The RAST for cow milk was positive in six of 16 infants with cow milk protein intolerance and in two of the 15 other infants. Serum IgE level was of no value for the diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance. Neither of these diagnostic procedures was sensitive enough to be used as a screening test for cow milk protein intolerance. Furthermore, the relationship between specific IgE antibodies for cow milk and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells was poor: five of nine infants with cow milk protein intolerance and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells had negative RASTs for cow milk.

  15. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE in human Trichinellosis: Creating a new test

    Dević Marija


    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by the nematode from the genus Trichinella, predominantly Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis. If Trichinella infection is suspected, based on epidemiological link and clinical criteria within defined period of time, then finding of Trichinella-specific antibodies in the examined sera provides a definitive proof of the infection establishment. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE that could precede, coincide or follow IgG seroconversion not only confirms the infection existence, but could narrow the time frame in which the infection took place to a year or even less. Since there are no commercially available tests for monitoring the Trichinella-specific IgE presence during the course of the disease, our work was aimed to establish this kind of ELISA test. Specificity and sensitivity of so far described Trichinella-specific IgE ELISAs are not satisfying enough; two major problems are poor discrimination between positive and negative results and cross reactivity with sera of patients with different parasitic diseases. In this study, we have developed Trichinella-specific IgE Capture ELISA that overcomes problems with specificity and sensitivity and enables determination of Trichinella-specific IgE. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173047

  16. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef


    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  17. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A


    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings.

  18. Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome is not associated with local production of specific IgE in nasal mucosa.

    Becker, Sven; Rasp, Julia; Eder, Katharina; Berghaus, Alexander; Kramer, Matthias F; Gröger, Moritz


    Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is an eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal mucosa without evidence of an allergy or other nasal pathologies. Patients complain about perennial symptoms like nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itchiness and sneezing of the nose sometimes accompanied by hyposmia. The aim of the study was to better characterize NARES patients using immunoassay-biochip technology to examine serum and nasal secretion. Sera and nasal secretion of patients with NARES (perennial nasal symptoms, no evidence of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, negative SX1-Screening test and/or negative skin prick test, eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal secretion >200 ng/ml) were tested by immunoassay-biochip technology (ImmunoCAP(®) ISAC, Phadia). 112 different allergen components from 51 allergen sources were tested on the chip. Furthermore, serum and nasal secretion were tested for specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1 by fluorescence-enzyme-immunoassay (UniCAP(®), Phadia). Unrecognized systemic sensitization could be ruled out by negative ISAC results in sera of all patients. Testing of nasal secretion for allergen-specific IgE by ISAC chip technology was negative as well in all cases. In one patient, a systemic sensitization to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen TSST-1 was detectable but no allergen-specific IgE to TSST-1 was measurable in nasal secretion of any patient. The results demonstrate that NARES is not associated with local allergy (entopy) nor with a local inflammation driven by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1. Further studies are necessary to better understand the underlying mechanisms of NARES.

  19. Terasaki-ELISA for murine IgE-antibodies.I.Quality of the detecting antibody: production and specificity testing of antisera specific for IgE

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Radl, J.; Linde-Preesman, van der A.A.


    In order to develop an ELISA for the quantitative determination of murine IgE, antisera specific for murine IgE were prepared in the goat and rabbit. As immunogen, monoclonal IgE antibody mixtures of several allotypically different hybridomas were used. Before use, these antibodies were purified emp

  20. Indoor mite allergen levels, specific IgE prevalence and IgE cross-inhibition pattern among asthmatic children in Haikou,southern China

    ZHENG Yi-wu; CHEN Shi; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; ZHONG Nan-shan; Michael D Spangfort


    Background Haikou locates in tropical island with unique mite propagation.The aim of this stuy is to determine mite allergens levels in Haikou,and to investigate the prevalence of mite specific IgE-sensitization and IgE cross-reactivity between house dust mites.Methods Allergen and antigen concentrations against six mite species were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Specific IgE concentrations and cross-inhibitions were measured with ADVIA Centaur(R).Results Allergen or antigen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1 ),Blomia tropicalis (Blo t ) and Tyrophagus putrescentia (Tyr p) were detected in dust samples.Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1 ),Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d 2),and Acarus siro (Aca s ) were found in very few samples.Specific IgE tests showed high prevalence of sensitizations against all tested mites with high IgE levels to Der p,Der f,and Blo t.Storage mites,Blo t,Tyr p,Lep d,and Aca s,could inhibit Der p from 0 to 50%.Storage mites could inhibit Der f between 30% and 100%.Der p IgE could be inhibited by Der f with up to 90%,and vice versa.Der p could inhibit Blot from 40% to 80%.Blot was able to fully inhibit IgE binding to Lep d,Tyr p,and Aca s compared to partial inhibition by Der p.Conclusions Der p is the dominating mite and has the highest specific IgE prevalence among asthmatic children.Blo t represents an important source of storage mite sensitization and some patients may be independently sensitized to both Der p and Blo t.High prevalence of sensitization to Der f may be due to IgE-mediated cross-reactivity with Der p and Blo t.

  1. Prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies in hospital personnel

    Kaczmarek, RG; Silverman, BG; Gross, TP; Hamilton, RG; Kessler, E; ArrowsmithLowe, JT; Moore, RM

    Background: Rubber latex hypersensitivity is an important concern for health care workers. Purpose: The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, in collaboration with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, conducted a multicenter study of the prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies among

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy : a systematic review

    Klemans, R. J. B.; van Os-Medendorp, H.; Blankestijn, M.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Knol, E. F.; Knulst, A. C.


    The diagnostic accuracy of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut extract in diagnosing peanut allergy is suboptimal. Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to asses

  3. Prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies in hospital personnel

    Kaczmarek, RG; Silverman, BG; Gross, TP; Hamilton, RG; Kessler, E; ArrowsmithLowe, JT; Moore, RM


    Background: Rubber latex hypersensitivity is an important concern for health care workers. Purpose: The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, in collaboration with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, conducted a multicenter study of the prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies among Uni

  4. Control of IgE responses. III. IL-6 and IFN-alpha are isotype-specific regulators of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses in mice.

    Auci, D L; Kleiner, G I; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G


    The ability of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GmCSF) to regulate peak benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses was investigated. These responses were induced in BALB/c mice by ip injection of BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH; 10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel on Days 0, 21, and 42. On Day 44, or on Days 43, 44, and 45, mice were injected sc with varying doses of cytokine or anti-cytokine antibody. On Day 46, the numbers of BPO-specific AFC (IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA) in spleen were determined ex vivo in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Among the cytokines tested, only IL-6 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses in an isotype-specific fashion (60-90%). However, treatment of mice with anti-IL-6 also suppressed these responses, suggesting that IL-6 can either suppress or increase peak antigen specific IgE responses, depending upon its concentration. Among the cytokines tested, only IFN-alpha increased BPO-specific IgE AFC responses in an isotype-specific fashion. Since treatment with anti-IFN-alpha suppressed these responses, it appears that IFN-alpha is required to maintain peak antigen-specific IgE AFC responses. IL-4 or IFN-gamma nonspecifically suppressed responses of all isotypes. Treatment with anti-IL-4 also suppressed IgE responses, suggesting that this cytokine is required to maintain peak antigen specific IgE responses. Treatment with anti-IFN-gamma increased IgE responses, indicating that IFN-gamma suppresses peak antigen-specific IgE responses.

  5. Dynamics of plasma levels of specific IgE in chlorhexidine allergic patients with and without accidental re-exposure

    Opstrup, M S; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H J;


    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is an effective disinfectant, which may cause severe allergic reactions. Plasma level of specific IgE to chlorhexidine (ImmunoCAP(®) ) has high estimated sensitivity and specificity when measured within 6 months of allergic reaction, but knowledge of the dynamics over...... longer time periods is lacking and it is unknown whether levels fall below IgE. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamics of specific IgE in chlorhexidine allergic patients...... several years. RESULTS: Overall, 23 patients were included. Specific IgE within hours of reaction was available in eight patients and was >0.35 kUA/L in six of these. During allergy investigations, usually 2-4 months later, specific IgE was >0.35 kUA/L in 22 of 23 patients. In the following months...

  6. A Study on Specific IgE Against Candida Albicans in Atopic Dermatitis Patients Referred to Boali Hospital, Sari- Iran

    R.A. Mohammadpour, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Candida albicans (C. albicans as a micro flora of the human could be responsible for a continuous release of allergen and may be responsible for chronic atopic dermatitis (AD in sensitive patients. Thus, in this study, we analyzed AD patients for total IgE and specific IgE, against C. albicans.Materials and Methods: A total of 120 AD patients (male 52 and female 68 were introduced in this study. The age range varied from 4 months to 60 years (mean about 12.9 years. Serum total IgE was assayed by ELISA kit (RADIM. Solid phase was captured by sandwich ELISA assay, using a micro well format for the determination of serum specific IgE to C. Albicans was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, (ALerCHEK Allergen specific human IgE.Results: Of the 120 AD patients, 37 subjects (30.8% had total IgE higher than 100 IU/mL, 44 subjects (63.7 % 20-100IU/mL and 39 subjects (32.5% less than 20 IU/mL. 9 (7.5% of the patients had specific IgE against C. albicans. Among the patients who were positive for specific IgE to C. albicans, 6 (66.7% were women.Conclusion: The result of our study on serum total IgE in AD patients is concordant with other studies from different countries. In comparison to other studies, our AD patients showed less frequency of specific IgE against Candida albicans. The explanations for the variation in the results obtained in various studies could be due to the age of patients, severity of disease, difference in the antigen preparation, different methods for IgE analysis and total IgE level.

  7. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M


    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropeptide-mediated regulation of hapten-specific IgE responses in mice. II. Mechanisms of substance P-mediated isotype-specific suppression of BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses induced in vitro.

    Carucci, J A; Herrick, C A; Durkin, H G


    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that substance P (SP), injected into benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) sensitized mice at the peak of the benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE response, suppressed these responses in isotype-specific fashion within 48 h. These studies also showed that SP, but not neurotensin (NT), serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (SOM) or gastrin, suppressed BPO-specific memory IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses induced in vitro, also in isotype-specific fashion. To investigate the mechanisms by which SP suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses were induced in vitro, these responses were induced by culturing spleen cells from BPO-KLH sensitized mice for 5 days with BPO-KLH with or without whole SP, amino terminal SP (SP 1-4: Arg-Lys-Pro-Lys), or carboxy terminal SP (SP 8-11: Phe-Gly-Leu-Met). In some experiments, the SP receptor antagonist (D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9)-SP (D-SP) was included in culture. In other experiments anti-interferon monoclonal antibody (anti-IFN gamma mAb) was in culture. Whole SP and SP 8-11, but not SP 1-4, suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses induced in vitro. The suppression obtained was IgE isotype-specific and dose-dependent. Inclusion of SP receptor antagonist (D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9)-SP inhibited suppression of BPO-specific memory IgE AFC responses by SP or SP 8-11. The SP-mediated suppression of BPO-specific memory IgE responses appeared to involve interferon gamma (IFN gamma).

  9. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

    Patel Katir K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68% patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54% patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p p = 0.0001 tested positive for Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p = 0.0001. Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p = 0.0071 and p = 0.0001 respectively. Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p = 0.0001. Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia-specific

  10. HLA-DRB genotype and specific IgE responses in patients with allergies to penicillins


    Background Because of the pivotal role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules in regulating the immune response and their extensive polymorphism, it is not surprising that particular HLA class II alleles have been implicated in susceptibility to allergic diseases and in restriction of the IgE responses to a variety of allergens. We investigated the relationship between HLA-DRB genotype and allergies to various penicillins and explored HLA-DRB restriction of IgE responses to these derivatives of penicillin.Methods Radioallergosorbent test was used to examine 8 kinds of specific IgE antibodies (4 major and 4 minor antigenic determinants) in the sera of 248 patients with an allergy to penicillins and 101 healthy subjects without any allergic reaction. Some (113 patients and 87 healthy control subjects) were chosen from all subjects to type for HLA-DRB alleles by sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction.Results Compared with control subjects, a significantly increased frequency of DR9 was present in 77 patients with allergic reactions, with immediate hypersensitive reaction and with urticaria (P = 0.011; P = 0.019; P = 0.005 respectively). Conversely, a significantly decreased frequency of DR14.1 was found in 80 patients with positive IgE antibodies, with immediate reaction and with urticaria compared with control group (P = 0.024; P = 0.038; P = 0.038). A possible excess of HLA-DR17 was found in subjects who were responsive to benzylpenicilloyl compared with those were not (χ2 = 5.134, P = 0.023), and of HLA-DR4 was found in subjects responsive to phenoxomethylpenicillanyl (PVA, χ2 = 4.057, P = 0.044).Conclusion HLA-DRB gene may be involved in allergy to penicillins through modulating specific serum IgE to penicillins.

  11. IL-6 mediated isotype specific suppression of hapten specific IgE in serum of BPO-KLH sensitized mice: role of IFN alpha in maintainance of hapten specific IgE responses.

    Auci, D L; Miller, H; Chice, S M; Durkin, H G


    The ability of IL-6 or IFN alpha or antibodies to these cytokines to regulate serum levels of hapten specific immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG1, IgE, IgA) was studied in BPO-KLH (benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) sensitized BALB/c mice at the peak of a hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) response. To induce peak IgE responses, mice were injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) on days 0, 21, and 42. On day 44, mice were injected s.c. with IL-6 (100-1000 U), IFN alpha (1000-10,000 U), anti-IL-6 (100-1000 neutralizing units [NU]), or anti-IFN alpha (1000-10,000 NU). On day 46, levels of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE and IgA in serum were determined (ELISA). Data are expressed as micrograms/ml. IL-6 suppressed BPO specific IgE in serum in isotype specific fashion (to > 90%), increasing IgA (approximately 3 fold), and leaving IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IL-6 with anti-IL-6 increased serum IgE, and suppressed IgG1 (approximately 50%), with IgM and IgA unchanged, this suggests that IL-6 is an isotype specific suppressor of peak IgE responses and as such may be useful in the therapeutic management of atopic disease. IFN alpha treatment increased serum IgE levels (60%), and potentiated IgA responses (> 30 fold), with IgM and IgG1 unchanged. Since removal of endogenous IFN alpha with anti-IFN alpha decreased IgE levels (approximately 50%), increasing IgA, with IgM and IgG1 unchanged, this suggests a role for IFN alpha as an isotype specific helper of peak IgE responses and in maintenance of IgA responses.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific IgE is prevalent in asthma and is associated with disease severity.

    David L Hahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp biomarkers have been associated with asthma but Cp-specific IgE (Cp IgE has not been investigated extensively. Our objective was to investigate Cp IgE in community adult asthma patients. METHODS: (1 Prevalence of Cp IgE (measured by immunoblotting and Cp DNA (by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood, and biomarker associations with asthma severity. (2 Case-control studies of Cp IgE association with asthma using healthy blood donor (study 1 and non-asthmatic clinic patient (study 2 controls. RESULTS: Of 66 asthma subjects (mean age 40.9 years, range 5-75, 59% male, 45% ever-smokers 33 (50% were Cp IgE positive and 16 (24% were Cp DNA positive (P = 0.001 for association of Cp IgE and DNA. Cp IgE was detected in 21% of mild intermittent asthma v 79% of severe persistent asthma (test for trend over severity categories, P = 0.002. Cp IgE detection was significantly (P = 0.001 associated with asthma when compared to healthy blood donor controls but not when compared to clinic controls. CONCLUSIONS: Half of this sample of community asthma patients had detectable IgE against C. pneumoniae. Cp IgE was strongly and positively associated with asthma severity and with asthma when healthy blood donor controls were used. These results support the inclusion of Cp IgE as a biomarker in future studies of infectious contributions to asthma pathogenesis.

  13. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE in human Trichinellosis: Creating a new test


    Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by the nematode from the genus Trichinella, predominantly Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis). If Trichinella infection is suspected, based on epidemiological link and clinical criteria within defined period of time, then finding of Trichinella-specific antibodies in the examined sera provides a definitive proof of the infection establishment. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE that could precede, coi...

  14. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells.

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J


    Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Local IgE production in nonatopic nasal polyposis.

    Sheahan, Patrick


    INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) represents an eosinophilic T-helper 2 inflammatory response. Local production of IgE within nasal polyps (NPs) has been demonstrated, suggesting a role for local IgE in the pathogenesis of NP in atopic CRS patients. We hypothesized that local IgE specific to inhalant allergens may also play a role in the genesis of NP in nonatopic CRS patients. METHODS: Sinus and inferior turbinate tissue was obtained from nonatopic CRSwNP patients (n = 7), chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) patients (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 9) at the time of surgery. ImmunoCAP analysis (Phadia AB, Portage, MI) for 14 common inhalant antigens was performed on tissue homogenates to determine the antigen-specific response. RESULTS: Total IgE levels did not differ in sinus or turbinate tissue between CRSwNP, CRSsNP, or control patients. CRSwNP sinus tissue had higher levels of specific IgE for cockroach and plantain (p = .03) than other groups and elevated Alternaria IgE levels when compared with CRSsNP sinus tissue (p < .05). No significant differences were found for any of the other antigen-specific IgE levels. Fifty-seven percent of CRSwNP polyps demonstrated a polyclonal IgE response, whereas the other 43% had no demonstrable antigen-specific IgE. In contrast, only 17% of CRSsNP patients demonstrated a polyclonal response within sinus tissue, whereas 67% had no detectable antigen-specific IgE. There was no significant difference in levels of IgE in inferior turbinate tissue between the groups (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Localized mucosal IgE specific to common inhalant allergens appears to play a role in a subset of CRSwNP patients without evidence of systemic atopy.

  16. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)


    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  17. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J


    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs.

  18. Evidence of Infectious Asthma Phenotype: Chlamydia-Induced Allergy and Pathogen-Specific IgE in a Neonatal Mouse Model

    Patel, Katir K.; Webley, Wilmore C.


    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  19. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    Katir K Patel

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1 and adult (6 wks BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13 in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ. The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi, neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life

  20. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    Patel, Katir K; Webley, Wilmore C


    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  1. Occupational asthma, eosinophil and skin prick tests and serum total IgE values of the workers in a plant manufacturing rose oil.

    Akkaya, A; Ornek, Z; Kaleli, S


    This study was aimed to determine the rate of occupational asthma (OA) in workers at a rose extracting plant. Specific clinical tests of 52 workers, randomly chosen from four local rose extracting plants, were statistically compared with the test results of 30 local control subjects of similar age and sex as the plant workers, but who had never worked in such a plant. There were no significant differences in pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR) between the control and test groups. Significantly higher serum total IgE values (p rose allergen (Rosa domescena) was positive for 53.84% in the test subjects whereas only 5.33% positive test results were seen in the control group. We have demonstrated the involvement of Rosa domescena pollen in occupational allergy, through IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. It was concluded that the workers of a rose oil extracting plant are more susceptible to the rose pollens.

  2. Total and functional parasite specific IgE responses in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients exhibiting different clinical status

    Cazenave Pierre-André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increase of serum levels of IgE during Plasmodium falciparum infections in individuals living in endemic areas. These IgEs either protect against malaria or increase malaria pathogenesis. To get an insight into the exact role played by IgE in the outcome of P. falciparum infection, total IgE levels and functional anti-parasite IgE response were studied in children and adults, from two different endemic areas Gabon and India, exhibiting either uncomplicated malaria, severe non cerebral malaria or cerebral malaria, in comparison with control individuals. Methodology and results Blood samples were collected from controls and P. falciparum-infected patients before treatment on the day of hospitalization (day 0 in India and, in addition, on days 7 and 30 after treatment in Gabon. Total IgE levels were determined by ELISA and functional P. falciparum-specific IgE were estimated using a mast cell line RBL-2H3 transfected with a human Fcε RI α-chain that triggers degranulation upon human IgE cross-linking. Mann Whitney and Kruskall Wallis tests were used to compare groups and the Spearman test was used for correlations. Total IgE levels were confirmed to increase upon infection and differ with level of transmission and age but were not directly related to the disease phenotype. All studied groups exhibited functional parasite-specific IgEs able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro in the presence of P. falciparum antigens. Plasma IgE levels correlated with those of IL-10 in uncomplicated malaria patients from Gabon. In Indian patients, plasma IFN-γ , TNF and IL-10 levels were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations in all groups. Conclusion Circulating levels of total IgE do not appear to correlate with protection or pathology, or with anti-inflammatory cytokine pattern bias during malaria. On the contrary, the P. falciparum-specific IgE response seems to contribute to the control of parasites, since

  3. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo


    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Milk-specific immunoglobulin free light chain secretion is increased in children with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Chehade, Mirna; Vos, Arjan P.; Kleinjan, Marije; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A.


    Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an esophageal inflammatory disease caused by multiple food triggers. The mechanism by which foods trigger EoE is unknown. Milk is by far the most common trigger. Standard allergy tests to milk (skin prick tests, atopy patch tests, and serum milk-specific

  5. Specific IgE induced by Kudoa sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) antigens in BALB/c mice.

    Martínez de Velasco, G; Rodero, M; Cuéllar, C


    The majority of Kudoa species infect the somatic muscle of fish establishing cysts. As there is no effective method to detect infected fish without destroying them, these parasited fish reach the consumer. We have developed this work to determine whether this parasite contains antigenic compounds capable of provoking an immune response in laboratory animals, in order to consider the possible immunopathological effects in man by the ingestion of Kudoa infected fish. BALB/c mice were injected by the subcutaneous route with the following extracts suspended in aluminium hydroxide: Group 1 (black Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract), group 2 (white Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract). Specific IgE levels were measured by ELISA. IgE detected in both groups 1 and 2 showed the possible allergenic nature of some of the components of the parasitic extracts.

  6. Specific IgE induced by Kudoa sp. (Myxosporea: multivalvulida antigens in BALB/c mice

    Martínez de Velasco G.


    Full Text Available The majority of Kudoa species infect the somatic muscle of fish establishing cysts. As there is no effective method to delect infected fish without destroying them, these parasited fish reach the consumer. We have developed this work to determine whether this parasite contains antigenic compounds capable of provoking an immune response in laboratory animals, in order to consider the possible immunopathological effects in man by the ingestion of Kudoa infected fish. BALB/c mice were injected by the subcutaneous route with the following extracts suspended in aluminium hydroxide: Group 1 (black Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract, group 2 (white Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract. Specific IgE levels were measured by ELISA. IgE detected in both groups 1 and 2 showed the possible allergenic nature of some of the components of the parasitic extracts.

  7. Control of IgE responses. II. Isotype specific suppression of peak hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell responses in BPO-KLH sensitized mice after oral administration of muramyldipeptide or murabutide.

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G


    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB), a pyrogen free derivative of MDP, suppressed BPO specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. To induce IgE responses, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in alum on days 0 and 21, or on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). Mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA antibody forming cells (AFC) in lymphoid organs determined in ELISPOT assay. With either immunization schedule, oral treatment with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO specific IgE AFC responses within 48 h (65-100%). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype specific, dose dependent and transient. The suppression was also route specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB was given by gavage, and not when injected s.c. These results show that peak antigen specific IgE responses can be suppressed in vivo, in isotype specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. Pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic suppression of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  8. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L


    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  9. Specific IgE response to purified and recombinant allergens in latex allergy

    Arif Siti AM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, allergy to natural rubber latex has emerged as a major allergy among certain occupational groups and patients with underlying diseases. The sensitization and development of latex allergy has been attributed to exposure to products containing residual latex proteins. Although improved manufacturing procedures resulted in a considerable reduction of new cases, the potential risk for some patient groups is still great. In addition the prevalent cross-reactivity of latex proteins with other food allergens poses a major concern. A number of purified allergens and a few commercial kits are currently available, but no concerted effort was undertaken to evaluate them. Methods We studied 11 purified latex allergens, Hev b 1 to Hev b 10, and Hev b 13 along with several crude allergen extracts and two commercial ImmunoCAP assays to evaluate specific IgE antibody in the sera from latex allergic patients and controls. Health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical symptoms of latex allergy, spina bifida patients without latex allergy, and non-atopic health care workers have been studied. Results The results suggest that Hev b 2, 5, 6, and 13 together identified over 80 percent health care workers with latex allergy, while Hev b 6 along with Hev b 1 or 3 detected specific IgE antibody in all sera studied from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. The ImmunoCAP results using both Hev b 5 amplified and non-amplified closely agreed with the clinical diagnosis of latex allergy in health care workers and in spina bifida. Conclusion Although the purified allergens and crude extracts reacted diversely with IgE from different patient groups, the results indicated that use of certain combinations of purified recombinant antigens will be useful in commercial kits or in in-house assays for detecting specific IgE antibody in the sera. The results suggest that a combination of Hev b 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13 together

  10. Specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens and development of autoimmune disease

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk


    BACKGROUND: Allergic and autoimmune diseases have been suggested to be inversely associated. We investigated the association between atopy and development of any and specific types of autoimmune disease. METHODS: We included a total of 14,849 individuals from five population-based studies...... with measurements of atopy defined as specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. We followed the participants by linkage to the Danish National Patient Register (median follow-up time 11.2 years). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of autoimmune disease were estimated by Cox regression...

  11. Eosinophilic cystitis

    P.G. Nikkels; T.P.V.M. de Jong (Tom); P.C.M.S. Verhagen (Paul)


    textabstractWe describe four cases of eosinophilic cystitis in whom no specific cause could be found, and review the literature. Complaints at presentation included urgency, frequency, abdominal pain, and haematuria. In three patients the symptoms and ultrasound picture

  12. Establishment of a quantitative ELISA for the measurement of allergen-specific IgE in dogs using anti-IgE antibody cross-reactive to mouse and dog IgE.

    Okayama, Taro; Matsuno, Yukiko; Yasuda, Nobutaka; Tsukui, Toshihiro; Suzuta, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Masanori; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Olivry, Thierry; Masuda, Kenichi


    As IgE plays a pivotal role in type I hypersensitivity-mediated allergic diseases, it is valuable to measure absolute quantity of serum antigen-specific IgE for clinical and research purposes. Here we describe a novel ELISA system that enables quantification of antigen-specific IgE in ng/ml in dogs. A newly developed monoclonal antibody (CRE-DM) was shown to recognize canine and mouse IgE equally in a dose dependent manner, but it did not recognize canine IgG. The reactivity of CRE-DM to canine IgE was also confirmed by an inhibition ELISA using canine IgE as an inhibitor and the maximum inhibition rate was 91.3%. In order to know whether canine IgE specific to an allergen could be quantitatively measured with an ELISA using CRE-DM, we established a quantitative ELISA that could measure canine IgE recognizing Cry j 1, one of the major allergens of Japanese cedar pollen. In this ELISA, a standard curve was created by using concentration-predetermined Cry j 1-specific monoclonal mouse IgE. According to the standard curve, the concentration of Cry j 1-specific IgE in dogs that were experimentally sensitized to Japanese cedar pollen could be calculated and determined in ng/ml. The specificity of the Cry j 1-specific IgE ELISA using CRE-DM was also confirmed by inhibition ELISA using canine IgE as an inhibitor and the inhibition rate was 97.0%. Reproducibility of the ELISA in three independent assays was determined using groups of pooled canine sera whose Cry j 1-IgE titers ranged from 155.9 to 888.2 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-assay reproducibility was determined with coefficient of variation ranging between 3.1-5.2% and 2.2-8.0%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the ELISA utilizing CRE-DM was a specific, reliable and robust new laboratory test that could quantify absolute amount of antigen-specific IgE in canine serum. The ELISA will serve as a useful tool in the clinics to evaluate the change of serum IgE titers during anti-allergic treatments as well as

  13. 过敏性疾病患者血清总IgE和过敏原特异性IgE检测分析%Analysis of serum total IgE and allergen specific IgE detection in patients with allergic diseases

    万丽平; 熊连军; 丁大朋


    目的:研究过敏性疾病患者的血清总 IgE 浓度和过敏原特异性 IgE(sIgE)强度。方法测定过敏性疾病患者血清总 IgE 浓度和 sIgE 强度,测定外周血嗜酸性粒细胞比例。结果患者血清总 IgE 浓度与外周血嗜酸性粒细胞比例无相关性(r =0.398,P >0.05),血清总 IgE 和 sIgE 总强度呈正相关(r =0.543,P<0.01)。血清总IgE 与 sIgE 最大强度呈正相关(r=0.550,P<0.01),血清总 IgE 与血清 sIgE 种类数呈较弱正相关(r =0.329,P=0.01)。 sIgE 强度相同的患者,其吸入性和食入性抗原的血清总 IgE 浓度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),血清总 IgE浓度与患者年龄呈正相关(r=0.420,P<0.05)。结论过敏性疾病患者的血清总 IgE 随患者年龄增高而增高,其与 sIgE 总强度和最大强度相关,与 sIgE 种类相关较弱,与抗原的进入途径无关,与嗜酸性粒细胞比例无关。%Objective To investigate the levels of serum total IgE and allergen specific IgE(sIgE) in the pa‐tients with allergic diseases .Methods Serum total IgE and allergen specific IgE in the patients with allergic diseases were detected .The percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils was also detected .Results There was no significant correlation between serum total IgE and percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils(r = 0 .398 ,P> 0 .05) .Significant positive correlation was found between serum total IgE and total intensity of sIgE(r = 0 .543 ,P < 0 .01) .There was positive correlation between serum total IgE and the highest intensity of sIgE (r = 0 .550 ,P < 0 .01) .There was a weak positive correlation between serum total IgE and type number of sIgE(r= 0 .329 ,P= 0 .01) .In the patients with the same intensity of sIgE ,the serum total IgE level had no statistical difference between ingestion allergens and in‐halant allergens .Serum total IgE level was positively correlated with

  14. Airway inflammation and IgE production induced by dust mite allergen-specific memory/effector Th2 cell line can be effectively attenuated by IL-35.

    Huang, Chiung-Hui; Loo, Evelyn Xiu-Ling; Kuo, I-Chun; Soh, Gim Hooi; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Lee, Bee Wah; Chua, Kaw Yan


    CD4(+) memory/effector T cells play a central role in orchestrating the rapid and robust immune responses upon re-encounter with specific Ags. However, the immunologic mechanism(s) underlying these responses are still not fully understood. To investigate this, we generated an allergen (major house dust mite allergen, Blo t 5)-specific murine Th2 cell line that secreted IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IL-9 or TNF-α, upon activation by the cognate Ag. These cells also exhibited CD44(high)CD62L(-) and CD127(+) (IL-7Rα(+)) phenotypes, which are characteristics of memory/effector T cells. Experiments involving adoptive transfer of this Th2 cell line in mice, followed by three intranasal challenges with Blo t 5, induced a dexamethasone-sensitive eosinophilic airway inflammation. This was accompanied by elevation of Th2 cytokines and CC- and CXC-motif chemokines, as well as recruitment of lymphocytes and polymorphic mononuclear cells into the lungs. Moreover, Blo t 5-specific IgE was detected 4 d after the last intranasal challenge, whereas elevation of Blo t 5-specific IgG1 was found at week two. Finally, pulmonary delivery of the pVAX-IL-35 DNA construct effectively downregulated Blo t 5-specific allergic airway inflammation, and i.m. injection of pVAX-IL-35 led to long-lasting suppression of circulating Blo t 5-specific and total IgE. This model provides a robust research tool to elucidate the immunopathogenic role of memory/effector Th2 cells in allergic airway inflammation. Our results suggested that IL-35 could be a potential therapeutic target for allergic asthma through its attenuating effects on allergen-specific CD4(+) memory/effector Th2 cell-mediated airway inflammation.

  15. A Photo-immobilized Allergen Microarray for Screening of Allergen-specific IgE

    Kunio Ohyama


    Full Text Available We developed an in vitro system to diagnose allergy using an allergen microarray and photo-immobilization technique. Photo-immobilization is useful for preparing the allergen microarray because it does not require specific functional groups of the allergen and because any organic material can be immobilized by a radical reaction induced by photo-irradiation. To prepare the plates, allergen solutions were mixed with polymer and a bis- azidophenyl derivative, a photo-reactive cross-linker, the mixtures were micro-spotted on the plate, and the droplets were dried. The plate was irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp for immobilization. For the assay, human serum was added to the microarray plate. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE adsorbed on the micro- spotted allergen was detected by peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgE antibody. The chemiluminescence intensities of the substrate decomposed by the peroxidase were detected with a sensitive CCD camera. All allergens were immobilized by this method and used to screen allergen-specific IgE.

  16. Identification and characterization of human eosinophil cationic protein by an epitope-specific antibody.

    Boix, E; Carreras, E; Nikolovski, Z; Cuchillo, C M; Nogués, M V


    The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a basic secretion protein involved in the immune response system. ECP levels in biological fluids are an indicator of eosinophil-specific activation and degranulation and are currently used for the clinical monitoring and diagnosis of inflammatory disorders. A polyclonal epitope-specific antibody has been obtained by immunizing rabbits with a conjugated synthetic peptide. A sequence corresponding to a large exposed loop in the human ECP three-dimensional structure (D115-Y122) was selected as a putative antigenic epitope. The antibody was purified on an affinity column using recombinant ECP (rECP) as antigen. The antibody (D112-P123 Ab) specifically recognizes rECP and its native glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms in plasma, granulocytes, and sputum. The antibody detects as little as 1 ng of rECP, can be used both in reducing and nonreducing conditions, and does not cross-react with the highly homologous eosinophil-derived neurotoxin or other proteins of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily.

  17. Eosinophilic colitis

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy


    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  18. Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population

    Mosbech, Holger; Tang, Line; Linneberg, Allan


    BACKGROUND: Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. METHODS: Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross......% of those with reactions had IgE to venom. In addition, 12% with IgE to venom were double-sensitized (DS), i.e. to both bee and wasp venom. Among DS IgE to major venom allergens, rApi m 1, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 were negative and of no help in 31%, but 59% could be identified as likely sensitized to bee...... are frequent, but in most cases, these are not seen in the same individual. In DS individuals, measurements of IgE to major allergens can be helpful in some but not all cases and additional analyses are needed. IgE to CCDs may have some clinical relevance....

  19. Effect of anti-IgE therapy on food allergen specific T cell responses in eosinophil associated gastrointestinal disorders

    Foster, Barbara; Foroughi, Shabnam; Yin, Yuzhi; Prussin, Calman


    .... To test this hypothesis, food allergen specific T cell responses were examined during a 16-week clinical trial of omalizumab in nine subjects with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and food sensitization...

  20. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children

    Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben;


    BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid......, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...

  1. Control of IgE responses. 4. Isotype-specific suppression of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses and of BPO-specific IgE in serum by muramyldipeptide or murabutide after administration to mice by gavage.

    Auci, D L; Carucci, J A; Chice, S M; Smith, M C; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G


    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB) suppressed hapten-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. IgE responses were induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum) on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously with varying concentrations of MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). The mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO-specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA AFC in various lymphoid organs were determined in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. In addition, levels of BPO-specific IgE in serum were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as AFC/10(7) cells or as micrograms/ml. Feeding with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses and serum levels of BPO-specific IgE within 48 h (day 46) (65-100% and approximately 50% decrease, respectively). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype-specific, dose-dependent and transient. The suppression was also route-specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB were given by gavage, and not when injected subcutaneously. These results show that peak antigen-specific IgE responses can be downregulated in vivo, in isotype-specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, MDP and MB, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. The mechanism of suppression probably involves the modulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunity. The clinical implications are that pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic downregulation of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE-mediated diseases in man such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  2. 肠息肉和肠易激综合征患者血清过敏原特异性 IgE 抗体临床分析%Allergen Specific Serum IgE Antibody in Patients with Intestinal Polyp and Irritable Bowel Syndrome:A Clinical Analysis

    魏瑰红; 姜虹; 姜丽萍; 王佳


    Background:Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is the most common gastrointestinal allergic disease,however,allergy also accounts for some gastrointestinal functional disorders. The correlation between allergic factor and intestinal polyp is not clarified. Aims:To investigate the correlation of allergic factor with intestinal polyp and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). Methods:Ninety-five inpatients including 60 cases of intestinal polyp and 35 cases of IBS admitted from May 2012 to April 2014 were recruited;95 healthy volunteers were served as controls. Serum samples were collected to test specific IgE antibodies derived from 20 common inhalant and alimentary allergens by EUROIMMUN blotting test. Results:The positivity rates of allergen specific serum IgE antibodies in intestinal polyp group,IBS group and both two groups were 56. 67% ,74. 29% and 63. 16% ,respectively,all were significantly higher than that in control group(6. 32% ,P all 0. 05). In all the 20 allergens tested,the positivity rates of Dermatophagoides,roach,crab,sea fish,freshwater fish,shrimp,and egg albumin specific serum IgE antibodies were significantly higher in patients group than in control group( P 0.05)。患者组血清尘螨组合、蟑螂、蟹、海鱼组合、淡水鱼组合、虾、鸡蛋白特异性 IgE 抗体阳性率显著高于对照组(P <0.05),以蟹、海鱼组合、尘螨组合为著。结论:过敏因素与肠息肉和 IBS 之间可能存在一定关联。

  3. A Non-Frequently Considered Diagnosis of Dysphagia; Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Mehmet Ağın


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis is infiltration of esophagus mucosa by eosinophil leucocyte. It is rarely observed in children and the symptoms are similar to gastroesophageal reflux. This case, which was applied esophagus balloon dilatation in the pediatric surgery due to dysphagia and diagnosed eosinophilic esophagitis, was presented in order to attract attention to the approach to the child with dysphagia. Total IgE=834 IU/mL and specific IgE (-, Fx5 (- was found negative. In the upper GIS endoscopy, it was observed that esophagus mucosa was pale, its structure was hard and its motility was disordered and a couple milimetric white lesions were observed as well. In the esophagus biopsy materials, it was observed that the eosinophil infiltration in the mucosa was 60%. With the diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis, the case was started on oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. In the polyclinic control of the case after a week, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in the complaints about dysphagia and in the one-month control the complaints were all gone. In the symptoms similar to dysphagia and reflux, especially if the case is not responding to gastroesophageal reflux treatment, the diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis should absolutely be considered

  4. Disagreement between skin prick test and specific IgE in young children

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, BLK; Følsgaard, N V


    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) and measurement of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) level are important tools for the clinician to diagnose allergic sensitization. However, little is known about the agreement between the two methods in young children. METHODS: SPT and sIgE levels were assessed...... simultaneously for 16 common inhalant and food allergens at age ½, 1½, 4, and 6 years in 389 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000 ) at-risk birth cohort. Agreement between the two methods for diagnosing inhalant and food allergic sensitization at the four age...... points was analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inhalant allergen sensitization increased during childhood diagnosed by both sIgE levels (0.6% to 4.2% to 18.1% to 24.8%, P

  5. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.


    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  6. Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice.

    Brightbill, Hans D; Jeet, Surinder; Lin, Zhonghua; Yan, Donghong; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Martha; Nguyen, Allen; Yeh, Sherry; Delarosa, Donnie; Leong, Steven R; Wong, Terence; Chen, Yvonne; Ultsch, Mark; Luis, Elizabeth; Ramani, Sree Ranjani; Jackman, Janet; Gonzalez, Lino; Dennis, Mark S; Chuntharapai, Anan; DeForge, Laura; Meng, Y Gloria; Xu, Min; Eigenbrot, Charles; Lee, Wyne P; Refino, Canio J; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wu, Lawren C


    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Although neutralization of serum IgE with IgE-specific antibodies is in general an efficacious treatment for allergic asthma, one limitation of this approach is its lack of effect on IgE production. Here, we have developed a strategy to disrupt IgE production by generating monoclonal antibodies that target a segment of membrane IgE on human IgE-switched B cells that is not present in serum IgE. This segment is known as the M1' domain, and using genetically modified mice that contain the human M1' domain inserted into the mouse IgE locus, we demonstrated that M1'-specific antibodies reduced serum IgE and IgE-producing plasma cells in vivo, without affecting other immunoglobulin isotypes. M1'-specific antibodies were effective when delivered prophylactically and therapeutically in mouse models of immunization, allergic asthma, and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, likely by inducing apoptosis of IgE-producing B cells. In addition, we generated a humanized M1'-specific antibody that was active on primary human cells in vivo, as determined by its reduction of serum IgE levels and IgE plasma cell numbers in a human PBMC-SCID mouse model. Thus, targeting of human IgE-producing B cells with apoptosis-inducing M1'-specific antibodies may be a novel treatment for asthma and allergy.

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo


    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  8. Dansylglycine, a fluorescent probe for specific determination of halogenating activity of myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    Bertozo, Luiza de Carvalho; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias


    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are enzymes present in neutrophil and eosinophil leukocytes, respectively. Here, we present the development of a sensitive and specific assay for determination of the halogenating enzymatic activity of MPO and EPO based on the electrophilic attack of HOCl and HOBr on aromatic ring of dansylglycine (DG). We found that the intrinsic fluorescence of DG was promptly depleted by the action of these acids. In the presence of the enzymes, the fluorescence bleaching was dependent of chloride (Cl(-)) and bromide (Br(-)), which makes the assay able to distinguish the halogenating from the peroxidase activity. A linear correlation was obtained between the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and the fluorescent decay. Similarly, the enzyme activity was measured by keeping constant H2O2. The method was applied for studding MPO/EPO specific inhibitors as 5-fluortryptamine (reversible inhibitor) and 4-hydroxybenzhydrazide (irreversible inhibitor). Differently of the taurine chloramine/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine assay, which is among the most used technique, the dansylglycine assay was able to differentiate these inhibitors based on their kinetic behavior. In conclusion, this assay can differentiate the peroxidase and halogenating activity of MPO and EPO. Moreover, the method is adequate for real-time measurement of the production of HOCl and HOBr. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Local production and detection of (specific) IgE in nasal B-cells and plasma cells of allergic rhinitis patients

    J.G. Vinke; L.W. Severijnen; W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A. Kleinjan (Alex)


    textabstractAllergic diseases are characterized by allergic complaints in the shock organ and specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E in serum. Literature data indicate that the nasal mucosa itself could produce at least a large part of the specific IgE in allergic rhinitis patie

  10. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl


    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance......, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T-1), was repeat skin tested and had s......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  11. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran

    Laleh Sharifi


    Full Text Available Background: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group.Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550 completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups.Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7% had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6% of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5% unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29 OR=4.059. Nine (34.6% workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8% unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41 OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5. Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201.Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  12. A protein allergen microarray detects specific IgE to pollen surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial allergen extracts.

    Katinka A Vigh-Conrad

    Full Text Available Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens.We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts. To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences.These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time, and facilitate genetic studies on pollen allergy.

  13. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares


    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. PMID:27812635

  14. Specific IgG Antibodies (Total and Subclasses against Saffron Pollen: A Study of Their Correlation with Specific IgE and Immediate Skin Reactions

    Abdol-Reza Varasteh


    Full Text Available Saffron (Zaaferan, botanical name Crocus sativus, is the most expensive spice in the world. It is derived from the dried stigma and pistil of the purple saffron crocus flowers. Iran is the largest saffron producer accounting for more than 80% of the world's production. Saffron contains an aeroallergen that causes reactive respiratory allergic reactions in atopic subjects. IgG antibody to allergens in the serum of allergic patients is not routinely measured. In this study in order to find out more about mechanism of allergy against saffron pollen, specific antibodies (IgE and IgG, total and subclasses in atopic subjects were assayed. We used an ELISA assay for measuring specific IgE and IgG against saffron pollen extract in the sera of 38 atopic subjects (test group and 20 non allergic subjects (control group. The optical densities were compared between allergic subjects and non-allergic individuals. The prick test with saffron pollen extract was used to evaluate the cutaneous and specific antibody responses in the allergic subjects. The correlation was determined by statistical analysis. Specific saffron pollen IgE and IgG subclasses were found significantly higher in the allergic subjects than the control group. The immediate skin reaction was found positive in 70% of the test group. We report here, the existence of a positive correlation between specific IgE and skin reaction by prick test in atopic subjects (R=0.433. A negative correlation between specific IgE and IgG4 subclass was also found (R=-0.576. These data may be useful to understand the mechanism of allergy to saffron and may help in clarifying clinical manifestations and to prevent IgE production as well as therapeutic application.

  15. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Marcucci Francesco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  16. Renaturation of blotted allergens increases the sensitivity of specific IgE detection.

    Muro, M D; Fernández, C; Moneo, I


    Several authors have demonstrated that renaturation is an essential step for the appropriate recognition of blotted proteins. The use of nonionic detergents has been described as a useful alternative to enhance the antigenicity in immunoblotting, although elution from proteins by detergents has been observed. To measure the influence of different factors on the sensitivity of specific IgE by immunoblotting, we used twenty human sera from atopic patients who were allergic or nonallergic to a common, reliable allergen (grass pollen mixture). The use of Nonidet-P40 was found to be a useful alternative for the renaturation of the allergens. No elution from the membrane was found when employing this detergent, even at high concentrations (3%), and its use gave better sensitivity than methanol. On the other hand, we detected that methanol possessed renaturing properties. A transfer method using diffusion instead of electric transfer gave the best results and two membranes could be obtained from each gel. Using this method, we found that after NP-40 incubation of the membrane, the use of bovine albumin could be omitted as blocking agent and that its use had even deleterious effects.

  17. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskjær; Husby, Steffen


    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is characterised by age-dependent symptoms mimicking gastrooesophageal reflux disease, a distinct endoscopic appearance and a histological picture with extensive infiltration of eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is more frequently seen in m...

  18. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons


    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  19. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S


    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of specific IgE antibodies to major and minor antigenic determinants in sera of penicillin allergic patients

    赵永星; 乔海灵


    Objective To investigate the mechanism (s) of penicillins allergic reaction.Methods The radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was used to detect 9 specific IgE antibodies, including major antigenic determinants: benzylpenicilloyl (BPO), ampicilloyl (APO), amoxicilloyl (AXO), phenoxomethylpenicilloyl (PVO) and flucloxacilloyl (FLUO), and minor antigenic determinants: benzylpenicillanyl (BPA), amoxicillanyl (AXA), 6-aminopenicillanic (APA) and phenoxomethylpenicillany (PVA), in the sera of 32 penicillin allergic patients. The relationship between specific IgE antibodies and penicillins chemical structures was studied by radioallergosorbent inhibition test.Results Nineteen of 32 patients (59.4%) were RAST positive, among whom, five cases were positive only to one or two antigenic minor determinants, and three cases were positive only to one or three major antigenic determinants. The remaining 11 patients were positive not only to major antigenic determinants but also minor antigenic determinants. In 9 specific IgE antibodies, the positive rate of PVA-IgE was the highest (34.38%), followed by BPO-IgE (31.25%). The positive rate of FLUO-IgE was the lowest (15.63%). Of the total patient group, 53.13% were positive to one or more minor antigenic determinants, while 37.5% (12/32) were positive to one or more major antigenic determinants. The percentage of patients with urticarial reactions who were positive to minor antigenic determinants (63.16%) was significantly higher than observed in the anaphylactic shock group (38.5%, P<0.05).Conclusions The minor antigenic determinant was important in allergic reaction. The combining sites of the specific IgE antibodies were likely to be the side-chain of drug or the overwhelming drug molecule.

  1. A computational approach to the description of individual immune responses. IgE and IgG-subclass allergen-specific antibodies formed during immunotherapy

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O;


    in the IgG4 antibody response, and for other antigens the opposite was true, indicating a regulatory mechanism between the IgE and the IgG4 synthesis. The IgE immune response to a number of antigens, including the major allergens before the start of immunotherapy, was quantitatively diminished during...... the period of immunotherapy when IgG1 was present early (week 12) in the period, and for other antigens there was a rise in IgE without an early IgG1 antibody response. This suggests that IgG1 can have a regulating influence on the IgE synthesis. Finally, we have found that IgE antibodies with specificities...

  2. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with multiple gastric cancer.

    Otowa, Yasunori; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Urade, Takeshi; Chono, Teruhiro; Morimoto, Haruki; Yokoyama, Kunio; Hirata, Kenro; Kawamura, Shiro; Shimada, Etsuji; Fujita, Masayuki


    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an inflammation of the digestive tract that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. There are no specific symptoms, and are related to the layer in which eosinophilic infiltration is observed. A 69-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of general malaise, diarrhea, and dysgeusia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed reddish elevated lesions that were edematous all over the gastric mucosa. In addition, three tumors were also observed. The biopsies of the reddish elevated mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration and tubular adenocarcinoma from the tumors. Colonoscopy showed abnormal reddish elevated mucosa. The biopsies from the reddish elevated mucosa showed eosinophilic infiltration. From the abdominal contrast computed tomography scan, tumor stain was seen in the anterior wall of the gastric body. No ascites, intestinal wall thickening, or lymph node swelling were found. A slight elevation in the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), 480 IU/ml, was found from the laboratory test results; other laboratory results were within normal limits including the number of peripheral eosinophils. No specific allergen was found from the multiple antigen simultaneous test and from the skin patch test. The parasitic immunodiagnosis was negative. He was diagnosed with EG associated with gastric cancer and underwent total gastrectomy, regional lymph node dissection with reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method. He was prescribed prednisolone after the operation and showed a good clinical response. There are many case reports on EG, but none of them were associated with cancer. We encountered a case of EG associated with multiple gastric cancer; the patient underwent total gastrectomy.

  3. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William


    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: a systematic review.

    Klemans, R J B; van Os-Medendorp, H; Blankestijn, M; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C


    The diagnostic accuracy of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut extract in diagnosing peanut allergy is suboptimal. Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to assess the diagnostic value of sIgE to peanut components in diagnosing peanut allergy. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results were subsequently screened for in- and exclusion criteria. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using a standardized quality assessment tool (QUADAS-2). Data on sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were extracted or calculated for a descriptive analysis. Twenty-two studies were eligible, of which 21 studies in paediatric populations. Most studies reported on sIgE to peanut extract (15) and sIgE to Ara h 2 (12), followed by SPT (9) and sIgE to Ara h 1 (7). All studies were at risk of bias or caused applicability concerns on at least one item of the quality assessment tool. The best combination of diagnostic accuracy measures of all diagnostic tests was found for sIgE to Ara h 2. This finding was independent of geographical location. Compared to SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was mainly superior in diagnosing peanut allergy in case of a positive test result. Worst diagnostic accuracy measures were found in general for sIgE to Ara h 8 and sIgE to Ara h 9. sIgE to Ara h 2 showed the best diagnostic accuracy of all diagnostic tests to diagnose peanut allergy. Compared to the currently used SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was superior in diagnosing peanut allergy and should therefore replace these tests in daily clinical practice, especially in children.

  5. IgE low affinity receptor (CD23) expression, Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in Thai uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria patients.

    Kumsiri, Ratchanok; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Krudsood, Srivicha; Maneerat, Yaowapa


    Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) specific IgE in the form of immune complexes crosslinking the low-affinity receptor (CD23) on monocyte results in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the roles of these parameters in severity and immune protection are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the association between CD23 expression on monocytes, plasma soluble CD23 (sCD23), total IgE, malaria-specific IgE and IgG, and TNF-α levels in P. falciparum infected patients. We evaluated 64 uncomplicated (UC) and 25 severe patients (S), admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, and 34 healthy controls (C) enrolled in 2001. Flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated that trends of the CD23 expression, levels of sCD23 and specific IgE were higher in the S group as compared to those in the UC and C groups. Plasma levels of P. falciparum specific IgE in the UC (p=0.011) and S groups (p=0.025) were significantly higher than those in C group. In contrast the TNF-α levels tended to be higher in the UC than those in the S (p=0.343) and significantly higher than those in C (p=0.004) groups. The specific IgG levels in UC were significantly higher than those in S and C (pIgE-IgG complexes (r=-0.715, p=0.002). Significant positive correlations between levels of specific IgE and TNF-α (r=0.575, p=0.010); and sCD23 (r=0.597, p=0.000) were also observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD23 expression and malaria-specific IgE levels may be involved in the severity of the disease while TNF-α and the malaria-specific IgG may correlate with protection against falciparum malaria.


    Zhang Jizeng; Chen Jumei; Zhang Chenguang


    Objective: To research the formative mechanism of eosinophilic lymphogranuloma (ELG), investigate its essence, provide morphologic base for treatment.Methods: The biopsies and surgical specimens of 41 cases were studied with the light microscope, fluorescein microscope, electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods. In these cases, 10 cases levels of serum IgE were measured, it was high level, and 11 cases cured with radiotherapy. Results: The lesions mainly included proliferation of both lymph tissues and post-capillary venues and formed many new scattered lymph follicles.Marked hyperplasia of plasmocytes and mast cells and diffusible infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in tissues. The eosinophilic granulocytes were obviously degranulated. When stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antiserum IgE, the cells showed yellow-green fluorescence, which showed reticular shape in the germinal center of lymph follicles. The swollen tumor-like masses could disappear with radiotherapy, and the eosinophilic granulocytes count in circulation and level of serum IgE reduced to normal.Conclusion: The serum IgE is high lever and it is positive reaction in the tissues strongly. It is accord with allergic granuloma. The lymphocytes are allergenic ambocepotor cells, the x-ray can kill them and stop allergenic agent, the illness was recovered.

  7. Measurement of specific IgE antibodies to Ses i 1 improves the diagnosis of sesame allergy.

    Maruyama, N; Nakagawa, T; Ito, K; Cabanos, C; Borres, M P; Movérare, R; Tanaka, A; Sato, S; Ebisawa, M


    The number of reported cases of allergic reactions to sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) has increased significantly. The specific IgE tests and skin prick tests presently available for diagnosis of sesame allergy are all based on crude sesame extract and are limited by their low clinical specificity. Thus, oral food challenge (OFC) is still the gold standard in the diagnosis. The aim was to identify the allergen components useful to diagnose sesame-allergic children with the goal to reduce the number of OFCs needed. Ninety-two sesame-sensitized children were consecutively enrolled and diagnosed based on OFC or convincing history. Specific IgE to purified native 11S globulin (nSes i 11S), 7S globulin (nSes i 7S), 2S albumin (nSes i 2S), and two recombinant 2S albumins (rSes i 1 and rSes i 2) was measured by ELISA and/or ImmunoCAP (rSes i 1/streptavidin application). Based on area under curve (AUC) values from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, rSes i 1 was shown to have the best diagnostic performance of the allergen components in ELISA. The experimental rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test had larger AUC (0.891; 95% CI, 0.826-0.955) compared to the commercially available sesame ImmunoCAP (0.697; 95% CI, 0.589-0.805). The clinical sensitivity and specificity for the rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test at optimal cut-off (3.96 kUA /L) were 86.1% and 85.7%, respectively. Sensitization to Ses i 1 is strongly associated with clinical sesame allergy. Measurement of specific IgE to rSes i 1 could reduce the numbers of OFCs needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Role of specific IgE to β-lactoglobulin in the gastrointestinal phenotype of cow's milk allergy.

    Poza-Guedes, Paloma; Barrios, Yvelise; González-Pérez, Ruperto; Sánchez-Machín, Inmaculada; Franco, Andres; Matheu, Víctor


    The prevalence of many phenotypes of food allergy is increasing. Specific gastrointestinal (GI) phenotype of food allergy (GI allergy) is also increasing but it is difficult to know the prevalence because of many entities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 1 year retrospective study of pediatric patients complaining exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms after cow's milk consumption and at least one positive specific IgE (sIgE) to cow's milk (CM) proteins (CMP) was done (n = 39). The most prevalent symptom was abdominal cramps in 35 patients (90 %), discomfort or abdominal distention in 30 patients (75 %), diarrhea in 10 patients (25 %) and constipation in 5 patients (12 %). IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies were absent and lactose intolerance was ruled out in all patients. Average of total IgE on this group was 288 UI/ml. sIgE against β-lactoglobulin was the dominant with an average of 4.14 kU/l. sIgE to casein (CAS), which is the dominant protein in systemic anaphylaxis was 1.74 kU/l; sIgE to α-lactoalbumin, the other whey protein, was 0.83 kU/l and sIgE levels to CM were 0.78 kU/l. The quotient sIgE CAS/sIgE β-lactoglobulin in these patients was always lower than 1. Patients experienced an improvement of their symptoms after a CM free diet. An open oral challenge with CM did mimic their initial symptoms in all patients. However, the open oral challenge with dairy products was well tolerated. Patients with a specific phenotype of GI allergy with CM have specific IgE against β-lactoglobulin, as a dominant sIgE. These patients could beneficiate of a diet with dairy products.

  9. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D


    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a_11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a_11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a_11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a_11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG4 binding to rBet v 1a_11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Neuropeptide-mediated regulation of hapten-specific IgE responses in mice. I. Substance P-mediated isotype-specific suppression of BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses induced in vivo and in vitro.

    Carucci, J A; Auci, D L; Herrick, C A; Durkin, H G


    The ability of substance P (SP) to regulate peak benzyl-penicilloyl (BPO)-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo and the ability of SP and other neuropeptides to regulate BPO-specific memory IgE AFC responses induced in vitro was determined. SP injected subcutaneously into BPO-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH)-sensitized mice at the time of peak IgE responses suppressed these responses within 48 h (> 90%). The suppression obtained was IgE isotype-specific, dose-dependent, and transient. When spleen cells from immunized mice were cultured for 5 days with BPO-KLH, peak memory IgE AFC responses were induced in vitro. Inclusion of either SP or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), but not neurotensin, serotonin, somatostatin, or gastrin, in cultures suppressed these responses in isotype-specific, dose-dependent fashion (approximately 70%). SP-, but not VIP-mediated suppression of IgE responses was abrogated by inclusion of anti-IFN gamma culture.

  11. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita


    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  12. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Mayu Suzuki


    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the immunization of naïve mice with Ascaris antigens induced production of antibodies and differentiation of Th2 cells, which were cross-reactive to HDM antigens, and accelerated induction of serum HDM-specific IgE upon subsequent airway exposure to HDM antigens in mice. These results suggest that sensitization to HDM towards IgE-mediated allergic diseases is faster in individuals with a previous history of Ascaris infection than in those without presensitization to Ascaris.

  13. Relationship between Serum Specific IgE and Allergen Skin Test in Allergic Patients of Wuhan Area


    In order to study the relationship between serum specific IgE (sIgE) and allergen skin test, allergen skin tests and detections of sIgE in 220 allergic patients of Wuhan area were analyzed.The coherent rate of the two methods was beyond 70 % (P<0.01). It was concluded that the in vitro and in vivo detection methods of allergens have a high coherence and can be used as the effective ways to diagnose the allergic diseases in clinical practice.

  14. Suppression of the benzylpenicilloyl- (BPO) specific IgE formation with isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies in BALB/c mice.

    Blaser, K; Nakagawa, T; de Weck, A L


    In vivo effects of actively produced or passively administered isologous anti-idiotypic antisera (aId) on the benzylpenicilloyl- (BPO) specific IgE and IgG formation in BALB/c mice have been studied. Isologous anti-BPO aId were raised in BALB/c mice by immunization with purified anti-BPO antibodies isolated from ascites induced with BPO-bovine gamma-globulin in the same mouse strain. Mice producing isologous anti-BPO aId exhibited long-term suppression of BPO-specific IgE and IgG antibody responses induced by BPO-ovalbumin (BPO-OVA) in aluminum hydroxide. Simultaneously, they produced increased amounts of anti-BPO aId after each challenge with the BPO-OVA antigens. Passive administration of isologous anti-BPO aId into syngeneic mice previously sensitized with BPO-OVA caused depression of BPO-specific IgE antibody levels for 2 to 3 weeks. When anti-BPO IgE had again reached its previous level, passively administered aId had decreased to the level of untreated mice. Passive administration of anti-BPO aId also depressed the primary anti-BPO IgE formation for 2 to 3 weeks. In all these experiments the IgE antibody formation against the carrier proteins used for BPO-antigens was not affected. These results show that IgE and IgG antibodies share major idiotypic determinants and that IgE production is accessible to regulation by aId.

  15. Comparison of intradermal skin testing (IDST) and serum allergen-specific IgE determination in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Spinka, Christine M; Ellebracht, Ryan D; Reinero, Carol R


    Intradermal skin testing (IDST) and allergen-specific IgE determination are used to determine allergen sensitization. In cats, studies have found poor correlation between the two tests. However, these studies were mainly conducted in pet cats sensitized to unknown allergens with unknown dose and duration of exposure. We hypothesized that in an experimental model of allergic sensitization where these variables are controlled, IDST would demonstrate greater sensitivity and specificity than would serum allergen-specific IgE determination. A model of feline asthma employing Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) or house dust mite allergen (HDMA) was used to test the hypothesis. Thirteen cats were assigned to undergo sensitization to BGA, HDMA or saline (placebo). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed development of an asthmatic phenotype. Serum collection and IDST were performed on D0, D28 and D50. A portion of serum was pooled, and an aliquot heat inactivated (HI) to destroy IgE. Individual, pooled, and pooled HI samples were used for allergen-specific IgE determination using an Fc epsilon R1 alpha-based ELISA; pooled samples were also analyzed using an enzymoimmunometric assay. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated for IDST and for BGA- and HDMA-specific IgE. Combined results for IDST found SE=90.9%, SP=86.7%, PPV=83.3%, and NPV=92.9%. For ELISA-based serum IgE testing, the SE=22.7%, SP=100%, PPV=100% and NPV=63.8%. The enzymoimmunometric assay did not detect sensitizing IgE, but did detect IgE reactivity to a variety of irrelevant allergens (even in HI samples). Sensitivity of IDST was greater than sensitivity of serum IgE measurement supporting use as a screening test for aeroallergens. Both IDST and allergen-specific IgE determination via ELISA were specific; either test can be used to guide selection of allergens for immunotherapy. The enzymoimmunometric assay was unreliable and cannot be recommended.

  16. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma.

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares


    To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em

  17. Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories.

    Hardy, Jonathan I; Hendricks, Anke; Loeffler, Anette; Chang, Yu-Mei; Verheyen, Kristien L; Garden, Oliver A; Bond, Ross


    Despite conflicting data on their utility and no reports on interlaboratory reproducibility, serum food-specific antibodies are commonly assayed in first-opinion canine practice. To determine both the variability of test results between two laboratories and the frequencies and magnitudes of food reactivity in dogs of different disease status. Sera were obtained from eight dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (Group A), 22 with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (Group B), 30 with an allergic/inflammatory phenotype (Group C), 12 with miscellaneous skin diseases (Group D) and nine healthy dogs (Group E). Paired sera were submitted to two laboratories (A and B) for assays of food-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Numbers of positive IgE and IgG tests determined by each laboratory in Groups A, B, D and E were comparable (Group C not included). Significant differences in the magnitude of IgE reactivity between groups for each allergen were seen only for lamb (Laboratory A, P = 0.003); lamb reactivity in Group D exceeded Group E (P = 0.004) but was comparable between all other groups. Agreement (kappa statistic) between the two laboratories' tests was 'moderate' for one antigen (potato IgE), 'fair' for four (corn IgE, rice IgE and IgG and soya bean IgG), 'slight' for eight (six IgE and two IgG) and 'less than chance' for the remaining six antigens (three IgE and three IgG). These laboratories' tests appear to have dubious predictive clinical utility because they neither correlate nor distinguish between dogs of different disease status. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S


    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  19. Is trimellitic anhydride skin testing a sufficient screening tool for selectively identifying TMA-exposed workers with TMA-specific serum IgE antibodies?

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ghosh, Debajyoti; Sublett, Wesley J; Wells, Heather; Levin, Linda


    Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) can elicit specific IgE-mediated immune responses leading to asthma. This single-blinded study investigated the ability of TMA skin testing to identify workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Forty TMA-exposed workers who were previously screened for the presence of TMA-IgG and/or IgE serum specific antibodies were skin tested to a TMA-human serum albumin reagent by nurses blinded to their antibody responses. Findings from skin-prick tests were positive in 8 of 11 workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Intracutaneous testing, performed only on skin prick testing-negative workers, was positive in two additional workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. A significant correlation was found between serum and skin test dilutions eliciting positive responses (ρ = 0.87, P TMA skin testing provides an alternative and potentially more practical method for monitoring TMA-exposed workers for developing IgE sensitization.

  20. Using time-resolved fluorescence to measure serum venom-specific IgE and IgG.

    Pauline E van Eeden

    Full Text Available We adapted DELFIA™ (dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay, a time resolved fluorescence method, to quantitate whole venom specific and allergenic peptide-specific IgE (sIgE, sIgG(1 and sIgG(4 in serum from people clinically allergic to Australian native ant venoms, of which the predominant cause of allergy is jack jumper ant venom (JJAV. Intra-assay CV was 6.3% and inter-assay CV was 13.7% for JJAV sIgE. DELFIA and Phadia CAP JJAV sIgE results correlated well and had similar sensitivity and specificity for the detection of JJAV sIgE against intradermal skin testing as the gold standard. DELFIA was easily adapted for detecting sIgE to a panel of other native ant venoms.

  1. Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to detection of low serum concentrations of human IgE antibodies specific for a purified cat allergen (Fel D1).

    Tan, Yafang; Halsey, John F; Tang, Tiantian; Wetering, Scott Vande; Taine, Elaine; Cleve, Mark Van; Cunningham, Brian T


    We demonstrate the detection of low concentrations of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human sera using a Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF) microarray platform. The Photonic Crystal (PC) surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cy5, was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed allergen microarray. Surface-based sandwich immunoassays were used to detect and quantify specific IgE antibodies against a highly purified cat allergen (Fel d1). A comparison of the lowest detectable concentration of IgE measured by the PC microarray system and a commercially available clinical analyzer demonstrated that the PCEF microarray system provides higher sensitivity. The PCEF system was able to detect low concentrations of specific IgE (~0.02 kU/L), which is 5-17-fold more sensitive than the commercially available FDA-approved analyzers. In preliminary experiments using multi-allergen arrays, we demonstrate selective simultaneous detection of IgE antibodies to multiple allergens.

  2. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C


    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  3. [Comparative study on the assay for IgE antibodies specific for Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen between AlaSTAT and CAP-RAST].

    Nohara, O; Imai, T; Saneyoshi, K; Endo, T; Nagakura, H; Ono, M; Moriyama, H


    Titers of IgE antibody specific for the pollen of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) were determined by AlaSTAT and CAP-RAST in 221 patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. IgE antibody to C. obtusa tested positive by CAP-RAST at a higher rate (80.5%) than by AlaSTAT (52.6%). The results obtained from the two assays were compared with those from intradermal skin test. CAP-RAST had a higher sensitivity than that of AlaSTAT. Because the two methods showed no differences in the determination of IgE antibody specific for Cryptomeria japonica, the above differences between AlaSTAT and CAP-RAST are surmised to be ascribable to the differences of C. obtusa antigen used in the both assays.

  4. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    Katharina Marth

    Full Text Available The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT, and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73% followed by asthma (27% due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire.

  5. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Stephan Miehlke


    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  6. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit


    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  7. Specific IgE, IgG and IgG4 antibodies against house dust mite in patients with bronchial asthma.



    Full Text Available Serum levels of total IgE, specific IgE, IgG and IgG4 against house dust mite were measured in mite-sensitive asthma patients receiving immunotherapy with house dust. Serum levels of total IgE, mite specific IgE and IgG did not significantly change during the course of hyposensitization. Increased levels of mite specific IgG4 were observed in patients during immunotherapy. The increase in specific IgG4 was dependent on the total dose of house dust administered in both children (r = 0.636, p less than 0.001 and adults (r = 0.629, p less than 0.01. However, the increase of specific IgG4 in adults was not as apparent as in children. These results might suggest that mite specific IgG4 is a useful immunological marker in the immunotherapy for allergic asthma, and that IgG4 antibody acts as a blocking antibody in atopic bronchial asthma.

  8. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose-specific IgE is associated with anaphylaxis but not asthma.

    Commins, Scott P; Kelly, Libby A; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R; Pochan, Shawna L; Peters, Edward J; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W; Cooper, Philip J; Hoskins, Janelle M; Eapen, Saju S; Matos, Luis A; McBride, Dane C; Heymann, Peter W; Woodfolk, Judith A; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E


    IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.

  9. Incidence and remission of specific IgE aeroallergen sensitization from age of 40 to 60 years, and association with alcohol consumption

    Linneberg, A; Friedrich, N; Husemoen, L L N


    sensitization from the age of 40 to 60 years. Furthermore, we examined the relationship of alcohol consumption to the prevalence and incidence of aeroallergen sensitization. METHODS: In 1976-1977, a total of 1,200 people born in 1936 and randomly selected from the general population were invited for a health......BACKGROUND: Data on incidence and long-term persistence of IgE aeroallergen sensitization in older adults are limited. Alcohol consumption is a strong immune-modulator with a significant impact on the IgE response. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the incidence and remission of aeroallergen...... consumption (>14 drinks per week) at 40 years was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of sensitization at 40 years, but not with the incidence of sensitization. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, aeroallergen sensitization as reflected by serum-specific IgE positivity to aeroallergens is a dynamic...

  10. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola


    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  11. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Specific IgE to Hymenoptera Venoms

    Nikolai Pfender


    Full Text Available Background. The Allergy Lateral Flow Assay (ALFA is a novel rapid assay for the detection of sIgE to allergens. The objective of this study is the evaluation of ALFA for the detection of sIgE to bee venom (BV and wasp venom (WV in insect venom allergic patients. Methods. Specific IgE to BV and WV was analyzed by ALFA, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP in 80 insect venom allergic patients and 60 control sera. Sensitivity and specificity of ALFA and correlation of ALFA and ImmunoCAP results were calculated. Results. The sensitivity/specificity of ALFA to the diagnosis was 100%/83% for BV and 82%/97% for WV. For insect venom allergic patients, the Spearman correlation coefficient for ALFA versus ImmunoCAP was 0.79 for BV and 0.80 for WV. However, significant differences in the negative control groups were observed. Conclusion. ALFA represents a simple, robust, and reliable tool for the rapid detection of sIgE to insect venoms.

  12. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams.

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E; Montañez, María I; Torres, María J


    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier.

  13. Foods and food allergy: The prevalence of IgE antibodies specific for food allergens in Saudi patients

    El-Rab Mohamad Osman


    Full Text Available Objective: The intent of this study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of sensitivity to food allergens in Saudi patients. Subjects: The subjects included in this study were 58 patients with asthma, 47 patients with rhinitis and 112 patients with urticaria. They all gave clinical history suspecting food as causing or aggravating their symptoms. Methods: Specific IgE antibodies to different food allergens were measured in the patients serum by using the Pharmacia CAP Radioaller gosorbent (RAST Fluoroimmunoassay (FEIA test. Results: IgE-antibodies specific for different foods were detected in 38 (17.5% out of 217 patients. Most positive reactions were detected in urticaria patients (9.7% followed by asthmatic patients (5.5% and allergic rhinitis (2.3%. Reactions to peanut (22.6%, egg white (14.5 and cow′s milk (12.9% were very prominent. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of food allergy seems to be high in Saudi patients when compared to studies from other regions. The pattern of food reactions, detected in this study, can be utilized in diagnosis of patients with suspected food allergy. Further studies will be required to obtain more information about the prevalence and incidence rates among different patient groups.

  14. Oral disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen for a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, food allergy and protein-losing enteropathy.

    Suzuki, Junzo; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Nozawa, Ruriko; Isome, Masato; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ai; Suzuki, Hitoshi


    We present a case report of a 10 years old boy with protein-losing enteropathy and eosinophilic gastroenteritis who had positive histamine release tests, increased allergen-specific IgE antibodies to some food items, and low levels of total serum protein and albumin. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a number of polyps and diffuse gastritis. Biopsy specimens of the stomach and duodenum showed widespread eosinophilia and neutrophilia. Although a restricted diet was recommended, a diet which excluded foods with positive results to both histamine release test and allergen-specific IgE antibodies was poorly tolerated, and the patient rejected systemic administration of corticosteroids. Thus, we initiated an oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and ketotifen therapy. After oral DSCG and ketotifen administration, the patient's condition improved gradually. Therefore, oral DSCG and ketotifen therapy might be considered as treatment option in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and protein-losing enteropathy caused by food allergy.

  15. Evaluation of serum specific IgE for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis with multi-allergens

    LIU Cheng-yao; ZHANG Yuan; HAN De-min; ZHANG Luo


    Background Objective evaluation of allergic rhinitis (AR) requires in vivo and in vitro tests. In vitro tests are important to assist or ensure the main allergens in multi-allergen-sensitive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of serum specific IgE (slgE) in the diagnosis of AR patients with multi-allergens in the Chinese population.Methods Combining a positive skin prick test (SPT) and clinical history as the diagnostic reference criteria of AR, we estimated concentrations of slgE produced in response to the 7 most frequent allergens among 85 AR patients, using the UniCAP assay system.Results Among 85 individuals with positive SPT results and allergen-specific nasal symptoms, slgE concentration correlated well with SPT classes among all the tested allergens. Based on a clinical diagnosis and SPT results using a positive cut-off value of a class 1 score, the CAP test performed well and the sensitivity for different allergens ranged from 0.5 (giant ragweed) to 0.91 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f), while specificity ranged from 0.93 (Der f) to 1.0 (animal hair, Derp and mugwort). When the cut-off score was adjusted to class 2, the sensitivity showed an increase overall while the remaining assessed items, including specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency, showed an unacceptable decline.Conclusions Well-established serum slgE tests correlated well with SPTs. Setting a class 1 cut-off for positivity of SPT results was better than a class 2 setting for assessing the AR diagnostic value.

  16. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko


    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  17. Measurement and analysis of the common food allergens specific IgE



    Objective To explore the positive distribution characteristics and analyse the correlation of common food allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) with suspected food allergy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University.Methods Using fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the serum sIgE antibody of 854 patients,including 7 kinds of food allergens (milk,egg white,egg yolk,shrimp,crab,peanut and soybean) from July 2006 to January 2013.

  18. Allergen component specific ige measurement with the Immulite™ 2000 system: diagnostic accuracy and intermethod comparison.

    Villalta, Danilo; Da Re, Mirella; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Martelli, Paola; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Barrale, Maria; La Chiusa, Stella Maria; Brusca, Ignazio


    The identification of the allergenic molecules, associated to the advances in the field of recombinant allergens, led to the development of a new concept in allergy diagnosis called component-resolved diagnosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different allergen components using the full automatic singleplex quantitative platform Immulite™ 2000. One hundred ninety-five allergic outpatients (35 to olive pollen, 35 to birch pollen, 35 to profilin, 35 to house dust mites, 35 to peach, and 20 to shrimp) and 20 negative controls were enrolled for the study. Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ole e 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pru p 3, tropomyosin were tested both with Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Sensitivity of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to Ole e 1, Bet v 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pen m 1, and Pru p 3 with Immulite™ 2000 was 100%, 100%, 77.1%, 94.3%, 71.4%, 94%, 75%, and 97.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for all the allergens. The overall agreement between Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific) platforms was 98.6% (Cohen's kappa = 0.979; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.960-0.997). From moderate to strong, positive linear correlations between the assays (r(2) from 0.322 to 0.860, and Spearman's rho from 0.824 to 0.971) were showed. A high diagnostic accuracy of the sIgE to allergen components measurement with Immulite™ 2000 and a high agreement with ImmunoCAP™ platforms were shown in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison between two commercial immunoassays: Dr. Fooke ALLERG-O-LIQ versus Phadia ImmunoCA(R) System in detecting allergen-specific IgE and total IgE values

    Baoqing Sun; Mahler Michael; Mei Jiang; Jing Li; Nanshan Zhong


    Objective: Beside patient's history and skin prick testing(SPT) the detection of specific IgE(slgE) represents an important tool of allergy diagnostics. In recent years different technologies for the detection of sIgE have been developed. The objective of this study is the comparison of the ALLERG-O-LIQ with the ImmunoCAP System using seven inhalant and four food allergens. Methods: Sera from patients were collected and tested for sIgE to inhalant(d1, d2, d5, i6, el, e5 and m3) and food allergens(fl, 12, f24, t24) by ALLERG-O-LIQ(Dr. Fooke Laboratorien GmbH) and by ImmunoCAP System(Phadia). Further, samples were also tested for total IgE in both systems. Results: Prevalence of positive test results varied between 0/20(124) and 11/20(e5) for ALLERG-O-LIQ and between 3/18(f23) and 11/20(d1/d5) for ImmunoCAP . The qualitative agreement between both methods was found between 75%(f24) and 100%(d2) depending on the allergen. Overall qualitative agreement for inhalant(n = 140), food(n = 78) and all allergens(n = 218) tested was 92.1%(kappa = 0.84), 83.3%(kappa = 0.58), 89.0%(kappa = 0.77), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value(NPV) and diagnostic efficiency(DE) were found at 88.2%, 95.8%, 95.2%, 89.6%, 92.1%(inhalant allergens), 62.5%, 92.6%, 78.9%, 84.7%, 83.3%(food allergens) and 81.5%, 94.4%, 91.5%, 87.5%, 89.0%(all allergens). Conclusion: Good to excellent qualitative agreement between ALLERG-O-LIQ and ImmunoCAP for the detection of specific and total IgE could be observed. The degree of agreement depended on the allergen and was higher in the group of inhalant allergens. The ALLERG-O-LIQ System represents a reliable test for the detection of specific and total IgE.

  20. Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay: Allergy Project - PROAL

    Naspitz, Charles Kirov [UNIFESP; Solé,Dirceu; Jacob,Cristina Miuki Abe; Sarinho,Emanuel; Soares,Francisco J. P.; Dantas,Vera; Mallozi,Marcia Carvalho; Wandalsen,Neusa Falbo; Borges,Wellington; Rocha Filho,Wilson; Grupo Proal


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in children seen at Brazilian allergy services. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total and specific IgE serum levels to inhalant and food allergens (RAST, UniCAP® - Pharmacia) were measured in 457 children accompanied in pediatric allergy services and in 62 control children age matched. RAST equal or higher than class 1 was considered as positive (R+). RESULTS: Frequency of R+ was significantly higher among atopics (36...

  1. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P;


    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral alle...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful.......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... allergy syndrome to apple and 10 control subjects were included. All were tested with SPT, SCT, HR and specific IgE [CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden and Magic Lite (ML), ALK-ABELLO, Denmark]. RESULTS: The SPT with apple, acetone extract of apple (A72) and commercial apple extract showed sensitivities of 0.80, 0...

  2. Eosinophilic fasciitis*

    Lamback, Elisa Baranski; Resende, Fernanda Simões Seabra; Lenzi, Thiara Cristina Rocha


    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the thickening of the muscular fascia and subcutaneous tissue, with a variable infiltration of eosinophils. Peripheral eosinophilia, poly or monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be seen. Clinical features begin acutely, with local edema and a painful and symmetrical stiffening of the limbs, progressing rapidly to fibrosis, which can limit joint movements. Some cases have a history of strenuous physical exercise or trauma. The diagnosis is confirmed by a deep skin biopsy. Glucocorticoids in high doses is the treatment of choice. We report a typical eosinophilic fasciitis case with peripheral eosinophilia and dramatic response to pulse therapy with methylprednisolone.

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    Anand R Gupte; Peter V Draganov


    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition,it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modi f icat ions, topical cor t icosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination.

  4. Mold-specific IgE antibodies in relation to exposure and skin test data in schoolchildren

    Taina Taskinen


    Conclusions: Mold allergy, as assessed by IgE measurements or skin tests, is rare in children. School- aged asthmatic boys having exposed to indoor air dampness seem to form a susceptible group for mold allergy, being at risk for worsening of their asthma.

  5. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    Bakolis, I.; Heinrich, J.; Zock, J.P.; Norbäck, D.; Svanes, C.; Chen, C.M.; Accordini, S.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Jarvis, D.


    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890

  6. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur


    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  7. 血清总 IgE 及特异性 IgE(sIgE)检测在儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)中的临床意义%The Clinical Significance Of Detection On Serum Total IgE And Allergen Specific IgE In Children’s Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS)

    邵文叶; 周雪


    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of detection on serum total IgE and allergen specific IgE in children’s obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (osahs).Methods:Through reading a lot academic ref-erences, to summary and conclude, and combine personal clinical observation, record, analysis and summary.Conclusion:Serum total IgE and allergen specific IgE are closely related to children’s OSAHS,in the clinical treatment of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS)is whether required for anti-allergy treat-ment,need for further clinical observation.%目的:指在探讨血清总 IgE 及特异性 IgE (sIgE)检测在儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)中的临床意义。方法:通过阅读大量相关文献,对其归纳、总结,以及个人临床观察、记录、分析、总结而成。结论:发现血清总IgE 及特异性 IgE (sIgE)和儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)有着密切的关系,在临床实践中针对儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)是否需要抗过敏治疗,需要进一步的临床观察。

  8. Allergen Specific IgE, Number and Timing of Past Suicide Attempts, and Instability in Patients with Recurrent Mood Disorders

    Teodor T. Postolache; Roberts, Darryl W.; Langenberg, Patricia; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Stiller, John W.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Tonelli, Leonardo H.


    Suicide and decompensation of mental illness peak in spring and, to a lesser extent, in fall. Several recent studies reported that suicide and decompensation peaks coincided with spring and fall aeroallergen peaks. Allergic symptoms occur as the result of a complex biochemical cascade initiated by IgE antibodies (sensitization) and allergens (triggers). Animal models have shown molecular/neurochemical changes in the brain, as well as relevant behavioral changes associated with this IgE-mediat...

  9. Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome.

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Masterson, Joanne C; Furuta, Glenn T


    There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria. Among topics for future research, it will be important to determine whether homeostatic mechanisms involve direct interactions between eosinophils and bacteria or whether they involve primarily eosinophil-mediated responses to cytokine signaling in the local microenvironment. Likewise, although is it clear that eosinophils can and do interact with bacteria in vivo, their ability to discern between pathogenic and probiotic species in various settings remains to be explored.

  10. [Eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by bee pollen sensitization].

    Puente, S; Iñíguez, A; Subirats, M; Alonso, M J; Polo, F; Moneo, I


    A 34-year-old Spanish woman with a lifelong history of seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and honey intolerance (pyrosis and abdominal pain) developed, 3 weeks after starting ingestion of bee pollen, astenia, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, peripheral blood hypereosinophilia and elevated serum total IgE levels. A duodenal biopsy showed eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosal layer. Other causes of hypereosinophilia were not found. Repeated parasitological stool studies, as well as a duodenal aspirate showed negative results. Symptoms, hypereosinophilia and elevated IgE levels resolved after bee pollen ingestion was stopped. This is a typical case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis by ingestion of bee pollen in a woman with intolerance to honey bee, because the patient fulfilled the usual diagnostic criteria: gastrointestinal symptoms were present, eosinophilic infiltration of the digestive tract was demonstrated by biopsy, no eosinophilic infiltration of other organs was found and the presence of parasites was excluded. Honey intolerance and/or bee pollen administration should be considered as a cause of eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  11. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.


    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  12. Cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection in a child with hyper IgE and specific defects in antibody response to protein vaccines

    Shahrzad Fallah


    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a common opportunistic systemic infection in immunocompromised patients, but skin involvement is rare. Herein, we report a 10 year-old girl from consanguineous parents who was referred to our center because of disseminated maculopapular rash. She had history of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In immunological studies, increased serum IgE level and decreased responses to tetanus and diphtheria were detected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR examination of bronchoalveolar lavage and serum sample revealed the presence of CMV. Early diagnosis of cutaneous CMV and appropriate treatment are the key actions in management of patients with underlying immunodeficiencies to avoid further complications.

  13. 血清总IgE和外周血嗜酸性粒细胞在特应性皮炎患者检测中的临床意义%Clinical significance of total serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophil in detection of atopic dermatitis



    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of total serum IgE and peripheral blood eosino-phils (EOS) in detection of atopic derma (AD)and the relationship between total serum IgE ,EOS and AD .Methods 40 cases of AD patients(observation group) and 40 normal cases (control group) in Guangzhou the First People's Hospital from May 2010 to January 2012 were randomly selected .The HITACHI 7170A automatic biochemical tester and the BECKMAN COULTER GEN .S automatic blood cell analyzer were used to detect the total serum IgE and peripheral blood EOS concentration in two groups .Comparison and analysis of the differences between IgE and EOS concentration of two groups and their correlation with AD .Results The total serum IgE and EOS concentration of the observation group were (1 256 .53 ± 1 036 .84) U/mL and (569 .46 ± 322 .13) × 106/L respectively ,which were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0 .05) .The correlation coefficient OR value between IgE and EOS and susceptibility of AD reached 4 .402 and 3 .753 respectively ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) . There was a significant positive correlation between the degree of AD and IgE and EOS and AD prevalence (P<0 .05) and the correlation coefficient reached 0 .878 and 0 .833 ;the correlation coefficient between IgE and EOS reached 0 .790 ,which showed significant positive correlation (P<0 .05) .Conclusion There is correlation between total serum IgE ,EOS and ocurrence and disease activity in AD ,can provide a basis for AD clinical diagnosis ,therapy and curative effect evaluation .%目的探讨血清总IgE和外周血嗜酸性粒细胞(EOS)与特应性皮炎(AD)的关系及其在AD检测中的临床意义。方法随机选择2010年5月至2012年1月,在广东省广州市第一人民医院接受治疗的AD患者40例(观察组)和健康体检者40例(健康对照组),分别采用日立7170A全自动生化检测仪和贝克曼库尔特GEN .S全自动血

  14. Genomic organization, complete sequence, and chromosomal location of the gene for human eotaxin (SCYA11), an eosinophil-specific CC chemokine

    Garcia-Zepeda, E.A.; Sarafi, M.N.; Luster, A.D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others


    Eotaxin is a CC chemokine that is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophils and is implicated in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. We describe the genomic organization, complete sequence, including 1354 bp 5{prime} of the RNA initiation site, and chromosomal localization of the human eotaxin gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis localized eotaxin to human chromosome 17, in the region q21.1-q21.2, and the human gene name SCYA11 was assigned. We also present the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the mouse eotaxin gene and have identified several regulatory elements that are conserved between the murine and the human promoters. In particular, the presence of elements such as NF-{Kappa}B, interferon-{gamma} response element, and glucocorticoid response element may explain the observed regulation of the eotaxin gene by cytokines and glucocorticoids. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The human IgE repertoire.

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Levin, Mattias; Flicker, Sabine; Ohlin, Mats


    IgE is a key mediator in allergic diseases. However, in strong contrast to other antibody isotypes, many details of the composition of the human IgE repertoire are poorly defined. The low levels of human IgE in the circulation and the rarity of IgE-producing B cells are important reasons for this lack of knowledge. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on these repertoires both in terms of their complexity and activity, i.e. knowledge which despite the difficulties encountered when studying the molecular details of human IgE has been acquired in recent years. We also take a look at likely future developments, for instance through improvements in sequencing technology and methodology that allow the isolation of additional allergen-specific human antibodies mimicking IgE, as this certainly will support our understanding of human IgE in the context of human disease in the years to come.

  16. Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae.

    Emma T Cadman


    Full Text Available Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1, during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL, we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.

  17. Development of sandwich ELISA for testing bovine β-lactoglobulin allergenic residues by specific polyclonal antibody against human IgE binding epitopes.

    He, Shengfa; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinyan; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing


    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main allergen in cows' milk, and the most commonly used method for detecting BLG is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, antibodies used in commercial ELISA kits do not recognize specifically BLG IgE epitopes. Here, an antibody specific to IgE linear epitopes for BLG was used to develop a sandwich ELISA using a rabbit anti-BLG polyclonal antibody. The linear range for BLG detection was 31.25-8000ng/mL and limit of detection was 1.96ng/mL. BLG content in dairy samples was determined, and there was a good agreement between this immunoassay and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high recovery. Additionally, BLG content in food samples had an average recovery of 104.25%. Allergenic residues were also detected in hydrolyzed infant formulas. The method developed could be a practical approach to determine BLG and its allergenic residues in food with a high degree of sensitivity, reliability and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of IgE in bullous pemphigoid: a review and rationale for IgE directed therapies.

    Messingham, K N; Pietras, T A; Fairley, J A


    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disorder that is characterized by elevated total serum IgE and both IgG and IgE class autoantibodies directed against the hemidesmosomal proteins BP180 and BP230. In BP, IgE is found at the basement membrane zone and coating mast cells in lesional skin. IgE binding to immune cells is mediated through its high affinity receptor, FcεRI on the surface of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. In BP lesions, IgE binding is thought to be a critical step in the activation of these cells. Models of the disease have demonstrated that BP IgE can replicate the early stages of BP lesion formation. These findings suggest that IgE inhibition may be a therapeutic approach for BP. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits IgE binding to FcεRI and is currently FDA-approved for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. To date, two case reports have each described the efficacy of omalizumab in a patient with severe recalcitrant BP. These studies are the first to provide clear evidence of the contribution of IgE autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of human BP and suggest that omalizumab may provide an additional therapeutic tool for treatment.


    林芳辉; 梁锋; 韩景辉; 符生苗


    [Objective] Through the detection on serum total IgE content and allergens specificity IgE 132 of 132 cases of cough variant asthma and other 56 cases of chronic cough {control group) , to investigate the application value of serum total IgE content ami specific allergen in clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cough variant asthma. [Methods] Used I-niled Slates DX1800 beckman chemiluminescence to detect total IgE content, used Gentian ormond imprinting method to detect 20 kinds of allergens specificity IgE. [Resiltts] The positive rale of CVA total IgE was 87.1%. Specific IgE of 78.8%. The total IgE in the control group was 8.9% , positive rate of specificity IgE of 7.1%. CVA inhaled allergens were highest, der-malophagoides pUfronyssinus/dermalopbagoides farinue, mould combination, house dust were 55.3%, 43.2%, 38.95%; higher food allergen was the sea (water) products, among them, shrimp was the highest, about 17.4%. [Conclusion] CVA is the reactive disease that IgE mediated, allergen is the main pathogenic factor. Detection on serum total IgE and allergens specificity IgE has effect in helping diagnosing suspected cough variant asthma disease, l>ut also has significance in the treatment and pre-venlion.%[目的]通过对132例咳嗽变异性哮喘患儿和56例其他慢性咳嗽疾病患儿(对照组)的血清总IgE含量及过敏原特异性IgE的检测,探讨血清总IgE含量及过敏原特异性IgE检测在临床诊治及预防咳嗽变异性哮喘的应用价值.[方法]用美国贝克曼化学发光DX1800检测总IgE含量,使用德国欧蒙印迹法检测20种过敏原特异性IgE.[结果]CVA总IgE阳性率87.1%,特异性IgE阳性率78.8%.对照组总IgE阳性率8.9%,特异性IgE阳性率7.1%.CVA吸入性过敏原阳性率最高,主要是屋尘螨/粉尘螨、霉菌组合、屋尘,分别是55.3%、43.2%、38.95%;食入性过敏原阳性率较高的主要是海(水)产品,其中以虾最高,为17A%.[结论]说明CVA是特异性Ig

  20. Carbon Nanofibers Have IgE Adjuvant Capacity but Are Less Potent Than Nanotubes in Promoting Allergic Airway Responses

    Unni Cecilie Nygaard


    Full Text Available There is a growing concern for the possible health impact of nanoparticles. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allergy-promoting capacity of four different carbon nanofiber (CNF samples in an injection and an airway mouse model of allergy. Secondly, the potency of the CNF was compared to the previously reported allergy-promoting capacity of carbon nanotubes (CNT in the airway model. Ultrafine carbon black particles (ufCBP were used as a positive control. Particles were given together with the allergen ovalbumin (OVA either by subcutaneous injection into the footpad or intranasally to BALB/cA mice. After allergen booster, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were measured. In the airway model, inflammation was determined as influx of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages and by mediators (MCP-1 and TNF-α present in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF. CNF and CNT both increased OVA-specific IgE levels in the two models, but in the airway model, the CNT gave a significantly stronger IgE response than the CNF. Furthermore, the CNT and not the CNF promoted eosinophil lung inflammation. Our data therefore suggest that nanotube-associated properties are particularly potent in promoting allergic responses.

  1. Eosinophil extracellular DNA traps in allergies = Trampas extracelulares de DNA de eosinófilos en alergias

    Castrillón Álvarez, Marlon


    Full Text Available Allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction initiated by specific immunologic mechanisms. It can be mediated by antibodies or cells, developed in individuals previously sensitized by an allergen. In most cases, the antibody responsible for the allergic reaction is immunoglobulin E (IgE. Depending on the nature and mechanism of entry of the allergen, it will bring about the production of specific IgE affecting certain organs and tissues with specific symptoms. Eosinophil extracellular DNA traps or EETs are one of the mechanisms used by eosinophils during the response phase of allergy; they have not been well studied in terms of their induction, regulation and function. EETs have been detected in inflammatory intestinal processes, autoimmune diseases and multiple infectious diseases, but few investigations have been made about their involvement in allergic diseases. This is a review about the structure of EETs, the molecules involved in their formation, and their possible role in the pathogenesis of allergies. Furthermore, the main aspects of cellular and molecular processes involved in the immunopathogenesis of allergies, and the central aspects of the structure, composition and functioning of eosinophils are reviewed.

  2. Tolerogenic dendritic cells derived from donors with natural rubber latex allergy modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production.

    Alejandro Escobar

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex (NRL; Hevea brasiliensis allergy is an IgE-mediated reaction to latex proteins. When latex glove exposure is the main sensitizing agent, Hev b 5 is one of the major allergens. Dendritic cells (DC, the main antigen presenting cells, modulated with pharmacological agents can restore tolerance in several experimental models, including allergy. In the current study, we aimed to generate DC with tolerogenic properties from NRL-allergic patients and evaluate their ability to modulate allergen-specific T and B cell responses. Here we show that dexamethasone-treated DC (dxDC differentiated into a subset of DC, characterized by low expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 molecules. Compared with LPS-matured DC, dxDC secreted lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 after CD40L activation, and induced lower alloantigenic T cell proliferation. We also show that dxDC pulsed with the dominant Hev b 5 T-cell epitope peptide, Hev b 5(46-65, inhibited both proliferation of Hev b 5-specific T-cell lines and the production of Hev b 5-specific IgE. Additionally, dxDC induced a subpopulation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells that suppressed proliferation of Hev b 5-primed T cells. In conclusion, dxDC generated from NRL-allergic patients can modulate allergen-specific T-cell responses and IgE production, supporting their potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  3. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A


    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  4. Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A Rare Skin Sclerosis

    Amandine Servy


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (Schulman's syndrome is a rare disease with specific clinical symptoms such as the groove sign which facilitate diagnosis. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in an otherwise healthy 49-year-old man who presented with “prayer and groove signs”. Histological analysis showed sclerosis and eosinophilic infiltration of the fascia. The patient was successfully treated with systemic corticotherapy and Cyclosporine. A short review of the clinicopathological features of the lesions is presented.

  5. Allergen-specific IgE testing in the diagnosis of food allergy and the event of a positive match in the bioinformatics search

    van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Poulsen, Lars K.


    Current documents on risk assessment of genetically modified foods recommend including IgE-binding tests on sera from allergic patients. However, there is no generally accepted recommendation on technical aspects of the testing procedures or on the interpretation of the results, despite that fact...... that the use of sera from clinically well-characterized subjects is of high importance. In the case of a positive test result, the biological activity of the detected IgE antibodies, i. e., the potential to trigger mediator release from basophils or mast cells in an allergen-specific manner, should be taken...... screening, i. e., the testing of gene products from organisms not known to be allergenic with sera from subjects allergic to related species....

  6. Food allergen (peanut)-specific TH2 clones generated from the peripheral blood of a patient with peanut allergy

    Jong, E.C. de; Spanhaak, S.; Martens, B.P.M.; Kapsenberg, M.L.; Penninks, A.H.; Wierenga, E.A.


    Background: Increasing evidence indicates a prominent role of allergen-specific TH2 cells, with high IL-4 and IL-5 production and low interferon-γ production, in the regulation of IgE and eosinophil production in allergic disorders. However, most studies have concentrated on T cells reactive with

  7. Food allergen (peanut)-specific TH2 clones generated from the peripheral blood of a patient with peanut allergy

    Jong, E.C. de; Spanhaak, S.; Martens, B.P.M.; Kapsenberg, M.L.; Penninks, A.H.; Wierenga, E.A.


    Background: Increasing evidence indicates a prominent role of allergen-specific TH2 cells, with high IL-4 and IL-5 production and low interferon-γ production, in the regulation of IgE and eosinophil production in allergic disorders. However, most studies have concentrated on T cells reactive with in

  8. Eosinophils elicit proliferation of naive and fungal-specific cells in vivo so enhancing a T helper type 1 cytokine profile in favour of a protective immune response against Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

    Garro, Ana P; Chiapello, Laura S; Baronetti, Jose L; Masih, Diana T


    Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been shown to have similarities with human cryptococcosis, because as in healthy humans, rats can effectively contain cryptococcal infection. Moreover, it has been shown that eosinophils are components of the immune response to C. neoformans infections. In a previous in vitro study, we demonstrated that rat peritoneal eosinophils phagocytose opsonized live yeasts of C. neoformans, thereby triggering their activation, as indicated by the up-regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules and the increase in interleukin-12, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that C. neoformans-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes cultured with these activated C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils proliferated, and produced important amounts of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines in the absence of Th2 cytokine synthesis. In the present in vivo study, we have shown that C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils are also able to migrate into lymphoid organs to present C. neoformans antigens, thereby priming naive and re-stimulating infected rats to induce T-cell and B-cell responses against infection with the fungus. Furthermore, the antigen-specific immune response induced by C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils, which is characterized by the development of a Th1 microenvironment with increased levels of NO synthesis and C. neoformans-specific immunoglobulin production, was demonstrated to be able to protect rats against subsequent infection with fungus. In summary, the present work demonstrates that eosinophils act as antigen-presenting cells for the fungal antigen, hence initiating and modulating a C. neoformans-specific immune response. Finally, we suggest that C. neoformans-loaded eosinophils might participate in the protective immune response against these fungi.

  9. Eosinophils in asthma



    @@ The contribution of eosinophils to host-defense and inflammatory responses has undergone periodic reevalu-ations. Thirty years ago, eosinophil was considered as a principal effector cell in host-defense against parasites.

  10. Eosinophil count - absolute

    ... Abnormal Results Mean A high number of eosinophils (eosinophilia) are often linked to a variety of disorders. ... Accessed March 29, 2017. Klion AD, Weller PF. Eosinophilia and eosinophil-related disorders. In: Adkinson NF, Bochner ...

  11. Blood Interferon Signatures Putatively Link Lack of Protection Conferred by the RTS,S Recombinant Malaria Vaccine to an Antigen-specific IgE Response [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Darawan Rinchai


    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Progress has been made in recent years with the development of vaccines that could pave the way towards protection of hundreds of millions of exposed individuals. Here we used a modular repertoire approach to re-analyze a publically available microarray blood transcriptome dataset monitoring the response to malaria vaccination. We report the seminal identification of interferon signatures in the blood of subjects on days 1, 3 and 14 following administration of the third dose of the RTS,S recombinant malaria vaccine. These signatures at day 1 correlate with protection, and at days 3 and 14 to susceptibility to subsequent challenge of study subjects with live parasites. In addition we putatively link the decreased abundance of interferon-inducible transcripts observed at days 3 and 14 post-vaccination with the elicitation of an antigen-specific IgE response in a subset of vaccine recipients that failed to be protected by the RTS,S vaccine. Furthermore, profiling of antigen-specific levels of IgE in a Mozambican cohort of malaria-exposed children vaccinated with RTS,S identified an association between elevated baseline IgE levels and subsequent development of naturally acquired malaria infection during follow up. Taken together these findings warrant further investigation of the role of antigen-specific IgE in conferring susceptibility to malaria infection.

  12. Transfer of maternal IgE can be a common cause of increased IgE levels in cord blood

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans


    IgE in cord blood is thought to be a product of the fetus. A high level of total IgE is therefore used as a measure of atopic propensity in the newborn. We recently found strong evidence that allergen-specific IgE in cord blood was the result of transfer of maternal IgE to fetal blood or cord blood...... (maternofetal transfer) rather than fetal production. This also suggests that total IgE in cord blood might primarily be a maternal product....

  13. Maxisorp RAST. A sensitive method for detection of antigen-specific human IgE in culture fluids

    Poulsen, L K; Pedersen, M F; Malling, H J


    but timothy grass pollen, house dust mite and dog dander showed similar results. The test showed specificities of both allergen and immunoglobulin isotype and significant correlations (r = 0.67-0.88) with established RAST procedures were found. Based on immunosorbent-purified allergen-specific Ig...

  14. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran


    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice.

  15. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio


    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  16. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  17. Specific IgE to peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7 has a discriminative ability comparable to Ara h 2 and 6.

    Blankestijn, Mark A; Otten, Henny G; Suer, Waltraud; Weimann, Alf; Knol, Edward F; Knulst, André C


    Little is known on the clinical relevance of peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7. To investigate the discriminative ability of Ara h 7 in peanut allergy and assess the role of cross-reactivity between Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. Sensitization to recombinant peanut storage proteins Ara h 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 was assessed using a line blot in sera from 40 peanut tolerant and 40 peanut allergic patients, based on food challenge outcome. A dose-dependent ELISA inhibition experiment was performed with recombinant Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. For Ara h 7.0201 an area under the ROC curve was found of 0.83, comparable to Ara h 2 (AUC 0.81) and Ara h 6 (AUC 0.85). Ara h 7 intensity values strongly correlated with those from Ara h 2 and 6 (rs =0.81). Of all patients sensitized to 2S albumins Ara h 2, 6 or 7, the majority was co-sensitized to all three (n=24, 68%), although mono-sensitization to either 2S albumin was also observed in selected patients (Ara h 2: n=6, 17%; Ara h 6: n=2, 6%; Ara h 7: n=2, 6%). Binding to Ara h 7.0101 could be strongly inhibited by Ara h 7.0201, but not the other way around. Specific IgE against Ara h 7.0201 has a predictive ability for peanut allergy similar to Ara h 2 and 6, and possesses unique IgE epitopes as well as epitopes shared between the other Ara h 7 isoform and Ara h 2 and 6. While co-sensitization to all three 2S albumins is most common, mono-sensitization to either Ara h 2, 6 or 7 occurs in selected patients, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis when testing for a single 2S albumin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of the roles of fascioliasis and food allergy in intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis in Japanese Black cattle.

    Kishida, Kazuki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Hori, Makito; Konnai, Masaki; Abiko, Chieko; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yamanome, Yukito; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa


    Intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis (EPP) in Japanese Black (JB) cattle generally has been considered to be an atypical form of fascioliasis. However, there are many cases of EPP in which no Fasciola spp. have been detected in the livers of affected cattle. The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between EPP and hepatic fascioliasis and to investigate the role of food allergy in the disease. Histologically, EPP lesions were characterised by severe endothelial proliferation of the interlobular veins, accompanied by varying degrees of fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration in portal areas, which could be differentiated from chronic cholangiohepatitis, the typical lesion of hepatic fascioliasis. In addition to hepatic lesions, all cases of EPP had varying degrees of eosinophilic infiltration in the perilymphoid red pulp of the spleen, whereas both affected and unaffected animals had eosinophilic infiltrates in the mucosa of the small intestine. Antibodies against Fasciola spp. were detected in 1/14 EPP cases by ELISA; the seropositive case had EPP in combination with chronic cholangitis. There was no significant difference in total concentration of IgE between cases of EPP and unaffected cattle. Serum IgE levels specific to curly dock (Rumex crispus) and oats (Avena sativa) were higher in EPP cases than in unaffected cattle by allergen profiling screening testing and ELISA. The results of this study suggest that hepatic fascioliasis is unlikely to be the cause of EPP in JB cattle and that food allergens should be investigated as possible aetiological agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Idiopathic Eosinophilic Cholecystitis

    Huseyin Tas


    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is one of the rare causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes for eosinophilic cholecystitis and by pathological examination of the gallbladder wall infiltration with more than 90% of the eosinophilic leukocytes. We have aimed to present a case of 24 year old man who had Eosinophilia in blood tests, progressive complaints after medical treatment, was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and was treated with cholecystectomy. Idio...

  20. 2230例变应性疾病患者血清特异性抗体测定分析%Analysis of serum specific IgE in 2 230 patients with allergic diseases

    赵鸿芬; 李小霞; 赵京莉


    Objective To detect serum specific IgE in allergic diseases for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods The serum specific IgE and total IgE ( slgE) were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 2 230 patients. Results The dermatophagoides farinae (28.3% ) and pteronyssinus( 26. 6% ) were the most common allergen in 2 230 patients, followed by Artemisia(14. 9% ) , cat hair dander(9% ) , beef and mutton(9% ), cockroaches(8.3% ) , seafood(8. 1% ), fungi(6.6% ) , milk(6. 1% ), short ragweed(5.6% ), peanuts, cashew nuts(4.6% ), elm, sycamore, willow, cottonwood(3. 8% ) , egg white(3. 8% ) , soybeans(3. 1% ). The positive rate of total IgE was 46. 9%. Conclusion The detection of serum specific IgE and total IgE can help to find the corresponding clinical allergy, and provide evidences for prevention, diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases.%目的 检测变应性疾病血清特异性抗体筛选相关过敏原,为临床诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 采用过敏原检测系统,对2 230例变应性疾病患者的血清特异性免疫球蛋白E( immunoglobtlin,IgE)及总IgE水平进行了检测.结果 2 230例变应性疾病患者中过敏原以屋尘螨(28.3%)、粉尘螨(26.6%)为最高,其后依次为蒿(14.9%)、猫毛皮屑(9%)、牛羊肉(9%)、蟑螂(8.3%)、鱼虾蟹(8.1%)、霉菌(6.6%)、牛奶(6.1%)、矮豚草(5.6%)、腰果花生(4.6%)、榆、梧桐、柳、三角叶杨(3.8%)、鸡蛋白(3.8%)、黄豆(3.1%);总IgE阳性率为46.9%.结论 血清特异性IgE及总IgE的检测分析可以帮助临床寻找相应过敏原,为变应性疾病的预防、诊断和治疗提供依据.

  1. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Daniela Čiháková


    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  2. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

    Deane F. Mosher


    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  3. [Pemphigus with eosinophilic spongiosis].

    Pons, S; Ortíz Medina, A


    A bibliographic review of a new subject-pemphigus with eosinophilic spongiosis accomplished: Three clinical courses are recognized: a) pemphigus in its initial phase, b) pemphigus markedly seborrheic, which presents during its evolution, some morphologic anomalies, c) pemphigus that appear like an authentic Duhring in its initial phase and during part of its evolution. On studying the histopathology three aspects are observed; 1) pure eosinophilic spongiosis with two modalites: diffuse or vesiculate; 2) mixed eosinophilic spongiosis and, 3) alternate eosinophilic spongiosis. The review report the study of this new observation and discusses the nosological situation as well as its pausible causation.

  4. The Clinical Significance of Food Specific IgE Detection in Infants with Asthma%食物特异性IgE检测在婴幼儿哮喘中的临床意义分析

    张存雪; 魏静; 杨配力; 苑修太


    目的:研究食物特异性IgE检测在婴幼儿哮喘中的临床意义。方法选择2012年2月至2015年3月济宁市第一人民医院收治的83例婴幼儿哮喘作为观察组,另外选取同期健康体检的83例正常婴儿作为对照组。检测及分析两组受试者食物过敏原特异性 IgE 的结果。结果观察组食物过敏原特异性 IgE 阳性率高于对照组[60.2%(50/83)比31.3%(26/83)],差异有统计学意义(χ2=13.979,P<0.05)。观察组对大豆、鸡蛋、牛奶、小麦面粉、虾、鱼、螃蟹的过敏原特异性 IgE 阳性率高于对照组[13.2%(11/83)比3.6%(3/83),32.5%(27/83)比16.9%(14/83),57.8%(48/83)比20.5%(17/83),6.0%(5/83)比0%,6.0%(5/83)比0%,4.8%(4/83)比0%],差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。观察组对多种食物过敏特异性IgE阳性分布比例大于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。<1岁组牛奶过敏原特异性 IgE 阳性率显著高于1~3岁组[74.5%(38/51)比31.2%(10/32)],鸡蛋过敏原特异性 IgE 阳性率低于1~3岁组[21.6%(11/51)比50.0%(16/32)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论食物过敏原对婴幼儿哮喘病的病情发生及进展发挥着十分重要的作用,对食物过敏原特异性 IgE 予以尽早检测,有利于婴幼儿哮喘病的预防、诊断以及治疗。%Objective To study the clinical significance of food specific IgE detection in infants with asthma.Methods Total of 83 infants with asthma in Jining City First People′s Hospital from Feb. 2012 to Mar.2015 were included as the observation group,and 83 normal infants for health examination during the same period were included as the control group.The food specific IgE results of the two groups were ana-lyzed.Results Food allergens specific IgE positive rate of the

  5. The correlation between intradermal testing and serum specific IgE to house dust mite in negative skin prick test allergic rhinitis adult patients.

    Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Danpornprasert, Piyanart; Ngaotepprutaram, Premyot; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Thinkhamrop, Bandit


    Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on history, physical examination, and skin prick test (SPT) while intradermal (ID) test can be performed to confirm the diagnosis in case of negative result of SPT. However, the ID test is not recommended for cat and timothy grass allergy because of its high false positive rate. As a result, the "quantitative" technique of serum specific IgE (sIgE) measurement might be helpful to diagnose AR with more confidence. To evaluate the correlation between ID tests and sIgE in the diagnosis of house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive AR patients. Patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) were recruited and SPT was performed. If SPT was negative, ID test and sIgE to HDM [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp)] measurement were performed. Eighty-two patients with chronic rhinitis (CR), whose SPTs were negative for Dp, were included. There were 39 males (47.6%) and 43 females (52.4%) aged between 18 and 76 years old (mean age = 43.3 years). The ID test was positive in 13 patients (15.9%), and was negative in 69 patients (84.1 %). sIgE to HDM was positive ( ≥ 0.35 kUA/l) in 2 patients (2.4%). There was a fair to moderate correlation between the size of wheal of ID test and sIgE to HDM (r = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.67, p correlation with sIgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and it can be used in CR patients with negative SPT where sIgE is not feasible.

  6. Efficacy and safety of oral desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy according to their serum specific IgE level.

    García-Ara, Carmen; Pedrosa, María; Belver, María Teresa; Martín-Muñoz, María Flor; Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa


    Oral desensitization in children allergic to cow's milk proteins is not risk free. The analysis of factors that may influence the outcome is of utmost importance. To analyze the efficacy and safety of the oral desensitization according to specific IgE (sIgE) level and adverse events during the maintenance phase. Thirty-six patients allergic to cow's milk (mean age, 7 years) were included in an oral desensitization protocol. Patients were grouped according to sIgE levels (ImmunoCAP) into groups 1 (sIgE 17-50 kU/L). Nineteen children were included as a control group. Serum sIgE levels to cow's milk and its proteins were determined at inclusion and 6 and 12 months after finishing the desensitization protocol. Thirty-three of 36 patients were successfully desensitized (200 mL): 100% of group 1 and 88% of groups 2 and 3. Desensitization was achieved in a median of 3 months (range, 1-12 months); 90% of the patients in group 1, 50% of the patients in group 2, and 30% of the patients in group 3 achieved tolerance in less than 3 months (P = .04). In the control group only 1 child tolerated milk in oral food challenge after 1 year. During the induction phase, there were 53 adverse events in 27 patients (75%). Patients of groups 2 and 3 had more severe adverse events compared with group 1. During the maintenance phase, 20 of 33 patients (60%) had an adverse event. Oral desensitization is efficacious. Tolerance is achieved earlier when sIgE is lower. Severe adverse events are frequent, especially in patients with higher sIgE levels. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with refractory ulcer disease and gastrointestinal bleeding as a rare manifestation of seronegative gastrointestinal food allergy.

    Raithel, Martin; Hahn, Markus; Donhuijsen, Konrad; Hagel, Alexander F; Nägel, Andreas; Rieker, Ralf J; Neurath, Markus F; Reinshagen, Max


    Gastrointestinal bleeding and iron deficiency anaemia may cause severe symptoms and may require extensive diagnostics and substantial amounts of health resources.This case report focuses on the clinical presentation of a 22 year old patient with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding from multilocular non-healing ulcers of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum over a period of four years. Extensive gastroenterological and allergological standard diagnostic procedures showed benign ulcerative lesions with tissue eosinophilia, but no conclusive diagnosis. Multiple diagnostic procedures were performed, until finally, endoscopically guided segmental gut lavage identified locally produced, intestinal IgE antibodies by fluoro-enzyme-immunoassay.IgE antibody concentrations at the intestinal level were found to be more-fold increased for total IgE and food-specific IgE against nuts, rye flour, wheat flour, pork, beef and egg yolk compared with healthy controls.Thus, a diet eliminating these allergens was introduced along with antihistamines and administration of a hypoallergenic formula, which resulted in complete healing of the multilocular ulcers with resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. All gastrointestinal lesions disappeared and total serum IgE levels dropped to normal within 9 months. The patient has been in remission now for more than two years.Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is well known to induce refractory ulcer disease. In this case, the mechanisms for intestinal damage and gastrointestinal bleeding were identified as local gastrointestinal type I allergy. Therefore, future diagnostics in EG should also be focused on the intestinal level as identification of causative food-specific IgE antibodies proved to be effective to induce remission in this patient.

  8. Use of humanized rat basophilic leukemia reporter cell lines as a diagnostic tool for detection of allergen-specific IgE in allergic patients: time for a reappraisal?

    Falcone, Franco H; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Okamoto-Uchida, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Ryosuke


    The interaction between allergens and specific IgE is at the heart of the allergic response and as such lies at the center of techniques used for diagnosis of allergic sensitization. Although serological tests are available, in vivo tests such as double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) and skin prick test (SPT) associated to the patients' clinical history are still the main guides to clinicians in many practices around the world. More recently, complex protein arrays and basophil activation tests, requiring only small amounts of whole blood, have been developed and refined, but are yet to enter clinical practice. Similarly, the use of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell lines for detection of allergen-specific IgE has been made possible by stable transfection of the human FcεRI α chain into this cell line more than 20 years ago, but has not found widespread acceptance among clinicians. Here, we review the perceived limitations of diagnostic applications of humanized RBL systems. Furthermore, we illustrate how the introduction of reporter genes into humanized RBL cells is able to overcome most of these limitations, and has the potential to become a new powerful tool to complement the armamentarium of allergists. A demonstration of the usefulness of humanized RBL reporter systems for elucidation of complex IgE sensitization patterns against wheat proteins and a section on the use of fluorescence-based reporter systems in combination with allergen arrays close the review.

  9. Diagnóstico de ABPA em pacientes portadores de fibrose cística: utilidade clínica da pesquisa de IgE específica contra alérgenos recombinantes do Aspergillus fumigatus ABPA diagnosis in cystic fibrosis patients: the clinical utility of IgE specific to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergens

    Marina B. Almeida


    lung disease progresses. The overlap between the signs and symptoms of the two conditions makes diagnosis problematic, even if standardized criteria are used. The objective of this study was to identify, in a group of cystic fibrosis patients, cases of ABPA by assaying IgE specific to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus antigens and to compare the method with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Fifty-four patients, aged 2 to 20 years, presenting characteristics that could occur with ABPA in isolation, were systematically assessed based on the following: clinical data, a chest CT scan, immediate hypersensitivity skin test for A. fumigatus; total serum IgE assay, RAST for A. fumigatus and serum IgE specific for the recombinant allergens Asp f1, f2, f3, f4 and f6. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were eligible for the study. Thirty-two of these were investigated. Sensitization to A. fumigatus was observed in 34%. Both the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation criteria and the recombinant antigen specific IgE assay defined three patients as suffering from ABPA; however, only two of these patients were diagnosed by both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of A. fumigatus recombinant antigen specific IgE was a useful tool for the early detection of sensitization and diagnosis of ABPA. Nevertheless, diagnostic confirmation cannot be divorced from clinical findings, and before this method can be used for ABPA diagnosis, for detecting relapses and for defining cure criteria, longitudinal studies with larger numbers of patients are required.

  10. 哮喘儿童血清变应原特异性IgE检测与分布特征%Detection and distribution characteristics of serum allergen-specific IgE in children with asthma

    吕慧; 刘建忠


    Objective: To understand the distribution characteristics of allergens in children with asthma Methods: 256 children with asthma received serum aspiratory and ingestive allergen - specific IgE detection. Results: The positive rate of aspiratory allergen - specific IgE in children with asthma was 82. 4% (211 children), 71.1% of the children had two or more than two kinds of positive allergen specific IgE; the positive rate of ingestive allergen- specific IgE in children with asthma was 17. 6% (45 children), 8.2% of the children had two or more than two kinds of positive allergen - specific IgE. Conclusion: The main allergen of children with asthma is aspiratory allergen, the most are mixed allergen sensitization, the incidences on summer and autumn increase in recent years, weeds and pollens on summer and autumn may be allergens.%目的:了解哮喘患儿过敏原分布特征.方法:256例哮喘患儿分别进行血清吸人性和食人性过敏原特异性IgE检测.结果:哮喘患儿吸入性过敏原特异性IgE阳性211例,阳性率为82.4%,71.1%为两种或两种以上过敏原特异性IgE阳性;食人性过敏原特异性IgE阳性45例,阳性率为17.6%,8.2%为两种或两种以上过敏原特异性IgE阳性.结论:哮喘患儿以吸入性过敏原为主,多数为多种过敏原混合致敏,近年夏秋季发病率升高,夏秋季杂草花粉可能为其过敏原.

  11. Protease-activated receptor-2 activation contributes to house dust mite-induced IgE responses in mice.

    Sijranke Post

    Full Text Available Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 17 (CCL17 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM

  12. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Raed M Alsulaiman


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  13. 江门市荨麻疹患者血清总IgE及过敏原体外检测分析%Detection in vitro of serum total IgE and allergen-specific IgE in urticaria patients in Jiangmen City

    张焕梅; 吴志周; 柯建良


    目的 探讨江门市荨麻疹患者血清总IgE及常见过敏原特异性IgE的分布.方法 采用欧蒙印迹法对162例荨麻疹患者进行血清体外检测.结果 162例患者中154例总IgE阳性,男、女患者阳性率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),其中特异性IgE阳性率最高的为屋尘,其次为动物毛发组合.结论 过敏原总IgE血清体外检测阳性率高,常见过敏原的检出为慢性荨麻疹患者的诊治提供一定帮助.%Objective To study the distribution of serum total IgE and allergen-specific IgE in urticaria patients of Jiangmen. Method The 162 patients were detected by EUR0L1NE atopy. Results Among the 162 patients studied, 154 patients responded positively to the total IgE,positive rates of the total IgE in the male and female cases showed no significant difference (P>0.05),the house dust was the commonest allergen and next was the animal hairs. Conclusion The results of detection of common allergens provided a significant basis for diagnosis and treatment of the patients.

  14. IGE (Individually Guided Education)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 1973


    IGE, a new form of elementary school organization, has been revolutionizing U. S. classrooms. Its success has been attributed to a format that trys different kinds of teaching methods, techniques, and strategies with a single end - to develop the individual on his terms. (Author/RK)

  15. Resource Utilization and Productivity in IGE Schools.

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; And Others

    Cost, resource utilization, and productivity were studied in 41 elementary schools using Individually Guided Education (IGE) and in 15 matched pairs of IGE and non-IGE schools. Instructional expenditures in IGE and non-IGE schools did not differ significantly. However, IGE teachers devoted significantly more time to individual instruction. A…

  16. Analysis of Detecting Aeroallergen Specific IgE and IgE Level of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis in Nanjing%南京地区变应性鼻炎患者吸入性变应原特异性IgE和总IgE的检测分析

    王艾丽; 严孝岭; 刘国瑞; 李梅; 虞伟


    目的 检测和分析不同年龄变应性鼻炎(AR)患者血清总IgE水平和吸入性变应原分布特点.方法 采用速率散射比浊法和免疫印迹法分别检测351例(三组)不同年龄(4~16岁,17~40岁和≥41岁)患者血清中总IgE水平和吸入性变应原特异性IgE抗体.结果 4~16岁AR患者血清总IgE增高率(77.31%)及水平(488.31±341.41 IU/ml)显著高于其他两组患者结果(63.1%,368.42±336.62 IU/ml,P<0.01和40.0%,287.54±315.06 IU/ml,P<0.001).351例AR患者特异性IgE抗体-吸入性变应原分布率依次为:屋尘螨(81.48%)、粉尘螨(81.2%)、动物毛发(猫/狗)(38.46%)、蟑螂(25.36%)、花粉组合(13.11%),艾蒿(11.97%)、矮豚草(11.11%)、悬铃树(7.12%)、霉菌组合(6.27%)和桦树(1.14%).结论 少儿患者组血清中总IgE水平和对粉尘螨、屋尘螨、动物毛发过敏的比例显著升高.40岁以上患者组免疫功能减低可能影响总IgE产生.诱发该地区不同年龄组AR的主要过敏原(阳性率超过20%以上)是粉尘螨、屋尘螨、动物毛发(猫/狗)和蟑螂.%Objective To detect the IgE level and aeroallergen specific IgE in order to analyze the characteristic in allergic rhinitis patients of different age. Methods Serum aeroallergen specific IgE antibody and IgE level of patients were detected by velocity scatter nephelometry and immunoblotting. 351 serum samples velocity scatter nephelometry and immunoblotting. 351 serum samples of patients were stratified three age groups :4~ 16 years> 17~40 years old and greater than 40 years old. Results The total IgE positive rate (77. 31%) and IgE level(488. 31 ± 341. 41 IU/ml) in 4~16 years group were significantly higher than that two groups (368. 42 ± 336. 62 IU/ml and 287. 54 ± 315. 06 IU/ml, P<0. 01 and 0. 001). The positive rate of aeroallergen specific IgE antibody in 351 patients serum with allergic rhinitis in order were dermatophagoides pteron-yssinus (81. 48

  17. [Eosinophils and eosinophilia].

    Scarlata, Francesco


    Eosinophils were previously considered granulocytes involved in host protection against helminth infections and in inflammation related to atopic diseases. Instead, as supported by recent studies, eosinophils are today considered multifunctional cells involved also in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, conferring innate and adaptive immunity to certain bacteria and viruses, and perhaps in the control of oncogenicity. Unexplained eosinophilia could be an expression of paraneoplastic syndrome or constitutional factors. Irrespective of the underlying conditions and aetiology of eosinophilia, eosinophil-derived substances may induce potentially irreversible organ damage. A diagnostic algorithm is discussed.

  18. Eosinophilic annular erythema.

    Sempau, Leticia; Larralde, Margarita; Luna, Paula Carolina; Casas, Jose; Staiger, Hernan


    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare benign recurrent disease, originally described in children, characterized by the recurrent appearance of persistent non-pruritic, urticarial annular lesions. Histologically a perivascular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and abundant eosinophils in the dermis is exhibited. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of recurrent flares of erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. The lesions resolved spontaneously after 3-5 weeks with no accompanying signs. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis.

  19. Eosinophilic cellulitis and dermographism.

    Nguyen, Nathalie Q; Ma, Linglei


    A 26-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent erythematous plaques on his hands and legs. A peripheral blood eosinophilia was noted. Histopathologic examination showed numerous eosinophils and characteristic flame figures. The clinical presentation and histopathologic alterations are consistent with the diagnosis of Wells' syndrome, which is also known as eosinophilic cellulitis. Wells' syndrome is a rare condition of unclear etiology. We discuss its diagnosis and possible association with other conditions that manifest peripheral eosinophilia.

  20. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael


    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity.

  1. Increased proportions of CCR4(+) cells among peripheral blood CD4(+) cells and serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibody in canine chronic rhinitis and bronchitis.

    Yamaya, Yoshiki; Watari, Toshihiro


    Canine chronic rhinitis (CR) and bronchitis (CB) are suspected to be allergic diseases. The present study tested whether dogs diagnosed with CR or CB present an atopic predisposition based on the ratio of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)-positive cells among peripheral blood CD4-positive cells (CCR4/CD4) and the serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. We found that most dogs with CR and CB have a possibility of atopic predisposition, and macrolide therapy constitutes an alternative to corticosteroid therapy in controlling the clinical signs.

  2. Glycoproteomic studies of IgE from a novel hyper IgE syndrome linked to PGM3 mutation.

    Wu, Gang; Hitchen, Paul G; Panico, Maria; North, Simon J; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Binet, Daniel; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M


    Glycans serve as important regulators of antibody activities and half-lives. IgE is the most heavily glycosylated antibody, but in comparison to other antibodies little is known about its glycan structure function relationships. We therefore describe the site specific IgE glycosylation from a patient with a novel hyper IgE syndrome linked to mutations in PGM3, which is an enzyme involved in synthesizing UDP-GlcNAc, a sugar donor widely required for glycosylation. A two-step method was developed to prepare two IgE samples from less than 1 mL of serum collected from a patient with PGM3 mutation and a patient with atopic dermatitis as a control subject. Then, a glycoproteomic strategy was used to study the site-specific glycosylation. No glycosylation was found at Asn264, whilst high mannose glycans were only detected at Asn275, tri-antennary glycans were exclusively observed at Asn99 and Asn252, and non-fucosylated complex glycans were detected at Asn99. The results showed similar glycosylation profiles between the two IgE samples. These observations, together with previous knowledge of IgE glycosylation, imply that IgE glycosylation is similarly regulated among healthy control, allergy and PGM3 related hyper IgE syndrome.

  3. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.


    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  4. The lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter and human schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Kazura, J W; Mahmoud, A A; Karb, K S; Warren, K S


    An in vitro assay for the new lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter has been adapted for use with human material. Peripheral eosinophils from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni were specifically induced to migrate on incubation with egg antigen. Furthermore, the peripheral lymphocytes of these patients on incubation with the egg antigen secreted the lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter, which enhanced the migration of purified eosinophils from patients with or without schistosomiasis. The test can be easily performed with human target cells and may be helpful for diagnostic or investigative purposes.

  5. Conservative management of eosinophilic enteritis presenting with acute abdominal syndrome

    Marco Bassi


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis, an increasing recognized condition, is rare and often presents with non-specific symptoms. We report a case of a 46-year old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and nausea associated with ascites, small bowel thickening and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsies taken at esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrating diffuse infiltration by inflammatory cells, mainly eosinophils. Appropriate therapy was instituted. The patient recovered well and was symptom-free at 1-month follow up. In this report, we discuss the clinical presentation and the diagnostic criteria of the eosinophilic enteritis, and examine the pathophysiological theories and therapeutic strategies. The relevant literature on eosinophilic enteritis is summarized.

  6. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  7. The relative paucity of IgE in human milk.

    Underdown, B J; Knight, A; Papsin, F R


    The levels of IgE were determined in paired samples of serum and milk when whey obtained 3 to 8 days of postpartum, from 16 human lactating mothers who had reported a history of allergy to a variety of common allergens. Two assay procedures were employed to measure total IgE, a double-antibody assay and a commercially available solid phase assay (RIST). In addition, each sample of serum and whey was tested for specific IgE antibodies to a variety of allergens by the RAST test. The levels of total serum IgE were between 30 and 2300 I.U./ml and relatively good agreement was observed for both the double-antibody and RIST methods. In contrast, total IgE levels in milk whey were either undetectable (less than 3.0 I.U./ml in 14 of 16 subjects) or very low when analyzed by the double-antibody method, but were very high (400 to 1650 I.U./ml when analyzed by the RIST method. However, IgE added to milk whey could be measured by the double-antibody procedure indicating that the low levels detected in milk were not a fault of the double-antibody assay. It was assumed that the RIST test was subject to nonspecific interference by factors in milk whey which caused the determination of high, but incorrect, levels of IgE. Specific IgE antibodies were detected in the serum of 10 of 16 subjects but were not present in milk whey. A comparison of the whey/serum ratios of albumin, IgA, and IgE suggested that little, if any, IgE is selectively synthesized or secreted in the mammary gland.

  8. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina


    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  9. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito


    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  10. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Décio Medeiros


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level

  11. 20万项次过敏原特异性IgE检测结果%Two Hundred Thousands Results of Allergen Specific IgE Detection

    王瑞琦; 张宏誉


    Objective To analyze and determine the common inhalant allergens and important food allergens in clinical practice. Methods Base on the allergen-specific IgE( slgE ) results detected by ImmunoCAP system in Department of Allergy, Peking Union Medical College Hospital in the past three years, the test amount, the positive results number, and the positive rate of each allergen were calculated respectively, and the sorting analysis of positive results number was performed. Results 215 210 detection were assayed in the past 3 years, 76% of them were inhalant allergens slgE, 22% were food allergens slgE, and 2% were other allergens ( including drugs and insects et al ) slgE. There were 18 kinds of common inhalant allergens, including pteronyssinus, farinae, mugwort, Japanese hop, Altermaria alternate, white ash, mountain juniper, common ragweed, common silver birch, Cockroach ( German ), maple leaf sycamore, cocklebur, hand dander, goosefoot ( Lambs quarters ), and Aspergillus fumigatus, which contributed to 95 % of inhalant allergen sigE positive results. The important food allergens were egg, milk, peanut, soybean, shrimp, crab, grain, nut and fruit. The positive slgE results number of 27 kinds ofinhalant and 42 kinds of food allergens was less then ten in the past 3 years, and no positive result was found in some of them. Phadiatop and fx5 were the most common screening tests used in clinical practice. Conclusions The variety of allergens is great, but the common inhalant and important food allergens are limited in clinical practice. Some allergens are really rare. The common inhalant and important food allergens spectrum of China is in accord with data of foreign publications.%目的 分析临床常见吸入物过敏原和重要食物过敏原的种类.方法 依据北京协和医院变态反应科近3年来应用ImmunoCAP过敏原检测系统所做的过敏原特异性IgE(specific IgE,sIgE)检测结果,统计每种过敏原的

  12. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis

    Matthew Evison


    Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  13. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H


    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy.

  14. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L


    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  15. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis in Saudi children: Symptoms, histology and endoscopy results

    Mohammed Y Hasosah


    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by esophageal symptoms in association with a dense eosinophilic infiltrate currently defined as >15 eosinophils per high power field in the appropriate clinical context. This is the first pediatric study in Saudi Arabia to give the experience with EE and examine its symptom, histology and endoscopy results. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with EE at National Guard Hospital, Jeddah Between 2007 and 2009. The authors identified EE on histologic criteria (≥15 eosinophils per high-power field together with their clinical context. The authors reviewed medical records for details of clinical presentation, laboratory data, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic findings, and the results of treatment. Results: We identified 15 patients in our database in the last three years. 100% of the patients were males. The median age at presentation was 10 years (range, 3-17 years. The commonly reported symptoms were failure to thrive (86%, epigastric abdominal pain (53%, poor eating (40%, dysphagia with solid food (26%, food impaction (13%, and vomiting (20%. Asthma was reported in 46% and allergic rhinitis in 40%. Peripheral eosinophilia (>0.7 Χ 10/l was found in 66%. High serum IgE Level (>60 IU/ml was found in 60%. Upper endoscopic analysis revealed esophageal trachealization in 46%, esophageal erythema in 46%, white specks on the esophageal mucosa in 33%, esophageal narrowing in 13%, and normal endoscopy in 13%. The mean eosinophils per high-power field was 30.4 (range, 20-71. Histologic characteristics included degranulated eosinophils (86%, basal cell hyperplasia (93% and eosinophils clusters (micro-abscess in 73%. The treatment of EE revealed that they used swallowed corticosteroid in 50%, proton pump inhibitors in 66%, elemental diet/ food elimination in 13% and systemic corticosteroid in 13%. Conclusions: Failure to

  17. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  18. p110γ/δ Double-Deficiency Induces Eosinophilia and IgE Production but Protects from OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation.

    Mothes, Benedikt; Bucher, Kirsten; Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Schwab, Matthias; Piekorz, Roland P; Hirsch, Emilio; Nürnberg, Bernd; Beer-Hammer, Sandra


    The catalytical isoforms p110γ and p110δ of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Two key elements in allergic asthma are increased levels of eosinophils and IgE. Dual pharmacological inhibition of p110γ and p110δ reduces asthma-associated eosinophilic lung infiltration and ameliorates disease symptoms, whereas the absence of enzymatic activity in p110γKOδD910A mice increases IgE and basal eosinophil counts. This suggests that long-term inhibition of p110γ and p110δ might exacerbate asthma. Here, we analysed mice genetically deficient for both catalytical subunits (p110γ/δ-/-) and determined basal IgE and eosinophil levels and the immune response to ovalbumin-induced asthma. Serum concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in p110γ/δ-/- mice compared to single knock-out and wildtype mice. However, p110γ/δ-/- mice were protected against OVA-induced infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, T and B cells into lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, p110γ/δ-/- mice, but not single knock-out mice, showed a reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that increased levels of eosinophils and IgE in p110γ/δ-/- mice do not abolish the protective effect of p110γ/δ-deficiency against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  19. Mathematics Instruction in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Working Paper 317. Report from the IGE Evaluation Project.

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This report summarizes the data from a comparative study of grades 2 and 5 mathematics instruction and the use of Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) in IGE and non-IGE settings. These results are part of a five-phase evaluation of the IGE system of elementary schooling. Use of DMP and reported adoption of IGE were not found to be good…

  20. Detection of serum allergen specific IgE in the child with recurrent auergic purpura%过敏性紫癜患儿血清过敏原特异性IgE的检测及意义



    Objective To investigate the role of allergen specific IgE in the child with recurrent auergic purpura,and to detect the relation between all kinds of allergen and the disease.Methods The serum specific IgE of allergen detected by ELISA in 100 cases of the child with recurrent auergic purpura.Results 81 cases of serum allergen-specific IgE were over than 50ku/L(81%).52 cases(52%)were positive reaction to more than two kinds of allergens and 29 cases(29%)were positive reaction to one kind of allergen.Several familiar aeroallergen mixed molds (19/100),dermatophagoides(12/100)and mugwort pollens(9/100).The most familiar food fish(28/100).shrimpand crab(22/100),milk(18/100).protein(11/100).Conclusion It suggests that aeroallergens,fish,shrimp and crab play an important role in the pathogenesis of repeating child anaphy lactic purpura.Mixed molds and protein foods are important pathogens to the disease.To detect the serum specific IgE could help screen allergens,and have important role to prevent disease.%目的 探讨反复发作性过敏性紫癜患儿血清过敏原特异性IgE的变化及与疾病发病的关系.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验检测100例反复发作性过敏性紫癜患儿的血清过敏原特异性IgE.结果 100例患儿中血清总IgE水平>50 ku/L者81例,阳性率81%,其中52例(52%)对两种以上过敏原呈阳性反应,29例(29%)对一种过敏原呈阳性反应;常见吸人性过敏原为霉菌(19/100)、尘螨(12/100)和蒿类花粉(9/100).常见的食人性过敏原为海鱼类(28/100)、虾蟹(22/100)、牛奶(18/100)、蛋白蛋黄类(11/100).结论 反复发作性过敏性紫癜的发生与吸人性和食人性过敏原都有一定的相关性,特异性IgE检测可帮助筛选过敏原,对疾病的预防具有积极意义.

  1. Application of serum specific IgE examination In etiological diagnosis of allergic skin disease%血清特异性IgE检测在过敏性皮肤病病因诊断中的应用



    Objective To summarize and analyze the examination result of serum specific IgE in patient with allergic skin disease,and seek the cause of disease for the allergic skin disease patient and provide the clinical treatment basis.Methods The serum specific IgE of ingestion and inhalation were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 529 patient with allergic skin disease.Results In 529 cases,the serum specific IgE of inhalation and ingestion were positive in 336 cases,and simple positive of inhalation were in 92 cases,and simple positive of ingestion were in 51 cases.In the inhalation group,D1,1D2 (dust mites,mites) was highest,followed by T3,T8,T11,T18,T70 (birch,elm,eucalyptus,and indus,and the mulberry tree) and H1 (house dust).In the ingestion group,F13,F17 (peanut,hazelnut) was highest,followed by F3,F40,F37 (COD,tuna,scallop),F47,F48,F263 (garlic,onion,green pepper).In 14 items,more than one item were positive in 96.2%.Concluslon Detecting allergic skin disease patients serum allergen specific IgE can guide patient awareness of their allergen and clinical treatment,which has effect on allergic skin disease prevention and treatment.%目的 总结及分析过敏性皮肤病患者的血清特异性IgE检测结果,为过敏性皮肤病患者寻找病因和提供临床治疗依据.方法 采用酶联免疫分析法对529例过敏性皮肤病患者进行食人性和吸入性过敏原血清特异性IgE检测.结果 本组529例患者,血清特异性IgE吸入、食入性同时阳性336例、单纯吸入阳性92例、单纯食入阳性51例及无任何阳性反应者20例.吸入组最高的是D1、D2(尘螨、粉螨),其次T3、T8、T11、T18、T70(白桦、榆树、梧桐、桉树、桑树)和H1(屋尘).食入组最高的是F13、F17(花生、榛子),F3、F40、F37(鳕鱼、金枪鱼、扇贝),F47、F48、F263(大蒜、洋葱、青辣椒).14项中有1项以上阳性者高达96.2%.结论 通过对过敏性皮肤病患者过敏原血清特异性IgE检测分析,可以

  2. Pearls and pitfalls of allergy diagnostic testing: report from the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology/American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Specific IgE Test Task Force.

    Cox, Linda; Williams, Brock; Sicherer, Scott; Oppenheimer, John; Sher, Larry; Hamilton, Robert; Golden, David


    The intended purpose of this monograph is to provide a general overview of allergy diagnostics for health care professionals who care for patients with allergic disease. For a more comprehensive review of allergy diagnostic testing, readers can refer to the Allergy Diagnostic Practice Parameters. A key message is that a positive allergy test result (skin or blood) indicates only the presence of allergen specific IgE (called sensitization). It does not necessarily mean clinical allergy (ie, allergic symptoms with exposure). It is important for this reason that the allergy evaluation be based on the patient's history and directed by a health care professional with sufficient understanding of allergy diagnostic testing to use the information obtained from his/her evaluation of the patient to determine (1) what allergy diagnostic tests to order, (2) how to interpret the allergy diagnostic test results, and (3) how to use the information obtained from the allergy evaluation to develop an appropriate therapeutic treatment plan.

  3. IGES Interface for Medical 3-D Volume Data.

    Chen, Gong; Yi, Hong; Ni, Zhonghua


    Although there are many medical image processing and virtual surgery systems that provide rather consummate 3D-visualization and data manipulation techniques, few of them can export the volume data for engineering analyze. The thesis presents an interface implementing IGES (initial graphics exchange specification). Volume data such as bones, skins and other tissues can be exported as IGES files to be directly used for engineering analysis.

  4. The diagnostic capacity of serum food-specific IgE in egg and cow’s milk%特异性I gE对鸡蛋、牛奶过敏的诊断价值研究

    闫俊梅; 丁玉红; 邓晓毅


    目的:通过对特异性IgE与开放性食物激发试验的相关性研究,获得具有确诊食物过敏价值的特异性IgE界值点,为简化临床诊断程序提供依据。方法选择徐州市妇幼保健院可疑食物过敏儿童289例,通过进行皮肤点刺试验、特异性I gE的测定及开放性食物激发试验确诊食物过敏患儿。应用SPSS 13.0软件包分析特异性I gE的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值;通过受试者工作特征曲线的曲线下面积评价特异性IgE对食物过敏的诊断价值,并获得特异性I gE的100%诊断界值点。结果蛋白、蛋黄、牛奶皮肤点刺试验的受试者工作特征曲线的曲线下面积分别为0.810、0.807及0.819。当蛋白、蛋黄、牛奶特异性IgE分别≥8.5 kU/L、3.5 kU/L、5.0 kU/L时,特异性I gE对食物过敏的诊断准确率可达100%。结论特异性IgE对食物过敏的临床诊断准确性较好,通过其100%诊断界值点,可避免部分可疑食物过敏患儿进行食物激发试验。%Objective Serum food-specific IgE is the most common used parameter after skin prick test. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of serum food-specific IgE according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Methods 289 children referred to the Maternal and Child Health of Xuzhou for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. Children underwent skin prick test, serum food-specific IgE and open food challenge to the relevant food (s) in clinic. Diagnostic capacity (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value), area under curves (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) and predictive decision points were calculated by SPSS 13.0 package for the serum food-specific IgE. Results In 250 children, 160 skin prick test were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow milk

  5. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro


    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 过敏性鼻炎患儿过敏原特异性IgE检测与临床意义%Detection of Specific IgE in Serum of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Its Clinical Significance

    王红; 楼金吐


    目的 了解过敏性鼻炎儿童主要过敏原分布情况及特点,以指导临床防治.方法 采用免疫印迹法体外定量检测患儿血清中特异性IgE抗体及20种常见过敏原.结果 938例过敏性鼻炎患儿中,100%至少对一种以上的过敏原呈阳性反应,其中487例患儿总IgE>400IU/Ml,230例患儿总IgE在200IU/ml~400IU/ml之间.在检测20种过敏原中以户尘螨和屋尘的阳性率最高(90.0%,80.8%).结论 过敏性鼻炎患儿至少有一种特异性IgE抗体显著增加,户尘螨、屋尘、动物皮屑、羊肉和牛奶是引起儿童过敏性鼻炎的主要过敏原.儿童在春秋温暖季节易发过敏性鼻炎.%Objective To investigate the main allergen distribution and characteristic in the children with allergic rhinitis, as to guide the clinical prevention and treatment. Methods 938 cases with allergic rhinitis used immune print detecting the special IgE antibody and twenty kinds of common allergen in serum. Results In 938 cases with allergic rhinitis there were a positive result for special allergen at least. Among them the total IgE of 487 cases were more than 400IU/ml, the total IgE of 230 cases were between 200 and 400 IU/ml. In 20 common allergen, the leading allergen was house dust and mite, the positive results were 90.0% and 80. 8%. Conclusion The children with allergic rhinitis were more than one kind positive of specific allergen. The main allergens for the children with allergic rhinitis were house dust, dust mite, pet skin scraps, mutton and milk etc. The Bpring and autumn season caused easily allergic rhinitis in children.

  7. Establishment of ELISA techniques to detect Der f 1-specific IgE based on recombinant proteins%Der f1血清特异性IgE ELISA检测方法的建立

    王运刚; 周鹰; 马桂芳; 杨李; 崔玉宝


    Objectives To establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect Der f 1-specific IgE based on recombinant proteins of group 1 allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae (rDer f 1) and to detect that IgE in sera from patients with asthma. Methods Indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA techniques were developed using rDer f 1 as a capture antigen, and the techniques were then used to detect Der f 1-specific IgE in sera from 39 patients with asthma to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques. Results With rDer f 1 as a coating antigen, the optimum concentration of coating antigen was 15 fig/ml and the proper dilution of serum was 1 : 2 for both indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA to detect Der f 1-specific IgE. The proper dilution of horseradish peroxidase labeling anti-human IgE antibody (anti-human IgE/HRP) in indirect ELISA was 1 : 1000, and the proper dilution of anti-human IgE/Biotin and Avidin/HRP in ABC-ELISA was 1 : 1000 and 1 : 2000 , respectively. Indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA had a sensitivity of 0. 68 U/ml and 0. 73 U/ml, respectively. Patients tested positive for Der f 1-specific IgE according to indirect ELISA and ABC-ELISA at rates of 92. 3% and 97. 4% respectively, and the rates did not differ significantly (P>0. 05). Conclusions Both ELISA techniques were highly sensitive at detecting rDer f 1 and should be used in laboratory diagnosis of allergic diseases associated with mites.%目的 利用粉尘螨变应原第1组分重组蛋白rDer f 1建立特异性IgE ELISA检测方法,并对哮喘患者血清进行检测.方法 以rDer f 1为包被抗原,分别建立间接ELISA法和亲和素(一)生物素复合ELISA (ABC-ELISA)法,检测Der f 1特异性IgE阳性标准血清和39例哮喘患者血清中的Der f 1特异性IgE,并分析检测结果.结果 间接ELISA法和ABC-ELISA法检测Der f 1特异性IgE的最适抗原包被浓度和血清稀释倍数均为15 μg/ml和1:2,间接ELISA法辣根过氧化物酶(HRP)标记抗人IgE

  8. Changes in IgE- and Antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel

    Kazibwe Francis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of important research, the involvement of other Fcε receptor-bearing cells, such as mast cells and basophils, has not been investigated in relation to human immunity to schistosomes. Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ kills schistosomes living in an in vivo blood environment rich in IgE, eosinophils and basophils. This releases parasite Ags that have the potential to cross-link cell-bound IgE. However, systemic hypersensitivity reactions are not induced by treatment. Here, we describe the effects of schistosomiasis, and its treatment, on human basophil function by following changes in total cellular histamine and in vitro histamine-release induced by schistosome Ags or anti-IgE, in blood samples from infected Ugandan fishermen, who are continuously exposed to S. mansoni infection, before and 1-day and 21-days after PZQ treatment. Results There was a significant increase in the total cellular histamine in blood samples at 1-day post-treatment, followed by a very significant further increase by 21-days post-treatment. In vitro histamine-release induced by S. mansoni egg (SEA or worm (SWA Ags or anti-IgE antibody, was significantly reduced 1-day post-treatment. The degree of this reduction correlated with pre-treatment infection intensity. Twenty-1-days post-treatment, SEA-induced histamine-release was still significantly lower than at pretreatment. Histamine-release was not correlated to plasma concentrations of total or parasite-specific IgE, nor to specific IgG4 plasma concentrations. Conclusion The biology of human blood basophils is modulated by S. mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment. Infection intensity-dependent suppression of basophil histamine-release, histamine-dependent resistance to infection, and

  9. Selected feline eosinophilic skin diseases.

    Power, H T; Ihrke, P J


    Eosinophilic plaque and mosquito-bite dermatitis are recognized hypersensitivity reactions. The pathogenesis of eosinophilic granuloma and indolent ulcer are not as clearly understood. Each of these syndromes is distinctive from a clinical and histopathologic view point. Accurate diagnosis depends on history, physical findings, and histopathologic evaluation. Understanding of feline dermatology will be furthered by including these syndromes in a broader grouping that encompasses all the feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

  10. Analysis of Allergens Specificity IgE in Children with Bronchus Asthma%支气管哮喘儿童过敏原特异性IgE检测结果分析



    目的 分析泰安地区不同年龄段支气管哮喘儿童过敏原特点,为环境控制和免疫治疗提供依据.方法 应用免疫印迹法,对诊断为支气管哮喘儿童62例(≤43岁组26例;>3岁组36例)进行过敏原总IgE、特异性IgE浓度检测.结果 总IgE检出率≤3岁组、>3岁组分别为19.23%、63.89%,两组差异有统计学意义(P3岁组分别为76.92%(20/26)、88.9%(32/36),两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 支气管哮喘儿童过敏原总IgE检出率随年龄增长有逐渐增长的趋势,吸入性过敏原是主要致敏因素以屋尘、尘螨为主.≤3岁屋尘是主要致敏因素,>3岁尘螨是主要致敏因素.%Objective To investigate the allergens characteristics of children with bronchus asthma at different age groups in Taian area,and to provide a basis for the environment control and immunotherapy.Methods Sixty two children with bronchial asthma(the age of 26 cases were equal to or less than 3 years old;36 cases more than 3 years old) were enrolled in this study.The concentration of total IgE and specificity IgE of allergens were tested with Western blot analysis.Results The positive rate of total IgE in both groups were 19.23% and 63.89% ,respectively,and the difference was statistically significant difference( P <0.05 ).The positive rate of allergens that its mount was more than one in the two groups were 76.92% (20/26) and 88.9% (32/36), respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion The positive rate of total IgE incroase with the ages of children with bronchus asthma, the inhalational allergens, such as house dust and dust mites, were the main triggers for anaphylaxis episodes( house dust for children less than or equal to three years old,dust mites for children more than 3 years old).

  11. Genetics Home Reference: eosinophil peroxidase deficiency

    ... invaders. EPX gene mutations reduce or prevent eosinophil peroxidase production or result in a protein that is unstable and nonfunctional. As a result, eosinophils have severely reduced amounts of eosinophil peroxidase or none at all. Other proteins within affected ...

  12. Selective IgE deficiency and cardiovascular diseases.

    Magen, Eli; Mishal, Joseph; Vardy, Daniel


    Selective immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency (IgED) is defined as serum levels of IgE more than or equal to 2 kIU/L and is associated with immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate a prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in population with IgED. Within the electronic patient record (EPR) database of Leumit Health Care Services (LHS) in Israel, data capture was performed using IBM Cognos 10.1.1 BI Report Studio software. The case samples were drawn from the full study population (n = 18,487), having any allergy-related symptoms and/or those requesting antiallergy medications and performed serum total IgE measurement during 2012 at LHS. All subjects aged more than or equal to 40 years old, with serum total IgE less than 2 kIU/L were included in case group. Control group was randomly sampled from the remained subjects, with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case (1:10). The comorbid cardiovascular diseases during less than or equal to 10 years before serum total IgE testing were identified and retrieved using specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. There were 103 in case and 1030 subjects in control group. Compared with control group patients, the case group had significantly more arterial hypertension [34 (37.7%) versus 187 (18.2%), p PVD) [4 (3.9%) versus 9 (0.9%), p = 0.024]. IgED is associated with higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and ASCVD.

  13. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    Zobrist, George W.


    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  14. Cord blood IgE. III. Prediction of IgE high-response and allergy. A follow-up at the age of 18 months

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S;


    size with cord blood IgE less than 0.5 kU/l. A total group of 762 infants were clinically evaluated at 18 months of age, and in 688 of these we evaluated total and specific IgE. A diagnosis of definite atopy, probable atopy or no atopy was established. In the present study we defined allergic disease...

  15. T & E and IGE. A Manual for IGE Schools to Use in Responding to the Requirements of Thorough and Efficient Education.

    Conte, Anthony E.; Hanson, J. Robert

    This manual presents a comparative analysis of New Jersey's requirements for "Thorough and Efficient" (T & E) education and the processes of Individually Guided Education (IGE). It is designed to provide guidance to IGE schools and districts in responding to specific program needs that might occur under the development of a T & E…

  16. Integrin activation states and eosinophil recruitment in asthma

    Mats W Johansson


    Full Text Available Eosinophil arrest and recruitment to the airway in asthma are mediated, at least in part, by integrins. Eosinophils express α4β1, α6β1, αLβ2, αMβ2, αXβ2, αDβ2, and α4β7 integrins, which interact with counter-receptors on other cells or ligands in the extracellular matrix. Whether a given integrin-ligand pair mediates cell adhesion and migration depends on the activation state of the integrin. Integrins exist in an inactive bent, an intermediate-activity extended closed, and a high-activity extended open conformation. Integrin activation states can be monitored by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Studies in mice indicate that both β1 and β2 integrins mediate eosinophil recruitment to the lung. In vitro studies indicate that α4β1 and αMβ2 are the principal integrins mediating eosinophil adhesion, including to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and the novel αMβ2 ligand periostin. In vivo, blood eosinophils have intermediate-activity β1 integrins, as judged by mAb N29, apparently resulting from eosinophil binding of P-selectin on the surface of activated platelets, and have a proportion of their β2 integrins in the intermediate conformation, as judged by mAb KIM-127, apparently due to exposure to low concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5. Airway eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL after segmental antigen challenge have high-activity β1 integrins and high-activity αMβ2 that does not require IL-5. Here we review information on how the activation states of eosinophil β1 and β2 integrins correlate with measurements of eosinophil recruitment and pulmonary function in asthma. Blood eosinophil N29 reactivity is associated with decreased lung function under various circumstances in non-severe asthma and KIM-127 with BAL eosinophil numbers, indicating that intermediate-activity α4β1 and αMβ2 of blood eosinophils are important for eosinophil arrest and consequently for recruitment and

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    Swartz, Jonathan M; Byström, Jonas; Dyer, Kimberly D; Nitto, Takeaki; Wynn, Thomas A; Rosenberg, Helene F


    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) as a potential eosinophil protein was inferred from our gene microarray study of mouse eosinophilopoiesis. Here, we detect 47 kDa intracellular and approximately 60 kDa secretory forms of PAI-2 in purified human eosinophil extracts. PAI-2 is present at variable concentrations in eosinophil lysates, ranging from 30 to 444 ng/10(6) cells, with a mean of 182 ng/10(6) cells from 10 normal donors, which is the highest per-cell concentration among all leukocyte subtypes evaluated. Enzymatic assay confirmed that eosinophil-derived PAI-2 is biologically active and inhibits activation of its preferred substrate, urokinase. Immunohistochemical and immunogold staining demonstrated PAI-2 localization in eosinophil-specific granules. Immunoreactive PAI-2 was detected in extracellular deposits in and around the eosinophil-enriched granuloma tissue encapsulating the parasitic egg in livers of wild-type mice infected with the helminthic parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Among the possibilities, we consider a role for eosinophil-derived PAI-2 in inflammation and remodeling associated with parasitic infection as well as allergic airways disease, respiratory virus infection, and host responses to tumors and metastasis in vivo.

  18. Cockroach antigen specific IgE detection and analysis in allergic children%蟑螂过敏儿童特异性IgE抗体的检测及分析

    谭晓明; 刘云锋; 关启鸿; 李梅爱; 关小珊; 周帅; 杨镒宇; 姚淑雯; 周珍文


    Objective To understand the age distribution of children allergic to cockroach,and diseases sources in Guangzhou.Methods Cockroach antigen specific IgE was detected by modified RAST assay.The positive results of January 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed.Results Among 9821 serum samples,245 cases were positive for cockroach antigen specific IgE detection,with a positive rate of 2.49%.The top five symptoms in children positive for cockroach specific IgE were urticaria (59 cases,30.10%),allergic rhinitis (45 cases,22.96%),asthma (35 cases,17.86%),Henoch-Schonlein Purpura(21 cases,10.71%),and conjunctivitis (11 cases,5.61%).The age distribution of these patients was mainly concentrated in the 4 to 10 years of age,of which 10.57% was 4 years old,13.82% was 5 years old,11.38% was 6 years old,12.20% was 7 years old,and 10.98% was 8 years old.Male to female ratio was 2.77∶1.Conclusions Cockroach allergen was one of the major allergens for children in Guangzhou.Allergies were occurs primarily in children with allergic rhinitis and urticaria.The age distribution of patients was mainly in 4 to 10 years old.The positive rate of male was higher than that of female.%目的 了解广州市蟑螂过敏儿童年龄分布和疾病来源情况.方法 使用改良RAST法检测患儿血清蟑螂特异性IgE,并对2010年1月至2012年12月广州地区蟑螂特异性IgE阳性结果进行分析.结果 9821例儿童中有245例蟑螂特异性IgE阳性,阳性率为2.49%,阳性患儿中前五位疾病分别为荨麻疹59例,占30.10%;过敏性鼻炎45例,占22.96%;哮喘35例,占17.86%,过敏性紫癜21例,占10.71%,结膜炎11例,占5.61%.年龄主要集中分布在4~10岁间,4~岁组占10.57%;5~岁组占13.82%;6~岁组占11.38%;7~岁占12.20%;8~岁占10.98%,其中5~岁组最高,男性高于女性,男女比例为2.77∶1,蟑螂特异性IgE阳性患儿血清总IgE均升高.结论 蟑螂为广州儿童过敏的主要变应原之

  19. Clustering of conformational IgE epitopes on the major dog allergen Can f 1.

    Curin, Mirela; Weber, Milena; Hofer, Gerhard; Apostolovic, Danijela; Keller, Walter; Reininger, Renate; Swoboda, Ines; Spitzauer, Susanne; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf


    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy affects more than 25% of the population. Can f 1 is the major dog allergen associated with respiratory symptoms but the epitopes recognized by allergic patients IgE on Can f 1 are unknown. To characterize IgE epitopes of Can f 1 recognized by dog allergic patients, six overlapping peptides spanning the Can f 1 sequence were synthesized. In direct IgE epitope mapping experiments peptides were analyzed for IgE reactivity by dot blot and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with sera from dog allergic patients. For indirect epitope-mapping, rabbits were immunized with the peptides to generate specific IgG antibodies which were used to inhibit allergic patients' IgE binding to Can f 1. IgE binding sites were visualized on a model of the Can f 1 three-dimensional structure. We found that Can f 1 does not contain any relevant sequential IgE epitopes. However, IgE inhibition experiments with anti-peptide specific IgGs showed that Can f 1 N- and C-terminal portion assembled a major conformational binding site. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify the major IgE epitope-containing area of the dog allergen Can f 1. This finding is important for the development of allergen-specific treatment strategies.

  20. Activity assessment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Schoepfer, Alain; Safroneeva, Ekaterina


    The activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can be assessed with patient-reported outcomes and biologic measures. Patient-reported outcomes include symptoms and quality of life, whereas biologic measures refer to endoscopic, histologic, and biochemical activity (e.g. blood biomarkers). So far, a validated tool to assess EoE activity in the above-mentioned dimensions is lacking. Given the lack of a standardized way to assess EoE activity in the various dimensions, the results of different clinical trials may be difficult to compare. For symptom assessment in adult patients, the symptom 'dysphagia' should be evaluated according to different standardized food consistencies. Furthermore, symptom assessment should take into account the following items: avoidance of specific food categories, food modification, and time to eat a regular meal. A distinct symptom recall period (e.g. 2 weeks) has to be defined for symptom assessment. Performing an 'esophageal stress test' with ingestion of a standardized meal to measure symptom severity bears the potential risk of acute food bolus impaction and should therefore be avoided. The description of endoscopic findings in EoE has meanwhile been standardized. Histologic evaluation of EoE activity should report either the size of the high-power field used or count the eosinophils per mm(2). There is a current lack of blood biomarkers demonstrating a good correlation with histologic activity in esophageal biopsies. The development and validation of an adult and pediatric EoE activity index is urgently needed not only for clinical trials and observational studies, but also for daily practice.

  1. [The serum level transformation of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IgE before and after SIT in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Li, Yujin; Li, Peizhong


    To assess the efficacy and the transformation of IFN-gamma, IL-4, total IgE and specific IgE before and after specific immune therapy(SIT) in patients with allergic rhinitis. The subjective symptom and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, total IgE and specific IgE were observed in 40 patients with allergic rhinitis before and after SIT. Total effective rate in patients after SIT was 85%. There's no significant difference between the levels of specific IgE before and after SIT(P>0.05) ,while the levels of IL-4 and total IgE were significantly lower, the levels of IFN-gamma were significantly higher pre than that of post SIT. SIT is safe and effective,and can regulate the levels of IFN-gamma, IgE and IL-4. But the role of specific IgE in SIT is still unknown.

  2. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen


    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  3. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Eosinophilic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Acute Eosinophilic Leukemias; Acute... eosinophilic leukemia; Eosinophilic Leukemia, Acute; Eosinophilic Leukemias, Acute; Leukemia, Acute... Eosinophilic; Leukemias, Acute Eosinophilic PharmGKB Accession Id: PA446179 External Vocabularies Me...SH: Leukemia, Eosinophilic, Acute (D015472) SnoMedCT: Acute eosinophilic leukemia... (277604002) UMLS: C0023439 (C0023439) NDFRT: Leukemia, Eosinophilic, Acute [Disease/Finding] (N0000003269)

  4. Measurement and analysis of serum specific IgE and total IgE in children with chronic eczema%364例儿童慢性湿疹血清特异性IgE和总IgE检测分析

    姜日花; 朱明姬; 贾玉玺; 蒋忠民


    目的 了解慢性湿疹患儿血清特异性IgE和总IgE水平,为预防和治疗该病提供理论依据.方法 采用德国Mediwiss 过敏原体外检测系统,应用免疫印迹定量法对364例慢性湿疹患儿进行血清特异性IgE和总IgE检测.结果 慢性湿疹患儿总 IgE 阳性检出率为48.9%;吸入变应原中户尘螨粉尘螨、蟑螂、矮豚草蒿、狗猫皮屑、霉菌阳性检出率分别为 29.7%,14.3%,13.5%,12.6%,12.1%;食入变应原中蛋白蛋黄、牛奶、鱼虾蟹阳性检出率分别为 18.1%,15.9%,12.6%;1-3岁组食入性变应原的阳性率为高于6-12岁组(P<0.05),而吸入性变应原的阳性率则低于6-12岁组(P<0.05).结论 尘螨、蟑螂、矮豚草蒿、猫毛狗毛皮屑、霉菌、鸡蛋、牛奶、鱼虾蟹是吉林地区小儿慢性湿疹常见的变应原.小于3岁湿疹患儿主要对蛋白蛋黄等食入性变应原过敏,而大于6岁患儿主要对粉尘螨、蟑螂、矮豚草蒿等吸入性变应原过敏.%Objective To study the serum specific IgE (sIgE) and total IgE(tIgE) level in children with chronic eczema and to lie a theoretical foundation for its clinical prevention and treatment.Methods Quantitative immunoblot analysis (Allergy Mediwiss stemystem) was used to examine sIgE and tIgE level in 364 chronic eczema children.All subjects were tested for food-induced and airborne-induced allergens equally.Results The detecting rate of tIgE was 48.9%; while that of dermatophagoides farinae,cockroach,low rag weed,canine and feline scurf,mycetes was 29.7%,14.3%,13.5%,12.6%,12.1%,respectively in airborne-induced group,and of Milk,fish and shrimp,pea crab was 18.1%,15.9%,12.6%,respectively in food-induced group.It showed a significantly higher positive rate of food-induced allergens in toddlers (1-3 years old) than those in school-agers (6-12 years old) (P<0.05),whereas overturned in airborne-induced allergens dramatically(P<0.05).Conclusion Dermatophagoides farinae,cockroach,low rag weed,canine and

  5. Acute Eosinophilic Ascites in a Middle-Aged Man

    Fadi Bleibel


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the GI tract and presenting with nonspecific GI symptoms in association with peripheral eosinophilia. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear and its symptoms overlap with many GI and systemic diseases. Thus, both gastroenterologists and general internists need to be aware of this rare condition. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for two weeks. His physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, thickening of the stomach and small bowel wall, and elevated serum IgE. Upper endoscopy and extensive testing for malignancy and parasitic infections failed to establish a diagnosis. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Further, a full-thickness jejunal showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the serosa and muscularis propria. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities in a few week period.

  6. Acute Eosinophilic Ascites in a Middle-Aged Man

    Bleibel, Fadi; Fragoza, Keith; Faller, Garrey T.


    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of portions of the GI tract and presenting with nonspecific GI symptoms in association with peripheral eosinophilia. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear and its symptoms overlap with many GI and systemic diseases. Thus, both gastroenterologists and general internists need to be aware of this rare condition. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for two weeks. His physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, thickening of the stomach and small bowel wall, and elevated serum IgE. Upper endoscopy and extensive testing for malignancy and parasitic infections failed to establish a diagnosis. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Further, a full-thickness jejunal showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the serosa and muscularis propria. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities in a few week period. PMID:22649743

  7. Idiopathic Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Retrospective Analysis of 17 Cases from a Single Center in Turkey

    Sibel Arınç


    Full Text Available Objective: Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is a rare eosinophilic lung disorder with an unknown etiology and is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or peripheral eosinophilia, and the accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs. We aimed to present diagnostic test results and follow-up outcomes of 17 patients who were diagnosed with ICEP in our hospital in light of literature. Methods: Between 2008 and 2013, we examined 17 cases of ICEP. We evaluated clinical and laboratory findings together with the long-term follow-up data. Results: The patients had a mean age of 40.8 years at presentation, and the female/male ratio was 0.8. The most common symptoms were cough (94%, shortness of breath (76%, and high fever (35%. Bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil percentages of the patients ranged from 3% to 80%. Nine (53% patients experienced recurrence. Six patients were maintained on low dose steroid due to repeating relapses. Among these patients, 7 (77.7% had a total IgE level of above 500/IU/mL. Conclusion: Relapses are common in ICEP after the withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment or during dose reduction. We point out the importance of the close monitoring of patients for identifying relapse. A higher total IgE level during diagnosis may serve as a predictor of recurrence.

  8. Comparative analysis of total serum IgE, serum allergen-specific IgE and Mora Bioresonance for allergen testing in patients with chronic urticaria%慢性荨麻疹患者血清总IgE含量、特异性过敏原检测及摩拉生物共振过敏原检测的对比分析

    刘佳; 肖汀; 农祥; 何黎; 王敏; 曹应葵


    Objective To investing the relationship between the total serum IgE, serum allergen-specific IgE and Mora Bioresonance for allergen testing in chronic urticaria.Methods The total serum IgE, serum allergen-specific IgE were detected in 100 patients with chronic urticaria by total IgE Antibody Detection Kit and inhaled detection rea-gent and food specific IgE antibody kit.Mora Bioresonance for allergen testing was performed with the German BI-COM2000 bio resonance instrument.Results The positive rate of serum total IgE was 72%and the specific allergens have been found in 66 cases.The allergens have also been detected in 61 cases with the mora bioresonance.Some al-lergens have been detected by serum specific allergen detection and also the mora bioresonance detection, which in-clude in combination of mites, cat, dog, beef, mutton, fish, freshwater fish and shrimp/prawn.There have some al-lergens of poor consistency, which include in the trees combination, ragweed, artemisia argyi, house dust, mold, cockroaches, fungus, hops, albumen, milk, peanut, soybean and crab.Conclusion The positive rate of serum total IgE in CU is similar with those dates have been published.The allergic foods have high consistency between serum specific allergen detection and the mora bioresonance detection.However the allergic inhalations have poor consisten-cy.The Mora bioresonance provides a method for allergen screening examination.%目的:对比分析慢性荨麻疹患者血清总IgE含量检查、特异性IgE过敏原检测及摩拉生物共振过敏原检查三种方法的相关性。方法采用苏州浩欧博生物医药有限公司提供的总IgE抗体检测试剂盒(酶联免疫法)、德国欧盟医学实验诊断股份公司提供的吸入性及食入性过敏原特异性IgE抗体检测试剂(线性免疫印迹法)及德国产BICOM2000生物共振检测仪分别对100名慢性荨麻疹患者行血清总IgE含量检查、特异性IgE过敏原检测及摩拉生物共振过

  9. Autoimmune Hepatitis in Brazilian Children: IgE and Genetic Polymorphisms in Associated Genes

    Léa Campos de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH patients present hypergammaglobulinemia, periportal CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration, and cirrhosis. Autoantibody profile defines AIH types 1 and 2 in addition to strong association with HLA-DRB1. We previously detected increased IgE serum levels and sought to compare clinical and histological features according to IgE levels in AIH (n=74, ages 1–14 years patients. Additionally, we typed 117 patients and 227 controls for functional polymorphisms of IL4, IL13, IL5, and IL4RA genes involved in IgE switching and eosinophil maturation that might contribute to overall genetic susceptibility to AIH. Serum IgE levels were high in 55% of AIH-1, but only in 12% of AIH-2 (P=0.003 patients. Liver IgE was present in 91.3% of AIH-1 patients. The A alleles at both IL13 rs20541 and IL4RA rs1805011 were associated with AIH-1 (P=0.024, OR = 1.55 and P<0.0001, OR = 2.15, resp.. Furthermore, individuals presenting homozygosis for the A allele at IL4RA rs1805011 and HLA-DRB103∗ and/or 13∗ allele had sixfold greater risk to develop the disease (OR = 14.00, P<0.001. The novel association suggests an additional role for IgE-linked immune response genes in the pathogenesis of AIH.

  10. Intra and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a monoclonal antibody cocktail based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE in dogs: proficiency monitoring of macELISA in six laboratories.

    Lee, Kenneth W; Blankenship, Karen D; McCurry, Zachary M; McKinney, Brennan; Ruffner, Rick; Esch, Robert E; Tambone, Cecilia; Faas, Rebecca; Hermes, Darren; Brazis, Pilar; Drouet, Laurent


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of results yielded using a monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE when run in six separate affiliated laboratories. On two separate occasions, duplicate samples of 15 different sera pools were independently evaluated by each laboratory in a single blinded fashion. The average intra-assay variance among reactive assay calibrators in all laboratories was 6.2% (range 2.6-18.2%), while the average intra-laboratory inter-assay variance was 12.1% (range 8.0-17.1%). The overall inter-assay inter-laboratory variance was consistent among laboratories and averaged 15.6% (range 15.1-16.6%). All laboratories yielded similar profiles and magnitudes of responses for replicate unknown samples; dose-response profiles observed in each of the laboratories were indistinguishable. Considering positive/negative results, inter-assay inter-laboratory concordance of results exceeded 95%. Correlation of OD values between and among all laboratories was strong (r>0.9, plaboratory, but between laboratories using the same monoclonal-based ELISA.

  11. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  12. CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils

    Jinquan, T; Jing, C; Jacobi, H H


    that gamma IP-10 and Mig induce an increase in intracellular calcium in eosinophils confirms that CXCR3 exists on eosinophils. Besides induction to chemotaxis, gamma IP-10 and Mig also activate eosinophils to eosinophil cationic protein release. These results indicate that CXCR3-gamma IP-10 and -Mig receptor...

  13. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Hideharu Ideguchi


    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  14. Eosinophil localization to the basement membrane zone is autoantibody- and complement-dependent in a human cryosection model of bullous pemphigoid.

    Messingham, Kelly N; Wang, Jeffrey W; Holahan, Heather M; Srikantha, Rupasree; Aust, Samantha C; Fairley, Janet A


    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by antibodies (IgG and IgE) targeting cell-substrate adhesion proteins. A variety of BP models suggest that autoantibody-dependent neutrophil degranulation is essential for blister formation. However, lesional biopsies reveal a predominance of eosinophils and few neutrophils. Our goal was to evaluate the role of antibodies and complement in eosinophil localization, degranulation and split formation at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) utilizing a human skin cryosection model of BP paired with a human eosinophilic cell line, 15HL-60. Expression of receptors for IgG (FcγRII), IgE (FcεRI) and complement (CR1 and CR3) was confirmed on 15HL-60 cells using flow cytometry. 15HL-60 expression of granule protein [eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO)] mRNA and their degranulation in vitro was confirmed using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. For cryosection experiments, BP or control sera or IgG and IgE antibodies purified from BP sera were utilized in combination with 15HL-60 cells ± fresh complement. Both BP serum and fresh complement were required for localization of 15-HL60 cells to the DEJ. Interestingly, eosinophil localization to the DEJ was dependent on IgG, but not IgE, and complement. However, no subepidermal split was observed. Additionally, the 15HL-60 cells did not degranulate under any experimental conditions and direct application of cell lysate to cryosections did not result in a split. Our observation that eosinophil localization to the DEJ is dependent on IgG mediated complement fixation provides additional insight into the sequence of events during the development of BP lesions.

  15. The effects of polysaccharide nucleic acid fractiion of bacillus calmette guerin and specific immunotherapy on pulmonary function and serum IgE in asthmatic children%卡介菌多糖核酸和特异性免疫治疗对哮喘儿童肺功能和血清IgE的影响

    黄李平; 刘战军; 汪清


    目的 研究卡介菌多糖核酸(BCG-PNA)和特异性免疫治疗(SIT)对哮喘儿童肺功能和血清IgE的影响.方法 用BCG-PNA和SIT治疗42例哮喘儿童,治疗前后检测肺功能,用酶联免疫吸附试验检测血清IgE水平.结果 BCG-PNA、SIT能明显改善哮喘儿童肺功能FVC、FEV1、V25等指标,BCG-PNA还能降低血清IgE水平.两者联合治疗比SIT治疗降低血清IgE更明显.结论 BCG-PNA和SIT能改善哮喘儿童肺功能,两者联合治疗对降低血清IgE有协同作用.%Objective This research aimed to explore the effects of polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of Bacillus calmette Guerin (BCG-PNA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) on pulmonary function and serum IgE in asthmatic children. Methods Before and after treatments with BCG-PNA and SIT, pulmonary function of 40 asthmatic children was analyzed. The serum IgE was detected by ELISA. Results BCG-PNA and SIT could improve FVC, FEV1 and V25 of pulmonary function indexes. BCG-PNA decreased serum IgE. Combination of these two treatments reduced serum IgE compared with SIT. Conclusion Both BCG-PNA and SIT can improve pulmonary function of asthmatic children. Combination of them has stronger effect in reducing serum IgE.

  16. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Martens Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  17. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone


    KEYWORDS: Eosinophilic granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis, oral manifestations, ... 1Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia ... the risk of pathological fracture and to facilitate.

  18. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Myositis

    Yuko Adachi


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is clinically characterized by symmetrical scleroderma-like indurations of the skin with pain. The histological features are fascial inflammation with lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as thickened and fibrotic fascia. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of the underlying muscle are rarely observed. We report a 69-year-old Japanese woman who presented with multiple areas of glossy induration and painful peau d'orange-like lesions on the chest and four extremities. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hyperintense thickening of the fascia of the lower extremities. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen from the induration showed marked fibrinoid degeneration of the fascia and the neighboring muscle with mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The predominant CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were observed by immunohistological study. A diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis with myositis was made. Oral administration of prednisolone and discontinuation of exercise significantly improved the lesions and pain.

  19. Brain Abscess and Keratoacanthoma Suggestive of Hyper IgE Syndrome

    Soheyla Alyasin


    Full Text Available Hyper immunoglobulin-E (IgE syndrome is an autosomal immune deficiency disease. It is characterized by an increase in IgE and eosinophil count with both T-cell and B-cell malfunction. Here, we report an 8-year-old boy whose disease started with an unusual skin manifestation. When 6 months old he developed generalized red, nontender nodules and pathologic report of the skin lesion was unremarkable (inflammatory. Then he developed a painless, cold abscess. At the age of 4 years, he developed a seronegative polyarticular arthritis. Another skin biopsy was taken which was in favor of Keratoacanthoma. Laboratory workup for immune deficiency showed high eosinophil count and high level of immunoglobulin-E, due to some diagnostic criteria (NIH sores: 41 in 9-year-olds, he was suggestive of hyper IgE syndrome. At the age of 8, the patient developed an abscess in the left inguinal region. While in hospital, the patient developed generalized tonic colonic convulsion and fever. Brain computed tomography scan revealed an abscess in the right frontal lobe. Subsequently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain indicated expansion of the existing abscess to contralateral frontal lobe (left side. After evacuating the abscesses and administrating intravenous antibiotic, the patient’s condition improved dramatically and fever stopped.

  20. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A


    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history.

  1. Chelidonine, a principal isoquinoline alkaloid of Chelidonium majus, attenuates eosinophilic airway inflammation by suppressing IL-4 and eotaxin-2 expression in asthmatic mice.

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Hong, Jung-Hee; Lee, Young-Cheol


    Chelidonine, a major bioactive, isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus, exhibits anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological properties. However, its molecular mechanisms in asthma remain unclear. In this work we investigated chelidonine's effect and mechanism in airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The mice were sensitized to ovalbumin followed by aerosol allergen challenges and determination of chelidonine's effect on enhanced pause (Penh), pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, eotaxin-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, OVA-specific IgE production, and several transcription factors. Chelidonine strongly suppressed airway eosinophilia, expression of eotaxin-2, IL-4, and IL-13 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It also attenuated lung IL-17, and eotaxin-2 mRNA expression levels. Moreover, it suppressed eotaxin-2 and IL-17 production in accordance with up- and downregulation of forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6) expression, respectively. Chelidonine has profound inhibitory effects on airway inflammation and this effect is caused by suppression of IL-4, eotaxin-2, and OVA-specific IgE production through the STAT6 and Foxp3 pathways. So chelidonine can improve allergic asthma in mice and be a novel anti-asthma therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey of the prevalence of penicillin-specific IgG, IgM and IgE antibodies detected by ELISA and defined by hapten inhibition, in patients with suspected penicillin allergy and in healthy volunteers.

    Christie, G.; Coleman, J W; Newby, S; McDiarmaid-Gordon, A; Hampson, J P; Breckenridge, A M; Park, B.K.


    1. IgG, IgM and IgE anti-benzylpenicilloyl (BPO) antibody activities were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 100 patients who claimed to be allergic to penicillin, and from 50 healthy volunteers. Continuous frequency distributions for all three classes of anti-BPO antibody, defined as differential binding (delta OD) to BPO-human serum albumin (HSA) and HSA, were obtained for both groups. 2. For IgM and IgE classes the anti-BPO activities were slightly but sta...

  3. Analysis of the results of serum allergen specific IgE in 257 children with urticaria%257例儿童荨麻疹血清特异性过敏原IgE检测结果分析

    刘晓依; 陈戟


    Objective: To investigate the common allergens in children with urticaria and provide the basis for treating and preventing urticaria. Methods: Serum allergen specific IgE (slgE) and total IgE (tlgE) were detected with AllergyScreen de tection system in 257 children with urticaria in different age groups. Results: One hundred and forty two of 257 children with urticaria tested positive for slgE 55.27%), and tlgE 69.65%. The common aeroallergens were house dust mite. (18.68%), fungi (17.51%), cat dander (4.67%), house dust (4.28%) and dog dander (3.89%); the common food allergens were milk 28.79%), mutton(16.34%), beef 7.00%, egg white (5.45%) and shrimp (3.11%). Comparing the common allergens among children under 3 years old, 3 to 6 years old and over 6 years old, there were significant differences in positive rates of house dust mite, cat dander,milk, and mutton (p<0.05). Conclusions: The major aeroallergens were dust mite and fungi in children with urticaria, and the common food allergens were milk, beef, mutton and egg white. Serum slgE detection could be helpful to find the relevant allergens and to prevent urticaria.%目的:探寻荨麻疹患儿常见的过敏原种类,为其治疗及预防提供依据.方法:采用Mediwiss 公司AllergyScreenAnalytic GmbH 过敏原检测系统,对257 例荨麻疹患儿进行血清特异性IgE(specific IgE,sIgE)和总IgE 检测,并在不同年龄组间进行比较.结果:257例荨麻疹患儿sIgE阳性142例(55.27%),总IgE阳性率69.65%.其中吸入性过敏原最常见的依次为户尘螨18.68%、霉菌组合17.51%、猫毛皮屑4.67%、屋尘4.28%和狗毛皮屑3.89%;食物性过敏原中,最常见的依次为牛奶28.79%、羊肉16.34%、牛肉7.00%、鸡蛋白5.45%和虾3.11%.比较<3 岁组、3~6 岁组和>6 岁组,户尘螨、猫毛皮屑、牛奶和羊肉sIgE阳性率的差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论:尘螨和霉菌是荨麻疹患儿最主要的吸入性过敏原,牛奶、牛羊肉、鸡蛋白是


    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  5. Asthma phenotypes and IgE responses.

    Froidure, Antoine; Mouthuy, Jonathan; Durham, Stephen R; Chanez, Pascal; Sibille, Yves; Pilette, Charles


    The discovery of IgE represented a major breakthrough in allergy and asthma research, whereas the clinical interest given to IgE in asthma has been blurred until the arrival of anti-IgE biotherapy. Novel facets of the complex link between IgE and asthma have been highlighted by the effect of this treatment and by basic research. In parallel, asthma phenotyping recently evolved to the concept of endotypes, relying on identified/suspected pathobiological mechanisms to phenotype patients, but has not yet clearly positioned IgE among biomarkers of asthma.In this review, we first summarise recent knowledge about the regulation of IgE production and its main receptor, FcεRI. In addition to allergens acting as classical IgE inducers, viral infections as well as air pollution may trigger the IgE pathway, notably resetting the threshold of IgE sensitivity by regulating FcεRI expression. We then analyse the place of IgE in different asthma endo/phenotypes and discuss the potential interest of IgE among biomarkers in asthma.

  6. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak


    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  7. Chitin enhances serum IgE in Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergy in mice

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders;


    in the lungs, measured as the total cell efflux in BAL, EPO and chitinase production. However, chitin enhanced the total IgE, specific IgE and specific IgG1 production as efficiently as alum. Pre-treatment with chitin but not with alum depressed the concentration of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in BAL...... fluid. These results shows that chitin, in spite of a reduction of the Th2 cytokine levels in the lungs, enhanced the total and specific IgE production in A. fumigatus culture filtrate induced allergy....

  8. Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis and allergic diseases.

    Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C


    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies have long been recognized as the antigen-specific triggers of allergic reactions. This review briefly introduces the established functions of IgE in immediate hypersensitivity and then focuses on emerging evidence from our own investigations as well as those of others that IgE plays important roles in protective immunity against parasites and exerts regulatory influences in the expression of its own receptors, FcεRI and CD23, as well as controlling mast cell homeostasis. We provide an overview of the multifaceted ways in which IgE antibodies contribute to the pathology of food allergy and speculate regarding potential mechanisms of action of IgE blockade.

  9. Clinical characteristics that distinguish eosinophilic organ infiltration from metastatic nodule development in cancer patients with eosinophilia


    Background When new space-occupying lesions are observed together with peripheral blood eosinophilia in patients diagnosed with cancer, the possibility of eosinophilic organ involvement should be differentiated from metastasis of primary cancer, since a misdiagnosis could lead to unnecessary chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics of eosinophilic organ involvement that distinguish it from distant metastasis in patients with primary cancer. Methods The medical records of 43 cancer patients who developed hepatic or pulmonary nodules with peripheral blood eosinophilia between January 2005 and February 2010 in the Asan Medical Center (Seoul) were reviewed. Eosinophilic infiltration and distant metastasis were identified on the basis of pathological findings and radiological features. Fisher’s exact test, χ2 test or Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results In total, 33 patients (76%) were diagnosed with eosinophilic infiltration, 5 (12%) with cancer metastasis and 5 (12%) had undetermined diagnoses. Compared to the patients with metastases, the patients with eosinophilic infiltration were significantly more likely to have serology indicating a parasitic infection, a history of eating raw food, high serum levels of total IgE, normal liver function, normal C-reactive protein levels, a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fewer and smaller nodules. The most common underlying malignancy in the eosinophilic organ infiltration group was stomach cancer. Physicians tended to neglect the eosinophilia in patients with a history of cancer. Conclusions Several clinical characteristics of eosinophilic organ infiltration distinguish it from cancer metastasis. Physicians should make greater efforts to determine the causes of organ involvement with peripheral blood eosinophilia, especially in cancer patients. PMID:22929225

  10. Analysis of total and specific IgE in serum of carvota mitis pollen-induced allergic rhinitis patients%鱼尾葵花粉过敏的变应性鼻炎患者中血清总IgE及特异性IgE结果的分析

    姚敏; 孟光


    Objective:Exploring the relationship between total and specific IgE in serum and allergen skin test of carvota mitis pollen-induced allergic rhinitis patients. Method; Four hundred and twenty-nine carvota mitis pollen-induced allergic rhinitis patients and 243 healthy control subjects were recruited. The experimental group carried out skin tests, and pollen-specific IgE were also examined by BSA-ELISA method. Total IgE in serum of all of the subjects were determined by ELISA. Result;The positive rate of the total IgE level of the patients were much higher than those of the controls(66. 2% vs. 15. 6% ,P<0. 01). No statistically significance was found between the positivity of skin test and serum specific IgE of the experimental group(χ2 =0. 7588,P>0. 05). The difference between serum-specific IgE and total IgE was statistically significant(χ2 = 50. 639, P<0. 01). There was no statistical significance of specific IgE and the total IgE in serum between long term residents in Haikou and Hainan Tourisms (P>0. 05). Conclusion; Allergen skin test and carvota mitis pollen-specific IgE are two effective methods for the diagnosis of carvota mitis pollen-induced allergic rhinitis . The detection of total IgE in serum of carvota mitis pollen-induced allergic rhinitis provides a reference value for diagnosis. The relationship between concentration of IgE in serum of the carvota mitis pollen-induced allergic rhinitis and allergen contact duration is waiting for further study.%目的:探讨鱼尾葵花粉过敏的变应性鼻炎(AR)患者中血清总IgE、特异性IgE和变应原皮肤试验之间的关系.方法:选择429例对鱼尾葵花粉过敏的AR患者为实验组,243例健康体检者为对照组.实验组进行皮肤试验和特异性IgE水平检测,鱼尾葵花粉特异性IgE采用BSA-ELISA法;所有个体均检测血清总IgE水平.结果:实验组血清总IgE的阳性率明显高于对照组的阳性率(分别为66.2%和15.6%,P<0.01)

  11. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA))


    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  12. IL-25 and IL-33 Contribute to Development of Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Epicutaneously Antigen-Sensitized Mice.

    Hideaki Morita

    Full Text Available IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are produced predominantly by epithelial cells and are known to induce Th2-type cytokines. Th2-type cytokines are involved not only in host defense against nematodes, but also in the development of Th2-type allergic diseases. TSLP was reported to be crucial for development of allergic airway inflammation in mice after inhalation of allergens to which they had been sensitized epicutaneously (EC beforehand. However, the roles of IL-25 and IL-33 in the setting remain unclear.Mice deficient in IL-25 and IL-33 were sensitized EC with ovalbumin (OVA and then challenged intranasally with OVA. Airway inflammation, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in the mice were determined, respectively, by histological analysis, with a hemocytometer, and by using plethysmograph chambers with a ventilator. Expression of mRNA in the skin and lungs was determined by quantitative PCR, while the BALF levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and the serum levels of IgE were determined by ELISA.Normal OVA-specific Th2- and Th17-cell responses of lymph nodes and spleens were observed in IL-25-deficient (IL-25-/- and IL-33-/- mice after EC sensitization with OVA. Nevertheless, the number of eosinophils, but not neutrophils, in the BALFs, and the levels of Th2 cytokines, but not Th17 cytokines, in the lungs were significantly decreased in the IL-25-/- and IL-33-/- mice pre-sensitized EC with OVA, followed by inhalation of OVA, whereas their levels of AHR and OVA-specific serum IgE were normal.Both IL-25 and IL-33 are critical for induction of Th2-type cytokine-mediated allergic airway eosinophilia, but not Th17-type cytokine-mediated airway neutrophilia, at the local sites of lungs in the challenge phase of mice sensitized EC with OVA. They do not affect OVA-specific T-cell induction in the sensitization phase.

  13. Hematopoietic Processes in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    Salter, Brittany M; Sehmi, Roma


    Airway eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic asthma and understanding mechanisms that promote increases in lung eosinophil numbers is important for effective pharmaco-therapeutic development. It has become evident that expansion of hemopoietic compartments in the bone marrow promotes differentiation and trafficking of mature eosinophils to the airways. Hematopoietic progenitor cells egress the bone marrow and home to the lungs, where in-situ differentiative processes within the tissue provide an ongoing source of pro-inflammatory cells. In addition, hematopoietic progenitor cells in the airways can respond to locally-derived alarmins, to produce a panoply of cytokines thereby themselves acting as effector pro-inflammatory cells that potentiate type 2 responses in eosinophilic asthma. In this review, we will provide evidence for these findings and discuss novel targets for modulating eosinophilopoietic processes, migration and effector function of precursor cells.


    P.V. Shumilov


    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  15. Sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças brasileiras atópicas, pela determinação in vitro de IgE total e específica: Projeto Alergia (PROAL Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay: Allergy Project - PROAL

    Charles K. Naspitz


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças atendidas em serviços brasileiros de alergia. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: IgE sérica total e específica (RAST a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares (UniCAP® - Pharmacia foram determinados em 457 crianças acompanhadas em serviços de alergia pediátrica e em um grupo de controles (n = 62. Resultados classe igual ou maior que 1 foram considerados positivos (R+. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de R+ foi significantemente maior entre os atópicos (361/457, 79% quando comparados aos controles (16/62, 25,8%. Não houve diferenças quanto ao sexo. A prevalência de R+ entre os atópicos foi significantemente maior para todos os alérgenos avaliados. Os níveis séricos de IgE total foram significantemente mais elevados entre os atópicos com R+ quando comparados aos com R-. Comparando-se atópicos e controles, a freqüência de R+ para os principais alérgenos inalantes foi como segue: D. pteronyssinus = 66,7 versus 14,5% (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in children seen at Brazilian allergy services. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total and specific IgE serum levels to inhalant and food allergens (RAST, UniCAP® - Pharmacia were measured in 457 children accompanied in pediatric allergy services and in 62 control children age matched. RAST equal or higher than class 1 was considered as positive (R+. RESULTS: Frequency of R+ was significantly higher among atopics (361/457, 79% when compared to controls (16/62, 25.8%. There were no differences according to gender. The frequency of R+ to all allergens evaluated were higher among atopics when compared to controls. Significantly higher total IgE serum levels were observed among the atopics with R+ in comparison to those with R-. The frequency of R+ to main inhalant allergens were: D. pteronyssinus = 66.7% x 14.5% (p < 0.05, D. farinae = 64.5% x 17.8% (p < 0.05, B

  16. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a traveler

    GUAN Hongzhi; HOI Chupeng; CUI Liying; CHEN Lin


    A 55 - year - old female traveler returning from South China with acute onset of meningitis, presenting with eosinophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was reported. The etiological diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis was confirmed by detection of specific serum antibody against Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Angiostrongyliasis should be considered as a major differential diagnosis for eosinophilic meningitis in the travelers to endemic regions.

  17. A flow-cytometric method to evaluate eosinophil-mediated uptake of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Kraemer, Laura S; Brenner, Todd A; Krumholz, Julia O; Rosenberg, Helene F


    Eosinophils are resident leukocytes of gut mucosa. Here we present a combined flow cytometric-antibiotic protection assay to identify mouse eosinophils capable of bacterial uptake, specifically, Gram-positive Lactobacillus reuteri, in studies performed ex vivo. The assay may be adapted for use in vivo.

  18. Mechanisms of IgE Inflammation.

    Rosenwasser, Lanny J


    The prevalence of diseases such as allergic asthma and rhinitis continues to increase in the United States, affecting millions of people. It is well-established that allergy contributes to the pathogenesis of most asthma, especially in children and young adults. Despite current therapy (eg, inhaled corticosteroids, anti-leukotrienes, and bronchodilators), patients with moderate to severe asthma remain symptomatic and experience frequent exacerbations of disease requiring oral corticosteroids, emergency department treatments, and hospitalizations. Allergic diseases are traditionally referred to as immediate or type 1 hypersensitivity reactions, with IgE as a critical factor. IgE is involved in allergic inflammation, especially in early-phase response, but it may also be involved in the late-phase allergic response. A direct correlation between serum IgE levels and asthma exists. As logarithm IgE values increase, asthma prevalence increases linearly, even in patients who are categorized as having nonallergic asthma. In addition, there is a significant, although low association in allergic rhinitis with IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity to pollens. Recent advances in our understanding of the role of IgE in allergic inflammation have led to the development of a monoclonal antibody to IgE that reduces IgE levels, thereby reducing allergic inflammation. This review aims to provide an overview of the basic science of the IgE molecule and the clinical efficacy of anti-IgE therapy in allergic and asthmatic diseases.

  19. Eosinophil peroxidase in sputum represents a unique biomarker of airway eosinophilia.

    Nair, P; Ochkur, S I; Protheroe, C; Radford, K; Efthimiadis, A; Lee, N A; Lee, J J


    Sputum eosinophilia has been shown to be a predictor of response to anti-eosinophil therapies in patients with airway diseases. However, quantitative cell counts and differentials of sputum are labor intensive. The objective of this study was to validate a novel ELISA-based assay of eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in sputum as a rapid and reliable marker of airway eosinophils. The utility of EPX-based ELISA as an eosinophil-specific assay was achieved through comparisons with sputum eosinophil differential counts in freshly prepared and archived patient samples from a variety of clinical settings. EPX levels in sputum correlated with eosinophil percentage (r(s) = 0.84) in asthma patients with varying degrees of airway eosinophilia. Significantly, unlike assays of other eosinophil granule proteins (e.g., ECP and EDN), which often detect the presence of these proteins even in asthma patients with neutrophilic bronchitis, EPX-based ELISA levels are not increased in this subset of asthma patients or in COPD patients lacking evidence of an airway eosinophilia. Moreover, sputum EPX was a surrogate marker of airway eosinophilia in other patient studies (e.g., allergen inhalation and treatment trials the anti-(IL-5) therapeutic Mepolizumab™). Finally, EPX levels in cytocentrifuged prepared sputum supernatants correlated with those from rapidly prepared noncentrifuged filtrates of sputum (r(s) = 0.94). EPX-based ELISA is a valid, reliable, repeatable, and specific surrogate marker of eosinophils and/or eosinophil degranulation in the sputum of respiratory patients. The novel EPX assay is a valid and reproducible eosinophil-specific assay that can potentially be developed into a point-of-care assessment of eosinophil activity in airway secretions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. IgE sensitization to inhalant allergens and the risk of airway infection and disease

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;


    BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization, which is the propensity to develop IgE antibodies against common environmental allergens, is associated with a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 (Th2) skewed immune response and a high risk of allergic respiratory disease. Little is known about whether Ig...... from five population-based studies with measurements of serum specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. Participants were followed by linkage to Danish national registries (median follow-up time 11.3 years). The study-specific relative risks were estimated by Cox regression analysis, meta...

  1. Eosinophilic meningitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin.

    Kazi, Ruchika; Kazi, Haseeb A; Ruggeri, Cara; Ender, Peter T


    Eosinophilic meningitis may be due to infectious or noninfectious etiologies. Parasitic infections cause this entity most frequently and of the noninfectious causes, medications play an important role. We describe a 32-year-old male who developed eosinophilic meningitis while receiving intravenous vancomycin. No other apparent cause of the eosinophilic meningitis was appreciated. This case represents the first description of eosinophilic meningitis due to systemic vancomycin.

  2. Two loci on chromosome 5 are associated with serum IgE levels in Labrador retrievers.

    Marta Owczarek-Lipska

    Full Text Available Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD. We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response.

  3. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro


    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopathologic studies. The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in World J Gastroenterol 2007 July; 13 (27): 3760-3762, about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies, which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  4. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio


    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  5. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro


    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  6. House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitization to bacterial antigens.

    Dzoro, S; Mittermann, I; Resch-Marat, Y; Vrtala, S; Nehr, M; Hirschl, A M; Wikberg, G; Lundeberg, L; Johansson, C; Scheynius, A; Valenta, R


    IgE reactivity to antigens from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitization are not fully understood. The analysis of the genome, transcriptome and microbiome of house dust mites (HDM) has shown that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) species are abundant bacteria within the HDM microbiome. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitization in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Plasma samples from patients with AD (n = 179) were analysed for IgE reactivity to a comprehensive panel of microarrayed HDM allergen molecules and to S. aureus and E. coli by IgE immunoblotting. Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies, and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE immunoblot inhibition experiments. IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP™ inhibition experiments. IgE reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in patients with AD sensitized to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitization. S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract, and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. House dust mites (HDM) may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Specific anti-toxocara IgG and IgE responses in the patients with ocular toxocariasis%犬蛔虫眼病病人血清中特异性IgG和IgE抗体水平的测定

    曹得萍; 赤尾信明; 太田伸生


    目的 研究犬蛔虫眼病病人血清中特异性IgG和IgE的抗体的水平.方法 应用ELISA和Western-blotting.从东京医科齿科大学国际环境寄生虫学分野实验室储存的脉络膜炎的眼病病人血清中随意抽取105份血清,检测犬蛔虫抗体.结果 通过ELISA法,105份血清中有82份IgG和IgE均为阴性(78.1%),12例血清仅IgG阳性(11.4%),3例血清仅IgE阳性(2.9%),8例血清IgG和IgE均为阳性.所有的IgG和IgE阳性的血清,进一步进行Western-blot.IgG的反应带分布在幼虫分泌排泄抗原分子重量(97.2-14.3kDa)的整个范围内,IgE的反应带分布在幼虫分泌排泄抗原分子重量(97.2-14.3kDa)的相对狭窄的范围内(29-45kDa).结论 在这个研究中,我们清楚的说明了一些脉络膜炎病例血清中IgE抗体比IgG抗体具有特异性,因此IgE在眼犬蛔虫病的诊断中具有特异性,IgE在眼犬蛔虫病诊断中的价值还要进行进一步的研究.%To investigate the prevalence of specific anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE antibodies in ocular toxocariasis by means of ELISA and Western blotting, serum samples of 105 cases with uveitis of unidentified etiology were randomly selected from our stocked sera, which were referred to the Section of of Environmental Parasitology of Tokyo Medical and Dental University for detection of the anti-Toxocara antibody. By using ELISA, 82 of them (78.1%) were negative for both IgG and IgE antibodies, 12 (11.4%) were positive only for IgG, three (2.9%) were positive only for IgE, and eight (7.6%) were positive for IgG and IgE. Among the positive samples, as demonstrated by western bloting the IgG reacting bands were found to distribute in the whole range of molecular weights (97.2-14.3kDa)of excretory-secretory products of T. canis larvae. On the other hand,IgE antigenic molecules were concentrated on a relatively narrow range from 45kDa to 29kDa. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that some of the patients with uveitis showed specific anti

  8. Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils

    Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe


    It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation. PMID:9449721

  9. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    Michele Pier Luca Guarino; Michele Cicala; Jose Behar


    Eosinophilic esophagitis(Eo E) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multiorgan involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with Eo E depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect.

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    Brian M Yan; Eldon A Shaffer


    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment,and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/105 in children and 2.5/105 in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline"or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimai contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors,or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign,albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition,this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a newly established cause of dysphagia.

    Yan, Brian-M; Shaffer, Eldon-A


    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/10(5) in children and 2.5/10(5) in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline" or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimal contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign, albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition, this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  12. Eosinophilic Granuloma of a Child

    Ozgur Demir


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is part of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. It is a rare, benign bone tumor, often involving the head bones. Most patients present between 5 and 15 years of age. Lesions of eosinophilic granuloma may disappear spontaneously. Painful lesions can be treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical curettage of the tumor or local infusion of cortisone. A six year old girl presented to our clinic with severe painful swelling on the right parietal region with a gradual increase in size and frequent episodes of headache for 2 months. Radiological findings demonstrated right parietal cranial lytic lesion with intra and extracranial extension. The patient was treated with gross total excision of tumor and cranioplasty without any adjuvant therapy. Histopathology of the tumor showed cellular components of Langerhan' cells admixed with chronic cellular infiltrate and eosinophils. Findings were consistent with eosinophillic granuloma. The patient recovered well with no known recurrence till date. There is no definitive treatment option for this disorder. Treatment option may be changed depending on the extent of the disease and the symptoms. We recommend surgical excision in the presence of intracranial extension of painful lesion. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 343-347

  13. Eosinophils induce airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Halwani, Rabih; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Sumi, Yuki; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Bahammam, Ahmed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Soussi-Gounni, Abdelillah; Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Hamid, Qutayba


    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling of the airway wall. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. However, little is known about the interaction between inflammatory eosinophils and ASM cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of mild asthmatics and non-asthmatic subjects and co-cultured with human primary ASM cells. ASM proliferation was estimated using Ki-67 expression assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) mRNA in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs) in enhancing ASM proliferation was estimated by measuring the release of leukotrienes from eosinophils upon their direct contact with ASM cells using ELISA. This role was confirmed either by blocking eosinophil-ASM contact or co-culturing them in the presence of leukotrienes antagonist. ASM cells co-cultured with eosinophils, isolated from asthmatics, but not non-asthmatics, had a significantly higher rate of proliferation compared to controls. This increase in ASM proliferation was independent of their release of ECM proteins but dependent upon eosinophils release of CysLTs. Eosinophil-ASM cell to cell contact was required for CysLTs release. Preventing eosinophil contact with ASM cells using anti-adhesion molecules antibodies, or blocking the activity of eosinophil derived CysLTs using montelukast inhibited ASM proliferation. Our results indicated that eosinophils contribute to airway remodeling during asthma by enhancing ASM cell proliferation and hence increasing ASM mass. Direct contact of eosinophils with ASM cells triggers their release of CysLTs which enhance ASM proliferation. Eosinophils, and their binding to ASM cells, constitute a potential therapeutic target to interfere with the series of biological events leading to airway remodeling

  14. The use of albendazole and diammonium glycyrrhizinate in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis in mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Li, Y; Tang, J-P; Chen, D-R; Fu, C-Y; Wang, P; Li, Z; Wei, W; Li, H; Dong, W-Q


    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Eosinophilia and a Th2-type immune response are the crucial immune mechanisms for eosinophilic meningitis. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are involved in the pathogenesis of A. cantonensis. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) is a compound related to glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene glycoside extracted from liquorice root. We investigated the curative effects and probable mechanisms of therapy involving a combination of albendazole and DG in BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, and compared these with therapy involving albendazole and dexamethasone. We analysed survival time, body weight, signs, eosinophil numbers, immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and eotaxin concentrations, numbers and Foxp3 expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg, worm recovery and histopathology. The present results demonstrated that the combination of albendazole and DG could increase survival time more efficiently and relieve neurological dysfunction; decrease weight loss, eosinophil numbers, concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eotaxin, the number and expression of Foxp3 of CD4+CD25+ Treg; and improve worm recovery and histopathology changes in treated animals, compared with the combination of albendazole and dexamethasone. The observations presented here suggest that the albendazole and dexamethasone combination could be replaced by the combination of albendazole and DG.

  15. Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components.

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Netherwood, Kristina A; Norris, Meredith Somerville; Behrens, Nicole E; Shao, Matt X


    Vaccination of horses is performed annually or semi-annually with multiple viral antigens, either in a combination vaccine or as separate injections. While this practice undoubtedly prevents infection from such diseases as rabies, equine influenza, West Nile virus, and equine herpes virus, the procedure is not without repercussions. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock, after vaccination, although uncommon, have increased in incidence in recent years. Studies reported herein document the development of IgE antibodies against non-target antigen components of equine viral vaccines. We hypothesize that viral vaccines can induce an IgE response to non-target antigens, which could elicit an adverse response after vaccination with another viral vaccine containing the same component. In one study IgE responses to components of West Nile virus vaccine were evaluated by ELISA before and after vaccination in 30 horses. In a second five-year study 77 horses were similarly tested for IgE antibodies against bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component of most viral vaccines. Mast cell sensitization was evaluated in horses with high, moderate, and negative serum BSA specific IgE using an intradermal skin test with BSA. Over the five-year period high IgE responder horses showed gradually increasing BSA specific serum IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity, yet none had an adverse event. Sera from horses that had developed adverse vaccine reactions were also tested for IgE antibodies. Several of these horses had extremely high levels of BSA-specific IgE. These data suggest that non-essential protein components of vaccines may sensitize horses for future adverse responses to vaccination.

  16. Organizational Climate and IGE: An Assessment & Implications.

    Edeburn, Carl; Zigarmi, Drea

    The researchers compared the perceptions of school climate of teachers participating in individually guided education programs (IGE) with those of non-IGE teachers. The subjects were 127 elementary school teachers from three upper-midwest suburban school districts. The subjects were members of the faculties of 16 elementary schools engaged in an…

  17. The TGFβ1 Promoter SNP C-509T and Food Sensitization Promote Esophageal Remodeling in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Renee Rawson

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a chronic antigen mediated disease associated with substantial esophageal remodeling and fibrosis. The functional TGFβ1 promoter SNP C-509 associates with renal fibrosis and asthma. The effect of TGFβ1 genotype and EoE severity or potential gene-environment interactions have not been previously reported in EoE.Genotype at TGFβ1 C-509T and remodeling was analyzed in 144 subjects with EoE. The severity of remodeling and inflammation was analyzed in the context of IgE sensitization to food antigens and C-509T genotype.The TGFβ1 promoter C-509 genotypes CC, CT, and TT were 35%, 52%, and 13%, respectively. Sixty-six percent of subjects were sensitized to foods by positive skin prick test (SPT or serum specific IgE. TT genotype subjects had significantly more TGFβ1 (CC subjects = 1300 per mm2; TT = 2250 per mm2 (p<0.05 and tryptase (CC subjects = 145 per mm2: TT = 307 per mm2 (p<0.05 positive cells and higher epithelial remodeling scores (2.4 vs 3.7, p<0.001 than CC subjects. The differences in TGFβ1 and tryptase positive cells as well as fibrosis were significantly increased when there was concurrent food sensitization. Food sensitization alone did not associate with any parameters of inflammation or remodeling.Our data support a gene-environment interaction between food and genotype at C-509 that modulates disease severity in EoE. Since EoE subjects often continue to consume foods to which they are sensitized, these findings may have clinical relevance for disease management.

  18. Eosinophilic myocarditis: case series and literature review.

    Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Suh-Young; Suh, Jung-Won; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Sang-Heon; Chang, Yoon-Seok


    Eosinophilic myocarditis is a condition resulting from various eosinophilic diseases, including helminth infection, drug hypersensitivity, systemic vasculitis or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Clinical manifestations of eosinophilic myocarditis may vary from early necrosis to endomyocardial fibrosis. Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the most fatal complications of hypereosinophilia. However, eosinophilic myocarditis has been rarely reported in the literature, particularly in Asia Pacific regions, reflecting the under-recognition of the disease among clinicians. Early recognition is crucial for improving clinical outcomes of eosinophilic myocarditis. Early administration of systemic corticosteroid is necessary in eosinophilic myocarditis regardless of underlying causes, as delayed treatment may result in fatal outcomes. In addition, differential diagnoses of underlying causes for eosinophilia are necessary to improve long-term outcomes.

  19. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  20. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki


    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  1. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki


    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  2. High-resolution crystal structure and IgE recognition of the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 3

    Devanaboyina, S. C.; Cornelius, C.; Lupinek, C.; Fauland, K.; Dall’Antonia, F.; Nandy, A.; Hagen, S.; Flicker, S.; Valenta, R.; Keller, W.


    Background Group 2 and 3 grass pollen allergens are major allergens with high allergenic activity and exhibit structural similarity with the C-terminal portion of major group 1 allergens. In this study, we aimed to determine the crystal structure of timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 3, and to study its IgE recognition and cross-reactivity with group 2 and group 1 allergens. Methods The three-dimensional structure of Phl p 3 was solved by X-ray crystallography and compared with the structures of group 1 and 2 grass pollen allergens. Cross-reactivity was studied using a human monoclonal antibody which inhibits allergic patients’ IgE binding and by IgE inhibition experiments with patients’ sera. Conformational Phl p 3 IgE epitopes were predicted with the algorithm SPADE, and Phl p 3 variants containing single point mutations in the predicted IgE binding sites were produced to analyze allergic patients’ IgE binding. Results Phl p 3 is a globular β-sandwich protein showing structural similarity to Phl p 2 and the Phl p 1–C-terminal domain. Phl p 3 showed IgE cross-reactivity with group 2 allergens but not with group 1 allergens. SPADE identified two conformational IgE epitope-containing areas, of which one overlaps with the epitope defined by the monoclonal antibody. The mutation of arginine 68 to alanine completely abolished binding of the blocking antibody. This mutation and a mutation of D13 in the predicted second IgE epitope area also reduced allergic patients’ IgE binding. Conclusion Group 3 and group 2 grass pollen allergens are cross-reactive allergens containing conformational IgE epitopes. They lack relevant IgE cross-reactivity with group 1 allergens and therefore need to be included in diagnostic tests and allergen-specific treatments in addition to group 1 allergens. PMID:25123586

  3. Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Feti Tülübaş


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179, allergic rhinitis (n=171 and control group (n= 93. Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were recorded.Results: While eosinophil count, MCHC and total IgElevels were significantly higher in asthma group, MCVlevels were significantly lower. Lymphocyte count, CRPand total IgE levels were significantly higher in allergicrhinitis group compared with control group whereas neutrophilcount were significantly lower and eosinophil countdid not change significantly. Total IgE levels were higherin asthma and allergic rhinitis compared with controls.However, CRP levels were higher only in allergic rhinitisgroup. MCV levels were significantly lower in asthmagroup compared with controls. MCHC levels were significantlyhigher in asthma group compared with allergicrhinitis and control groups. Neutrophil count decreasedwhile lymphocyte count increased significantly. Eosinophilcount significantly increased compared with controlgroup whereas a significant difference was not observedbetween allergic rhinitis and controls.Conclusions: Our findings suggest factors effective inasthma pathogenesis might be effective also in erythrocytemorphology. There are remarkable changes in bloodeosinophil levels in asthma and in neuthrophil and lymphocytelevels in allergic rhinitis. Serum total IgE level increasesin asthma group whereas it decreases in allergicrhinitis group.Key words: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, total IgE, CRP, MCV

  4. Several distinct properties of the IgE repertoire determine effector cell degranulation in response to allergen challenge

    Christensen, Lars Harder; Holm, Jens-Christian; Lund, Gitte


    for the manifestation and severity of allergic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate how individual properties of an IgE repertoire affect effector cell degranulation. METHODS: A panel of recombinant IgE (rIgE) antibodies specific for the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was developed and characterized...

  5. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J. (National Heart and Lung Institute, Brompton Hospital, London (England))


    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand (125I)pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed.

  6. The influence of Trichosanthin on the induction of IgE responses to ovalbumin under adjuvant—free condition



    Trichosanthin(TCS) is a potent allergen in mice.It can reproducibly induce specific IgE responses in C57BL/6J mice without the help of adjuvant alum.TCS can bring out the IgE responses to ovalbumin(OVA),while OVA itself could not induce IgE responses to it .However,TCS only works when OVA immunization is given one day after TCS immunization.Either time lag in OVA immunization,or immunization of both antigens at the same time,or OVA immunization given first,all has no effect on the induction of IgE responses to OVA.Through analysis of the antibody specificity of hybridoma clones,it indicated that specific antibodies to TCS or OVA were secreted by independent B cell clones.The IgE antibldies showed no polyreactivity to different antigens.

  7. Asthma, tuberculosis or eosinophilic pneumonia?

    Mitra Subhra


    Full Text Available A 45 year-old male presented with cough and expectoration for 8 months, short-ness of breath and wheeze for 3 months, and fever for 1 month. He remained symptomatic despite repeated courses of antibiotics with partial relief on oral and inhaled bronchodilators. Despite several sputum examinations being negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB, he was put on anti-tubercular drugs (ATD because of bi-lateral infiltrates on his chest radiographs. A mildly raised blood eosinophil count, eosinophilia in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL fluid and eosinophilic infiltration on CT guided FNAC from his lung lesion raised the suspicion and the dramatic clinico-radiological improvement with oral corticosteroids clinched the diagnosis of CEP.

  8. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad


    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  9. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Denburg Judah A


    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  10. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Marta Oliveira


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  11. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio


    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  12. 特异性IgG、IgG4和IgE在荨麻疹患者食物过敏原筛查中的应用%Application of specific IgG, IgG4 and IgE in food allergen screening for patients with urticaria

    刘小萍; 林家坤; 刘萍; 危远叔; 齐迅捷; 曾良; 文跃辉


    目的 为了比较荨麻疹患者特异性IgG4、IgG和IgE介导的食物过敏反应,建立食物过敏原暴露状况的生物指标.方法 采用化学发光免疫分析法测定了508例荨麻疹患者12种食物过敏原特异性IgG4、IgG和IgE.结果 虾蟹、牛奶、鱼、鸡蛋、猪牛羊肉是荨麻疹患者的主要食物过敏原,患者血清特异性IgG、IgG4、IgE的阳性率分别为82.9%、61.4%、93.9%,不同年龄段的主要过敏原有差异(P<0.05),而不同性别间无差异,不同食物过敏原在特异性IgG、IgG4、IgE检测中阳性率也存在差异;虾蟹、牛奶、鱼类以及猪牛羊肉在所有检测中阳性率较高.结论 在食物过敏原筛查中特异性IgG、IgG4、IgE不能相互替代,联合测定IgG、IgG4、IgE更具有临床意义.%Objective To compare specific IgG,IgG4,IgE of patients with urticaria and find biological indicators of food allergen. Methods special IgG.IgG4 and IgE of 500 patients with urticaria were detected by chemiluminescence immune analysis. Results The results showed that shrimp and crab,fish,egg,milk and meat are major food allergen for urticaria. The positive rates of specific IgG,IgG4 ,IgE were 82. 9%,61.4% and 93. 9%,respectively in serum. Major allergen were different in different age group (P<0.05),but no significant difference between different gender. And there were positive rate difference for different food allergen spectifc IgG.lgG4,IgE detection. The positive rate of shrimp and crab,fish,milk and meat were high in all detection. Conclusion Detection of specific IgG,IgG4 and IgE cannot be replaced each other in the food allergen screening. Simultaneous detection of IgG, IgG4 and IgE is more significant in clinical detection.

  13. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke;


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  14. Cord blood IgE. I. IgE screening in 2814 newborn children

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S;


    Screening of total IgE in 2814 cord blood samples was analysed by Phadebas IgE PRIST in 2 1-year birth cohorts (1983-1984 and 1985-1986) in Denmark (n = 1189 + 1625). 48.6% of the sera contained less IgE than the detection limit 0.1 kU/l. Cord blood IgE values greater than or equal to 0.5 kU/l were......E values in the autumn was found. No correlation between cord blood IgE and birth weight or gestational age was demonstrated. Only few newborns had cord blood IgA values greater than 0.014 g/l, calculated as geometric mean cord blood IgA + 2 SD among children with no detectable cord blood IgE, indicating...

  15. IGE--The Schools, The State and The College.

    Quigley, Lawrence A.

    This speech presents a brief history of the development of basic principles of IGE (Individually Guided Education) and IGE schools; a description of IGE programs as they exist today follows. Among the many aspects of IGE noted in this speech, two are highlighted: a) the program assists teachers in varying instructional settings to meet different…

  16. 血清特异性IgE和IgG检测在儿童特应性皮炎过敏原诊断中的应用%Application of serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG tests in children with atopic dermatitis

    杨珍; 陈同辛; 杨静


    目的 探讨血清特异性IgE和IgG检测在儿童特应性皮炎过敏原诊断中的应用和意义.方法 对64例患特应性皮炎的儿童,采用酶联免疫方法检测血清中食物过敏原的特异性IgG,同时采用免疫印迹方法检测血清中食物过敏原和吸入性过敏原的特异性IgE.结果 食物过敏原特异性IgG和特异性IgE的检测结果不一致(P < 0.01),食物过敏原特异性IgG的总阳性率为93.75%,主要食物过敏原是牛奶和鸡蛋.食物过敏原特异性IgE的总阳性率为46.88%,主要食物过敏原是鸡蛋和鱼虾蟹.吸入性过敏原特异性IgE的总阳性率为34.38%,主要过敏原是尘螨和霉菌.在0 ~ 1岁的特应性皮炎患儿中,以食物过敏原特异性IgE阳性多见;1岁以上的患儿吸入性过敏原特异IgE阳性多见,同时合并呼吸道过敏症状增多(P均< 0.05).结论 食物过敏原和吸入性过敏原均是引起儿童特应性皮炎的重要原因.联合测定食物过敏原的特异性IgE和特异性IgG是变态反应性皮肤病患儿诊断食物过敏原的有效方法.尽早采取有效的环境控制,对治疗儿童特应性皮炎和预防呼吸道过敏性疾病的发生非常重要.%Objective To explore the clinical application of the serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG tests in children with atopic dermatitis.Methods The specific IgG antibodies for food-allergens detected by the ELISA method and the specific IgE antibodies for either food- or aero-allergens determined by the western blot way were undertaken in 64 children with atopic dermatitis.Results There was the significant difference between the testing results of the specific IgG and IgE for food-allergens (P<0.01).The positive rate of the specific IgG was 93.75% for food-allergens which were mainly milk and egg, while the positive rate of the specific IgE was 46.88% for food-allergens which were mainly egg, fish, shrimp and crab, respectively.The positive rate of the specific IgE was 34.38

  17. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia

    Jamil A. Al-Mughales


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6% and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4% in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%. ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796–0.837 versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707–0.833. In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%, while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history.

  18. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines

    Lisa A Spencer


    Full Text Available Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include: classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines.

  19. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and hepatic dysfunction

    Hai-Bo Zhou; Jin-Ming Chen; Qin Du


    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal disorder with eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall and various gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia.We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, which had features of the predominant subserosal type presenting with ascites and hepatic dysfunction, and which responded to a course of low-dose steroid.

  20. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Jeong Hee; Lim, Jong Nam; Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Hae Jeong [College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease characterized by chronic infiltration of the lung with eosinophils, usually associated with peripheral eosinophilia. In 65% of cases, the chest radiograph shows typical nonsegmental air-space consolidation confined to the outer third of the lung, and in 25% of cases, the 'photographic negative of pulmonary edema' Typical lung manifestations with peripheral eosinophilia are characteristic of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In the remaining cases, radiographic findings are nonspecific and require lung biopsy for confirmation. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in which chest radiograph and CT scans revealed bilateral patchy or diffuse opacity with nodules scattered throughout the lungs.

  1. Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction

    Manish Kumar


    Full Text Available A 7 year-old male presented with recurrent fever, cough and respiratory distress for over last 2 years. Based on extremely high eosinophil count, high Immunoglobulin E, increase in eosinophilic precursors in bone marrow, and positive antigen test for Wuchereria bancrofti, a diagnosis of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction was made. Complete recovery was achieved with Diethylcarbamazine for 3 weeks. We are reporting this case as the first case of Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with eosinophilic leukemoid reaction in a child.

  2. Eosinophilic granuloma of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    Goto, Takahiro; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Ogura, Koichi; Imanishi, Jungo; Hozumi, Takahiro; Funata, Nobuaki


    Eosinophilic granuloma occurs almost exclusively in the diaphysis or metaphysis, when tubular bones are affected. The investigators present an extremely rare case of eosinophilic granuloma arising at the epiphysis of the femoral head in an 8-year-old boy. Plain radiographs and computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion, suggesting chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. However, the findings on magnetic resonance images were different from typical features of chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. The lesion was curetted. Histological diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Differential diagnoses of a radiolucent lesion at the epiphysis in a child should include, though quite rare, eosinophilic granuloma.

  3. Ultrastructural localization of Charcot-Leyden crystal protein in human eosinophils and basophils.

    Calafat, J; Janssen, H; Knol, E F; Weller, P F; Egesten, A


    The Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein with lysophospholipase activity and carbohydrate-binding properties is a characteristic constituent of eosinophils and basophils. We investigated its subcellular distribution using immunoelectron microscopy. Eosinophil progenitors, mature eosinophils and basophils all contained CLC protein in their cytosol and in the euchromatin of the nucleus. A minor population of granules in eosinophils, increasing in number with maturation, and a more abundant granule-population in basophils, were found to contain CLC protein. Double-labeling experiments showed, in eosinophils, that CLC protein-containing granules contain also eosinophil peroxidase, a characteristic specific granule protein. This suggests a relationship between the CLC protein-containing organelle and the specific granule. In basophils both the CLC protein positive and the negative granules showed the same characteristic particulate-like structure of the granular matrix and both share the same membrane marker CD63. In nasal polyps, macrophages were observed phagocytosing necrotic eosinophils. In these macrophages CLC protein-containing vesicles were observed, probably representing late endosomes. The dual (cytosolic/nuclear and granular) localization of CLC protein suggests that this protein enters both a secretory and a nonsecretory pathway during its biosynthesis, indicating functional roles for this protein both within the cell and extracellularly.

  4. Clinical History-Driven Diagnosis of Allergic Diseases: Utilizing in vitro IgE Testing.

    Adkinson, N Franklin; Hamilton, Robert G


    This case illustrates the importance of a thorough clinical history in providing an interpretation of previously collected IgE antibody serology as part of a workup for allergic disease. Although a yellow-jacket sting was the allergenic insult that led the patient to the emergency department, nonindicated IgE antibody serology tests were ordered that subsequently required interpretation. This report systematically evaluates the relative significance of previously measured IgE antibody serology responses to 4 major allergen groups (inhalants [aeroallergens], foods, venoms, and drugs) within the context of the patient's history. An algorithm that takes into account the pretest likelihood of disease and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the available IgE antibody tests is proposed for decisions about further IgE testing. This case study concludes that selection of testing methods, extract and molecular allergen specificities, and the final interpretation of the results from tests of sensitization such as serological (in vitro) IgE antibody assays requires knowledge of test parameters and clinical judgments based largely on a carefully collected clinical history and physical examination.

  5. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard


    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype.

  6. Effect of pollen exposure on serum IgE and IgG antibody responses in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients

    Koichi Imaoka


    Full Text Available We examined the IgE and IgG antibody responses in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients before and after the pollination season for 2 years. The sera from 90 patients in 1990 and 87 in 1991, living in five regions in the Tokyo area, were obtained before and after the pollination season. In all patients, changes (increase then decrease in specific IgE levels were detected after natural pollen exposure. Total IgE and specific IgG concentrations also changed. However, the degree of change in specific IgE was greater than those in total IgE and specific IgG. Then, the geometric means of specific and total IgE levels were compared among the five regions. These levels were found to be highest in the region where the pollen count was the highest. These findings suggest that IgE antibody production is more stimulated after natural pollen exposure compared to IgG antibody production, and is dependent on the amount of allergens.

  7. Human neurocysticercosis: IgE in cerebrospinal fluid Neurocisticercose humana: IgE no líquido cefalorraquiano

    Carmen Silvia de Melo


    Full Text Available The detection of IgE is technically difficult because of its reduced concentrations in serum, and even lower concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. In the present investigation we studied 86 CSF samples using an immunoenzymatic method with an anti-IgE-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and a fluorigenic substrate. The samples were from three groups: A 29 patients with neurocysticercosis (NC, B 36 patients with different neurologic disorders (neurosyphilis, neurotuberculosis, meningitis, tumors, hemorrhage and C 21 discharged individuals who had been hospitalized for bacterial meningitis. The results obtained were: A 0.05 to 3.00 IU/ml (0.76±0.79, B 0.00 to 1.50 IU/ml (0.23±0.34 and C 0.05 to 1.25 IU/ml (0.34±0.34. The present results suggest that IgE appears to play a role in the pathogeny of NC and that efforts should be made to standardize a test for the detection of specific IgE antibodies.A detecção de IgE apresenta dificuldades técnicas pela reduzida concentração que se encontra no LCR e no soro. Utilizando método imunoenzimático com conjugado anti-IgE-fosfatase alcalina e substrato fluorigênico, foram estudadas 86 amostras de LCR de três grupos: A 29 pacientes com NC, B 36 pacientes com afecções neurológicas diversas (neurossífilis, neurotuberculose, meningites, tumores, hemorragias e C 21 indivíduos de pós-alta médica de meningites bacterianas. Os resultados obtidos foram: A 0,05 a 3,00 Ul/ml (0,76±0,79, B 0,00 a 1,50 Ul/ml (0,23±0,34 e C 0,05 a 1,25 Ul/ml (0,34±0,34. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a IgE parece ter papel na patogenia da NC e esforços devem ser feitos para padronização de teste para detecção de anticorpos IgE específicos.

  8. Importance of immunoglobulin E (IgE in the protective mechanism against gastrointestinal nematode infection: looking at the intestinal mucosae



    Full Text Available This review discusses experimental evidences that indicate the IgE participation on the effector mechanisms that leads to gastrointestinal nematode elimination. Data discussed here showed that, for most experimental models, the immune response involved in nematode elimination is regulated by Th-2 type cytokines (especially IL-4. However, the mechanism(s that result in worm elimination is not clear and might be distinct in different nematode species. Parasite specific IgE production, especially the IgE produced by the intestinal mucosae or associated lymphoid organs could participate in the intestinal elimination of Trichinella spiralis from infected rats. Intestinal IgE may also be important to the protective mechanism developed against other gastrointestinal nematodes that penetrate the murine duodenum mucosa tissue, such as Strongyloides venezuelensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus. At least in Trichinella spiralis infected rats, the results indicated that intestinal IgE might work independently from mast cell degranulation for worm elimination.

  9. Lung Pathologies in a Chronic Inflammation Mouse Model Are Independent of Eosinophil Degranulation.

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; Doyle, Alfred D; LeSuer, William E; Li, Wen; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Zellner, Katie R; Shen, HuaHao H; Irvin, Charles G; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A


    The release of eosinophil granule proteins in the lungs of patients with asthma has been dogmatically linked with lung remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the demonstrated inability of established mouse models to display the eosinophil degranulation occurring in human subjects has prevented a definitive in vivo test of this hypothesis. To demonstrate in vivo causative links between induced pulmonary histopathologies/lung dysfunction and eosinophil degranulation. A transgenic mouse model of chronic T-helper cell type 2-driven inflammation overexpressing IL-5 from T cells and human eotaxin 2 in the lung (I5/hE2) was used to test the hypothesis that chronic histopathologies and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness occur as a consequence of extensive eosinophil degranulation in the lung parenchyma. Studies targeting specific inflammatory pathways in I5/hE2 mice surprisingly showed that eosinophil-dependent immunoregulative events and not the release of individual secondary granule proteins are the central contributors to T-helper cell type 2-induced pulmonary remodeling and lung dysfunction. Specifically, our studies highlighted a significant role for eosinophil-dependent IL-13 expression. In contrast, extensive degranulation leading to the release of major basic protein-1 or eosinophil peroxidase was not causatively linked to many of the induced pulmonary histopathologies. However, these studies did define a previously unappreciated link between the release of eosinophil peroxidase (but not major basic protein-1) and observed levels of induced airway mucin. These data suggest that improvements observed in patients with asthma responding to therapeutic strategies ablating eosinophils may occur as a consequence of targeting immunoregulatory mechanisms and not by simply eliminating the destructive activities of these purportedly end-stage effector cells.

  10. Construction of normal human IgE phage antibody library and the screening of the anti—trichosanthin IgE



    Allergen specific IgE response is the major cause of immediate hypersensitivity.However the number of IgEproducing B cells and the amount of IgE,especially the specific IgE,are so low,it greatly impedes the study of the allergic-specifc antibody responses.Here we report the construction of a normal human IgE combinatorial library.The repertoire of IgE VH genes and of κ genes were separately amplified from normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes through RT-PCR,and were then constructed to form the phage surface display human Fab(IgEVH) library.A plant protein allergen,trichosanthin(TCS),was used to affinity-enrich and to screen the anti-TCS phage HuFab clones from the library.Human IgE(Fab) to TCS were detected.

  11. Soluble IgE receptors--elements of the IgE network.

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda


    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely FcεRI, FcεRII, and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of FcεRI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFcεRI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as FcεRII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFcεRI, sCD23, and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease.

  12. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf


    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively.


    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition

  14. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay


    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Role of IgE in autoimmunity.

    Sanjuan, Miguel A; Sagar, Divya; Kolbeck, Roland


    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that IgE plays a significant role in autoimmunity. The presence of circulating self-reactive IgE in patients with autoimmune disorders has been long known but, at the same time, largely understudied. However, studies have shown that the increased IgE concentration is not associated with higher prevalence for atopy and allergy in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE-mediated mechanisms are conventionally known to facilitate degranulation of mast cells and basophils and promote TH2 immunity, mechanisms that are not only central to mounting an appropriate defense against parasitic worms, noxious substances, toxins, venoms, and environmental irritants but that also trigger exuberant allergic reactions in patients with allergies. More recently, IgE autoantibodies have been recognized to participate in the self-inflicted damaging immune responses that characterize autoimmunity. Such autoimmune responses include direct damage on tissue-containing autoantigens, activation and migration of basophils to lymph nodes, and, as observed most recently, induction of type 1 interferon responses from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The importance of IgE as a central pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity has now been clinically validated by the approval of omalizumab, an anti-IgE mAb, for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and for the clinical benefit of patients with bullous pemphigoid. In this review we summarize recent reports describing the prevalence of self-reactive IgE and discuss novel findings that incriminate IgE as central in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune disorders.

  16. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R


    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  17. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    Kourosh Alavi


    Full Text Available Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA. A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG, PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  18. IgE responses in mouse and man and the persistence of IgE memory.

    Gould, Hannah J; Ramadani, Faruk


    Rapid and robust recall or 'memory' responses are an essential feature of adaptive immunity. They constitute a defense against reinfection by pathogens, yet arguably do more harm than good in allergic disease. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies mediate the allergic reaction characterized by immediate hypersensitivity, a manifestation of IgE memory. The origin of IgE memory remains obscure, mainly due to the low proportion of IgE-expressing B cells in the total B cell population. The recent development of ultrasensitive methods for tracking these cells in vivo has overcome this obstacle, and their use has revealed unexpected pathways to IgE memory in the mouse. Here, we review these findings and consider their bearing on our understanding of IgE memory and allergic disease in man.

  19. Autoreactive IgE in Chronic Spontaneous/Idiopathic Urticaria and Basophil/Mastocyte Priming Phenomenon, as a Feature of Autoimmune Nature of the Syndrome.

    Panaszek, Bernard; Pawłowicz, Robert; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Obojski, Andrzej


    Recent years of research have shed a new light on the role of IgE in immune reactions. It seems to be more than just a contribution to immediate type of allergic response. It appears that monomeric IgE may enhance mast cell activity without cross-linking of FcεRI by IgE specific allergen or autoreactive IgG anti-IgE antibodies. Monomeric IgE molecules are heterogeneous concerning their ability to induce survival and activation of mast cells only by binding the IgE to FcεRI, but not affecting degranulation of cells. It also turned out that IgE may react to autoantigens occurring in the blood not only in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) but also in other autoimmune diseases. The aforementioned phenomena may promote the activity of mast cells/basophils in CSU that easily degranulate when influenced by various inner (autoreactive IgG against IgE and FcεRI, autoreactive IgE for self-antigens) and outer factors (cold, heat, pressure) or allergens. These findings forced the new approach to the role of autoimmunity, self-antigens and IgE autoantibodies in the pathology of CSU. CSU put in the scheme of autoreactive IgG and autoreactive IgE seems to be either a kind of an autoimmune disease or a clinical manifestation of some other defined autoimmune diseases or both.

  20. Histopathological study of feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

    Fondati, A; Fondevila, D; Ferrer, L


    A retrospective study was conducted on skin specimens from 24 cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Gallego's trichrome stain. In all specimens, flame figures and/or large foci of so-called "collagen degeneration" were detected and histopathological features were not predictive of the clinical picture. Use of the term eosinophilic dermatosis was advocated in diagnostic dermatopathology. On trichrome-stained sections, normally stained collagen fibres were identified in the middle of both flame figures and large foci of "collagen degeneration" and the debris surrounding collagen bundles showed the same tinctorial properties as eosinophil granules. Eosinophil degranulation around collagen bundles seemed to represent the major pathogenetic event in these lesions, analogous with human flame figures. The term flame figures might therefore be more accurately used to designate those foci of eosinophilic to partly basophilic debris commonly referred to as "collagen degeneration".

  1. Role of Adhesion Molecules in Eosinophil Activation: A Comparative Study on the Effect of Adhesion Molecules on Eosinophil Survival

    Kazutoshi Yamaguchi


    Conclusions: The regulation of adhesion molecules, by not only preventing eosinophil adhesion but also eosinophil activation, may be a potential target in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disorders.

  2. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander


    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils.

  3. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Influenza Virus Antibodies in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Vaccination with Influenza Virus Vaccine

    Tamar A. Smith-Norowitz, Darrin Wong, Melanie Kusonruksa, Kevin B. Norowitz, Rauno Joks, Helen G. Durkin, Martin H. Bluth


    Full Text Available The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, Parainfluenza virus, Varicella Zoster Virus, and the ability of IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the presence and persistence of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies has not been studied. Total serum IgE and specific IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies were studied in children (N=3 (m/f 14-16 y/o and adults (N=3 (m/f, 41-49 y/o 2-20 months after vaccination with Influenza virus (Flumist® or Fluzone®, as well as in non-vaccinated children (N=2. (UniCAP total IgE Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay, ELISA, Immunoblot. We found that serum of vaccinated children and adults contained IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies approaching two years post vaccination. Non-vaccinated children did not make either IgE or IgG anti-Influenza antibodies. Similar levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected in serum of vaccinated compared with non vaccinated subjects (p>0.05, as well as between vaccinated adults compared with vaccinated children and non vaccinated subjects (p>0.05. Vaccinated children and adults continue to produce IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies long term post vaccination. The long term production of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies induced by vaccination may contribute to protective immunity against Influenza.

  4. Long term persistence of IgE anti-influenza virus antibodies in pediatric and adult serum post vaccination with influenza virus vaccine.

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Wong, Darrin; Kusonruksa, Melanie; Norowitz, Kevin B; Joks, Rauno; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H


    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, Parainfluenza virus, Varicella Zoster Virus), and the ability of IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the presence and persistence of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies has not been studied. Total serum IgE and specific IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies were studied in children (N = 3) (m/f 14-16 y/o) and adults (N = 3) (m/f, 41-49 y/o) 2-20 months after vaccination with Influenza virus (Flumist(®) or Fluzone(®)), as well as in non-vaccinated children (N = 2). (UniCAP total IgE Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay, ELISA, Immunoblot). We found that serum of vaccinated children and adults contained IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies approaching two years post vaccination. Non-vaccinated children did not make either IgE or IgG anti-Influenza antibodies. Similar levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected in serum of vaccinated compared with non vaccinated subjects (p > 0.05), as well as between vaccinated adults compared with vaccinated children and non vaccinated subjects (p > 0.05). Vaccinated children and adults continue to produce IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies long term post vaccination. The long term production of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies induced by vaccination may contribute to protective immunity against Influenza.

  5. Association of Specific Immunoglobulin E to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin with Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Asthma Patients

    Kim, Seong Han; Yang, Seo Yeon; You, Jihong; Lee, Sang Bae; You, Jin; Chang, Yoon Soo; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min; Byun, Min Kwang; Park, Jung-Won


    Background Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) has been recently considered to be related to allergic disease, including asthma. Despite studies on specific IgE (sIgE) to SE and its relationship to asthma diagnosis and severity, the association of sIgE to SE with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) remains unclear. Methods We enrolled 81 asthma patients admitted to the Severance Hospital in Korea from March 1, 2013, to February 28, 2015 and retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of the enrolled subjects. The serum levels of sIgE to SE (A/B) of all subjects was measured using the ImmunoCAP 250 (Phadia) system with SE-sIgE positive defined as >0.10 kU/mL. Results The SE-sIgE level was not significantly correlated with asthma severity (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], FEV1/forced vital capacity, sputum eosinophils, and serum eosinophils), whereas the SE-sIgE level in patients with positive AHR (mean±standard error of the mean, 0.606±0.273 kU/mL) was significantly higher than that in patients with negative AHR (0.062±0.015 kU/mL, p=0.034). In regression analysis, SE sensitization (sIgE to SE ≥0.010 kU/mL) was a significant risk factor for AHR, after adjustment for age, sex, FEV1, and sputum eosinophils (odds ratio, 7.090; 95% confidence interval, 1.180–42.600; p=0.032). Prevalence of SE sensitization was higher in patients with allergic rhinitis and non-atopic asthma patients, as compared to patients without allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma patients, respectively, but without statistical significance. Conclusion SE sensitization is significantly associated with AHR.

  6. [The high-affinity IgE receptor: lessons from structural analysis].

    Blank, Ulrich; Jouvin, Marie-Hélène; Guérin-Marchand, Claudine; Kinet, Jean-Pierre


    The high affinity receptor for IgE, FcERI, is at the core of the allergic reaction. This receptor is expressed mainly on mast cells and basophils. Interaction of an allergen with its specific IgE bound to FcERI triggers cell activation, which induces the release of numerous mediators that are responsible for allergic manifestations. The recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases in developed countries has resulted in renewed efforts towards the development of new drugs. One of these is a humanised antibody directed against the IgE ligand. This antibody recognises specifically free but not FcERI-bound IgE thus preventing ligand binding and subsequent cell activation. This antibody has shown some efficacy in clinical trials involving patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. The recent elucidation of the tridimensional structure of the complex between IgE and FcERI provides unexpected information regarding the mechanism of assembly of the complex, which now can be used to design small chemical compounds capable of specifically inhibiting this interaction.

  7. IgE antibodies to cow allergens and respiratory health in dairy farmers in Denmark and The Netherlands

    Doekes, Gert; Wouters, I.; de Vries, J.


    the prevalence of IgE anti-cow allergens in Dutch and Danish dairy farmers, and the association with common and work-related respiratory health symptoms. In a pilot study, sera from 37 Dutch dairy farmers were tested in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for specific IgE against the major cow allergen Bos d2...... Danish farmers). In that study, a specific IgE EIA was used with a coating of crude cow dander protein extract. This test was shown to produce results correlating very well with the IgE anti-Bos d2 EIA. Of the 37 Dutch dairy farmers, 11 had detectable IgE anti-Bos d2, while 12 reported common complaints...... no relation could be found: IgE anti-cow dander proteins were found in 22.5% of the cases and in 26.8% of the controls. The previously reported strong association between anti-cow IgE sensitization and work-related respiratory disease in Finland could not be confirmed in Dutch and Danish dairy farmers...

  8. Application evaluation of the levels of serum total IgE and food allergen-specific IgG antibody in patients with chronic urticaria and eczema%血清总IgE与食物特异性IgG检测在慢性荨麻疹和慢性湿疹中的应用评价



    目的:探讨慢性荨麻疹和慢性湿疹患者食物特异性IgG变应原和血清总IgE的水平,为临床诊治提供参考。方法:应用ELISA法,检测153例慢性荨麻疹患者与135例慢性湿疹患者血清总IgE与14种食物特异性IgG,并与48名健康体检者对照。结果:慢性荨麻疹食物特异性IgG阳性率94.1%,慢性湿疹阳性率95.6%,而健康体检人群阳性率54.2%。以鸡蛋(蛋白/蛋黄)、牛奶、鳕鱼、螃蟹、大豆阳性率最高,鸡肉、玉米、大米、虾、西红柿、小麦次之,猪肉、牛肉、蘑菇较低。慢性荨麻疹和慢性湿疹患者血清总IgE均为100.0%阳性,而健康体检人群仅有29.8%。结论:慢性荨麻疹、慢性湿疹不仅与IgE介导的Ⅰ型变态反应有关,还与食物特异性IgG引起的不耐受有一定相关性;其检测可及时调整患者食谱,缓解临床症状,为患者诊治提供有益帮助。%Objective:To explore the levels of serum total IgE and food allergen-specific IgG antibody in patients with chronic urticaria and eczema,and provide the reference for their clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods:The levels of the serum total IgE in 153 patients with chronic urticaria and 135 patients with chronic eczema, and allergen-specific IgG antibodies in 14 kinds of food were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA) . Forty-eight healthy people were set as the control. Results:The total positive rates of specific IgG antibodies in chronic urticaria,chronic eczema and healthy people were 94. 1%,95. 6% and 54. 2%,respectively. The most common food allergen were egg,milk,cod,crab and bean,followed by chicken,maize,rice,shrimp,tomato and wheat,and then pork,beef and mushrooms. The total positive rates of total serum IgE in chronic urticaria and eczema patients were 100. 0%,but it was 29. 8% in healthy people. Conclusions:The chronic urticaria and eczema are not only associated with typeⅠallergy,but also with food intolerance induced by the

  9. Novel targeted therapies for eosinophilic disorders

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Henkel, Tim; Kolbeck, Roland; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ortega, Hector; Patel, Jatin; Prussin, Calman; Renzi, Paolo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Roufosse, Florence; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weller, Peter F.; Klion, Amy D.


    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a diverse group of conditions characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. HESs are chronic disorders with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the availability of targeted chemotherapeutic agents, including imatinib, has improved quality of life and survival in some patients with HESs, additional agents with increased efficacy and decreased toxicity are sorely needed. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of eosinophil biology with an emphasis on potential targets of pharmacotherapy and to provide a summary of potential eosinophil-targeting agents, including those in development, in clinical trials, or approved for other disorders. PMID:22935585

  10. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R


    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction.

  11. Eosinophilic diseases in two Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

    German, A J; Holden, D J; Hall, E J; Day, M J


    This report describes the clinical presentation of two Cavalier King Charles spaniels with different eosinophilic diseases. The first case presented with dyspnoea and a non-productive cough, and investigations demonstrated eosinophilic bronchopneumonopathy. The second dog was referred for the investigation of haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea and was eventually diagnosed with eosinophilic enteritis. Both dogs had concurrent eosinophilic stomatitis, and both responded completely to immunosuppressive glucocorticoid therapy. This report is the first to describe the concurrence of eosinophilic stomatitis and systemic eosinophilic disease in Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and suggest that this breed may be predisposed to eosinophilic syndromes.

  12. What is unique about the IgE response?

    Xiong, Huizhong; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A; Lafaille, Juan J


    IgE antibodies are involved in allergic reactions. High affinity IgE antibodies can cause anaphylaxis when cross-linked by minute amounts of antigen. The issue of how the IgE response is initiated and maintained is addressed in this review. A model has been proposed by which IgE(+) cells expressing antibodies that bind with high affinity to their antigens are generated through an IgG1 intermediate, which goes through affinity maturation in germinal centers (GC) before undergoing sequential switching to IgE. Mice deficient in IgG1 produce IgE at almost normal levels, but the IgE antibodies produced in IgG1-deficient mice lack the antigen-binding strength and the somatic mutations associated with affinity maturation. A GFP reporter strain, which expresses a modified IgE molecule, was recently developed and was utilized to challenge the sequential switching model. Several molecules that are highly expressed in GC can antagonize class switching to IgE in GC antagonize partially class switching to IgE; in addition, GC IgE(+) cells are gradually lost from GC as the immune response progresses, as shown with another recently developed, Venus-expressing IgE reporter mouse strain. In contrast, as a population, IgG1 cells thrive in the GC environment. Membrane IgE-expressing plasmablasts and plasma cells (PC) were recognized as a major component of the IgE response in secondary lymphoid organs. The swift development of IgE cells toward the PC fate, together with the affinity maturation of the IgE response via an IgG intermediate, represent the most salient features of the IgE immune responses, which make them distinct from IgG responses.

  13. Lability of IgE Levels Early in Life

    Koffi N'guessan


    Full Text Available We report a case of a very fast and intriguing decrease in IgE concentrations after exclusion from the diet of any CM lysate in an unusual clinical presentation of cow's milk allergy in an infant. Analysis of IgE kinetics after allergen elimination suggests rapid cessation of IgE biosynthesis and a short IgE half-life.

  14. Determinación de sensibilización alérgica a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores por fluoroinmuno ensayo-UniCAP Dust mite allergic sensitization in children aged 1 month to 5 years-old using specific IgE determination by unicap fluoroimmunoassay



    Full Text Available La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de asma. Hay escasa información sobre la sensibilización temprana en niños chilenos. Objetivo: Investigar la sensibilización a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores. Método: Revisión de resultados de IgE específica por ensayo UniCAP (Pharmacia contra dermatofagoides de niños de hasta 5 años con sospecha de alergia respiratoria, divididos en 3 grupos de edad: 1-12 meses, 13-35 meses y 3-5 años. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 224 niños, entre 1 mes y 5 años de edad (x 2,65 años ± 1,48 DS, 57,1% de sexo masculino. Su distribución según grupo etario fue: 66 en el grupo 1; 45 en el grupo 2 y 113 en el grupo 3. El 30,6% presentó sensibilización a dermatofagoides (18,2% grupo 1; 33,3% grupo 2 y 36,3% grupo 3. El grupo 3 presentó concentraciones de IgE específica significativamente más elevadas que los otros grupos. Conclusiones: La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es detectable en menores de un año, con frecuencia y nivel que aumentan en forma paralela a la edadDust mite sensitization is considered a major risk factor for pediatric asthma; however, there are few data about early sensitization in Chilean children available. This study aimed to investigate allergic sensitization to mites in infancy and early childhood. The patient population, 224 children aged 0 to 5 years with suspected respiratory allergy, was divided into 3 groups of age: 1 to 12 months-old, 13 to 35 months-old, and 3 to 5 years-old. Sensitization status was ascertained by assessing the specific IgE to mite by UniCAP fluoroimmunoassay (Pharmacia. Sixty eight (30.6% patients were sensitized to mites. The frequency and level of sensitization increased with the age of the children. Our data support that avoidance measures in the domestic environment aimed at the primary prevention of mite-driven sensitization should be introduced at the earliest possible stage

  15. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R.;


    IgE sensitization tests, such as skin prick testing and serum-specific IgE, have been used to diagnose IgE-mediated clinical allergy for many years. Their prime drawback is that they detect sensitization which is only loosely related to clinical allergy. Many patients therefore require provocation...... pretest probabilities for diverse setting, regions and allergens. Also, cofactors, such as exercise, may be necessary for exposure to an allergen to result in an allergic reaction in specific IgE-positive patients. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy is now being aided by the introduction of allergen...

  16. Oral glucocorticoids diminish the efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy in experimental feline asthma.

    Chang, Chee-hoon; Cohn, Leah A; Declue, Amy E; Liu, Hong; Reinero, Carol R


    Allergen-specific rush immunotherapy (RIT) shows promise in treating asthma; however, pet cats will likely require at least initial concurrent glucocorticoids (GCs) to control serious clinical signs. How the immunosuppressive effects of GCs would impact RIT in cats is unknown. The hypothesis of this study was that oral, but not inhaled GCs will diminish the efficacy of RIT in experimental feline asthma. Cats (n=6/group) were sensitized using Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) and randomized to receive BGA-specific RIT for 9 months with an oral GC (prednisolone 10mg daily), inhaled GC (fluticasone 220 μg twice daily), or placebo administered for the first 6 months. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) percent eosinophils and other immunological assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation was suppressed in all groups at month 6 of RIT (group mean ± SD, 5 ± 2%, 13 ± 4%, and 7 ± 2% for oral GC, inhaled GC, and placebo, respectively; P=0.291). BALF percent eosinophils significantly increased over time only in oral GC/RIT cats between months 6 and 9 (P=0.031). Placebo/RIT cats had significant decreases over time in BGA-specific serum IgE (P=0.031). Concentration of interleukin (IL)-5 in BALF significantly increased over time in inhaled GC/RIT cats (P=0.031). No significant differences were found between groups at month 6 or over time in each group for BGA-specific lymphocyte blastogenesis, percent blood T regulatory cells, or number of IL-10-producing cells. Given the significant increase of airway eosinophilia over time in RIT cats initially treated with an oral GC, inhaled GCs might be better for dampening eosinophilic inflammation until RIT normalizes the dysregulated immune system.

  17. IgE epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard;


    epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify IgE specific epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1, and to compare epitope patterns between humans and rats. MethodsSera from five peanut allergic patients and five Brown Norway rats were used...... to identify intact and digested Ara h 1-specific IgE epitopes by competitive immunoscreening of a phage-displayed random hepta-mer peptide library using polyclonal IgE from the individual sera. The resulting peptide sequences were mapped on the surface of a three-dimensional structure of the Ara h 1 molecule...... to mimic epitopes using a computer-based algorithm. ResultsPatients as well as rats were shown to have individual IgE epitope patterns. All epitope mimics were conformational and found to cluster into three different areas of the Ara h 1 molecule. Five epitope motifs were identified by patient IgE, which...

  18. Self-reactive IgE exacerbates interferon responses associated with autoimmunity.

    Henault, Jill; Riggs, Jeffrey M; Karnell, Jodi L; Liarski, Vladimir M; Li, Jianqing; Shirinian, Lena; Xu, Linda; Casey, Kerry A; Smith, Michael A; Khatry, Deepak B; Izhak, Liat; Clarke, Lorraine; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel; Petri, Michelle; Clark, Marcus R; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Sanjuan, Miguel A


    Canonically, immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and type 2 helper cytokines. Here we found that in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a type of cell of the immune system linked to viral defense, which led to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α (IFN-α). The concentration of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC function by triggering phagocytosis via the high-affinity FcɛRI receptor for IgE, followed by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated sensing of DNA in phagosomes. Our findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses.

  19. [Eosinophilic pneumonia revealing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Fikal, Siham; Sajiai, Hafsa; Serhane, Hind; Aitbatahar, Salma; Amro, Lamyae


    The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is rare and malignant etiology remains exceptional. Eosinophilic pneumonia etiology varies and is mainly dominated by allergic and drug causes. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma revealed by eosinophilic pneumonia. The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia was confirmed by eosinophil count of 56% in bronchoalveolar lavage. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow biopsy revealed malignant Small B cells non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  20. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B


    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  1. Toward Effective Schooling: The IGE Experience.

    Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by various authors documenting the development and evaluation of Individually Guided Education (IGE), a planned attempt, involving thousands of scholars and practitioners, to produce more effective elementary schools. Part 1, "An Attempt to Restructure Elementary Schooling," consists of three chapters…

  2. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    Mogensen, Trine H


    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE.

  3. Migratory eosinophilic alveolitis caused by radiation therapy.

    Lim, Jun Hyeok; Nam, Hae-Seong; Kim, Hun Jung; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, In-Suh; Cho, Jae Hwa; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Kwak, Seung Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol


    Although radiation pneumonitis is usually confined to irradiated areas, some studies have reported that radiation-induced lymphocytic alveolitis can also spread to the non-irradiated lung. However, there have been few reports of radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis. We report the case of a 27-year-old female with radiation pneumonitis, occurring 4 months after radiation therapy for cancer of the left breast. Clinical and radiological relapse followed withdrawal of corticosteroids. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patchy airspace consolidations revealed increased eosinophil counts. Finally, clinical and radiological signs resolved rapidly after reintroduction of corticosteroids. Eosinophilic alveolitis may be promoted by radiation therapy. In the present case report, possible mechanisms for radiation-induced eosinophilic alveolitis are also reviewed.

  4. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma.

    Garg, M; Kumar, S; Neogi, S


    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigations revealed significant peripheral eosinophilia. Open biopsy reported eosinophilic mastits, correlating with peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary symptoms. The patient responded to conservative management. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia. Asthma, Churgh-Strauss Syndrome and hyper-eosinophilic syndromes are associated. Importantly, if a clinically and radiologically malignant breast lump in asthmatic ladies with peripheral eosinophilia is not confirmed on cytology, this entity could be a diagnosis, potentially saving the patient from surgery.

  5. Lymph nodes of onchocerciasis patients after treatment with ivermectin: reaction of eosinophil granulocytes and their cationic granule proteins.

    Wildenburg, G; Darge, K; Knab, J; Tischendorf, F W; Bonow, I; Büttner, D W


    Lymph node and skin biopsies from Liberian patients with generalized and localized (sowda) onchocerciasis were studied 12-68 hours after oral administration of ivermectin at a single dose of 150 micrograms/kg body weight. Electron microscopic examination and immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against two different forms of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP EG1, ECP EG2), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and cationic leukocyte antigen (CLA) were performed. Following their disappearance from the skin, a large number of microfilariae was found in the regional lymph nodes. The lymph nodes from treated patients had over ten times more eosinophils compared to those from untreated persons with a peak of eosinophil density at 40-48 hours after treatment. Degenerating microfilariae in the lymph nodes were encircled by eosinophils, which showed positive immunostaining for ECP, EPO or CLA. Intra- and extracellular eosinophil granules revealed a great variation in their condition. In some specific granules a variety of structural alterations in the crystalloid cores occurred while in others different stages of deficiency in the matrix electron density were observed. The frequent necrosis of eosinophils in the immediate vicinity and at some distance from the microfilariae, with subsequent release of granules and the deposition of toxic cationic granule proteins onto the microfilarial cuticle during the eosinophil-parasite adherence reaction, demonstrated the function of these proteins in the ivermectin-reinforced killing of microfilariae in lymph nodes.

  6. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika


    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro.

  7. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  8. Antigen transfer from exosomes to dendritic cells as an explanation for the immune enhancement seen by IgE immune complexes.

    Rebecca K Martin

    Full Text Available IgE antigen complexes induce increased specific T cell proliferation and increased specific IgG production. Immediately after immunization, CD23(+ B cells capture IgE antigen complexes, transport them to the spleen where, via unknown mechanisms, dendritic cells capture the antigen and present it to T cells. CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, binds IgE antigen complexes and internalizes them. In this study, we show that these complexes are processed onto B-cell derived exosomes (bexosomes in a CD23 dependent manner. The bexosomes carry CD23, IgE and MHC II and stimulate antigen specific T-cell proliferation in vitro. When IgE antigen complex stimulated bexosomes are incubated with dendritic cells, dendritic cells induce specific T-cell proliferation in vivo, similar to IgE antigen complexes. This suggests that bexosomes can provide the essential transfer mechanism for IgE antigen complexes from B cells to dendritic cells.

  9. Adult eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndromes

    Hugh James Freeman


    Eosinophilic gastroenteritJs (EGE) in the adult is a distinctive pathologically-based disorder characterized by an eosinophil-predominant mucosal inflammatory process. Most often, the disorder is detected during endoscopic investigation for abdominal pain or diarrhea. Other causes of gastric and intestinal mucosal eosinophilia require exclusion, including parasitic infections and drug-induced causes. Occasionally, the muscle wall or serosal surface may be involved. EGE appears to be more readily recognized, in large part, due to an evolution in the imaging methods used to evaluate abdominal pain and diarrhea, in particular, endoscopic imaging and mucosal biopsies. Definition of EGE, however, may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not well standardized. Also, the eosinophilic inflammatory process may be either patchy or diffuse and the detection of the eosinophilic infiltrates may vary depending on the method of biopsy fixation. Treatment has traditionally focused on resolution of symptoms, and, in some instances, eosinophil quantification in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsies. Future evaluation and treatment of EGE may depend on precise serological biomarkers to aid in definition of the long-term natural history of the disorder and its response to pharmacological or biological forms of therapy.

  10. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Santosh G


    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  11. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.


    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  12. Growth and differentiation of eosinophils from human peripheral blood CD 34+ cells.

    Shalit, M


    several fold during the entire culture period. Similar kinetics were seen for the NADPH oxidase protein transcripts. These studies demonstrate that within 3 days of culture, peripheral blood CD34+ cells can become committed to the eosinophil lineage as demonstrated by responsiveness to IL5 and production of specific protein transcripts.

  13. IgE and risk of cancer in 37 747 individuals from the general population

    Helby, J; Bojesen, S E; Nielsen, S F;


    BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is produced by plasma cells, often as part of an allergic immune response. It is currently unknown whether plasma IgE levels are associated with risk of cancer in individuals from the general population. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of plasma total IgE...... are associated with overall risk of cancer and with risk of specific cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma total IgE was measured in 37 747 individuals from the general population, and the participants were followed prospectively for up to 30 years. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean...... follow-up of 7 years, a first cancer was diagnosed in 3454 participants. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-fold higher level of IgE was 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.11; P = 0.04] for any cancer, 0.44 (0.30-0.64; P = 0.00002) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 0.53 (0...

  14. Role and Redirection of IgE against Cancer

    Elisa A. Nigro


    Full Text Available IgE is a highly elusive antibody class, yet a tremendously powerful elicitor of immune reactions. Despite huge efforts spent on the characterization and understanding of the IgE system many questions remain either unanswered or only marginally addressed. One above all relates to the role of IgE. A common doubt is based on whether IgE mode of action should only be relegated to anti-parasite immunity and allergic manifestations. In search for a hidden role of IgE, reports from several laboratories are described herein in which a natural IgE link to cancer or the experimental redirection of IgE against cancer have been investigated. Epidemiological and investigational studies are trying to elucidate a possible direct intervention of endogenous IgE against cancer, raising thus far no definitive evidence. Conversely, experimental approaches implementing several strategies and engineered IgE formats built up a series of convincing results indicating that cancer might be tackled by the effector functions of this immunoglobulin class. Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. However, extreme care should be taken on how IgE-based anti-tumor approaches should be devised. Overall, IgE appears as a promising resource, likely destined to enrich the anti-cancer arsenal.

  15. Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein - a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte

    Bishop-Bailey David


    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP. This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.

  16. Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Vlasits, Jutta; Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Sola, Marco; Obinger, Christian


    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immune system of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogen dioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observed differences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, a comprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E degrees ') of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be -126mV and -176mV, respectively (25 degrees C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reduction thermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored, whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpic term that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of the heme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstrates the effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalian peroxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically important oxidoreductases.

  17. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Yang Nan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao and Dianthus superbus (Qumai. Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments.

  18. Structural analysis and molecular modeling of two antitrichosanthin IgE clones from phage antibody library



    Recently we constructed a murine IgE phage surface display library and screened out two IgE (Fab) clones with specific binding activity to Trichosanthin (TCS).In this work,the Vε and Vκ genes of the two clones were sequenced and their putative germline gene usages were studied.On the basis of the known 3D structure of Trichosanthin and antibody,molecular modeling was carried out to study the antigen-antibody interaction.The possible antigenic determinant sites on the surface of TCS recognized by both the clones were analyzed,and the reaction forces between TCS and two Fab fragments were also analyzed respectively.

  19. IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum.

    Bell, R G


    This paper analyses the association between infection with helminth parasites, the elevated production of IgE and the expression of allergies. Interpretations of this interaction have taken place in a scientific environment whose most secure element is the immunochemistry of allergic reactions resulting in a substantial body of literature that has sought a biological role for allergic reactivity in protective immunity directed against helminth parasites. While the association between helminth infections and elevated levels of IgE, mast cells and eosinophils is well established, a functional role for allergic reactions in protection against helminths has eluded experimental proof. Instead of this hypothesis, it is proposed that allergic reactivity is rarely present in helminth-infected individuals because allergic reactions do not function to regulate helminth infections. Data from many sources are used to establish that the 'normal' state of all mammals is to be infected with helminth parasites from shortly after birth until well into adulthood. Only in the last 100 years or so have people living in areas of high development with sophisticated water and sewage systems been able to escape helminth infection. Allergies are as conspicuously present in these human populations as they are absent in populations that are still regularly exposed to helminths. Furthermore, in populations with endemic helminthoses there is little overt expression of allergic pathology that could be connected to the acquisition or elimination of helminth parasites. Based on these observations, it is suggested that endemic helminthoses activate the Th2 system, particularly at mucosal surfaces, to provide a different level of immunological homeostasis than currently occurs in developed societies. Under these conditions, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE rarely participate in reactions that we would recognize as 'allergic', although their participation in the control of helminth infections is

  20. Esofagitis eosinofílica por sensibilización a proteínas de leche de cabra y oveja Eosinophilic esophagitis due to allergy to sheep and goat milk proteins

    M. Armisén


    Full Text Available La esofagitis eosinofílica, entidad caracterizada por la infiltración de la mucosa esofágica por más de 20 eosinófilos por campo de gran aumento, se suele presentar en forma de disfagia intermitente de larga evolución, pudiendo estar asociada a sensibilización alérgica a aeroalérgenos y/o alimentos. Presentamos el caso de un varón con clínica de disfagia intermitente coincidiendo con la toma de quesos curados de oveja y cabra que precisó asistencia urgente tras la impactación de un comprimido de ibuprofeno a 30 cm de la arcada dentaria. El estudio practicado demostró la existencia de estenosis en el esófago a ese nivel con infiltración eosinofílica difusa y sensibilización a proteínas de la leche de cabra, oveja y vaca, con especial relevancia para la IgG bovina, lactoferrina y albúmina sérica. Tras tratamiento con fluticasona deglutida y medidas de evitación se consiguió la resolución del cuadro clínico y la desaparición de los eosinófilos en la mucosa.Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by the presence of high numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosal layer (> 20 high-power field. It is uncommon in adults but in such cases intermittent dysphagia and food impaction are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of a male with long-standing intermittent dysphagia after eating selected goat and sheep cheese types, who required medical help following the impaction of an ibuprofen pill in the esophagus. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, and allergy testing showed specific IgE against proteins in the milk of goats and sheep. Topical steroid therapy with oral fluticasone, and the elimination of these dairy products from the diet induced complete symptom resolution, and biopsy specimens taken 4 months later showed no eosinophils.

  1. Inverse Association between Prediagnostic IgE Levels and the Risk of Brain Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Ma, Chong; Cao, Lei; Zhao, Jianping; Ming, Xing; Shang, Ming; Zong, Hailiang; Du, Hai; Li, Kai; He, Xiaoguang; Xu, Hongsheng


    An inverse association between allergic conditions and glioma risk has been suggested in many epidemiological studies. However, the evidence is inadequate to draw robust conclusions for the association between prediagnostic IgE levels and brain tumors risk. The aim of this study was to provide more precise estimates for this association by meta-analysis of all published studies. Overall, 8 individual studies with 2,461 cases and 3,934 controls were included in our study. A decreased risk of brain tumors (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.86, P IgE. The negative association was significant between elevated total IgE level and the risk of glioma (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.88, P = 0.001). However, no significant relationship was demonstrated between testing positive for respiratory allergen-specific IgE and brain tumors risk. In addition, the role of prediagnostic IgE levels in brain tumors risk did not alter in men and women. The present study suggests that increased level of total prediagnostic IgE but not respiratory allergen-specific IgE plays a protective role in brain tumors risk, glioma in particular. More studies are warranted for further elucidation of the meningioma risk related to prediagnostic IgE levels.

  2. 变应性鼻炎患者血清总IgE和特异性IgE分析%Survey on distribution of serum total IgE and specific IgE in patients with allergic rhinitis in Shenzhen district

    杨利桃; 黄秋花; 贾小莉


    Objective Toexplorethedistributivecharacteristicsofinhaledallergensresponsibleforallergicrhinitisinpopulationof Shenzhendistrictandtoprovidethescientificbasisforitsprevention,etiologicaldiagnosisandtreatment.Methods TheMediwissAllergen ScreeningSystemhadbeenappliedfordetectionoftotalserumIgEandallergen-specificIgEin569patientswithallergicrhinitis.Results The positive rate for Dermatophagoides farinae was the highest(62. 6%),followed by cockroach,dog dander and house dust,and their positive rates were 14. 4%,14. 1% and 10. 0% respectively. There was no significant statistical difference between males and females( P >0. 05),but there was difference between age groups. The positive rate of children group with allergic rhinitis was 87. 8%,and it was much higher than that of adult group( P 0.05),但儿童组吸入性过敏原阳性率为87.8%,成人组吸入性过敏原阳性率为65.4%,两者差异显著( P <0.0001);血清总IgE阳性率为81.9%,吸入性过敏原特异性IgE阳性率为74.2%,总IgE阳性率明显高于特异性IgE阳性率,差异有统计学意义( P <0.0001)。结论户尘螨是诱发深圳特区变应性鼻炎的主要过敏原;儿童AR患者过敏原阳性率高于成人AR患者,可能与其免疫系统发育尚不完善有关;联合检测血清总IgE和过敏原特异性IgE可提高变应性鼻炎诊断的准确性。

  3. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet


    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal.

  4. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K


    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels.

  5. A clinic study on desensitization treatment of bronchial asthma with positive specific IgE to dust mite in children%尘螨特异性IgE阳性儿童支气管哮喘脱敏治疗临床研究

    蔡幸生; 朱勇斌; 林丽爱; 黄育涛; 陈素华; 王金燕; 林彤彤


    Objective To investigate the efficacy and the course of desensitization treatment in bronchial asthma with positive specific IgE to dust mite in children. Methods A total of 105 children with bronchial asthma with positive specific IgE to dermatophagoides farinae allergens were randomized into the observation group and the control group. Children in the control group were treated to continue anti-asthma according to the routine of prevention and treatment children with asthma. Chinldren in the observation group were treated by dermatophagoides farinae drops in addition to the treatment of children in the control group. The recurrence of asthma was compared between two groups at 25 weeks post-treatment. At 25 weeks post-treatment , children in the observation group was randomly divided into the observation groupⅠand group Ⅱ. Children in the observation groupⅠreceived continuous treatment except for desensitization treatment. Children in the observation group II received the sublingual immunotherapy with dermatophagoides farinae drops (No.4) for 1 year in addition to the treatment in the observation groupⅠ. The recurrence of asthma was also compared between the two sub-groups. Results The rate and times of recurrence of asthma were lower in the observation group than those in the control group(P 0.05). Conclusion The recurrent rate and frequency of asthma could be reduced by the sublingual immunotherapy with dermatophagoides farinae drops in children with asthma of positive specific IgE to dust mite. The course of treatment may be half year long.%目的:探讨尘螨特异性IgE阳性儿童支气管哮喘脱敏治疗的临床疗效及疗程。方法:105例血清粉尘螨抗原阳性的支气管哮喘患儿在临床缓解后被随机分成观察组和对照组,对照组继续按哮喘诊疗常规进行治疗,观察组在对照组治疗基础上,予粉尘螨滴剂1~4号舌下含服脱敏治疗,治疗满25周时,比较两组哮喘复发情况。25

  6. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children: a case series

    de Paula-Almeida Olga


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic meningitis, a potentially fatal disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is considered an emerging infectious disease. Case presentation Three Caucasian boys (aged five-years-old, 10-years-old and six-years-old with a diagnosis of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were studied. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA, IgM, IgG, and complements C3c and C4 levels were quantified by using an immunodiffusion technique. Immunoglobulin E in serum was quantified by nephelometry and mannose-binding lectin by time-resolved fluorometry. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency was observed in the three patients. The first patient showed a reduction in the levels of IgA and IgM and an increase in the values of IgE and C4. The second patient showed a reduction in mannose-binding lectin level with increased IgG, C4 and IgE levels, and the third patient showed a decrease in mannose-binding lectin level and increased levels of IgM and complement C3c as well as a low level of C4. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mannose-binding lectin deficiency associated with Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningoencephalitis in children, and it may contribute to the understanding of the participation of this component of the lectin pathway in the development of the disease.

  7. Screening for mast cell tryptase and serum IgE antibodies in 18 patients with anaphylactic shock during general anaesthesia.

    Dybendal, T; Guttormsen, A B; Elsayed, S; Askeland, B; Harboe, T; Florvaag, E


    In the perioperative setting multiple agents can cause anaphylaxis. Often the reactions are dramatic, and due to their lifethreatening potential it is crucial that the responsible agent is identified in order to avoid future adverse reactions. The aim of the present study was to measure the concentration of serum mast cell tryptase (MCT), to investigate the prevalence of serum IgE antibodies against ammonium groups, choline, morphine, suxamethonium, thiopentone and latex and to perform skin prick tests (SPTs) in 18 patients experiencing an anaphylactic reaction during induction of general anaesthesia. Serum samples from 18 patients with an anaphylactic reaction during general anaesthesia were analyzed for MCT and specific IgE against ammonium groups, choline, morphine, suxamethonium, thiopentone and latex. Skin prick tests were performed in 11 out of 18 patients. Ten patients had elevated MCT levels and specific IgE against ammonium ion, morphine and (with the exception of patient nos 3, 9 and 10) suxamethonium. Seven of these patients had positive SPTs to suxamethonium. One of the patients tested positive to latex in addition to suxamethonium. Two patients showed elevated MCT, while specific IgE against the drugs tested was not detected. Three patients tested positive to ammonium ion, morphine and suxamethonium, but negative to MCT. Three patients tested negative to both MCT and specific IgE. Fifteen out of 18 sera tested positive for MCT and/or specific IgE against neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs). Ten of the 18 patients experienced an IgE-mediated anaphylactic reaction to NMBDs during anaesthesia, verified by detection of specific IgE and elevated levels of MCT.

  8. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination and IgE synthesis in human B cells


    IgE synthesis requires interleukin 4 (IL-4) and a T-B cell interaction that involves the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand expressed on activated T cells. IL-4 induces epsilon germline transcription whereas ligation of CD40 results in deletional S mu-->S epsilon switch recombination, expression of mature epsilon transcripts, and IgE synthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a drug commonly used for the prophylactic treatment of allergic disease, inhibits T cell-driven IgE synthesis by human B cells at concentrations readily achievable in the course of inhaled therapy for asthma. Inhibition of IgE synthesis by DSCG was not the result of drug toxicity because DSCG did not affect the viability of T and B cells or their proliferation to mitogens. DSCG did not interfere with CD40 ligand expression by T cells but clearly targeted the B cells because it inhibited IgE synthesis induced by anti-CD40 and IL-4 in populations of highly purified B cells. DSCG had no effect on the induction of epsilon germline transcripts by IL-4 but strongly inhibited CD40 mediated S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination in IL-4- treated B cells as assayed by nested primer PCR. The effect of DSCG was not specific for CD40-mediated induction of IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited IgE synthesis as well as S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination induced by hydrocortisone and IL-4 in B cells. Moreover, the effect of DSCG was not specific for IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited the synthesis of IgG4 by B cells sorted for lack of surface expression of IgG4 and stimulated with anti- CD40 and IL-4. DSCG caused only minimal inhibition (< 15%) of spontaneous IgE synthesis by lymphocytes from patients with the hyper- IgE syndrome and did not affect pokeweed mitogen-induced IgG and IgA synthesis by lymphocytes suggesting that it has little effect on B cells that have already undergone isotype switching. These results indicate that DSCG

  9. Eosinophilic leukemoid reaction associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity

    Laad Gaurish


    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, neuralgic pain, and bipolar affective disorders. Several adverse drug reactions have been described during the course of carbamazepine administration, including exanthemata and hematological reactions. Carbamazepine is one of the common drugs that have been implicated in the etiology of drug hypersensitivity syndrome. A 50-year-old male presented with generalized erythroderma following 10 weeks of ingestion of carbamazepine 200 mg daily for idiopathic epilepsy. His systemic examination was within normal limits. Blood counts revealed marked eosinophilia of 52% (absolute eosinophil count of 10,400 per mm3. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a moderate increase in the eosinophilic series with cells showing normal morphology. The eosinophil counts returned to normal after 2 weeks of oral prednisolone therapy. This case is reported because of its rarity in the Indian medical literature.

  10. Anti-schistosomal IgE and its relation to gastrointestinal allergy in breast-fed infants of Schistosoma mansoni infected mothers.

    Noureldin, M S; Shaltout, A A


    To study the relationship between presence of gastrointestinal allergic manifestations in breast-fed infants and presence of IgE against Schistosoma mansoni antigens, sixty breast-fed infants of S. mansoni infected mothers were selected. Of them, thirty infants were suffering from manifestations of gastrointestinal allergy (patients) and the other thirty were not suffering from such manifestations (controls). Levels of IgE against S. mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA), soluble egg antigen (SEA) and cercarial antigen (CA) were determined, by ELISA, in sera of these infants. There was significant association between presence of allergic manifestations and presence of IgE against AWA (P = 0.018), SEA (P < 0.001) and CA (P = 0.002). Also, concentration of IgE against AWA was significantly higher in patients group than the control group (P = 0.024). IgE against AWA showed significant negative correlation with haemoglobin concentration (P = 0.009) and serum albumin level (P = 021) and significant positive correlation with absolute eosinophilic count (P = 0.005). Also, IgE against CA showed significant negative correlation with haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.047) and serum albumin level (0 = 0.036). It was concluded that gastrointestinal allergy in breast-fed infants of S. mansoni infected mothers may be due to hypersensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni antigens present in mothers' milk. Schistosoma mansoni should be investigated and treated in mothers from endemic localities when their breast-fed infants are suffering from manifestations suggestive of gastrointestinal allergy.

  11. Ash pollen allergy: reliable detection of sensitization on the basis of IgE to Ole e 1.

    Imhof, Konrad; Probst, Elisabeth; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regenass, Stephan; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    Background: Alongside hazel, alder and birch pollen allergies, ash pollen allergy is a relevant cause of hay fever during spring in the European region. For some considerable time, ash pollen allergy was not routinely investigated and its clinical relevance may well have been underestimated, particularly since ash and birch tree pollination times are largely the same. Ash pollen extracts are not yet well standardized and diagnosis is therefore sometimes unreliable. Olive pollen, on the other hand, is strongly cross-reactive with ash pollen and is apparently better standardized. Therefore, the main allergen of olive pollen, Ole e 1, has been postulated as a reliable alternative for the detection of ash pollen sensitization. Methods: To determine to what extent specific IgE against Ole e 1 in patients with ash pollen allergy is relevant, we included 183 subjects with ash pollen allergy displaying typical symptoms in March/April and positive skin prick test specific IgE against Ole e 1 (t224) and ash pollen (t25) and various birch allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2/v 4) in a retrospective study. Results: A significant correlation was seen between specific IgE against Ole e 1 and ash pollen, but also to a slightly lesser extent between IgE against Ole e 1 and skin prick test with ash pollen, the latter being even higher than IgE and skin prick test both with ash pollen. No relevant correlation was found with birch pollen allergens, demonstrating the very limited cross-reactivity between ash and birch pollen. Conclusion: It appears appropriate to determine specific IgE against Ole e 1 instead of IgE against ash pollen to detect persons with ash pollen allergy. Our findings may also support the idea of using possibly better standardized or more widely available olive pollen extracts instead of ash pollen extract for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    ... eosinophilic leukemia is a form of blood cell cancer characterized by an elevated number of cells called eosinophils in the blood. These cells help fight infections by certain parasites and are involved in the inflammation associated with ...

  13. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA)

    ... Lotte Strauss as a syndrome consisting of “asthma, eosinophilia [an excessive number of eosinophils in the blood], ... phase of the disease is often marked by eosinophilia, the finding of an excessive number of eosinophils ...


    M. A. Mokronosova


    Full Text Available Abstract. Eosinophils are regarded as major cell population directly involved into late phase of allergic inflammation of nasal mucosa. We performed a comparative study, measuring the amounts of eosinophils and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in nasal secretions and serum samples of thirty-three patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR, and twenty-five persons with chronic infectious rhinitis (CIR, to determine diagnostic significance of these parameters. Eosinophil counts in nasal secret were carried out by exfoliative cytology analysis. Sampling of nasal secretions was performed by absorption method. The samples were standardized by concentration of urea in nasal secretions and sera. ЕСР levels in nasal secretions and serum were determined by chemiluminescence assays (UniCAP 100, Phadia, Sweden. Mean scores of eosinophils in nasal secret of PAR patients were 4.6 times higher, than in the patients with CIR. Median ECP values in serum and nasal secretions of PAR patients were, resp., 30.5±28.0 μg/l and 402.7±326.9 μg/l. In patients with CIR, ECP values were 12.4±11.5 μg/l in serum and 86.9±137.4 μg/l in nasal secretions. The appropriate differences have been significant (р < 0.05. No correlations were found between ECP levels in serum and nasal secretions, as well as between ECP levels and eosinophil counts in nasal secretions. The technique of ECP determination in nasal secretions was the most sensitive approach, whereas counting of eosinophils proved to be the most specific method. ECP levels in nasal secretions well characterize an active phase of allergic inflammation and may be used as quantitative parameter for estimation of PAR severity.

  15. Evidence for a role of eosinophils in blister formation in bullous pemphigoid.

    de Graauw, E; Sitaru, C; Horn, M; Borradori, L; Yousefi, S; Simon, H-U; Simon, D


    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease of the skin characterized by subepidermal blister formation due to tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal antigens BP180 and BP230. Although eosinophils and their toxic mediators are found abundantly in BP lesions, their role in blister formation has remained unclear. To investigate the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of BP with a specific focus on blister formation and to define conditions inducing dermal-epidermal separation (DES). In an ex vivo human model of BP, normal human skin cryosections were incubated with purified human peripheral blood eosinophils with or without activation in the presence or absence of BP autoantibodies, brefeldin A, diphenyleneiodonium, DNase or blocking F(ab')2 fragments to CD16, CD18, CD32 and CD64. Dermal-epidermal separation was assessed by light microscopy studies and quantified using Fiji software. Following activation with IL-5 and in the presence of BP autoantibodies, eosinophils induced separation along the dermal-epidermal junction of ex vivo skin. Dermal-epidermal separation was significantly reduced by blocking any of the following: Fcγ receptor binding (P = 0.048), eosinophil adhesion (P = 0.046), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (P = 0.002), degranulation (P blister formation in the presence of BP autoantibodies. Dermal-epidermal separation by IL-5-activated eosinophils depends on adhesion and Fcγ receptor activation, requires elevated ROS production and degranulation and involves EET formation. Thus, targeting eosinophils may be a promising therapeutic approach for BP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent child

    Junji Takeyama; Daiki Abukawa; Katsushi Miura


    A 3-year-old boy developed transient protein-losing gastroenteropathy associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Both IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV were positive in a serologic blood test. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple erosions throughout the body of the stomach, without enlarged gastric folds. Histological examination of the biopsy specimens indicated eosinophilic gastroenteritis and CMV infection. The patient had complete resolution without specific therapy for CMV in four weeks. An allergic reaction as well as CMV infection played important roles in the pathogenesis of this case.

  17. Downregulation of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis treated with rebamipide eyedrops.

    Ueta, Mayumi; Shoji, Jun; Sotozono, Chie; Kinoshita, Shigeru


    Rebamipide eyedrops are approved in Japan for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases also manifest dry eye. Earlier we reported that rebamipide suppressed polyI:C-induced inflammatory cytokines in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In the current study we examined the effect of rebamipide eyedrops on the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and total IgE on the ocular surface. We prescribed rebamipide eyedrops to patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) who presented with dry eye (6 eyes in 4 AKC patients) and measured the IL-8, ECP, and total IgE levels in their tears before- and 2, and 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. To measure the IL-8 and total IgE levels in their tears we used BD™ CBA Flex sets; ECP measurements were with ELISA. The level of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of AKC patients was reduced significantly 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. We also recorded subjective symptoms associated with AKC, e.g. itching, foreign body sensation, and eye mucus discharge, by using a patient questionnaire. Their subjective symptoms associated with AKC were also significantly ameliorated at 2 and 4-6 weeks. Our observations suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide eyedrops help to combat human ocular surface inflammation and that they may be a new effective therapy in patients with AKC.

  18. Recombinant Fusion Allergens, Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 from Japanese Cedar Pollen, Conjugated with Polyethylene Glycol Potentiate the Attenuation of Cry j 1-Specific IgE Production in Cry j 1-Sensitized Mice and Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergen-Sensitized Monkeys.

    Fujimura, Takashi; Fujinami, Koji; Ishikawa, Ryosuke; Tateno, Minoru; Tahara, Yoshio; Okumura, Yasushi; Ohta, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masaru


    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis is the most prevalent seasonal rhinitis in Japan. A standardized Japanese cedar pollen extract (CPE) containing 1.5-4.2 μg of Cry j 1 is currently the highest-concentration extract available for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) against this pollinosis. Therefore, we developed a PEGylated fusion protein as a more effective SIT vaccine against Japanese cedar pollinosis. The fusion protein of major allergens for Japanese cedar pollen, Cry j 1 and Cry j 2, was expressed in Escherichia coli and conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The purified PEGylated Cry j 1/2 fusion protein (PEG-fusion) was subcutaneously injected four times into Cry j 1- sensitized mice and CPE-sensitized monkeys. The mice were then subcutaneously challenged with Cry j 1 and serum levels of Cry j 1-specific immunoglobulin, and the proliferation and cytokine production of splenocytes were analyzed. The monkeys were intranasally challenged with CPE and analyzed for Cry j 1-specific immunoglobulin levels in plasma. Cry j 1-specific IgE was significantly attenuated in the PEG-fusion-treated group after Cry j 1-challenge and Cry j 1-specific IgG was significantly increased following PEG-fusion treatment in mice and monkeys. Proliferation and Th2-type cytokine production in splenocytes stimulated with Cry j 1 were also reduced in PEG-fusion-treated mice. IL10 and IL2 production were reduced, but not significantly, while IFN-x03B3; was significantly increased in the PEG-fusion-treated group. A high-dose injection of PEG-fusion appears to be a valid candidate for a safer and more effective vaccine than the conventional SIT extract for Japanese cedar pollinosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. 桦树花粉、大豆和苹果过敏原之间高免疫球蛋白E 相关性表明中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏患者很可能同时患有花粉-食物综合征%High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Zhi-xiang WANG; Xing-ai KONG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI; Michael D SPANGFORT


    目的:研究中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏及花粉–食物过敏综合征。  创新点:国内首次研究花粉–食物过敏综合征,为中国北方地区此类患者的诊断和治疗提出了新思路。  方法:采集临床中过敏患者血清,检测桦树花粉及其主要过敏原特异性免疫球蛋白 E(IgE),同时检测大豆和苹果过敏原的特异性IgE,并评价其相关性。  结论:中国北方地区桦树花粉季节对此花粉过敏的患者有16.7%以上,主要是对桦树花粉第一组过敏原致敏。这些患者大多数同时对大豆和苹果的主要过敏原过敏,这种特异性IgE高相关性说明临床上存在花粉–食物过敏综合征。%Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pol en-food syndrome among Chinese al ergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 al ergic patients from the northern part of China and col ected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pol en extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple al ergen Mal d 1 and soy bean al ergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Results:Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost al Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. Conclusions:The prevalence of birch al ergy among patients visiting health care during pol en season can be as high as 16.7%in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch al ergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pol en al ergen Bet v 1 as wel as to the

  20. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben [Immunomodulation Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University (Ireland); Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology and National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University (Ireland); Loscher, Christine E., E-mail: [Immunomodulation Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University (Ireland)


    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  1. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Ying Zhao


    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  2. Antiepithelial autoantibodies associated with the feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.

    Gelberg, H B; Lewis, R M; Felsburg, P J; Smith, C A


    A retrospective study of banked sera from 19 cats with the eosinophilic granuloma complex revealed that 68% of affected cats had circulating antibodies to components of normal cat epithelium. Seemingly, the eosinophilic granuloma complex of cats may be an autoimmune disease; however, epidermal damage caused by the eosinophilic granuloma complex may release altered self-antigens to which the cat's immune system responds.

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    Yan, Brian M; Shaffer, Eldon A.


    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also atta...

  4. Chronic Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis by Prototheca Wickerhamii in an Immunocompetent Boy.

    Ahn, Ari; Choe, Yong-Joon; Chang, Jeonghyun; Kim, Duckhee; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Hong, Seok Ho; Lee, Jina; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung


    Human protothecosis is mainly a cutaneous infection caused by the Prototheca species. Prototheca wickerhamii is an established pathogen of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in dogs, but no eosinophilic pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid has been reported in human cases of meningitis. Herein, we report a case of chronic protothecosis manifesting eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent boy.

  5. Sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças brasileiras atópicas, pela determinação in vitro de IgE total e específica: Projeto Alergia (PROAL) Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay: Allergy Project - PROAL

    Charles K. Naspitz; Dirceu Solé; Cristina A. Jacob; Emanuel Sarinho; Soares,Francisco J. P.; Vera Dantas; Mallozi,Márcia C.; Wandalsen, Neusa F.; Wellington Borges; Wilson Rocha Filho; Grupo PROAL


    OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças atendidas em serviços brasileiros de alergia. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: IgE sérica total e específica (RAST) a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares (UniCAP® - Pharmacia) foram determinados em 457 crianças acompanhadas em serviços de alergia pediátrica e em um grupo de controles (n = 62). Resultados classe igual ou maior que 1 foram considerados positivos (R+). RESULTADOS: A freqüência de R+ foi signifi...

  6. Sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças brasileiras atópicas, pela determinação in vitro de IgE total e específica: Projeto Alergia (PROAL) Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay: Allergy Project - PROAL

    Naspitz,Charles K; Dirceu Solé; Cristina A. Jacob; Emanuel Sarinho; Soares,Francisco J. P.; Vera Dantas; Mallozi,Márcia C.; Wandalsen,Neusa F.; Wellington Borges; Wilson Rocha Filho; Grupo PROAL


    OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças atendidas em serviços brasileiros de alergia. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: IgE sérica total e específica (RAST) a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares (UniCAP® - Pharmacia) foram determinados em 457 crianças acompanhadas em serviços de alergia pediátrica e em um grupo de controles (n = 62). Resultados classe igual ou maior que 1 foram considerados positivos (R+). RESULTADOS: A freqüência de R+ foi signifi...

  7. Do endoscopic features suggesting eosinophilic esophagitis represent histological eosinophilia?

    Hori, Kazutoshi; Watari, Jiro; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Junji; Tomita, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Miwa, Hiroto


    Esophageal linear furrows, corrugated rings, and/or white exudates are often seen in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE); however, whether these are specific to EoE remains unclear. Endoscopic surveillance of these features was conducted to determine whether these represent esophageal eosinophilia, which is essential for the diagnosis of EoE. Two thousand seven hundred and sixty-three patients were enrolled consecutively. Target biopsy was carried out when the above features were seen. Histological eosinophilia was defined as 24 or more eosinophils per high-power field (HPF). Associations between features and eosinophilia were analyzed statistically. Two thousand five hundred and forty-five patients completed the study. Linear furrows, corrugated rings and white exudates were seen in 24, 15 and 45 patients, respectively. These findings somewhat overlapped. Among 58 biopsied patients withany of the above features, these features represented eosinophilia in 14% (3/21), 23% (3/13), and 5% (2/43), respectively. None of the 199 patients who received biopsy for other features had eosinophilia. Two of five eosinophilia patients were diagnosed with EoE. Multiple comparisons revealed that eosinophil counts in linear furrows and corrugated rings but not white exudates were significantly greater than those in other features (12, 9, 1, and eosinophilia and is non-specific for EoE, although it reminds endoscopists of the presence of EoE. The diagnostic utility of linear furrows or corrugated rings for esophageal eosinophilia is superior to that of white exudates. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Reactive oxygen intermediates from eosinophils in mice infected with Hymenolepis nana.

    Niwa, A; Miyazato, T


    A large number of eosinophils were recruited to the intestinal villi after infection with Hymenolepis nana. Eosinophil numbers were increased more rapidly in challenged mice than in primary infected mice. Local intestinal eosinophils from challenged mice showed more extracellular oxygen radical release, as assessed by histochemical methods using nitro blue tetrazolium, accompanied with tissue injury and larval degradation. Intestinal eosinophils isolated from the lamina propria induced specific oxygen radical generation in response to H. nana oncosphere extract as measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. This response was stronger in challenged mice than in primary infected mice. Radical generation from uninfected mice was negligible. Lipid peroxidation in the small intestine, as measured by formation of malondialdehyde, was increased during H. nana challenge infection, the peak activity coinciding with the elimination of challenge larvae. Continuous administration of a NADPH oxidase inhibitor to sensitized mice interfered with the degeneration of challenge larvae. These results suggest that intestinal eosinophils may be the major contributor to oxygen radical production in response to H. nana and that reactive oxygen species may play a part of effector molecule in the resistance to reinfection with H. nana.

  9. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  10. New Anti-Eosinophil Drugs for Asthma and COPD: Targeting the Trait!

    Bel, Elisabeth H; Ten Brinke, Anneke


    Asthma and COPD are prevalent chronic inflammatory airway diseases that are responsible for a large global disease burden. Both diseases are complex and heterogeneous, and they are increasingly recognized as overlapping syndromes that may share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms and treatable traits. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is considered the most influential treatable trait of chronic airway disease, and over the last decade, several monoclonal antibodies and small molecule therapies have been developed to target this trait. These include monoclonal antibodies against IL-5 or IL-5 receptor alpha (mepolizumab, reslizumab, and benralizumab), IL-13 (lebrikizumab and tralokinumab), IL-4 receptor alpha (dupilumab), IgE (omalizumab), and anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin (tezepelumab) and small molecule therapies such as prostaglandin D2 blockers (fevipiprant and timapiprant). Although these novel biologic agents have shown promising results in many patients with asthma and COPD who have eosinophilic airway inflammation, it is evident that not all patients respond equally well, despite similar clinical, functional, and inflammatory characteristics. This heterogeneity in treatment response is probably related to different molecular pathways or endotypes leading to eosinophilic airway inflammation, including adaptive immune pathways mediated by T helper 2 cells and innate immune pathways mediated by innate lymphoid cells. The relative contribution of these pathways in asthma and COPD is not yet clarified, and there are currently no reliable biomarkers that represent the various pathways. Therefore, there is an urgent need for easily measurable and reproducible biomarkers that are linked to underlying pathophysiologic disease mechanisms and can predict and monitor responses to novel biologic agents. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eosinophil: central mediator of allergic asthma?

    SHEN Hua-hao


    @@ Allergic asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, reversible airway obstruction, airway remodelling and mucus hypersecretion. It has been widely recognized that the infiltration of the lung with increased number of eosinophils is a hallmark of this disease.1

  12. Polyethylene glycol-coated graphene oxide attenuates antigen-specific IgE production and enhanced antigen-induced T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice.

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Kun-Ju; Wang, Ping-Yen; Lin, Chi-Wen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Lu, Yu-Jen; Jan, Tong-Rong


    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising nanomaterial for potential application in the versatile field of biomedicine. Graphene-based nanomaterials have been reported to modulate the functionality of immune cells in culture and to induce pulmonary inflammation in mice. Evidence pertaining to the interaction between graphene-based nanomaterials and the immune system in vivo remains scarce. The present study investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol-coated GO (PEG-GO) on antigen-specific immunity in vivo. BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with a single dose of PEG-GO (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) 1 hour before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization, and antigen-specific antibody production and splenocyte reactivity were measured 7 days later. Exposure to PEG-GO significantly attenuated the serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E. The production of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 by splenocytes restimulated with OVA in culture was enhanced by treatment with PEG-GO. In addition, PEG-GO augmented the metabolic activity of splenocytes restimulated with OVA but not with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A. Collectively, these results demonstrate that systemic exposure to PEG-GO modulates several aspects of antigen-specific immune responses, including the serum production of immunoglobulin E and T-cell functionality.

  13. IgE production after antigen-specific and cognate activation of HLA-DPw4-restricted T-cell clones, by 78% of randomly selected B-cell donors

    Baselmans, PJ; Pollabauer, EM; van Reijsen, FC; Heystek, HC; Hren, A; Stumptner, P; Tilanus, MGJ; Vooijs, WC; Mudde, GC


    The frequency of expression of the MHC class II antigen, HLA-DPw4, in the caucasoid population is approximately 78%, and is unmatched by phenotypic frequencies of other HLA class II molecules. Here we describe three human Der-P1-specific T-cell clones (TCC), restricted by the HLA-DPw4-variant HLA-DP

  14. IgE production after antigen-specific and cognate activation of HLA-DPw4-restricted T-cell clones, by 78% of randomly selected B-cell donors

    Baselmans, PJ; Pollabauer, EM; van Reijsen, FC; Heystek, HC; Hren, A; Stumptner, P; Tilanus, MGJ; Vooijs, WC; Mudde, GC

    The frequency of expression of the MHC class II antigen, HLA-DPw4, in the caucasoid population is approximately 78%, and is unmatched by phenotypic frequencies of other HLA class II molecules. Here we describe three human Der-P1-specific T-cell clones (TCC), restricted by the HLA-DPw4-variant

  15. Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils.

    van Dalen, Christine J; Winterbourn, Christine C; Kettle, Anthony J


    Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid ('cyanosulphenic acid') and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing Fe(IV) in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains Fe(V) at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6x10(3) M(-1) x s(-1). Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide.

  16. How Is IGE Doing in the Elementary Schools? A Four-Year Survey of IGE Principals.

    Paden, Jon S.

    This report summarizes the responses of principals of elementary schools participating in the I/D/E/A Change Program to a survey questionnaire that focuses on program implementation and selected efforts that may be associated with Individually Guided Education (IGE). Survey data are presented for the school years 1973-74, 1974-75, 1975-76, and…

  17. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Andrea eGioffredi


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  18. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  19. Epidemiological associations of allergy, IgE and cancer.

    Josephs, D H; Spicer, J F; Corrigan, C J; Gould, H J; Karagiannis, S N


    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated potential associations between allergy and risk of malignancy. It remains clear that the relationship between allergy and cancer is complex. Three hypotheses have been proposed to account for observed relationships: these are chronic inflammation, immunosurveillance, prophylaxis, and we propose adding a fourth: inappropriate T-helper 2 (Th2) immune skewing. Each of these attempts to explain either the increased or decreased risk of different cancer types in 'allergic' patients reported in the literature. All four hypotheses are based on known mechanisms of allergic inflammation and/or IgE antibody functions, and uphold the view of an immunological basis for the relationship between allergy and malignancies. This review summarizes and draws conclusions from the epidemiological literature examining the relationships between specific types of cancer and allergic diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on the most recent contributions to the field, and on consideration of the allergic immune mechanisms that may influence positive or negative associations.

  20. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test.

    Minami, Takafumi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Lidholm, Jonas; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Maeda, Yuji; Mori, Akio; Taniguchi, Masami; Hasegawa, Maki; Akiyama, Kazuo


    Limited information is available regarding the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to allergen components from house dust mites (HDMs) in the diagnosis of genuine HDM allergy. To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of measuring levels of serum IgE antibodies (Abs) to allergen components from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) as a predictor of immediate asthmatic response (IAR) to bronchoprovocation, we studied 55 DP-sensitized asthmatic patients who underwent a bronchoprovocation test using crude DP extract. The levels of IgE Abs to crude DP, nDer p 1, rDer p 2, and rDer p 10 in patients who showed IAR (n = 41) were compared with those in patients who showed no IAR (n = 14). While the frequencies of positivity for IgE Abs to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 among the entire study population were 89 and 86%, respectively, all patients with IAR tested positive for both of them with high IgE concentrations. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as predictors of IAR were 0.913 and 0.906, respectively. The specificity of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 was higher than IgE to crude DP even at low cut-off points. IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of Eosinophilic Granule Protein Deposition in Biopsies of Inflammatory Skin Diseases by Automated Image Analysis of Highly Sensitive Immunostaining

    Peter Kiehl


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulocytes are major effector cells in inflammation. Extracellular deposition of toxic eosinophilic granule proteins (EGPs, but not the presence of intact eosinophils, is crucial for their functional effect in situ. As even recent morphometric approaches to quantify the involvement of eosinophils in inflammation have been only based on cell counting, we developed a new method for the cell‐independent quantification of EGPs by image analysis of immunostaining. Highly sensitive, automated immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin sections of inflammatory skin diseases with 4 different primary antibodies against EGPs. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed by colour translation, linear combination and automated thresholding. Using strictly standardized protocols, the assay was proven to be specific and accurate concerning segmentation in 8916 fields of 520 sections, well reproducible in repeated measurements and reliable over 16 weeks observation time. The method may be valuable for the cell‐independent segmentation of immunostaining in other applications as well.

  2. Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival

    Pinja Ilmarinen


    Full Text Available Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide.

  3. 儿童过敏性紫癜急性期特异性IgE抗体检测价值及其病因研究%Detection of specific IgE and etiological analysis of Henoch-Schonlein purpura in acute phase in children

    葛婷婷; 赵丽萍


    目的 通过时无锡地区儿童过敏性紫癜患者急性期过敏物质的检测,了解其过敏状态及其过敏原构成情况,从而采取相应对策.方法 选择246例急性发作期过敏性紫癜患者作为检测对象,均采用体外过敏原检测的方法,以德国AllergyScreen系统作为检测平台,检测血清特异性IgE和总IgE水平.结果 246例过敏性紫癜患者中,血清过敏原特异性抗体IgE阳性反应者120例,占48.7%;其中对两种及两种以上过敏原反应阳性者86例,占34.9%;对一种过敏原反应阳性者34例,占13.8%.血清总IgE阳性(>100 kU/L)者194例,占78.9%;吸入组过敏原反应阳性者134例,占54.5%;其中尘螨、粉螨(19.1%),屋尘(17.1%),点青霉、交链孢霉(10.2%)较高.食物组过敏原反应阳性者77例,占31.3%;其中鱼肉(6.5%),蛋黄、蛋白(5.7%),羊肉(5.3%)较高.吸入组和食物组过敏原阳性率差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.59,P>0.05).结论 过敏性紫癜患者急性期过敏原多呈混合性,吸入类与食物类过敏原均与过敏性紫癜的发生有关,故需对相应的过敏原进行必要的避免,以减轻过敏原所带来的危害.%Objective To explore the allergic status and allergen composition in children with acute Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Wuxi by allergen detection, thereby to establish appropriate therapeutic strategies. Methods Two hundred and forty-six patients with Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in their acute phase were examined for serum concentrations of total IgE and specific IgE using Germany AllergyScreen system. Results The positive rate of allergen-specific serum IgE was 48.7% (120/246) ,of which,positive reactions to two or more than two allergens were found in 86 cases (34.9%) and that to one kind of allergen were found in 34 cases (13.8%)The positive rate of total serum IgE was 78.9% (194/246). In inhalation allergen group, positive reaction to allergen was found in 134 cases (54.5%). The most common allergen was dust mite

  4. The impact of age on Pru p 3 IgE production in Italy

    De Amici, Mara; Di Martino, Maria Luisa; Barocci, Fiorella; Comite, Paola


    Background Pollen allergy may be frequently associated with fruit-vegetables: the so-called pollen food syndrome. Pru p 3 is the most relevant peach allergen. Previously, it has been reported that serum specific IgE level to Pru p 3 depends on age in a limited geographic area. Objective This study aimed to to test the hypothesis about the differences of Pru p 3 sensitization across Italy, mainly concerning the impact of age. Methods The current study was retrospective and multicentre, involving 2 labs in Northern Italy (709 subjects), 1 in Genoa (1,040 subjects), and 1 in Southern Italy (2,188 subjects). All of them referred to labs for IgE testing because of suspected food allergy. Serum IgE to Pru p 3 was assessed in all subjects. Results Sixteen point seven percent (16.7%) of subjects were sensitized to Pru p 3. Sensitization percentage sigificantly decreased over time. The serum IgE levels increased up to young adulthood and then decreased until aging. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that Pru p 3 sensitization and production are closely age-dependent phenomena. PMID:28154805

  5. Ultrastructural study of cutaneous lesions in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.

    Bardagí, Mar; Fondati, Alessandra; Fondevila, Dolors; Ferrer, Lluís


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural appearance of flame figures, reported to comprise a mixture of degenerate collagen and degranulated eosinophils, in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC). Skin specimens from eight cats with EGC and from two clinically healthy cats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Flame figures appeared to comprise ultrastructurally normal collagen fibrils separated by oedema and surrounded by large numbers of degranulating eosinophils. Longitudinal sections of collagen fibrils displayed the characteristic cross-striation of normal dermal collagen. Feline eosinophils, analogous to human eosinophils, degranulated both by cytolysis and piecemeal degranulation. The results of this study suggest that flame figures form in feline EGC due to eosinophil recruitment and degranulation, and that collagen fibres are partially disrupted but collagen fibrils are not damaged. These findings suggest that eosinophil accumulation and the release of granule contents represent the primary events in feline EGC.

  6. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin


    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  7. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Rothenberg, Marc E


    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy.

  8. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Ting Wen


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP. In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring.

  9. Cord blood versus age 5 mononuclear cell proliferation on IgE and asthma

    Perera Frederica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal immune responses following exposure of mothers to allergens during pregnancy may influence the subsequent risk of childhood asthma. However, the association of allergen-induced cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC proliferation and cytokine production with later allergic immune responses and asthma has been controversial. Our objective was to compare indoor allergen-induced CBMC with age 5 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation and determine which may be associated with age 5 allergic immune responses and asthma in an inner city cohort. Methods As part of an ongoing cohort study of the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH, CBMCs and age 5 PBMCs were cultured with cockroach, mouse, and dust mite protein extracts. CBMC proliferation and cytokine (IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, and age 5 PBMC proliferation responses, were compared to anti-cockroach, anti-mouse, and anti-dust mite IgE levels, wheeze, cough, eczema and asthma. Results Correlations between CBMC and age 5 PBMC proliferation in response to cockroach, mouse, and dust mite antigens were nonsignificant. Cockroach-, mouse-, and dust mite-induced CBMC proliferation and cytokine responses were not associated with allergen-specific IgE at ages 2, 3, and 5, or with asthma and eczema at age 5. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with anti-cockroach IgE, total IgE, and asthma (p Conclusion In contrast to allergen-induced CBMC proliferation, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with age 5 specific and total IgE, and asthma, in an inner-city cohort where cockroach allergens are prevalent and exposure can be high.

  10. Complementarity between microarray and immunoblot for the comparative evaluation of IgE repertoire of French and Italian cypress pollen allergic patients.

    Shahali, Y; Nicaise, P; Brázdová, A; Charpin, D; Scala, E; Mari, A; Sutra, J P; Chollet-Martin, S; Sénéchal, H; Poncet, P


    Cypress pollen represents the primary cause of respiratory allergies in Mediterranean areas. Patients allergic to Cupressus sempervirens pollen (Cups) (CPA) can be discriminated on the basis of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to a basic 14 kDa protein (BP14) or to high-molecular-weight (HMW) glycoproteins only. Specific IgE repertoires of two differentially exposed CPA cohorts, French and Italian, were investigated using an IgE microarray system (some known major allergens from several allergenic sources) and individual IgE immunoblotting (IB) of whole Cups pollen extract separated by SDS-PAGE (all allergens from one allergenic source: cypress pollen). The prevalence of sensitization to BP14 was higher in French (37 %) than in Italian patients (17 %) and major differences were observed in IgE reactivities to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Thirty percent of the Italian CPA (4 % in the French group) had specific IgE against the Parietaria pollen LTP, independently of IB subgroups. Regarding peach LTP sensitization, all Pru p 3+ Italian CPA (10 %) were in the HMW+ subgroup, while Pru p 3+ French CPA (20 %) were all included in the BP14+ subgroup. BP14 sensitization is likely a marker of Cups exposure and is, in French CPA, significantly correlated to Pru p 3 sensitization. The IgE immunoblot and microarray are complementary tools that highlight differences in the subtle sensitization profile between groups of patients in comparative studies.

  11. Making Standardized Tests Work For Your IGE School.

    Heuer, Edwin

    A technique is described which uses the standardized tests to evaluate an Individually Guided Education Curriculum (IGE). A technique was devised so that an evaluation of each test question could be made. The teaching staff at Port Edwards, Wisconsin, where this study was conducted, was asked to rate questions for relevancy to the IGE curriculum…

  12. Individually Guided Education (IGE) Program. 1973-1974 Evaluation Report.

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This report presents data gathered during the 1973-74 school year on the Austin Independent School District (Austin, Texas) implementation of the Individually Guided Education Program (IGE). Classroom observation indicates on the whole that the 11 schools identified as IGE exhibit greater degrees of implementation of characteristics associated…

  13. Trends in Education: A New Look at IGE Systems.

    Malsam, Margaret


    This article describes the advantages of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) system both as a school management design and an instructional system effective with students of all ability levels. The need for teacher commitment and training in IGE are discussed. (SJL)

  14. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Sabrina S. Campolina


    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  15. Genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyposis.

    Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Keles, Erol; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Ozercan, Ibrahim; Akyol, Hatice; Sakallioglu, Oner; Karlidag, Turgut; Polat, Cahit; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Yalcin, Sinasi


    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses, and its pathophysiology is not yet precisely known. It is suggested that oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. This study aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase (SOD 2), catalase (CAT), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP patients; the study also aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes on CRSwNP etiopathogenesis. One hundred thirty patients, who received endoscopic sinus surgery due to CRSwNP, and 188 control individuals were included in this study. Nasal polyp tissues were divided into two groups histopathologically as eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP. Venous blood samples were taken from the patient and control groups. Polymorphisms in the Ala16Va1 gene, which is the most common variation of SOD-2 gene, and 21 A/T polymorphisms in catalase gene were evaluated with the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and -277 C/T polymorphism in the iNOS gene was evaluated with the DNA sequencing method. The GG genotype distribution for the (-277) A/G polymorphism in the iNOS gene was a statistically significant difference between eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p  0.05). The TT genotype distribution for the A/T polymorphism in catalase gene at position -21 was statistically significant differences in eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p levels, which are considered effective factors in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, can occur due to genetic polymorphism of enzymes in the antioxidant system and genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients might contribute to the pathophysiology.

  16. IgE and mast cells in allergic disease.

    Galli, Stephen J; Tsai, Mindy


    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and mast cells have been so convincingly linked to the pathophysiology of anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions that it can be difficult to think of them in other contexts. However, a large body of evidence now suggests that both IgE and mast cells are also key drivers of the long-term pathophysiological changes and tissue remodeling associated with chronic allergic inflammation in asthma and other settings. Such potential roles include IgE-dependent regulation of mast-cell functions, actions of IgE that are largely independent of mast cells and roles of mast cells that do not directly involve IgE. In this review, we discuss findings supporting the conclusion that IgE and mast cells can have both interdependent and independent roles in the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and other allergic disorders.

  17. Analysis of IgE binding proteins of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pollen and cross-reactivity with predominant tree pollens.

    Dhyani, Anamika; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, Shailendra N; Jain, Vikram K; Sridhara, Susheela; Singh, Bhanu P


    Pollen from the mesquite tree, Prosopis juliflora, is an important source of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Our aim was to partially characterize the IgE binding proteins of P. juliflora pollen extract and study cross-reactivity with prevalent tree pollen allergens. Intradermal tests with P. juliflora and five other tree pollen extracts were performed on respiratory allergy patients from Bikaner (arid) and Delhi (semi arid). Prosopis extract elicited positive skin reactions in 71/220 of the patients. Sera were collected from 38 of these 71 patients and all demonstrated elevated specific IgE to P. juliflora. Immunoblotting with pooled patients' sera demonstrated 16 IgE binding components, with components of 24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 52, 58, 66 and 95 kDa recognized by more than 80% of individual patients' sera. P. juliflora extract is allergenically potent requiring 73 ng of self-protein for 50% inhibition of IgE binding in ELISA inhibition. Cross-inhibition assays showed close relationship among P. juliflora, Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia siamea and Salvadora persica. IgE binding components of 14, 41, 52 and 66 kDa were shared allergens whereas 26 and 29 kDa were specific to P. juliflora. The findings suggest that purification of cross-reactive allergens will be helpful for diagnosis and immunotherapy of tree pollen allergic patients.

  18. Specific allergen immunotherapy attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy.

    Datta, Ankur; Moitra, Saibal; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Swapna


    Pollen grains are well established to be an important cause of respiratory allergy. Current pharmacologic therapies for allergic asthma do not cure the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment method which re-directs the immune system away from allergic response leading to a long lasting effect. The mechanism by which immunotherapy achieves this goal is an area of active research world-wide. The present experimental study was designed to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation based on a relevant human allergen, Alstonia scholaris pollen, and to establish the immunological and cellular features of specific allergen immunotherapy using this same pollen extract. Our results revealed that Alstonia scholaris pollen sensitization and challenge causes eosinophilic airway inflammation with mucin hypersecretion. This is associated with increased total IgE, increased expression of FcɛRI on lung mast cells and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 as confirmed by ELISA, in-situ immunofluorescence and FACS assay. Allergen specific immunotherapy reduced airway inflammation and also decreased total IgE level, FcɛRI expression, IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 levels. It was further noted that the reduction of these levels was more by intra-nasal route than by intra-peritoneal route. Thus we present a novel animal model of Alstonia scholaris pollen allergic disease and specific allergen immunotherapy which will pave the way towards the development of better treatment modalities.

  19. Accuracy of serum IgE concentrations and papule diameter in the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    Franco, Jackeline M; Pinheiro, Ana Paula S G; Vieira, Sarah C F; Barreto, Íkaro Daniel C; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cocco, Renata R; Solé, Dirceu


    To compare serum concentrations of specific IgE and mean papule diameters induced in the immediate skin reactivity test with cow's milk (CM) and its fractions with results of the oral challenge test (OCT), and to establish cutoff points capable of predicting clinical reactivity to CM in patients treated at a referral service. One hundred and twenty-two children (median of 17 months) with a history of immediate reactions to CM and presence of specific IgE for CM and/or its fractions (positive skin and/or IgE serum tests) were submitted to open OCT with CM. The OCT was positive in 59.8% of the children, 49% of whom were males. Serum levels of specific IgE, as well as mean CM papule diameters, were significantly higher in allergic patients (medians: 3.39kUA/L vs. 1.16kUA/L, 2.5mm vs. 0mm). The optimal cutoff points (Youden's index) of serum IgE specific for CM and its fractions capable of predicting CM reactivity (positive OCT) were: 5.17kUA/L for CM, 0.95kUA/L for α-lactalbumin, 0.82kUA/L for β-lactoglobulin, and 0.72kUA/L for casein, whereas for papule diameters the cutoff points were 3.5mm for CM and 6.5mm, 9.0mm, and 3.0mm for the α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and casein fractions, respectively. The cutoff points capable of predicting clinical reactivity to CM were: 5.17kUA/L for serum-specific IgE and 3.5mm for papule diameter measurement, values considered discriminatory for the diagnosis of CM allergy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Eosinophil Activation Status in Separate Compartments and Association with Asthma

    Mats W. Johansson


    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently characterized by eosinophil-rich airway inflammation. Airway eosinophilia is associated with asthma exacerbations and likely plays a part in airway remodeling. Eosinophil recruitment from the bloodstream depends on circulating eosinophils becoming activated, which leads to eosinophil arrest on activated endothelium, extravasation, and continued movement through the bronchial tissue by interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM. Circulating eosinophils can exist at different activation levels, which include non-activated or pre-activated (sensitized or “primed”. Further, the bloodstream may lack pre-activated cells, due to such eosinophils having arrested on endothelium or extravasated into tissue. Increased expression, and in some instances, decreased expression of cell-surface proteins, including CD44, CD45, CD45R0, CD48, CD137, neuropeptide S receptor, cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, and integrins (receptors mediating cell adhesion and migration by interacting with ligands on other cells or in the ECM, and activated states of integrins or Fc receptors on blood eosinophils have been reported to correlate with aspects of asthma. A subset of these proteins has been reported to respond to intervention, e.g., with anti-interleukin (IL-5. How these surface proteins and the activation state of the eosinophil respond to other interventions, e.g., with anti-IL-4 receptor alpha or anti-IL-13, is unknown. Eosinophil surface proteins suggested to be biomarkers of activation, particularly integrins, and reports on correlations between eosinophil activation and aspects of asthma are described in this review. Intermediate activation of beta1 and beta2 integrins on circulating eosinophils correlates with decreased pulmonary function, airway inflammation, or airway lumen eosinophils in non-severe asthma. The correlation does not appear in severe asthma, likely due to a higher degree of extravasation of pre-activated eosinophils

  1. IgE cross-reactivity between Lolium multiflorum and commercial grass pollen allergen extracts in Brazilian patients with pollinosis

    C.T. Bernardes


    Full Text Available Lolium multiflorum (Lm grass pollen is the major cause of pollinosis in Southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to investigate immunodominant components of Lm pollen allergens and the cross-reactivity of IgE with commercial grass pollen allergen extracts. Thirty-eight serum samples from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, 35 serum samples from patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR and 30 serum samples from non-atopic subjects were analyzed. Allergen sensitization was evaluated using skin prick test and serum IgE levels against Lm pollen extract were determined by ELISA. Inhibition ELISA and immunoblot were used to evaluate the cross-reactivity of IgE between allergens from Lm and commercial grass pollen extracts, including L. perenne (Lp, grass mix I (GI and II (GII extracts. IgE antibodies against Lm were detected in 100% of SAR patients and 8.6% of PAR patients. Inhibition ELISA demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity between homologous (Lm and heterologous (Lp or GII grass pollen extracts, but not for the GI extract. Fifteen IgE-binding Lm components were detected and immunoblot bands of 26, 28-30, and 32-35 kDa showed >90% recognition. Lm, Lp and GII extracts significantly inhibited IgE binding to the most immunodominant Lm components, particularly the 55 kDa band. The 26 kDa and 90-114 kDa bands presented the lowest amount of heterologous inhibition. We demonstrated that Lm extract contains both Lm-specific and cross-reactive IgE-binding components and therefore it is suitable for measuring quantitative IgE levels for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in patients with pollinosis sensitized to Lm grass pollen rather than other phylogenetically related grass pollen extracts.

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    Ana Célia Caetano; Raquel Gon(c)alves; Carla Rolanda


    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction.Gastroesophageal reflux disease-like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE.Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms,it is difficult to diagnose EE without a strong suspicion.Although histological criteria are necessary to diagnosis EE,there are some characteristic endoscopic features.We present the case of a healthy 55-year-old woman with dysphagia and several episodes of esophageal food impaction over the last six months.This case report stresses the most distinguishing endoscopic findings-mucosa rings,white exudative plaques and linear furrows-that can help in the prompt recognition of this condition.

  3. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard;


    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced eosinophilic myocarditis is a life-threatening and frequently overlooked condition. The prevalence of myocarditis in clozapine-treated patients may be as high as 3 %. An association between olanzapine and myocarditis has not previously been described, but given the chemical...... fatal cases of eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of olanzapine. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year-old Caucasian man with known substance abuse and schizophrenia. He was found dead in his home. Olanzapine was prescribed at day -54, and dose at time of death was 40 mg/day. Post......-mortem toxicological examination demonstrated presence of olanzapine, morphine, venlafaxine and oxazepam. Syringes indicating substance abuse were found in his home. Case 2 was a 36-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with schizophrenia was found dead unexpectedly. There was no history of substance abuse. Current...

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno


    We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

  5. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro


    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection causing eosinophilic ascites.

    Shukla, Shailaja; Chauhan, Richa; Wadhwa, Shveta; Sehgal, Shivali; Singh, Smita


    Strongyloidiasis is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal nematode with greater prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions. Hyperinfection syndrome with dissemination may occur in immunosuppressed individuals. However, invasion of peritoneal cavity with peritoneal effusion is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of S. stercoralis hyperinfection in a young alcoholic patient with Diabetes mellitus, liver disease and ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed numerous filariform larvae of S. stercoralis against a background of eosinophils.

  7. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients

    Ming-Jen Chen; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih; Tsang-En Wang


    AIM: To evaluate the clinic features of eosinophilicgastroenteritis and to examine the diagnosis, treatment,long-term outcome of this disease.METHODS: Charts with a diagnosis of eosinophilicgastroenteritis from 1984 to 2002 at Mackay Memorial Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The diagnosis was established in 13 by histologic evaluation of endoscopic biopsy or operative specimen and in 2 by radiologic imaging and the presence of eosinophilic ascites.RESULTS: All the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 (80 %) had hypereosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count 1 008 to 31 360/cm3). The most common symptoms were abdominal pain and diarrhea. Five of the 15 patients had a history of allergy. Seven patients had involvement of the mucosa, 2 of muscularis, and 6 of subserosa. One with a history of seafood allergy was successfully treated with an elimination diet. Another patient improved spontaneously after fasted for several days. The remaining 13 patients were treated with oral prednisolone, 10 to 40 mg/day initially,which was then tapered. The symptoms in all the patients subsided within two weeks. Eleven of the 15 patients were followed up for more than 12 months (12 to 104 months,mean 48.7), of whom 5 had relapses after discontinuing steroids (13 episodes). Two of these patients required longterm maintenance oral prednisolone (5 to 10 mg/day).CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition of unclear etiology characterized by relapses and remissions. Short courses of corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, although some patients with relapsing disease require long-term low-dose steroids.

  8. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and colon involvement.

    Levinson, J D; Ramanathan, V R; Nozick, J H


    The case of a 39-year old white man with eosinophilic gastroenteritis is presented. The major clinical features were gastric outlet obstruction, diarrhea and massive ascites. At surgery, significant involvement of the entire gastrointestinal tract from the gastric antrum to the sigmoid colon was found. Histologic documentation of colon involvement was obtained. The response to corticosteroids was prompt and sustained. At present, he is maintained on an alternating day schedule of steroid administration.

  9. 哮喘患儿变应原特异性免疫球蛋白E与总免疫球蛋白E相关性研究%Relationship between total and specific IgE in patients with asthma.

    王伟; 王芳; 刘哲伟


    目的 探讨哮喘患儿血清总免疫球蛋白E(IgE)及特异性免疫球蛋白E(SIgE)之间的关系,验证血清总IgE(TIgE)水平是否直接依赖于环境中占优势的变应原所诱导的SIgE(SIgE)升高而升高的观点.方法 收集2007年1月至2010年6月首都儿科研究所附属北京儿童医院门诊及住院的哮喘、咳嗽变异性哮喘(CVA)患儿219例,年龄3~16岁,平均(6.5±3.3)岁;其中男165例,女54例.应用荧光酶联免疫方法,进行混合真菌(mx1)、粉尘螨(d1)、户尘螨(d2)、猫毛(e1)、狗毛(e5)、艾蒿(w6)血清SIgE抗体和TIgE的测定.结果 219例患儿中SIgE阳性率分别是mx1:45.7%、d1:32%、d2:31.5%、e1:25.1%、e5:18.7%、w6:21.5%,中重度患儿的SIgE(≥50 U/mL)阳性比率是mx1:14.16%、d1:12.79%、d2:15.53%、e1:8.22%、e5:1.14%、w6:2.74%,(1)mx1、d1、d2、e1、e5、w6 血清SIgE抗体对TIgE的升高有显著意义,均为(r=0.000,P<0.01).(2)本值是以200为分界值,以TIgE≥200 U/mL 的病例为一组值进行分析,在TI gE≥200 U/mL者中特异性e1及特异性e5 IgE抗体明显导致TIgE的升高(P<0.01),而d2、d1、w6与高TIgE无相关性(P>0.01).结论 环境中占优势的过敏原并不都是可以导致较高的TIgE水平.%Objective To investigate the relationship between total immunoglobulin E (tlgE) and specific immunoglob- ulin E (slgE) in serum, and verify whether the elevation of serum tlgE directly depends on increasing slgE against the dominant allergen in the environment. Methods Totally 219 out-patients or in-patients with asthma or cough variant asthma(CVA) were selected randomly in our hospital from January 2007 to June 2010. There werel65 male and 54 female patients, with age ranging from 3 to 16 (mean : 6.5). With blood samples, tlgE and slgE directly against mixed molds ( mx 1), dermatophagoides ptemonyssinus (d 1), dermatophagoides farinae (d2 ), cat (el), dog (e5), and artemisia jvulgaris (w6) respectively were assayed by

  10. Influences of IgE to carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants on detection of serum specific IgE%交叉反应性糖类决定簇IgE对血清特异性IgE检测的影响

    龙彦; 王美玲; 冯珍如; 李志艳; 闫存玲; 郑新芝


    目的 分析血清变应原特异性IgE( specific IgE,sIgE)检测结果与调查对象实际情况不符合率,探讨交叉反应性糖类决定簇IgE(IgE to carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants,CCD-IgE)对血清sIgE检测的影响.方法 通过问卷方式收集1 715例体检人群资料,用斑点免疫印迹法(dot-IBT)检测血清CCD-IgE及19种变应原sIgE.结合问卷与sIgE检测结果,分析sIgE检测阳性与问卷不符合情况及CCD-IgE对sIgE检测的影响.结果 各类变应原sIsE检测均存在与问卷主诉不符合的情况,其中花生最高(47.06%);sIgE阳性级别较低时不符合率相对较高;CCD-IgE阳性时较阴性时变应原sIgE阳性率较高(P<0.05);疑似变态反应病组和健康人组不符合者中CCD-IgE阳性率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CCD可能与血清变态反应原sIgE发生交叉反应,当存在sIgE检测与临床实际情况不符合时应考虑CCD的影响.%Objective To analyse the reasons of allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) failing to conform the actual condition of the objects and investigate the influences of IgE to carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants (CCD-IgE) on the detection of serum sIgE. Methods The information of 1 715 cases was collected by questionnaires, and 19 kinds of serum slgE and CCD-IgE were detected by dot-immu-noblot test (IBT). Based on questionnaires and the results of sIgE detection, the inconformity of slgE with the questionnaires and the influence of CCD-IgE on the detection results of sIgE were analyzed. Results The inconformity of sIgE with the questionnaires was present in 19 kinds of allergen detected in this study. The highest inconformity rate {47.06% ) was found in peanut allergen. The rate of inconformity was relatively higher in the cases with low level of positive sIgE and the cases with positive CCD-IgE than that in the cases of negative sIgE ( P < 0.05 ). Comparing the positive rates of CCD-IgE between the doubtful allergic subjects and

  11. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

    Matías Nicolás Tellado


    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  12. Detection of serum SIL-2R, cow's milk specificity IgG and IgE in infancy with persistent and chronic diarrhea%迁延性慢性腹泻患儿血清可溶性白介素-2受体牛奶特异性IgG IgE检测分析

    刘素燕; 张镁硒; 赵青


    Objective To explore the changes and the relationship in serum soluble Interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) N cow's milk-specific IgG (sIgG ) and IgE (sIgE ) in infancy with cow's milk protein allergy. Methods Forty-five infants with persistent and chronic diarrhea were chosen as research subjects , who were fed artificial by powdered milk and they were identified milk protein allergy after milk evade - the provocation test , in Shanxi Medical University from Nov. 2011 to Jun. 2012. ELISA was adopted to test serum cow's milk slgG antibodies and sIL-2R and enzyme-linked im-munofluorescence was used to detect part serum cow's milk slgE antibody concentration.Results The positive rate of serum cow's milk-specific IgG was 91.1% in infants with persistent and chronic diarrhea. The positive rate of cow's milk-specific IgE was 20.0% in young children. There was a positive correlation between the level of sIL-2R and cow's milk lglgG in young children with persistent and chronic diarrhea (r = 0.409, P < 0.05). The level of sIL-2R, which was in the cow's milk slgG positive group, has a positive correlation with the cow's milk lglgG (r = 0.524, P< 0.05). There was no relationship between the level of sIL-2R and cow's milk lglgE in young children with persistent and chronic diarrhea. Conclusion Serum sIL-2R increase is correlated with cow's milk IgG in persistent and chronic diarrhea , Meanwhile serum sIL-2R increase is not correlated with cow's milk IgE. Serum sIL-2R increase can be used as an indicator in infancy with milk protein allergy that is non-IgE-mediated.%目的 探讨牛奶蛋白过敏(CMPA)患儿血清可溶性白介素-2受体(sIL-2R)、牛奶特异性IgG(sIgG)、IgE(sIgE)的浓度变化及sIL-2R与牛奶sIgG、sIgE的关系.方法 选取2011年11月至2012年6月山西省儿童医院消化科人工喂养慢性、迁延性腹泻患儿中经牛奶回避-激发试验确定的45例CMPA患儿,采用ELISA法检测小儿血清中牛奶slgG、sIL-2R浓度并采

  13. Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    George A Alexiou


    Full Text Available Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was assessed by nephelometry. Detailed information regarding the history of allergies was collected by interview. Results: Of the 84 cases, 42 were gliomas, 23 were meningiomas, 16 were metastases and 3 were primary central nervous system lymphomas. Patients with high-grade glioma had lower IgE levels than patients with low-grade glioma. Patients with glioma and meningioma had statistical significant lower serum IgE levels than patients with metastases. Patients with glioblastoma with serum IgE levels greater than 24 U/mL had a better survival. Conclusion: Patients with glioma and meningioma had lower IgE levels than patients with metastatic lesions. A prognostic role of serum IgE levels was found in glioblastoma. Further studies in larger patient series are required in order to verify our preliminary observations.

  14. The Role of Eosinophilic Cationic Proteins, Total IgE and Eosinophilia in Children with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Ungureanu Adina


    Full Text Available Bronchial hyperreactivity (HRB, is defined as an excessive bronchial constriction that acts as an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor of the airways. This occurs as a secondary action of a nonspecific stimuli.

  15. Pulmonary Cavity due to Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Associated with Arsenicosis

    A Sengupta


    Full Text Available In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent. Keywords: Arsenicosis, chronic diarrhoea, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, noncirrhotic portal fibrosis.

  16. Induction and regulation of allergen-specific IgE

    Jeurink, P.V.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.


    The immune response is characterized by an initial rapid activation of the innate defence system, geared at recognizing common structures shared by many microorganisms. This innate immune response is a prerequisite to mount a highly antigenspecific adaptive immune response consisting of T-cell

  17. Induction and regulation of allergen-specific IgE

    Jeurink, P.V.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.


    The immune response is characterized by an initial rapid activation of the innate defence system, geared at recognizing common structures shared by many microorganisms. This innate immune response is a prerequisite to mount a highly antigenspecific adaptive immune response consisting of T-cell diffe

  18. Confirmation of a predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Nakajima, Osamu; Koyano, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Teshima, Reiko


    Some GM crops including MON863 corn and stack varieties contain Cry3Bb1 protein. Cry3Bb1 is very important from the standpoint of assessing the safety of GM crops. In this study Cry3Bb1 was assessed from the standpoint of possible binding to IgE from allergy patients. First, an ELISA that was improved in our laboratory was used to test serum samples from 13 corn allergy patients in the United States with recombinant Cry3Bb1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and serum samples from 55 patients in Japan with various food allergies were also assayed. Two samples from the Japanese allergy patients were suspected of being positive, but Western blotting analysis with purified Cry3Bb1 indicated that the binding between IgE and Cry3Bb1 was nonspecific. Ultimately, no specific binding between IgE and recombinant Cry3Bb1 was detected. Next, all proteins extracted from MON863 corn and non-GM corn were probed with IgE antibodies in serum samples from the corn allergy patients by Western blotting, but the staining patterns of MON863 and non-GM corn were similar, meaning that unintended allergic reactions to MON863 are unlikely to occur. Our study provides additional information that confirms the predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 in people with existing food allergies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of serum specific IgE in aeroallergen and food allergen in patients with allergic skin diseases%过敏性皮肤病患者血清食入性和吸入性过敏原特异性IgE结果分析

    马晓蕾; 孙青苗; 贾军; 蔡林


    Objective:To investigate the role of aeroallergen and food allergen IgE in the pathogenesis of allergen diseases and the relationship between environments, diet, exposed factors and prevalence rate in allergic skin diseases. Methods: Fooke allergen specific IgE(sIgE) antibody qualitative detection kit was used to detect 142 allergen cases, including artemisia, mixture of epithelia, mixed molds, mixed botany, mixed pollens, willow, poplar, egg, milk, shrimp, mutton, beef, fish, crab, staple foods, etc. Results: Mixed molds and mixed botany were the most common allergens in the allergy dermatitis group (positive rate 60%), eczema group (43%), urticaria group (46%), and allergic purpuria group (71% ). The milk revealed that it was the most common allergen in the allerge dermatitis group and eczema group (42% and 56% , respectively). While seafood was the most common allergen in the urticaria group (34% ). There was no significant relationship between the exposure and prevalence rate. Conclusion: The detection of allergen IgE provides valuable basis for analysis of the cause in allergic disease.%目的:了解吸入性和食入性过敏原在过敏性皮肤病发病中的作用,以及环境、饮食暴露因素与患病之间的相关性.方法:采用福克过敏原特异性IgE抗体定量检测试剂盒(免疫捕获法)检测142例过敏性皮肤病患者的血清吸入性过敏原特异性IgE(包括尘螨、艾蒿、上皮组合、霉菌组合、墙草组合、花粉组合、柳树、杨树8种)和食入性过敏原特异性IgE(包括鸡蛋、牛奶、虾、羊肉、牛肉、鲤鱼、螃蟹、小麦面粉8种),并将结果以SPSS统计软件进行分析和检验.结果:吸入物以霉菌组合的阳性率高,其中过敏性皮炎组60%,湿疹组43%,荨麻疹组46%,过敏性紫癜组71%.食入物以牛奶的阳性率高,过敏性皮炎组和湿疹组的阳性率分别为42%和56%,荨麻疹组以海鲜过敏阳性率较高,为34%.暴露因素和疾病无

  20. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    Charline Pressanti; Marie-Christine Cadiergues


    In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other ...

  1. Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis

    Niranjan, Rituraj; Mavi, Parm; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Dynda, Scott; Mishra, Anil


    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disease characterized by esophageal intraepithelial eosinophils, extracellular eosinophil granule deposition, induced mast cell accumulation, and epithelial cell hyperplasia. However, the processes involved in the development of a number of these characteristics are largely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis whether induced mast cell accumulation in the esophagus has a role in promoting EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we induced exper...

  2. [Total serum IgE levels in children with enterobiasis.].

    Delıalıoğlu, Nuran; Aslan, Gönül; Oztürk, Candan; Camdevıren, Handan; Emekdaş, Gürol


    Enterobiasis is a helminthic disease which is very common especially in children. The IgE response has been associated with helminth infections and allergic diseases. Comparison of levels of total serum IgE of 36 children infected with Enterobius vermicularis and of 25 healthy children between 7 and 12 years of age was carried out The mean value of IgE in enterobiasis in children was 363.79+/-397.06 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) and 177.14+/-224.64 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) in the control group and it was found that there was no significant statistical difference (p=0.163).

  3. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D


    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  4. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.


    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  5. Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis

    Fumihiko Miura; Takehide Asano; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenichiro Kato; Tadahiro Takada; Junichi Fukushima; Fukuo Kondo; Hajime Takikawa


    Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice.Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pyloruspreserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy.On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia.

  6. IgE anti-respiratory syncytial virus antibodies detected in serum of pediatric patients with asthma.

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Mandal, Mira; Joks, Rauno; Norowitz, Levana T; Weaver, Diana; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H; Kohlhoff, Stephan


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children, and is a public health concern, as is the increase in pediatric asthma. Respiratory viral infections may trigger asthma exacerbations. However, it remains unknown whether RSV infection may have a specific association with asthma. Total serum IgE, and IgE- and IgG-anti-RSV Ab responses were studied in older asthmatic compared with non-asthmatic children (M/F, mean age: 14) (N=30, N=43, respectively). We found: (1) total serum IgE was higher in asthmatic compared with non-asthmatics (Pasthma compared with no asthma (P=0.003; asthma (P=0.008), but not in asthma (P=0.64). Our findings indicate that IgE-anti-RSV Ab responses may play important roles in RSV infection and asthma.

  7. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

    Irene Mittermann

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors.To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens.Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53 and moderate AD (n = 126. As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins.IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1 and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10, to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD.We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD.

  8. Evaluating IGE: An Initial Literature Review and Exploratory Study. Technical Report No. 404.

    Katzenmeyer, Conrad G.; And Others

    The results of an initial evaluation study of Individually Guided Education (IGE) are presented. A matched sample of IGE and non-IGE schools was compared on a variety of direct and indirect outcome measures. Findings indicated general support for the achievement of direct outcomes, with few differences between IGE and control schools shown on…

  9. Development of an elisa for the diagnosis of reactive IgE antibodies anti-therapeutic horse sera.

    De-Simone, Salvatore Giovanni; Souza, Andre Luis Almeida; Aguiar, Aniesse Silva; Melgarejo, Anibal Raphel; Provance-Jr, David William


    Hypersensitive diseases that involve IgE reactivity are important concern of public, especially those encompassing the potential pathogenesis from the administration of horse serum-based therapeutics such as antivenoms. A method for the definitive diagnosis of reactive IgE is important for identifying allergic patients to control severe collateral effects during planned and emergency application of immunotherapies when the allergy source cannot be avoided for treatment. To date, no tests have been developed to accompany the wide range of antivenoms produced from horse sera. The aim of this was to develop a cost-effective ELISA of high sensitivity and specificity to detect circulating patient IgE that binds horse IgG3, the most prevalent antibody class in passive antibody therapies. Horse IgG3 was purified in a single step on jacalin-Sepharose and absorbed to standard ELISA plates as the capture molecule for reactive human IgE. The direct performance evaluation with allergenic and non-allergenic patient, together with competitive peptides assays, showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect human IgE that recognized horse IgG3. The analytical sensitivity and ED50 were calculated to be 0.01 μg mL(-1) and 0.052 μg mL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation ranged from 3.3 to 11.1% and 4.0-8.0%, respectively. The horse IgG3-based ELISA assay can detect reactive allergenic IgE at picomolar concentrations. The coefficient of variation suggests that it can be easily standardized between laboratories, provide rapid and can be applied to population surveillance. Patient management during treatment for envenomation would be greatly improved by a robust and reliable diagnostic test for preexisting allergies to mitigate life-threating consequences of hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene encoding human eosinophil differentiation factor (interleukin 5)

    Campbell, H.D.; Tucker, W.Q.J.; Hort, Y.; Martinson, M.E.; Mayo, G.; Clutterbuck, E.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; Young, I.G.


    The human eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF) gene was cloned from a genomic library in lambda phage EMBL3A by using a murine EDF cDNA clone as a probe. The DNA sequence of a 3.2-kilobase BamHI fragment spanning the gene was determined. The gene contains three introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of 134 amino acids is identical with that recently reported for human interleukin 5 but shows no significant homology with other known hemopoietic growth regulators. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology (approx. 70% identity) with that of murine EDF. Recombinant human EDF, expressed from the human EDF gene after transfection into monkey COS cells, stimulated the production of eosinophils and eosinophil colonies from normal human bone marrow but had no effect on the production of neutrophils or mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphoid cells). The apparent specificity of human EDF for the eosinophil lineage in myeloid hemopoiesis contrasts with the properties of human interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors but is directly analogous to the biological properties of murine EDF. Human EDF therefore represents a distinct hemopoietic growth factor that could play a central role in the regulation of eosinophilia.

  11. Clinical Manifestations of Hyper IgE Syndromes

    Alexandra F. Freeman


    Full Text Available Over the last 4 years, three genetic etiologies of hyper IgE syndromes have been identified: STAT3, DOCK8, and Tyk2. All of these hyper IgE syndromes are characterized by eczema, sinopulmonary infections, and greatly elevated serum IgE. However, each has distinct clinical manifestations. Mutations in STAT3 cause autosomal dominant HIES (Job’s syndrome, which is unique in its diversity of connective tissue, skeletal, and vascular abnormalities. DOCK8 deficiency is characterized by severe cutaneous viral infections such as warts, and a predisposition to malignancies at a young age. Only one individual has been identified with a hyper IgE phenotype associated with Tyk2 deficiency, which is characterized by nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The identification of these genetic etiologies is leading to advances in understanding the pathogenesis of these syndromes with the goal of improving treatment.

  12. Construction and diversity analysis of a murine IgE phage surface display library



    To make further investigation of the IgE antibody repertoire in Trichosanthin (TCS) allergic responses,a murine IgE phage surface display library was constructed (3.0×105 independent clones).We first constructed the Vε cDNA library (4.6×105 independent clones) and Vκ cDNA library (3.0×105 independent clones).Then,the Vε and Vκgene segments were amplified from both libraries by PCR respectively,and assembled into Fab fragment by SOE PCR.The phage library containing Fabs was thus constructed.The diversity of Vε from this library was analyzed and proved.Fab clones with high specificity to TCS have been screened out.

  13. Secondary IgE responses in vivo are predominantly generated via γ1ε-double positive B cells

    R. van Ommen (R.); A.E.C.M. Vredendaal (Astrid); H.F.J. Savelkoul (Huub)


    textabstractWe have recently developed a model in which mice were treated with 1L-4 after primary immunization, resulting in elevated total serum IgG1 and IgE levels, but decreased antigen-specific levels and memory formation for these isotypes. In this report, we describe that these effects of IL-4

  14. Secondary IgE responses in vivo are predominantly generated via?1e-double positive B cells

    Ommen, van R.; Vredendaal, A.E.C.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.


    We have recently developed a model in which mice were treated with IL-4 after primary immunization, resulting in elevated total serum IgG1 and IgE levels, but decreased antigen-specific levels and memory formation for these isotypes. In this report, we describe that these effects of IL-4 are mediate

  15. Serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut in hazelnut processing workers.

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Karatas, Naciye; Arbak, Peri; Binay, Songul; Yavuz, Ozlem; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Balbay, Oner; Toru, Umran


    Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut. Results. This study consisted of 88 hazelnut processing workers (79 females and 9 males), aged 14-59 years (Mean ± SD: 33.8 ± 10.5 years). The mean working duration was 38.8 ± 36.6 months (min: 1-max: 180). Specific IgE against hazelnut allergens was positive in 14 of cases (17.1%). There was no significant difference between the cases with and without specific IgE against hazelnut allergens regarding respiratory symptoms, history of allergy, smoking status and spirometric values. Conclusion. 17.1% of the hazelnut processing workers were seropositive against hazelnut. Being sensitized to hazelnut was not found to be associated with work-related respiratory symptoms in this study. Further studies are needed in hazelnut workers respiratory health to search topics other than asthma.

  16. Serum IgE Antibodies against Hazelnut in Hazelnut Processing Workers

    Ege Gulec Balbay


    Full Text Available Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut. Results. This study consisted of 88 hazelnut processing workers (79 females and 9 males, aged 14–59 years (Mean ± SD: years. The mean working duration was months (min: 1–max: 180. Specific IgE against hazelnut allergens was positive in 14 of cases (17.1%. There was no significant difference between the cases with and without specific IgE against hazelnut allergens regarding respiratory symptoms, history of allergy, smoking status and spirometric values. Conclusion. 17.1% of the hazelnut processing workers were seropositive against hazelnut. Being sensitized to hazelnut was not found to be associated with work-related respiratory symptoms in this study. Further studies are needed in hazelnut workers respiratory health to search topics other than asthma.

  17. Triggers of IgE class switching and allergy development

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hummelshoj, Lone


    type 2 (Th2) T cell subset are the actions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on dendritic cells and the OX40 ligand on CD4+ T cells. In order for a B lymphocyte to switch to IgE production it needs two signals provided by a Th2 cell in the form of the cytokines interleukin (IL-) 4/IL-13...... the need for more knowledge on preventable causes of IgE- and allergy development....

  18. CT findings of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Kigami, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kuroda, Yasumasa (Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)) (and others)


    CT scans in 11 cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) were reviewed. Peripheral dense opacities suggesting air-space consolidation were the most peculiar findings seen in 9 patients on CT, but 7 on chest radiographs. Five patients showed broad plate-like opacities parallel to the pleura, which were the results of resolution from the periphery of the consolidation. Diffuse interstitial opacities suggesting alveolitis were the predominant finding in 3 patients, one of which also had peripheral air-space consolidation. Follow-up CT showed no residual abnormality except one who had DIP concomitant with CEP. CT scans are useful tool for both diagnosis and follow-up of CEP. (author).

  19. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An update

    Monjur Ahmed


    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a worldwide chronic allergic disease of the esophagus.In the last decade,there is an epidemic of this entity in the western world.Mostly seen in children and young adults,patients present with dysphagia or food impaction in the emergency room.Characteristic endoscopic findings,esophageal eosinophilia and non-responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors help make the diagnosis.Avoidance of foodallergens,administration of steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and dilation of the esophagus are the mainstays of treatment.Investigations are ongoing for mucosal healing and optimum maintenance treatment.

  20. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone: diagnosis and management

    Nauert, C.; Zornoza, J.; Harle, T.S.; Ayala, A.


    Fifty patients with eosinophilic granuloma of bone were reviewed. Thirty-one lesions were in the head and neck, 24 in the extremities, seven in the pelvis, and five in the ribs. The lesions were lytic with ill-defined margins, endosteal erosion, and solid periosteal reaction. The diagnoses were obtained by surgical biopsy in 36 patients and by percutaneous biopsy in 14. Twenty-six lesions were treated with radiotherapy, 14 by surgery, and nine by surgery and radiotherapy. The last 14 cases have been treated by percutaneous injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate into the lesion. Healing was obtained in every lesion. There were no complications.

  1. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard


    -mortem toxicological examination demonstrated presence of olanzapine, morphine, venlafaxine and oxazepam. Syringes indicating substance abuse were found in his home. Case 2 was a 36-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with schizophrenia was found dead unexpectedly. There was no history of substance abuse. Current...... fatal cases of eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of olanzapine. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year-old Caucasian man with known substance abuse and schizophrenia. He was found dead in his home. Olanzapine was prescribed at day -54, and dose at time of death was 40 mg/day. Post...

  2. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) inhibit human B-cell IgE production

    Kim, Nina; Ramon, Sesquile; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Woeller, Collynn F.; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.


    Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) constitute a recently recognized class of bioactive molecules which promote the resolution of inflammation. We recently reported that the SPMs resolvin D1 (RvD1) and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) promote the differentiation of IgG-secreting B cells and enhance antibody-mediated immune responses. However, there is an important knowledge gap regarding whether or not SPMs regulate human B-cell IgE production, which is the key effector in diseases such as asthma and allergy. Therefore we investigated whether a panel of diverse SPMs influences B-cell IgE production. An important finding was that 17-HDHA and RvD1 inhibit IgE production by human B cells and suppress the differentiation of naïve B cells into IgE-secreting cells by specifically blocking epsilon germline transcription (εGLT). This effect is specific to human IgE, as the SPMs do not inhibit production of IgM and IgG and did not suppress other IL-4-upregulated genes. 17-HDHA and RvD1 act by stabilizing the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6, which competes with STAT6 for binding at the εGLT promoter. Overall, these new findings demonstrate that certain SPMs inhibit the differentiation of IgE-producing B cells, without being broadly immune-suppressive, representing a novel class of potential therapeutics for IgE-driven diseases such as asthma and allergy. PMID:26474728

  3. Natural Killer Receptor 1 Dampens the Development of Allergic Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation

    Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Moshkovits, Itay; Shemesh, Avishai; Filiba, Ayelet; Tsirulsky, Yevgeny; Vronov, Elena; Shagan, Marilou; Apte, Ron N.; Benharroch, D aniel; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Dagan, Ron; Munitz, Ariel


    The function of NCR1 was studied in a model of experimental asthma, classified as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, in mice. IgE levels were significantly increased in the serum of OVA immunized NCR1 deficient (NCR1gfp/gfp) mice in comparison to OVA immunized wild type (NCR1+/+) and adjuvant immunized mice. Histological analysis of OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice revealed no preservation of the lung structure and overwhelming peribronchial and perivascular granulocytes together with mononuclear cells infiltration. OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice demonstrated preserved lung structure and peribronchial and perivascular immune cell infiltration to a lower extent than that in NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Adjuvant immunized mice demonstrated lung structure preservation and no immune cell infiltration. OVA immunization caused an increase in PAS production independently of NCR1 presence. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed NCR1 dependent decreased percentages of eosinophils and increased percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages following OVA immunization. In the OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice the protein levels of eosinophils’ (CCL24) and Th2 CD4+ T-cells’ chemoattractants (CCL17, and CCL24) in the BAL are increased in comparison with OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice. In the presence of NCR1, OVA immunization caused an increase in NK cells numbers and decreased NCR1 ligand expression on CD11c+GR1+ cells and decreased NCR1 mRNA expression in the BAL. OVA immunization resulted in significantly increased IL-13, IL-4 and CCL17 mRNA expression in NCR1+/+ and NCR1gfp/gfp mice. IL-17 and TNFα expression increased only in OVA-immunized NCR1+/+mice. IL-6 mRNA increased only in OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Collectively, it is demonstrated that NCR1 dampens allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. PMID:27580126

  4. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Richard Kellermayer; Nina Tatevian; William Klish; Robert J Shulman


    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  5. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  6. Eosinophil chemotactic factors from cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana.

    Niwa, A; Asano, K; Ito, A


    A comparative study of eosinophil chemotactic factors was carried out using cysticercoids and oncospheres of Hymenolepis nana. Cysticercoids showed twice the chemotactic activity for eosinophils than the oncospheres. Eosinophilia induced by oncospheres and cysticercoids observed in secondary and primary infections, respectively, were discussed from the view point of the immunobiology of this parasite.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide thresholds associated with a sputum eosinophil count ≥3% in a cohort of unselected patients with asthma.

    Schleich, Florence N; Seidel, Laurence; Sele, Jocelyne; Manise, Maite; Quaedvlieg, Valerie; Michils, Alain; Louis, Renaud


    It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that identifies a sputum eosinophil count ≥3% in an unselected population of patients with asthma has been poorly studied. This retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients with asthma aged 15–84 years recruited from the asthma clinic of University Hospital of Liege. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between sputum eosinophil count and FeNO, taking into account covariates such as inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), smoking, atopy, age and sex. Derived from the ROC curve, FeNO ≥41 ppb gave 65% sensitivity and 79% specificity (AUC=0.777, p=0.0001) for identifying a sputum eosinophil count ≥3%. Using logistic regression analysis, a threshold of 42 ppb was found to discriminate between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma (pppb) than the rest of the group (48 ppb, pppb for atopic vs 30 ppb for non-atopic patients, pppb) compared with non-smokers (46 ppb, p=0.066). Age and sex did not affect the relationship between FeNO and sputum eosinophilia. When combining all variables into the logistic model, FeNO (p<0.0001), high-dose ICS (p<0.05) and smoking (p<0.05) were independent predictors of sputum eosinophilia, while there was a trend for atopy (p=0.086). FeNO is able to identify a sputum eosinophil count ≥3% with reasonable accuracy and thresholds which vary according to dose of ICS, smoking and atopy.

  8. IL-5 Up-regulates the Expression of TGF-β1 in Human Blood Eosinophils in Vitro

    HUANG Yabing; LIU Bin; WANG Lu; LI Rong; ZHU Min; CHEN Dong; CHEN Shi


    To investigate the effects of IL-5 on the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, eosinophils were incubated in the presence of the same concentrations of IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ, different concentrations of IL-5 in vitro and changes of eosinophil viability were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Non-cytokine was employed as a negative control. 16 h after the cultivation, supernatants and cells were assayed by using TGF-β1 specific ELISA and RT-PCR. The mRNA expression and protein expresssion of TGF-β1 in eosinophils stimulated with different cytokines was observed.The expression of TGF-β1 protein in eosinophils was increased significantly by IL-4 (433.67±9.86vs 228.9±2.87) and IL-5 (403. 72±7.60 vs 228.9±2.87, P<0.05), while decreased by IFNγ (178.47±2.60 vs 228.9±2.87). At the same time, the results demonstrated that the basal level of TGF expression was enhanced by IL5 in all samples (P<0.05). The expression of TGF β1 mRNA was 1.42, 1. 70, 1. 76-folds higher than that of the non-stimulated controls. It is concluded that IL-5 can up-regulate the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, which might have effect in eosinophil-associated chronic rejection.

  9. Anti-cetuximab IgE ELISA for identification of patients at a high risk of cetuximab-induced anaphylaxis

    Mariotte, Delphine; Dupont, Benoît; Gervais, Radj; Galais, Marie-Pierre; Laroche, Dominique; Tranchant, Aurore; Comby, Elisabeth; Bouhier-Leporrier, Karine; Reimund, Jean-Marie


    Cetuximab, a chimeric mouse-human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, has proven effective in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, a high incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to cetuximab after the first infusion has been observed. We have developed a test for identification of patients likely to show treatment-related HSR to cetuximab. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-cetuximab IgEs was developed and tested on serum samples collected from cancer patients before start of cetuximab treatment, and from healthy blood donors. Similar levels of anti-cetuximab IgE were detected in pre-treatment patient sera (24/92, 26.1%) and sera from healthy blood donors (33/117, 28.2%). HSR were observed in 14 out of the 92 patients (15.2%), and 8 of these (57.1%) were grade 3–4. Anti-cetuximab IgEs were detected in 7/8 of the patients (87.5%) with severe HSRs as compared with 14/78 patients (17.9%) with no HSR (p = 0.0002). Predictive value of the anti-cetuximab IgE test for HSR events of grades 3–4 was calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis. With a cut-off value of 29 arbitrary units for the anti-cetuximab IgE, the ELISA test showed a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 82.1%, positive predictive value of 33.3% and negative predictive value of 98.5%. Anti-cetuximab IgE ELISA detection could be a valuable tool to help the physician anticipate an anaphylaxis episode following cetuximab infusion and opt for a suitable alternative treatment. PMID:21654207


    L. S. Komarova


    eosinophil counts in peripheral blood for general hematological group (r = 0.51; р = 0.000001, and for a group of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (r = 0.9; р = 0.000001. Hence, a quantitative determination of soluble eosinophylic proteins and mast cell-specific enzymes in blood serum are useful for diagnostics and monitoring of various hypereosinophilic conditions in oncohematological disorders. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 361-370.

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment.

    D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Esposito, Dario; Pesce, Marcella; Cuomo, Rosario; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Sarnelli, Giovanni


    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and reflux-like symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with EoE is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of EoE, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of EoE in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the first-line therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, EoE is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on EoE pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments.

  12. The human eosinophil proteome. Changes induced by birch pollen allergy.

    Woschnagg, Charlotte; Forsberg, Jens; Engström, Ake; Odreman, Federico; Venge, Per; Garcia, Rodolfo C


    Proteins from human eosinophils were separated bidimensionally and identified by mass spectrometry (336 spots/bands, 98 different proteins). Of these, 24.7% belonged to the cytoskeleton/migration group. Highly basic proteins (11.3%) were concentrated in the granule-containing cell fraction. We detected novel hyperacidic forms of cofilin-1, profilin-1 and adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, and hyperbasic forms of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin/eosinophil protein X and major basic protein homologue. We also found evidence of the triglycosylation of the heavy chain of eosinophil peroxidase. In addition, through comparative 2D image analysis, spot quantification and MS, it was found that hsc70, actin-capping protein and hyperacidic forms of eosinophil peroxidase heavy chain are overexpressed in cells from birch pollen allergic subjects, at the peak of a season. The link between these findings and an increased cellular antigen-presenting capacity and motility are discussed.

  13. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Marco Astegiano


    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergo