WorldWideScience

Sample records for eocene okanagan highlands

  1. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  2. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Greenwalt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  3. 78 FR 79658 - Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ..., DC, this 20th day of December 2013. Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0025] Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment...

  4. Potential impacts of climate change on water availability for crops in the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, D.; Smith, C.A.S.; Frank, G.; Koch, W.; Alila, Y.; Merritt, W.S.; Taylor, W.G.; Barton, M.; Hall, J.W.; Cohen, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop water demand in the Okanagan Basin was determined for 1961 to 1990, 2010 to 2039, 2040 to 2069, and 2070 to 2099. Daily station temperature data were spatially interpolated to a 1 x 1 km grid and adjusted for elevation. Daily precipitation data were estimated across four climatic regions. Output from three global climate models (GCM), CGCM2, CSIROMk2 and HadCM3 was used to create future daily climate. Daily potential evapo-transpiration (grass reference) was estimated from an empirical relationship between Bellani-plate atmometer readings, temperature and extra-terrestrial solar radiation, and then modified by crop coefficients for all crops except pasture. Depending on GCM, projected water demand increased by 12-20% (2010 to 2039), 24-38% (2040 to 2069) and 40-61% (2070 to 2099). Possible elevated CO 2 effects on stomatal conductance which may reduce water demand were not accounted for. Comparisons with modeled Okanagan Lake inflows indicated that, on average, high water demand and low supply scenarios coincided. In one sub-basin, supply and demand thresholds were exceeded 1 yr in 6 (HadCM3) in the 2050s and at least 1 yr in 4 for all GCMs by the 2080s, and existing water supply infrastructure may be inadequate. Crop growing seasons were defined empirically from growing degree days or threshold temperatures. The growing season lengthened up to 30-35% leading to higher demand in fall and shortages due to low stream flows. (author)

  5. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  6. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. I Remember Highlander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  8. Eocene Acritarchs of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Long Shaw

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa (Multiplicisphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Trichosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Tylosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., and Cymatiosphaera taiwaniana C. L. Shaw sp. nov. of the fossil acritarchs obtained from Eocene sediments from offshore of the Keelung area in northern Taiwan are reported. They belong to two subgroups, four genera.

  9. Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  10. The Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  11. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  12. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  13. A middle Eocene carbon cycle conundrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Zeebe, R.; Bijl, P.K.; Bohaty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) was an approximately 500,000-year-long episode of widespread ocean-atmosphere warming about 40 million years ago, superimposed on a long-term middle Eocene cooling trend. It was marked by a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, biotic changes and prolonged

  14. Ya??tmín Cqw?lqwilt Nixw, Ul Nixw, Ul Nixw, "I Need to Speak More, and More, and More": Okanagan-Colville (Interior Salish) Indigenous Second-Language Learners Share Our Filmed Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    way', iskwíst, "my name is", S?ímla?xw, and I am from Penticton BC, Canada. kn sqilxw. I am a Syilx (Okanagan, Interior Salish) adult language learner. My cohort and I are midway in our language transformation to become proficient speakers. Our names are Prasát, S?ímla?xw, C'?r?tups, X?wnámx?wnam, Sta?qwálqs, and our Elder, S?amtíc'a?.…

  15. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  16. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni , Squalus woodburnei , Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  17. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  18. Expanding the dialogue on climate change and water management in the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia : final report January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Neilsen, D.; Welbourn, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated climate change and water resource scenarios were developed in order to stimulate stakeholder discussions on the implications of climate change for water management in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The two main objectives of the study were to provide a set of research products relevant to regional interests and establish a methodology for participatory integrated assessment of regional climate impacts and adaptation applicable to climate-based concerns globally. The study consisted of five main components: down scaling global climate change scenarios to the regional level; determining impacts of climate change on basin hydrology; developing future demand scenarios for irrigated agriculture and municipalities, factoring in socio-economic trends; exploring previous management experiences and potential future approaches for augmenting water supply and reducing water consumption; and, learning about regional perspectives on adapting to climate change. Details of current water supply and demand were provided. Research was based on a combination of field research, computer-based models and dialogue exercises. It was concluded that good stakeholder relationships are the foundation of a strong partnership between researchers and regional interests. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Efficacy of highland production of strawberry transplants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Figure 1. Number of runners per mother plant with bare root propagation system under lowland and highland conditions. ... Containerized plugs (58 x 29 cm, 32 cells), filled with .... and Utilization for a New Century. Larson KD ...

  20. The crazy hollow formation (Eocene) of central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.P.; Warner, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    the Crazy Hollow beds dip beneath Quaternary sediments that fill the two valleys. The Crazy Hollow Formation ranges from 0 to 1,307 feet (0-398 m) thick in the region, but is usually much thinner than the maximum value. At most outcrops it is only a few scores of feet (12-50 m) thick. Its age is middle Eocene, for it is only a little younger than the underlying Green River Formation. The unit developed by the washing of detritus into the basin of the southwest arm of Lake Uinta from the various source rocks in the highlands surrounding the basin. The limestone beds and lenses formed in ponds and small lakes that developed in the basin from time to time during and following the draining and evaporation of Lake Uinta. The qualities of the Crazy Hollow Formation are described in detail for 10 different areas of outcrops in the Sanpete and Sevier Valleys and vicinity.

  1. Agriculture/municipal/industrial waste management and resource recovery feasibility study : renewable energy clusters and improved end-use efficiency : a formula for sustainable development[Prepared for the North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    The North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium initiated a study that evaluated the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of a proposed biomass to renewable energy eco-system, using the technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), cogeneration and hydroponics in a centralized waste treatment and recovery facility. The Okanagan Valley is well suited for the demonstration plant because of its concentration of food producers and processors and abundance of rich organic waste stream. The agricultural, municipal and industrial waste management consortium consisted of a dairy farm, 5 municipalities and local waste handlers. The consortium proposed to combine several organic waste streams such as dairy manure, slaughterhouse offal and source separated municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. The methane would be processed into renewable energy (heat and electricity) for a hydroponics barley sprout operation. It is expected that the synergies resulting from this project would increase productivity, end-use efficiency and profitability. This study reviewed the basics of AD technology, technological options and evaluated several technology providers. The type and quantity of waste available in the area was determined through a waste audit and analysis. The potential to market the system by-products locally was also reviewed as well as the general economic viability of a centralized system. The study also evaluated site selection, preliminary design and costing, with reference to proximity to feedstock and markets, access to roads, impacts on neighbours and insurance of minimal environmental impact. 84 refs., 82 figs., 10 appendices.

  2. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  3. New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study: 2002 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2003-01-01

    Stewardship Goals For The New York - New Jersey Highlands This 2002 Update of the 1992 New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study embodies the following goals for the long-term stewardship of the Highlands: 1. Manage future growth that is compatible with the region's ecological constraints; 2. Maintain an adequate surface and ground water supply that...

  4. Management of grassy bald communities in the Roan Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Donaldson; N. Schubert; Lisa C. Huff

    2010-01-01

    No place better exemplifies that which is rare and unique within high-elevation communities of the Appalachian Mountains than the highlands of Roan Mountain. The Roan Highlands are protected through a landscape-level conservation initiative originally established by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service in 1974.

  5. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which...... corresponds to the middle Ypresian, Lower Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird...... Gastornis parisiensis Hébert, 1855 (Gastornithidae). These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the Upper Paleocene to Middle Eocene of Europe, Early Eocene of Asia, and Early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis...

  6. Late Eocene rings around the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion of O'Keefe (1980) that the terminal Eocene event was caused by rings of tektite material encircling the earth is discussed. It is argued that the assumption that the tektites are of lunar volcanic origin is unwarranted and contrary to existing data, including the lack of lunar rocks of suitable composition, the lack of lunar rocks of the correct age, the lack of evidence that the North American tektites fell throughout a sedimentary rock column of a few million years, and the nondetection of a tektite with a measurable cosmic ray exposure age. Alternatively, it is suggested that the terminal Eocene event may be associated with volcanic ash, air-fall tuff and bentonite in the late Eocene. O'Keefe replies that the hypothesis of the terrestrial origin of the tektites conflicts with the laws of physics, for example in the glass structure and shaping of the tektites. Furthermore, evidence is cited for lunar rocks of the proper major-element composition and ages, and it is noted that the proposed solar Poynting-Robertson effect would account for the particle fall distributions and cosmic ray ages.

  7. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  8. Towards improving highland ban.anas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most fertile land races belonged to 'Nakabululu' and 'Nfuuka' clone sets. Viable seeds were obtained from several land races indicating that genetic improvement ofthese highland bananas through cross breeding is possible. The fertile Iandraces should be cross-pollinated with improved diploids to produce resistant ...

  9. Conservation priorities in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Turner; Rob Marshall; Carolyn A. F. Enquist; Anne Gondor; David F. Gori; Eduardo Lopez; Gonzalo Luna; Rafaela Paredes Aguilar; Chris Watts; Sabra Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Apache Highlands ecoregion incorporates the entire Madrean Archipelago/Sky Island region. We analyzed the current distribution of 223 target species and 26 terrestrial ecological systems there, and compared them with constraints on ecosystem integrity (e.g., road density) to determine the most efficient set of areas needed to maintain current biodiversity. The...

  10. Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders. AZ Mohammed, AN Manasseh, BM Mandong, ST Edino. Abstract. Background:Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports indicate a rising incidence globally. This study aims at identifying the ...

  11. Seismic activity maps for the Armenian Highlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, N.K.; Manukyan, Zh.O.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic activity maps for the periods 1952 to 1967 and 1952 to 1968 were compiled for the Armenian Highlands in order to study the spatial distribution of earthquake recurrence and to construct maps in isolines of seismic activity. Diagrams are presented illustrating such seismic activity maps for the indicated periods. 4 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  13. Possible role of oceanic heat transport in early Eocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, L. C.; Walker, J. C.; Moore, T. C. Jr

    1995-01-01

    Increased oceanic heat transport has often been cited as a means of maintaining warm high-latitude surface temperatures in many intervals of the geologic past, including the early Eocene. Although the excess amount of oceanic heat transport required by warm high latitude sea surface temperatures can be calculated empirically, determining how additional oceanic heat transport would take place has yet to be accomplished. That the mechanisms of enhanced poleward oceanic heat transport remain undefined in paleoclimate reconstructions is an important point that is often overlooked. Using early Eocene climate as an example, we consider various ways to produce enhanced poleward heat transport and latitudinal energy redistribution of the sign and magnitude required by interpreted early Eocene conditions. Our interpolation of early Eocene paleotemperature data indicate that an approximately 30% increase in poleward heat transport would be required to maintain Eocene high-latitude temperatures. This increased heat transport appears difficult to accomplish by any means of ocean circulation if we use present ocean circulation characteristics to evaluate early Eocene rates. Either oceanic processes were very different from those of the present to produce the early Eocene climate conditions or oceanic heat transport was not the primary cause of that climate. We believe that atmospheric processes, with contributions from other factors, such as clouds, were the most likely primary cause of early Eocene climate.

  14. The Paleocene and lower Eocene pollen flora of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leidelmeyer, P.

    1966-01-01

    A description is given of a Paleocene and Lower Eocene pollen flora of two bore-holes in Guana. Some new species are described and some remarks are made on their stratigraphical significance. Pollen diagrams are presented, one probably representing the entire Paleocene and a part of the Eocene.

  15. Lower Eocene on Majevica north of Tuzla (NE Bosnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pavšič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Lower Eocene marlstones on Mt. Majevica in northeastern Bosnia species Nummulites atacicus and N. robustus were determined, the latter first found on the Balkan Peninsula.In the beds occur next to Paleogene many redeposited Cretaceous nannoplankton species, an indication of the exposure of Cretaceous beds in Lower Eocene in the investigated area.

  16. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  17. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Bourdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene flu-vio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corresponds to the middle Ypresian, early Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird Gastornis parisiensis (Gastornithidae. These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the late Paleocene to middle Eocene of Europe, early Eocene of Asia and early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis giganteus in several features, including the more ventral position of the narial openings and the slender orbital process of quadrate. Two tibiotarsi and one tarsometatarsus are assigned to a new genus and species of Geranoididae, Galligeranoides boriensis gen. et sp. nov. So far, this family was known only from the early and middle Eocene of North America. The fossils from La Borie constitute the first record of the Geranoididae in Europe. We show that Gastornis coexisted with the Geranoididae in the early Eocene of both Europe (La Borie and North America (Willwood Formation. The presence of Geranoididae and the large flightless bird Gastornis on either side of the present-day North Atlantic provides further evidence that a high-latitude land connection existed between Europe and North America in the early Eocene.

  18. Humidity estimate for the middle Eocene Arctic rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Silveira Lobo Sternberg, Leonel

    2003-05-01

    The exquisite preservation of fossilized Metasequoia trees that grew near 80°N latitude during the middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma) in Nunavut, Canada, allowed for δD and δ18O analyses of cellulose, techniques previously restricted to wood <30,000 yr old. From the isotopic results, we determined that the middle Eocene Arctic atmosphere contained ˜2× the water found in the region's atmosphere today. This water vapor contributed to a middle Eocene greenhouse effect that insulated the polar region during dark polar winters.

  19. Mesozoic to Eocene ductile deformation of western Central Iran: From Cimmerian collisional orogeny to Eocene exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaranbafghi, Fariba; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Faghih, Ali; Kusky, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the Mesozoic to Eocene tectonics and kinematics of basement units exposed in the south-western Central Iran plateau, this paper presents new structural and thermochronological data from the Chapedony metamorphic core complex and hangingwall units, particularly from the Posht-e-Badam complex. The overall Paleogene structural characteristics of the area are related to an oblique convergent zone. The Saghand area represents part of a deformation zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates, and can be interpreted to result from the Central Iran intracontinental deformation acting as a weak zone during Mesozoic to Paleogene times. Field and microstructural evidence reveal that the metamorphic and igneous rocks suffered a ductile shear deformation including mylonitization at the hangingwall boundary of the Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex. Comparison of deformation features in the mylonites and other structural features within the footwall unit leads to the conclusion that the mylonites were formed in a subhorizontal shear zone by NE-SW stretching during Middle to Late Eocene extensional tectonics. The Chapedony metamorphic core complex is characterized by amphibolite-facies metamorphism and development of S and S-L tectonic fabrics. The Posht-e-Badam complex was deformed by two stages during Cimmerian tectonic processes forming the Paleo-Tethyan suture.

  20. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen; D’haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P.; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  1. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela J Arreguín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma, linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian. Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi. Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the

  2. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J; Thomas, Ellen; D'haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  3. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  4. Evidence of Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene equatorial rain forest ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... influx of CO2 during early Cenozoic times (Kent and Muttoni. 2008), besides ... Palaeocene – Eocene lignite and coal deposits of India. .... journey of the Indian subcontinent and massive outpouring ..... ice age (Plana 2004).

  5. Eocene crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura) from Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.H.S.; Donovan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Recently discovered crabs from the Middle to Upper Eocene of northern Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, include well-preserved carapaces of Montezumella rutteni Van Straelen, originally described from an incomplete holotype. The more comprehensive description of this species provided herein includes

  6. Genetic Diversity Among East African Highland Bananas For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 84 distinct cultivars of highland bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda, grouped in five clone sets and it is not known which among these are female fertile. The objective of the study reported herein was to identify female fertile highland bananas that can be used in a cross breeding program and to determine the ...

  7. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  8. determination of the power law exponent for southern highlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    site located in the southern highland zone of Tanzania, was established using wind speeds measured at heights ... distribution, turbulence and wind gusts at the ... mathematical models, which normally .... other locations that have similar wind.

  9. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands ... This project is funded through IDRC's Adaptation Research Initiative in Asia (ARI-Asia) ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  10. Maize production in the central Kenya highlands using cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    effective in the production of maize, compared to singular application of manures (5 t ha-1) and mineral fertilizer alone applied at rates below ...... A Handbook of Methods, 2nd. Edition. ... Manure management in the Kenya highlands: Practices.

  11. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to facilitate effective water resource management in the Asian Highlands by integrating climate ... Journal articles ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second international workshop.

  12. Morphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegeye, Assefa D.; Langendoen, Eddy J.; Stoof, C.R.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Dagnew, Dessalegn C.; Zimale, Fasikaw A.; Guzman, C.D.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Gully expansion in the Ethiopian Highlands dissects vital agricultural lands with the eroded materials adversely impacting downstream resources, for example as they accumulate in reservoirs. While gully expansion and rehabilitation have been more extensively researched in the semiarid region of

  13. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: ... goal of implementing an integrated approach to natural resource ... and the International Water Management Institute in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  14. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  15. Improving Food Security in the Highlands of Ethiopia through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the Highlands of Ethiopia through Improved and Sustainable Agricultural Productivity and ... Women will be involved as agents of change in the adoption of improved ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  16. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea in early Eocene Cambay amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina. Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  17. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea) in early Eocene Cambay amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Singh, Hukam; Rust, Jes; Grimaldi, David A

    2017-01-01

    One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina . Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  18. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  19. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    Running Title: Eocene tide-influenced delta in South Cambay Basin. Manuscript. Click here to view linked References. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 .... systematic documentation of the facies types to establish the depositional environment of the .... Hazad Member consists of a number of sandstone units separated by intervening ...

  20. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997a, b). Most of the rodents from this stratigraphic level have been referred to a rather diverse family Cha- pattimyidae ... Herein we describe a new early Eocene rodent assemblage .... thick zone of brownish red shales that occur as a ..... 1997b;. Plate 3, figure 31). ...... northwestern Pakistan and remarks on the collision.

  1. Warm ocean processes and carbon cycling in the Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Eleanor H; Pearson, Paul N; Coxall, Helen K; Birch, Heather; Wade, Bridget S; Foster, Gavin L

    2013-10-28

    Sea surface and subsurface temperatures over large parts of the ocean during the Eocene epoch (55.5-33.7 Ma) exceeded modern values by several degrees, which must have affected a number of oceanic processes. Here, we focus on the effect of elevated water column temperatures on the efficiency of the biological pump, particularly in relation to carbon and nutrient cycling. We use stable isotope values from exceptionally well-preserved planktonic foraminiferal calcite from Tanzania and Mexico to reconstruct vertical carbon isotope gradients in the upper water column, exploiting the fact that individual species lived and calcified at different depths. The oxygen isotope ratios of different species' tests are used to estimate the temperature of calcification, which we converted to absolute depths using Eocene temperature profiles generated by general circulation models. This approach, along with potential pitfalls, is illustrated using data from modern core-top assemblages from the same area. Our results indicate that, during the Early and Middle Eocene, carbon isotope gradients were steeper (and larger) through the upper thermocline than in the modern ocean. This is consistent with a shallower average depth of organic matter remineralization and supports previously proposed hypotheses that invoke high metabolic rates in a warm Eocene ocean, leading to more efficient recycling of organic matter and reduced burial rates of organic carbon.

  2. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Bown, P.R.; Murphy, B.H.; Sluijs, A.; Edgar, K.M.; Pälike, H.; Bolton, C.T.; Zachos, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are

  3. Icacinaceae from the eocene of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah E; Stull, Gregory W; Manchester, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    The Icacinaceae are a pantropical family of trees, shrubs, and climbers with an extensive Paleogene fossil record. Our improved understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the family provides an excellent context for investigating new fossil fruit and leaf material from the Eocene of western North America. We examined fossils from early and middle Eocene sediments of western Wyoming, northeastern Utah, northwestern Colorado, and Oregon and compared them with extant species of Iodes and other icacinaceous genera as well as previously described fossils of the family. Three new fossil species are described, including two based on endocarps (Iodes occidentalis sp. nov. and Icacinicaryites lottii sp. nov.) and one based on leaves (Goweria bluerimensis sp. nov.). The co-occurrence of I. occidentalis and G. bluerimensis suggests these might represent detached organs of a single species. A new genus, Biceratocarpum, is also established for morphologically distinct fossil fruits of Icacinaceae previously placed in Carpolithus. Biceratocarpum brownii gen. et comb. nov. resembles the London Clay species "Iodes" corniculata in possessing a pair of subapical protrusions. These fossils increase our knowledge of Icacinaceae in the Paleogene of North America and highlight the importance of the Northern Hemisphere in the early diversification of the family. They also document interchange with the Eocene flora of Europe and biogeographic connections with modern floras of Africa and Asia, where Icacinaceae are diverse today. The present-day restriction of this family to tropical regions offers ecological implications for the Eocene floras in which they occur. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Ultimate Eocene (Priabonian) Chondrichthyans (Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwet, Jürgen; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its remarkable wealth of fossil remains of chondrichthyans and teleosts. Chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Antarctic Paleogene fish fauna, but decreased in abundance from middle to late Eocene, during which time remains of bony fishes increase. This decline of chondrichthyans at the end of the Eocene generally is related to sudden cooling of seawater, reduction in shelf area, and increasing shelf depth due to the onset of the Antarctic thermal isolation. The last chondrichthyan records known so far include a chimeroid tooth plate from TELM 6 (Lutetian) and a single pristiophorid rostral spine from TELM 7 (Priabonian). Here, we present new chondrichthyan records of Squalus , Squatina , Pristiophorus , Striatolamia , Palaeohypotodus , Carcharocles , and Ischyodus from the upper parts of TELM 7 (Priabonian), including the first record of Carcharocles sokolovi from Antarctica. This assemblage suggests that chondrichthyans persisted much longer in Antarctic waters despite rather cool sea surface temperatures of approximately 5°C. The final disappearance of chondrichthyans at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary concurs with abrupt ice sheet formation in Antarctica. Diversity patterns of chondrichthyans throughout the La Meseta Formation appear to be related to climatic conditions rather than plate tectonics.

  5. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  6. Towards a robust and consistent middle Eocene astronomical timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Laskar, Jacques; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pälike, Heiko; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Until now, the middle Eocene has remained a poorly constrained interval of efforts to produce an astrochronological timescale for the entire Cenozoic. This has given rise to a so-called "Eocene astronomical timescale gap" (Vandenberghe et al., 2012). A high-resolution astrochronological calibration for this interval has proven to be difficult to realize, mainly because carbonate-rich deep-marine sequences of this age are scarce. In this paper, we present records from middle Eocene carbonate-rich sequences from the North Atlantic Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (IODP Exp. 342, Sites U1408 and U1410), of which the cyclical sedimentary patterns allow for an orbital calibration of the geologic timescale between ∼38 and ∼48 Ma. These carbonate-rich cyclic sediments at Sites U1408 and U1410 were deposited as drift deposits and exhibit prominent lithological alternations (couplets) between greenish nannofossil-rich clay and white nannofossil ooze. The principal lithological couplet is driven by the obliquity of Earth's axial tilt, and the intensity of their expression is modulated by a cyclicity of about 173 kyr. This cyclicity corresponds to the interference of secular frequencies s3 and s6 (related to the precession of nodes of the Earth and Saturn, respectively). This 173-kyr obliquity amplitude modulation cycle is exceptionally well recorded in the XRF (X-ray fluorescence)-derived Ca/Fe ratio. In this work, we first demonstrate the stability of the (s3-s6) cycles using the latest astronomical solutions. Results show that this orbital component is stable back to at least 50 Ma, and can thus serve as a powerful geochronometer in the mid-Eocene portion of the Cenozoic timescale. We then exploit this potential by calibrating the geochronology of the recovered middle Eocene timescale between magnetic polarity Chrons C18n.1n and C21n. Comparison with previous timescales shows similarities, but also notable differences in durations of certain magnetic polarity chrons. We

  7. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.

    2009-12-01

    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  8. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K; Bendle, James A P; Bohaty, Steven M; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E; McKay, Robert M; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-06-11

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52-50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ~49-50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2-4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling.

  9. HLA studies of Highland and Coastal New Guineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, G; Bhatia, K; Honeyman, M; Doran, T; Messel, N; Hakos, G; Tarlinton, D; Amos, D B; Bashir, H

    1985-04-01

    The HLA profile of three New Guinean populations, two Highland (Asaro, Watut), and one Coastal is presented. The Highland populations are characterized by a low average number of alleles segregating at the HLA loci and also by a low mean value of heterozygosity at these loci. The genetic affinities of the two Highland groups with other Melanesian populations in the Pacific are remote. The Coastal group, on the other hand, shows strong similarities in its antigenic diversity and haplotypic combinations with other Melanesian populations. Nonetheless, the two Highland groups show significant divergence from each other in terms of allelic and haplotypic frequencies. Two different waves of migration settled in the Highlands of New Guinea between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago, and it is possible that the Watut, an Angan speaking group, represents the remnants of the first migration into the interior, whereas the Asaro, members of the Eastern Central family of the Trans-New Guinea phylum, arrived at a later date.

  10. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  11. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  12. A terrestrial Eocene stack: tying terrestrial lake ecology to marine carbon cycling through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; Musher, D.; Rosengard, S. Z.; Vankeuren, M. A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The lacustrine Green River Formation is known to span ≥15 million years through the early-middle Eocene, and recent work on radioisotopic dating has provided a framework on which to build ties to the orbitally-tuned marine Eocene record. Here we present a spliced stack of Fischer assay data from drilled cores of the Green River Formation that span both an East-West and a North-South transect of the Uinta Basin of Utah. Detailed work on two cores demonstrate that Fischer assay measurements covary with total organic carbon and bulk carbon isotopes, allowing us to use Fisher assay results as a representative carbon cycling proxy throughout the stack. We provide an age model for this core record by combining radioisotopic dates of tuff layers with frequency analysis of Fischer assay measurements. Identification of orbital frequencies tied directly to magnetochrons through radioisotopic dates allows for a direct comparison of the terrestrial to the marine Eocene record. Our analysis indicates that the marker beds used to correlate the stack cores represent periods of enhanced lake productivity and extreme carbon burial; however, unlike the hyperthermal events that are clearly marked in the marine Eocene record, the hydrocarbon-rich "Mahogany Bed" period of burial does not correspond to a clear carbon isotope excursion. This suggests that the terrestrial realm may have experienced extreme ecological responses to relatively small perturbations in the carbon cycle during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. To investigate the ecological responses to carbon cycle perturbations through the hydrocarbon rich beds, we analyzed a suite of microbial biomarkers, finding evidence for cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and potentially green sulfur bacteria. These taxa indicate fluctuating oxic/anoxic conditions in the lake during abrupt intervals of carbon burial, suggesting a lake biogeochemical regime with no modern analogues.

  13. "Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwick, James

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with…

  14. Impact ejecta at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F; Fung, Megan K; Wright, James D; Katz, Miriam E; Kent, Dennis V

    2016-10-14

    Extraterrestrial impacts have left a substantial imprint on the climate and evolutionary history of Earth. A rapid carbon cycle perturbation and global warming event about 56 million years ago at the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) was accompanied by rapid expansions of mammals and terrestrial plants and extinctions of deep-sea benthic organisms. Here, we report the discovery of silicate glass spherules in a discrete stratigraphic layer from three marine P-E boundary sections on the Atlantic margin. Distinct characteristics identify the spherules as microtektites and microkrystites, indicating that an extraterrestrial impact occurred during the carbon isotope excursion at the P-E boundary. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  16. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  17. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  18. Eocene volcanism and the origin of horizon A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Towe, K.M.

    1971-01-01

    A series of closely time-equivalent deposits that correlate with seismic reflector horizon A exists along the coast of eastern North America. These sediments of Late-Early to Early-Middle Eocene age contain an authigenic mineral suite indicative of the alteration of volcanic glass. A volcanic origin for these siliceous deposits onshore is consistent with a volcanic origin for the cherts of horizon A offshore.

  19. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma. Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  20. Webspinners in Early Eocene amber from western India (Insecta, Embiodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin, western India. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa.

  1. A small galliform bird from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation, northwestern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Dyke, Gareth John

    2007-01-01

    A pair of fossilized imprints of feet represent the first published galliform (landfowl) specimen from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of northwest Denmark. The specimen is referable to Galliformes due to the presence of a distinctly asymmetric trochlea metatarsi III. The specimen appears distinct...... from previously described Eocene Galliformes (e.g. Gallinuloididae, Quercymegapodiidae and Paraortygidae) and may represent a new taxon of Galliformes, increasing the diversity of this group in the Lower Eocene....

  2. Lytostratigraphy of the eocene sediments in the Serbian-Macedonian Massif, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanova, Violeta; Petrov, Gose; Sijakova-Ivanova, Tena

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the lithostratography of the eocene sedimentary series in the Serbian Macedonian massif on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Sediments of Eocene age in the Serbian Macedonian massif are represented in the Delchevo, Deve Bair and Strumi ca basin, with the orientation of NW-SE to S-J. With lithostratigraphic studies of eocene sediments in the basins in SMM, 3 superposition lithostratigraphic units (lithozones) were isolated:...

  3. Multiple states in the late Eocene ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, M. L. J.; von der Heydt, A. S.; Kliphuis, M.; Viebahn, J.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) marks a major step within the Cenozoic climate in going from a greenhouse into an icehouse state, with the formation of a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet. The roles of steadily decreasing CO2 concentrations versus changes in ocean circulation at the EOT are still debated and the threshold for Antarctic glaciation is obscured by uncertainties in global geometry. Here, a detailed study of the late Eocene ocean circulation is carried out using an ocean general circulation model under two slightly different geography reconstructions of the middle-to-late Eocene (38 Ma). Using the same atmospheric forcing, both geographies give a profoundly different equilibrium ocean circulation state. The underlying reason for this sensitivity is the presence of multiple equilibria characterised by either North or South Pacific deep water formation. A possible shift from a southern towards a northern overturning circulation would result in significant changes in the global heat distribution and consequently make the Southern Hemisphere climate more susceptible for significant cooling and ice sheet formation on Antarctica.

  4. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  5. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  6. Post-Eocene tectonics of the Central Taurus Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün AKAY

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available In post-Eocene time, the Central Taurus mountains have been subjected to four episodes of compression in probably Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene, Langhian, Upper Tortonian, and Upper Pliocene to recent times. In the Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene compressional period, Ecemiş, and Beyşehir conjugate faults which have both vertical and lateral components have been formed after an N - S compression. In the Langhian compression period, the Lycian nappes were emplaced from the NW to SE and this tectonic movement has also effected the Antalya and the Adana Miocene basins. In the Upper Tortonian compression period, firstly a WSW-ENE compression has resulted in the formation of Aksu thrust, Kırkkavak oblique reverse fault, Köprüçay syncline, Beşkonak anticline, Radyoring anticline, Taşağıl syncline and Kargı reverse faults. In this period a later phase of N — S compression has formed Çakallar folds, Gökçeler normal fault, the smooth anticline in Mut Karaman and the syncline in Ulukışla. In the latest compressional period from Upper Pliocene to recent, first on E — W compression which can be recognized by some mesoscopic faults has been developed and later a N — S compression resulted in the formation of the active faults on Ecemiş and Gökçeler faults, and the Antalya bay graben.

  7. First South American Agathis (Araucariaceae), Eocene of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Escapa, Ignacio H; Cúneo, N Rubén; Kooyman, Robert M; Johnson, Kirk R; Iglesias, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Agathis is an iconic genus of large, ecologically important, and economically valuable conifers that range over lowland to upper montane rainforests from New Zealand to Sumatra. Exploitation of its timber and copal has greatly reduced the genus's numbers. The early fossil record of Agathis comes entirely from Australia, often presumed to be its area of origin. Agathis has no previous record from South America. We describe abundant macrofossils of Agathis vegetative and reproductive organs, from early and middle Eocene rainforest paleofloras of Patagonia, Argentina. The leaves were formerly assigned to the New World cycad genus Zamia. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. is the first South American occurrence and the most complete representation of Agathis in the fossil record. Its morphological features are fully consistent with the living genus. The most similar living species is A. lenticula, endemic to lower montane rainforests of northern Borneo. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. demonstrates the presence of modern-aspect Agathis by 52.2 mya and vastly increases the early range and possible areas of origin of the genus. The revision from Zamia breaks another link between the Eocene and living floras of South America. Agathis was a dominant, keystone element of the Patagonian Eocene floras, alongside numerous other plant taxa that still associate with it in Australasia and Southeast Asia. Agathis extinction in South America was an integral part of the transformation of Patagonian biomes over millions of years, but the living species are disappearing from their ranges at a far greater rate.

  8. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A; van Cappelle, M; Abels, H A; Ladant, J-B; Trabucho-Alexandre, J; France-Lanord, C; Donnadieu, Y; Vandenberghe, J; Rigaudier, T; Lécuyer, C; Terry, D; Adriaens, R; Boura, A; Guo, Z; Soe, Aung Naing; Quade, J; Dupont-Nivet, G; Jaeger, J-J

    2014-09-25

    The strong present-day Asian monsoons are thought to have originated between 25 and 22 million years (Myr) ago, driven by Tibetan-Himalayan uplift. However, the existence of older Asian monsoons and their response to enhanced greenhouse conditions such as those in the Eocene period (55-34 Myr ago) are unknown because of the paucity of well-dated records. Here we show late Eocene climate records revealing marked monsoon-like patterns in rainfall and wind south and north of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen. This is indicated by low oxygen isotope values with strong seasonality in gastropod shells and mammal teeth from Myanmar, and by aeolian dust deposition in northwest China. Our climate simulations support modern-like Eocene monsoonal rainfall and show that a reinforced hydrological cycle responding to enhanced greenhouse conditions counterbalanced the negative effect of lower Tibetan relief on precipitation. These strong monsoons later weakened with the global shift to icehouse conditions 34 Myr ago.

  9. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  10. Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila

    2017-12-01

    The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. A new seed fossil genus and species, Passifloroidesperma sogamosense gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that P. sogamosense is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interest groups can bring about changes in the water policy arena. ... Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1 as a case study. ... attempts to influence public policy and their representation ... ties concern the relations between state actors and non-state ..... 'bears responsibility here [LHWP], since it is the sponsor of.

  12. Proliferation and Shoot Recovery among the East African Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of East African highland banana (EA-AAA banana) (Musa spp.) is limited by scarcity of planting materials, attributable to their low natural proliferation ability. Under natural field conditions, the EA-AAA bananas greatly differ in suckering ability. In vitro micropropagation has been adopted as an alternative means ...

  13. Social capital in water user organizations of the Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how new water user organizations have developed in formerly state managed irrigation systems in the Ecuadorian highlands since the 1990s. The article is based on an in-depth case study of the Pillaro irrigation system and illustrations of other cases. These water user

  14. Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the Highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the highlands of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...

  15. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Córdova, José Pablo Prado; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected...

  16. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  17. Landslide monitoring in the Atlantic Highlands area, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Ashland, Francis X.; Fiore, Alex R.

    2017-08-25

    Shallow and deep-seated landslides have occurred episodically on the steep coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands area (Boroughs of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands) in New Jersey. The oldest documented deep-seated landslide occurred in April 1782 and significantly changed the morphology of the bluff. However, recent landslides have been mostly shallow in nature and have occurred during large storms with exceptionally heavy rainfall. These shallow landslides have resulted in considerable damage to residential property and local infrastructure and threatened human safety.The recent shallow landslides in the area (locations modified from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection) consist primarily of slumps and flows of earth and debris within areas of historical landslides or on slopes modified by human activities. Such landslides are typically triggered by increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure caused by sustained and intense rainfall associated with spring nor’easters and late summer–fall tropical cyclones. However, the critical relation between rainfall, soil-moisture conditions, and landslide movement has not been fully defined. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently monitoring hillslopes within the Atlantic Highlands area to better understand the hydrologic and meteorological conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation.

  18. 27 CFR 9.122 - Western Connecticut Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highlands. 9.122 Section 9.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... (Litchfield-Hartford-New Haven County line); (6) The boundary then travels approximately 7 miles west along the Litchfield-New Haven County line to Connecticut Route #8 at Waterville in the Town of Waterbury...

  19. Predation drives nesting success in moist highland grasslands: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By focusing on process-oriented data rather than inventory-type data, this study provides a robust understanding of the effects of agricultural management on grassland bird reproductive output in the moist highland grasslands (MHGs) of South Africa. Four-hundred and four nests of 12 grassland-breeding bird species were ...

  20. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  1. Interrill and rill erodibility in the northern andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baigorria, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information describing the physical processes causing soil erosion in the Andean Highlands, especially those related to interrill and rill erodibility factors. To assess how susceptible are soils to erosion in this region, field measurements of interrill (Ki) and rill

  2. Descartes highlands: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes highlands. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.

  3. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays

  4. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed

  5. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  6. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-10-09

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  7. Stratigraphy of Eocene Sediments in the Soutwest Thrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin SÜMENGEN

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The area concerned is situated in the Gelibolu peninsula, north of the Saros Bay and northwest of the Marmara sea sediments of Upper Cretaceous to Miocene age, having a variety of fades crop out SW of Thrace. During the present survey, the goal was to examine the stratigraphic features of the Eocene sediments in the region. The Tertiary basin is underlain by an ophiolitic complex emplaced prior to Maastrichtian and limestone of Maastrichtian to Palaeocene age. The base of the limestone is not exposed within the region. The Tertiary transgression began in the Early Eocene in the Gelibolu peninsula. Massive mudstones, sandstone sequences that become thicker and coarser upward, and channel fill sediments are the first products of this transgression (Karaağaç limanı formation. This sequence is overlain by deltaic sediments beginning with massive mudstones and becoming thicker and coarser upward (Koyun limanı formation. These sediments are conformably and transitionally overlain by interbedded mudstone and sandstone, cut by channel fill deposits (Rcitepe formation. This formation was formed by meandering rivers. The sea that progressed inward to the Gelibolu peninsula during the Early Eocene began to become shallower again at the beginning of Lutetian and as a result, the region as a whole became a positive area during the Middle Lutetian. During the Late Lutetian, a new transgression occurred in the entire region. The first product of this transgression was a limestone (Soğucak formation. This limestone which was deposited in a shallow sea environment is locally intercalated with sandstone and conglomerate. The sea became deeper from the beginning of Upper Eocene. Firstly, turbiditic sandstone, and mudstone interbedded hemipelagic mudstone (Gaziköy formation with tuff, and carbonate mudstone and massive mudstone (Burgaz formation were deposited. These units are products of flat basins. These are, in turn, overlain by sequences consisting of

  8. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran

    2014-03-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.

  9. Paleocene–Eocene warming and biotic response in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Iakovleva, A.I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Aleksandrova, G.N.; Gnibidenko, Z.N.; Schouten, S.; Sluijs, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Paleocene–Eocene (ca. 60–52 Ma) sea-surface temperature record from sediments deposited in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea. TEX86 paleothermometry indicates long-term late Paleocene (~17 °C ca. 59 Ma) to early Eocene (26 °C at 52 Ma) sea-surface warming, consistent with trends

  10. Warm and wet conditions in the Arctic region during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Donders, T.H.; Schoon, P.L.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Kim, J.-H.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several episodes of abrupt and transient warming, each lasting between 50,000 and 200,000 years, punctuated the long-term warming during the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene (58 to 51 Myr ago) epochs1,2. These hyperthermal events, such as the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (EMT2) that took place about

  11. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  12. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  13. Paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatic constraints on the global Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Stickley, Catherine E.; Bukry, David

    2015-01-01

    Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy are summarized and correlated with the most recent geologic time scale as well as with the global oxygen isotope and eustatic sea level curves. The global distribution of Eocene diatom/silicoflagellate-bearing sediments varies considerably, reflecting changing oceanic gateways and paleoceanography with changing patterns that are punctuated by four major depositional events.

  14. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at

  15. Paleocene-Eocene warming and biotic response in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Iakovleva, Alina I.; Reichart, Gert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165599081; Aleksandrova, Galina N.; Gnibidenko, Zinaida N.; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Sluijs, Appy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748

    2014-01-01

    We present a Paleocene-Eocene (ca. 60-52 Ma) sea-surface temperature record from sediments deposited in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea. TEX86 paleothermometry indicates long-term late Paleocene (~17 °C ca. 59 Ma) to early Eocene (26 °C at 52 Ma) sea-surface warming, consistent with trends

  16. Revision of Eocene Antarctic carpet sharks (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes) from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, was once called the 'Rosetta Stone' of Southern Hemisphere palaeobiology, because this small island provides the most complete and richly fossiliferous Palaeogene sequence in Antarctica. Among fossil marine vertebrate remains, chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Eocene Antarctic fish fauna. The fossiliferous sediments on Seymour Island are from the La Meseta Formation, which was originally divided into seven stratigraphical levels, TELMs 1-7 (acronym for Tertiary Eocene La Meseta) ranging from the upper Ypresian (early Eocene) to the late Priabonian (late Eocene). Bulk sampling of unconsolidated sediments from TELMs 5 and 6, which are Ypresian (early Eocene) and Lutetian (middle Eocene) in age, respectively, yielded very rich and diverse chondrichthyan assemblages including over 40 teeth of carpet sharks representing two new taxa, Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov. and Ceolometlaouia pannucae gen. et sp. nov. Two additional teeth from TELM 5 represent two different taxa that cannot be assigned to any specific taxon and thus are left in open nomenclature. The new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic selachian faunas but also allows two previous orectolobiform records to be re-evaluated. Accordingly, Stegostoma cf. faciatum is synonymized with Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov., whereas Pseudoginglymostoma cf. brevicaudatum represents a nomen dubium . The two new taxa, and probably the additional two unidentified taxa, are interpreted as permanent residents, which most likely were endemic to Antarctic waters during the Eocene and adapted to shallow and estuarine environments.

  17. Earliest record of the fossil snake Palaeophis from the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Cuny, Gilles; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. – The earliest record of Palaeophis ever found in Denmark is here based on vertebrae described from the Paleocene/Eocene Stolleklint Clay of the Isle of Mors (northern Denmark). Although much smaller, they appear quite similar to the Eocene vertebra described from the Fur Formation...

  18. Dispersal of thermophilic beetles across the intercontinental Arctic forest belt during the early Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Adam J; Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Metscher, Brian D; Wolf-Schwenninger, Karin; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2017-10-11

    Massive biotic change occurred during the Eocene as the climate shifted from warm and equable to seasonal and latitudinally stratified. Mild winter temperatures across Arctic intercontinental land bridges permitted dispersal of frost-intolerant groups until the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, while trans-Arctic dispersal in thermophilic groups may have been limited to the early Eocene, especially during short-lived hyperthermals. Some of these lineages are now disjunct between continents of the northern hemisphere. Although Eocene climate change may have been one of the most important drivers of these ancient patterns in modern animal and plant distributions, its particular events are rarely implicated or correlated with group-specific climatic requirements. Here we explored the climatic and geological drivers of a particularly striking Neotropical-Oriental disjunct distribution in the rove beetle Bolitogyrus, a suspected Eocene relict. We integrated evidence from Eocene fossils, distributional and climate data, paleoclimate, paleogeography, and phylogenetic divergence dating to show that intercontinental dispersal of Bolitogyrus ceased in the early Eocene, consistent with the termination of conditions required by thermophilic lineages. These results provide new insight into the poorly known and short-lived Arctic forest community of the Early Eocene and its surviving lineages.

  19. Profundal sideritic mudstone from an Eocene lake in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual iron-meromictic Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Upper Cretaceous Darby pluton and on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. The lake sediments included a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital grains, mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidites. The lacustrine rocks graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake occupied a small, deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixis was apparently stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixis decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the dissolved iron in the monoimolimnion was probably the Eocene basalt. Carbon isotope analysis of the siderite suggests that the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (δ 13 C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbonate formed during methanogenic fermentation

  20. Natural product terpenoids in Eocene and Miocene conifer fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Angelika; White, James D; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-08-30

    Numerous saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, but not polar compounds, originating from plants and microorganisms (biomarkers) have been reported in sediments, coals, and petroleum. Here we describe natural product terpenoids found in two fossil conifers, Taxodium balticum (Eocene) and Glyptostrobus oregonensis (Miocene). A similar terpenoid pattern is also observed in extant Taxodium distichum. The preservation of characteristic terpenoids (unaltered natural products) in the fossil conifers supports their systematic assignment to the Cypress family (Cupressaceae sensu lato). The results also show that fossil conifers can contain polar terpenoids, which are valuable markers for (paleo)chemosystematics and phylogeny.

  1. Climatic conditions governing extensive Azolla bloom during the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rolande; Speelman, Eveline N.; Barke, Judith; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Sinninge Damste, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous amounts of intact mega- and microspores from the free floating aquatic fern Azolla were found in sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expedition 302, indicating that Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. In general, the Early/Middle Eocene is characterized by enhanced greenhouse conditions with elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Arctic (~10°C), while tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were only a little warmer than today (with a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 32-34 °C) (Pearson et al., 2007). The consequently reduced temperature gradient between the equator and the poles and the presence of freshwater at the North Pole as indicated by the presence of the freshwater fern Azolla (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) provide important boundary conditions for understanding the hydrological cycle and latent heat transport during this interval. Here we reconstruct variations in SST and mean annual air temperature using the TEX86 and MBT temperature proxies for the Azolla interval. Sediments from around the Arctic Basin have been analyzed, including samples from Alaska, the Mackenzie Basin, Greenland (IODP core 913b), and Denmark. Furthermore, a high resolution sea surface temperature record for the Azolla interval has been constructed from sediment samples from the Lomonosov Ridge, showing a cyclic signal. Model experiments have shown that the here confirmed low equator-to-pole temperature gradient modulated the hydrological cycle. Since the growth of Azolla is restricted to low salinity conditions, changes in the hydrological cycle are proposed to coincide with the cyclic occurrence of Azolla throughout the interval. To confirm the overlapping presence of high quantities of Azolla and increased precipitation, changes in the hydrogen cycle are reconstructed by creating a high resolution hydrogen isotope record throughout the interval. By performing compound specific analyses (δD) on terrestrial derived

  2. A new burmagomphid dragonfly from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Petrulevičius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new burmagomphid anisopteran, Satelitala soberana gen. et sp. nov. is described from the lower Eocene of Laguna del Hunco, Patagonia, Argentina. The new genus is characterised by hindwing characters such as the subdiscoidal triangle not elongated; anal loop divided longitudinally; paranal cell divided longitudinally; five terminal cells between RP and MA; five terminal cells between MP and CuA; and obtuse angle between PsA and CuP+AA. Burmagomphid dragonflies were represented so far only by one specimen from the middle Cretaceous of Southeast Asia. This new record extends the distribution to Patagonia, to the Cenozoic, and also to paleolake deposits.

  3. The megalithic complex of highland Jambi: An archaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Sumatra remain one of the most neglected regions of insular Southeast Asia in terms of history and archaeology. No comprehensive research program incorporating both a survey and excavations within a defined geographical or environmental zone has been carried out there since Van der Hoop (1932 conducted his study of the megaliths on the Pasemah plateau in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Van der Hoop’s investigations and several other archaeological research activities at places such as northwest Lampung (McKinnon 1993, Pasemah (Sukendar and Sukidjo 1983-84; Caldwell 1997; Kusumawati and Sukendar 2000, Kerinci (Laporan 1995a, 1996a, and the Minangkabau heartland (Miksic 1986, 1987, 2004 have placed special emphasis on the megalithic remains. As a result, the megaliths are by far the bestknown archaeological attraction of the Sumatran highlands.

  4. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  5. A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-10-01

    The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

  6. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  7. How many upper Eocene microspherule layers: More than we thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific controversy over the origin of upper Eocene tektites, microtektites and other microspherules cannot be logically resolved until it is determined just how many events are involved. The microspherule-bearing beds in marine sediments have been dated using standard biozonal techniques. Although a powerful stratigraphic tool, zonal biostratigraph has its limitations. One is that if an event, such as a microspherule occurrence, is observed to occur in a zone at one locality and then a similar event observed in the same zone at another locality, it still may be unwarranted to conclude that these events exactly correlate. To be in a zone a sample only need be between the fossil events that define the zone boundaries. It is often very difficult to accurately determine where within a zone one might be. Further, the zone defining events do not everywhere occur at the same points in time. That is, the ranges of the defining taxa are not always filled. Thus, the length of time represented by a zone (but not, of course, its chronozone) can vary from place to place. These problems can be offset by use of chronostratigraphic modelling techniques such as Graphic Correlation. This technique was used to build a Cretaceous and Cenozoic model containing fossil, magnetopolarity, and other events. The scale of the model can be demonstrated to be linear with time. This model was used to determine the chronostratigraphic position of upper Eocene microspherule layers.

  8. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  9. Wet tropical climate in SE Tibet during the Late Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrel, Philippe; Eymard, Ines; Leloup, Philippe-Herve; Maheo, Gweltaz; Olivier, Nicolas; Sterb, Mary; Gourbet, Loraine; Wang, Guocan; Jing, Wu; Lu, Haijian; Li, Haibing; Yadong, Xu; Zhang, Kexin; Cao, Kai; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-08-10

    Cenozoic climate cooling at the advent of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ~33.7 Ma ago, was stamped in the ocean by a series of climatic events albeit the impact of this global climatic transition on terrestrial environments is still fragmentary. Yet archival constraints on Late Eocene atmospheric circulation are scarce in (tropical) monsoonal Asia, and the paucity of terrestrial records hampers a meaningful comparison of the long-term climatic trends between oceanic and continental realms. Here we report new sedimentological data from the Jianchuan basin (SE Tibet) arguing for wetter climatic conditions in monsoonal Asia at ~35.5 Ma almost coevally to the aridification recognized northwards in the Xining basin. We show that the occurrence of flash-flood events in semi-arid to sub-humid palustrine-sublacustrine settings preceded the development of coal-bearing deposits in swampy-like environments, thus paving the way to a more humid climate in SE Tibet ahead from the EOT. We suggest that this moisture redistribution possibly reflects more northern and intensified ITCZ-induced tropical rainfall in monsoonal Asia around 35.5 Ma, in accordance with recent sea-surface temperature reconstructions from equatorial oceanic records. Our findings thus highlight an important period of climatic upheaval in terrestrial Asian environments ~2-4 millions years prior to the EOT.

  10. Revolutionary and Christian Ecumenes and Desire for Modernity in the Vietnamese Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by a critical reading of James Scott's The Art of Not Being Governed (2009) which argued that Highlanders in Southeast Asia have intentionally evaded ‘state capture and state formations’, I offer a contrasting vision of Highlander motivations and desires from the Central Highlands...... in scholarship but in such phrases as ‘remote and backward areas’. For postcolonial Vietnam, I show that Highlanders were often motivated by the desire to become modern, and enacted such desires by joining ecumenes that embody modern universals, in particular revolutionary and Christian ecumenes, exemplifying...... oppositional pathways to modernity that contrast with those offered by authors Tania Li and Holly High....

  11. Diachronous ranges of benthonic Foraminifera in the Eocene of Alabama and South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, G.D.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen species of benthonic Foraminifera reported by Bandy (1949) from the Eocene of Little Stave Creek in Clarke County, Alabama were identified from the middle eocene Santee Limestone and the upper Eocene Dry Branch Formation in Aiken and Barnwell counties, South Carolina. Of the 17 species, seven occurred in South Carolina stratigraphically above or below the ranges listed by Bandy. Bandy made a detailed study of Foraminifera from the Claibornian and Jacksonian Tallahatta, Lisbon, Gosport, Moodys Branch, and Yazoo formations exposed on Little Stave Creek and plotted the stratigraphic ranges within the section of numerous species. The authors' samples came from well cores at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Of 13 species from the middle Eocene Santee and also reported by Bandy, four are stratigraphically below the lowest occurrence listed by Bandy, and one is stratigraphically above the highest occurrence. Of four species from the upper Eocene Dry Branch Formation and also listed by Bandy, two are stratigraphically above his highest occurrence. Dockery and Nystrom (1992) and Campbell (1993) have described diachroneity among mollusks in the Eocene of South Carolina. Caution should be used in relying on a small number of species in correlating Eocene deposits in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains

  12. First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada’s Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Brochu, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada’s High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early – middle Eocene (∼53–50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada’s easternmost Arctic – Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada’s westernmost Arctic Island – Banks Island, Northwest Territories – they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. Principal Findings We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower – middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Conclusions/Significance These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early – middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  13. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  14. Eocene relatives of cod icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentary skull bones and vertebra from the Upper Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour (Marambio) Island, Antarctic Peninsula have been described as gadiform fishes, informally named “Mesetaichthys”. Here we describe jaws as Mesetaichthys jerzmanskae n. g. and n. sp., and refer this taxon...... to the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. This group is almost unknown as fossils. Similarities to the living, ‘primitive’ nototheniid Dissostichus eleginoides are indicated in the dentition. Gadiform evolution in the Paleocene-Eocene, and the possibility of a correlation between the origin and evolution...... of notothenioids in connection with the deterioration of the climate in Antarctica during the Late Eocene-Oligocene is discussed....

  15. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  16. Eocene antiquity of the European nyctitheriid euarchontan mammal Darbonetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J. Hooker

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Until now Darbonetus was represented by only one valid species, the type species D. aubrelongensis from the early Oligocene of the Quercy region, France. A late appearance of this genus and of its closest relative Amphidozotherium have been thought to result from dispersal from outside western Europe, rather than a local ancestry earlier in the late Eocene. Here, a new species, Darbonetus sigei sp. nov., is described from the middle Priabonian site of La Débruge, France. Although clearly closely related to D. aubrelongensis, D. sigei shows less reduction of its p2, p3, and m3 than in the more derived type species. The early age of D. sigei suggests that its origins were within the still isolated central European island and that it is unnecessary to invoke dispersal from another continent.

  17. Discovery of Eocene adakites in Primor'e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, A. A.; Nechaev, V. P.; Nechaeva, E. V.; Blokhin, M. G.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the first results of petrochemical and geochemical studies (by the ICP-MS technique) of adakites comprising a small extrusive body in the Ilistaya River basin (West Primor'e). Based on the data of radioisotopic dating (K-Ar method), the age of adakites corresponds to the Middle Eocene (45.52 ± 1.1 Ma). In terms of the content of most microelements and the value of the Sr/Y ratio, the discussed rocks are close to Paleogene adakites from northwest China, the Kitakami massif in Japan, and the northwestern margin of North America; these rocks are attributed to gaps in the subducted plate (slab windows). Additionally, the adakites found in Primor'e significantly differ from adakite-like rocks found in Tibet formed during melting of bottoms of the superthickened continental crust. Thus, this discovery proves the hypothesis about formation of slab windows at the Paleogene stage of the region's evolution.

  18. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  19. Burial No. 67 of the Keliysky Burial Ground (Ingushetia Highlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Narozhny Evgeniy I; Narozhny Vitaliy E.

    2012-01-01

    Martial burial No, 67 from excavations of Keliyskiy burial ground in Ingushetia highlands is introduced into scientific use. The grave goods contained in the burial are quite traditional: a knife, arrowheads, belt buckles dating from the Golden Horde epoch. An iron helmet with a visor is a find standing apart. Helmets of the kind are similar not only to those found in burial sites of Ingushetia, but also to the helmets discovered in the burials of the Golden Horde nomads, which makes it possi...

  20. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  1. Welding in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinon, Mike; Mendez, Alfredo; Ward, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives examples of the qualification of welding procedures intended for use in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Two examples are given of welding procedures which required the development of a unique approach in each case after an early attempt using inherited standard procedures failed. The main conclusions are the requirement for caution when converting ASMEIX welding procedures for use with AS 2885.2, the requirement under the Australian Code to 'design out' the risk of hydrogen assisted cold cracking, and the importance of choosing an upper-end carbon equivalent when welding high carbon equivalent fittings

  2. Report on stakeholder evaluation of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report gives an overview of completed research activities on the value ascribed by users, local communities and stakeholders to functions, goods and services (including non‐use values) derived from the aquatic resources in the study areas. The perceived impact of factors such as environmental...... degradation, changing demand for goods and services and modified highland aquatic resources management practices on these values has also been assessed. To help structure this analysis stakeholder Delphi studies have been undertaken in each country involving representatives from all stakeholder groups...

  3. Farm management in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the

  4. Ky'osimba Onaanya: Understanding Productivity of East African Highland Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to East African highland banana (Musa spp. AAA-EA; hereafter referred to as ‘highland banana’), a primary staple food crop for over 30 million people in East Africa. This study explored the main and interactive effects

  5. Gaining ground : land reform and the constitution of community in the Tojolabal Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der G.

    2001-01-01

    This study reconstructs the process of land redistribution in an indigenous region of Chiapas, the Tojolabal Highlands, situated between the better known Central Highlands and the Lacandona Rainforest. Until 1930 this region was dominated by large private estates or fincas ,

  6. Tracing the Eocene-Oligocene transition: A case study from North Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvaček, Z.; Teodoridis, V.; Mach, K.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Dvořák, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-66 ISSN 1214-1119 Keywords : boundary * climate * Early Oligocene * fauna * flora * Late Eocene * vegetation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2014

  7. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Straathof, J.; Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  8. Fossil palm beetles refine upland winter temperatures in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S Bruce; Morse, Geoffrey E; Greenwood, David R; Mathewes, Rolf W

    2014-06-03

    Eocene climate and associated biotic patterns provide an analog system to understand their modern interactions. The relationship between mean annual temperatures and winter temperatures-temperature seasonality-may be an important factor in this dynamic. Fossils of frost-intolerant palms imply low Eocene temperature seasonality into high latitudes, constraining average winter temperatures there to >8 °C. However, their presence in a paleocommunity may be obscured by taphonomic and identification factors for macrofossils and pollen. We circumvented these problems by establishing the presence of obligate palm-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae: Pachymerina) at three localities (a fourth, tentatively) in microthermal to lower mesothermal Early Eocene upland communities in Washington and British Columbia. This provides support for warmer winter Eocene climates extending northward into cooler Canadian uplands.

  9. Eocene Antarctic seasonality inferred from high-resolution stable isotope profiles of fossil bivalves and driftwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, E. J.; Ivany, L. C.; Miklus, N. M.; Uveges, B. T.; Junium, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene Epoch was a time of large-scale global climate change, experiencing both the warmest temperatures of the Cenozoic and the onset of southern hemisphere glaciation. The record of average global temperatures throughout this transition is reasonably well constrained, however considerably less is known about the accompanying changes in seasonality. Seasonally resolved temperature data provide a wealth of information not readily available from mean annual temperature data alone. These data are particularly important in the climatically sensitive high latitudes, as they can elucidate the means by which climate changes and the conditions necessary for the growth of ice sheets. Several recent studies, however, have suggested the potential for monsoonal precipitation regimes in the early-middle Eocene high latitudes, which complicates interpretation of seasonally resolved oxygen isotope records in shallow nearshore marine settings. Seasonal precipitation and runoff could create a brackish, isotopically depleted lens in these environments, depleting summertime δ18Ocarb and thereby inflating the inferred mean and range of isotope-derived temperatures. Here, we assess intra-annual variations in temperature in shallow nearshore Antarctic waters during the middle and late Eocene, inferred from high-resolution oxygen isotope profiles from accretionary bivalves of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. To address concerns related to precipitation and runoff, we also subsample exceptionally preserved fossil driftwood from within the formation and use seasonal differences in δ13Corg values to estimate the ratio of summertime to wintertime precipitation. Late Eocene oxygen isotope profiles exhibit strongly attenuated seasonal amplitudes and more enriched mean annual values in comparison with data from the middle Eocene. Preliminary fossil wood data are not indicative of a strongly seasonal precipitation regime, implying that intra-annual variation in oxygen

  10. Monophyly and extensive extinction of advanced eusocial bees: Insights from an unexpected Eocene diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced eusociality sometimes is given credit for the ecological success of termites, ants, some wasps, and some bees. Comprehensive study of bees fossilized in Baltic amber has revealed an unsuspected middle Eocene (ca. 45 million years ago) diversity of eusocial bee lineages. Advanced eusociality arose once in the bees with significant post-Eocene losses in diversity, leaving today only two advanced eusocial tribes comprising less than 2% of the total bee divers...

  11. CRUSTOSE CORALLINE ALGAL PAVEMENTS FROM LATE EOCENE COLLI BERICI OF NORTHERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    BASSI, DAVIDE

    2017-01-01

    The Eocene from the Prealpine region records the first phase of the crustose coralline algae flourishing in the Cenozoic. These algae are very frequent in the Marne di Priabona Formation (Late Eocene). This palaeoecological research involves ourcrop at Barbarano Vicentino(Vicenza) in the Colli Berici which is well known for its Paleogene stratigraphy. The coralline unit consists of a floatstone bank 6 m thick with rhodoliths and laminar crusts; it lies between macroforaminifer dominated limes...

  12. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  13. A mantle plume model for the Equatorial Highlands of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the Equatorial Highlands are the surface expressions of hot upwelling mantle plumes is considered via a series of mantle plume models developed using a cylindrical axisymmetric finite element code and depth-dependent Newtonian rheology. The results are scaled by assuming whole mantle convection and that Venus and the earth have similar mantle heat flows. The best model fits are for Beta and Atla. The common feature of the allowed viscosity models is that they lack a pronounced low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle. The shape of Venus's long-wavelength admittance spectrum and the slope of its geoid spectrum are also consistent with the lack of a low-viscosity zone. It is argued that the lack of an asthenosphere on Venus is due to the mantle of Venus being drier than the earth's mantle. Mantle plumes may also have contributed to the formation of some smaller highland swells, such as the Bell and Eistla regions and the Hathor/Innini/Ushas region.

  14. Development of the Philippine Mobile Belt in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Peña, Rolando E.; Tam, Tomas A.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Usui, Mayumi; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The origin of the Philippine Archipelago is characterized by the combination of the oceanic Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) and the Palawan Continental Block (PCB). This paper is focused on the geologic evolution of the PMB in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene. The study areas (northern Luzon) are situated in the central part of the PMB which is occupied by its typical components made up of a pre-Paleocene ophiolitic complex, Eocene successions, Eocene to Oligocene igneous complex and late Oligocene to Pliocene successions. Facies analysis of the middle Eocene and late Oligocene to early Pliocene successions was carried out to understand the depositional environment of their basins. Modal sandstone compositions, which reflect the basement geology of the source area, were analyzed. Major element geochemistry of sediments was considered to reconstruct the tectonic settings. The following brief history of the PMB is deduced. During the middle Eocene, the PMB was covered by mafic volcanic rocks and was a primitive island arc. In late Eocene to late Oligocene time, the intermediate igneous complex was added to the mafic PMB crust. By late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the PMB had evolved into a volcanic island arc setting. Contributions from alkalic rocks are detected from the rock fragments in the sandstones and chemical composition of the Zigzag Formation. During the middle Miocene to Pliocene, the tectonic setting of the PMB remained as a mafic volcanic island arc.

  15. A redescription of Lithornis vulturinus (Aves, Palaeognathae) from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Lindow, Bent

    2015-10-20

    The extinct Lithornithidae include several genera and species of flying palaeognathous birds of controversial affinities known from the Early Paleogene of North America and Europe. An almost complete, articulated skeleton from the Early Eocene marine deposits of the Fur Formation (Denmark) was recently assigned to Lithornis vulturinus Owen, 1840. This study provides a detailed redescription and comparison of this three-dimensionally preserved specimen (MGUH 26770), which is one of the best preserved representatives of the Lithornithidae yet known. We suggest that some new features might be diagnostic of Lithornis vulturinus, including a pterygoid fossa shallower than in other species of Lithornis and the presence of a small caudal process on the os palatinum. We propose that Lithornis nasi (Harrison, 1984) is a junior synonym of Lithornis vulturinus and we interpret minor differences in size and shape among the specimens as intraspecific variation. To date, Lithornis vulturinus is known with certainty from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene to Early Eocene of the North Sea Basin (Ølst, Fur and London Clay Formations). Among the four species of the genus Lithornis, the possibility that Lithornis plebius Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is conspecific with either Lithornis vulturinus or Lithornis promiscuus Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is discussed. The presence of closely related species of Lithornis on either side of the North Atlantic in the Early Eocene reflects the existence of a high-latitude land connection between Europe and North America at that time.

  16. The palaeobiology of high latitude birds from the early Eocene greenhouse of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Thomas A; Eberle, Jaelyn J

    2016-02-12

    Fossils attributable to the extinct waterfowl clade Presbyornithidae and the large flightless Gastornithidae from the early Eocene (~52-53 Ma) of Ellesmere Island, in northernmost Canada are the oldest Cenozoic avian fossils from the Arctic. Except for its slightly larger size, the Arctic presbyornithid humerus is not distinguishable from fossils of Presbyornis pervetus from the western United States, and the Gastornis phalanx is within the known size range of mid-latitude individuals. The occurrence of Presbyornis above the Arctic Circle in the Eocene could be the result of annual migration like that of its living duck and geese relatives, or it may have been a year-round resident similar to some Eocene mammals on Ellesmere and some extant species of sea ducks. Gastornis, along with some of the mammalian and reptilian members of the Eocene Arctic fauna, likely over-wintered in the Arctic. Despite the milder (above freezing) Eocene climate on Ellesmere Island, prolonged periods of darkness occurred during the winter. Presence of these extinct birds at both mid and high latitudes on the northern continents provides evidence that future increases in climatic warming (closer to Eocene levels) could lead to the establishment of new migratory or resident populations within the Arctic Circle.

  17. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

    2011-02-01

    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

  18. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    The Azolla interval, as encountered in Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean, is characterized by organic rich sediments ( 4wt% Corg). In general, high levels of organic matter may be caused by increased productivity, i.e. extensive growth of Azolla, and/or enhanced preservation of organic matter, or a combination of both. Anoxic (bottom) water conditions, expanded oxygen minimum zones, or increased sedimentation rates all potentially increase organic matter preservation. According to plate tectonic, bathymetric, and paleogeographic reconstructions, the Arctic Ocean was a virtually isolated shallow basin, with one possible deeper connection to the Nordic Seas represented by a still shallow Fram Strait (Jakobsson et al., 2007), hampering ventilation of the Arctic Basin. During the Azolla interval surface waters freshened, while at the same time bottom waters appear to have remained saline, indicating that the Arctic was highly stratified. The restricted ventilation and stratification in concert with ongoing export of organic matter most likely resulted in the development of anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column. Whereas the excess precipitation over evaporation maintained the freshwater lid, sustained input of Nordic Sea water is needed to keep the deeper waters saline. To which degree the Arctic Ocean exchanged with the Nordic Seas is, however, still largely unknown. Here we present a high-resolution trace metal record (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) for the expanded Early/Middle Eocene section capturing the Azolla interval from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 (ACEX) drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean. Euxinic conditions throughout the interval resulted in the efficient removal of redox sensitive trace metals from the water column. Using the sedimentary trace metal record we also constrained circulation in the Arctic Ocean by assessing the relative importance of trace metal input sources (i.e. fluvial, eolian, and

  19. Sea surface salinity of the Eocene Arctic Azolla event using innovative isotope modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Reichart, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions regarding Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. Our present research focuses on constraining the actual salinity of, and water sources for, the Eocene Arctic basin through the application of stable water isotope tracers. Precipitation pathways potentially strongly affect the final isotopic composition of water entering the Arctic Basin. Therefore we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3), developed by NCAR, combined with a recently developed integrated isotope tracer code to reconstruct the isotopic composition of global Eocene precipitation and run-off patterns. We further addressed the sensitivity of the modeled hydrological cycle to changes in boundary conditions, such as pCO2, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice formation. In this way it is possible to assess the effect of uncertainties in proxy estimates of these parameters. Overall, results of all runs with Eocene boundary conditions, including Eocene topography, bathymetry, vegetation patterns, TEX86 derived SSTs and pCO2 estimates, show the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. Enriched, precipitation weighted, isotopic values of around -120‰ are reported for the Arctic region. Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses (δD) on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model outcomes make it possible to verify climate reconstructions for the middle Eocene Arctic. Furthermore, recently, characteristic long-chain mid-chain ω20 hydroxy wax constituents of Azolla were found in ACEX sediments. δD values of these C32 - C36 diols provide insight into the isotopic composition of the Eocene Arctic surface water. As the isotopic signature of the runoff entering the Arctic is modelled, and the final isotopic composition of

  20. An ethnobotany of the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Saciragic, Lana; Trakić, Sabina; Chen, Eric C H; Gendron, Rachelle L; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Redžić, Sulejman; Alikadić, Emira; Arnason, John T

    2015-11-25

    This aim of this study is to report upon traditional knowledge and use of wild medicinal plants by the Highlanders of Lukomir, Bjelašnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The Highlanders are an indigenous community of approximately 60 transhumant pastoralist families who speak Bosnian (Bosanski) and inhabit a highly biodiverse region of Europe. This paper adds to the growing record of traditional use of wild plants within isolated communities in the Balkans. An ethnobotanical study using consensus methodology was conducted in Lukomir in Bjelašnica's mountains and canyons. Field work involved individual semi-structured interviews during which informants described plants, natural product remedies, and preparation methods on field trips, garden tours, while shepherding, or in settings of their choice. Plant use categories were ranked with informant consensus factor and incorporated into a phylogenetic tree. Plants cited were compared to other ethnobotanical surveys of the country. Twenty five people were interviewed, resulting in identification of 58 species (including two subspecies) from 35 families, which were cited in 307 medicinal, 40 food, and seven material use reports. Individual plant uses had an average consensus of five and a maximum consensus of 15 out of 25. There were a number of rare and endangered species used as poisons or medicine that are endemic to Flora Europaea and found in Lukomir. Ten species (including subspecies) cited in our research have not previously been reported in the systematic ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plant use in B&H: (Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Euphorbia myrsinites L., Jovibarba hirta (L.) Opiz, Lilium bosniacum (Beck) Fritsch, Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter ex Britton, Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, Rubus saxatilis L., Silene uniflora Roth ssp. glareosa (Jord.) Chater & Walters, Silene uniflora Roth ssp. prostrata (Gaudin) Chater & Walters, Smyrnium perfoliatum L.). New uses not reported in any of the

  1. Freshwater fishes of Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park. A total of 1778 fish specimens from three species were collected during surveys carried out in the Little Caledon River during 2002. The chubbyhead barb Barbus anoplus was the only indigenous species recorded, and comprised 99.5 of the total catch. Two of the three recorded species were alien {Cypnnus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss}. A further nine indigenous species could potentially occur within the park, though are unlikely to be permanent residents. Barriers formed by instream impoundments may prevent temporary immigration of indigenous fishes, but also limit the further spread of alien species in the park's rivers.

  2. Highland Uranium Solution Mining Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Exxon Minerals Co. proposes to conduct production-scale solution mining (in situ leaching) of uranium within the existing Highland Operation area in Converse County, Wyoming. The project would result in the temporary removal of 200 acres from grazing and the actual disturbance of 50 acres. About 4500 acre-ft of water will be withdrawn from the ore zone aquifer over the 10-year life of the project. There will be no discharge of liquid effluents from the project; atmospheric effluents will be within acceptable limits. Radiation doses at the nearest ranch resulting from solution mining activities were estimated. The project proposes the production and utilization of 1 to 3 million lb of uranium resources. It will not produce any significant socioeconomic impact on the local area. Alternatives to the project were considered, and conditions for issuing the source material license are listed

  3. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  4. The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    strategic value turned it into a battleground among various Vietnamese parties, France, and the United States. It was here that the outcome of the Indochina wars was determined, but at a terrible price for the local population. After the adoption of economic reforms in reunified Vietnam the Central......Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states and the wider East and Southeast Asia region. Far from isolated, the Central Highlands engaged in trade...... various rivalrous polities now known as Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, the area occupied a strategic position in the wider mainland Southeast Asia region. With the emergence of a unified, neo-Confucianist Vietnamese state the region lost its centrality until the late colonial era, when its...

  5. Middle Eocene seagrass facies from Apennine carbonate platforms (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Laura; Benedetti, Andrea; Brandano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Two stratigraphic sections located in the Latium-Abruzzi (Monte Porchio, Central Apennines, Central Italy) and in the Apulian carbonate platform (S. Cesarea-Torre Tiggiano, Salento, Southern Italy) were measured and sampled to document the sedimentological characteristic and the faunistic assemblages of Middle Eocene seagrass deposits. The faunistic assemblages are dominated by porcellaneous foraminifera Orbitolites, Alveolina, Idalina, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Triloculina and abundant hooked-shaped gypsinids, associated with hooked red algae and green algae Halimeda. Fabiania, rotaliids and textulariids as well as nummulitids are subordinated. The samples were assigned to Lutetian (SBZ13-16) according to the occurrence of Nummulites cf. lehneri, Alveolina ex. gr. elliptica, Idalina berthelini, Orbitolites complanatus, Slovenites decastroi and Medocia blayensis. At Santa Cesarea reticulate nummulites occur in association with Alveolina spp. and Halkyardia minima marking the lower Bartonian (SBZ17). Three main facies associations have been recognised: I) larger porcellaneous foraminiferal grainstones with orbitolitids and alveolinids deposited into high-energy shallow-water settings influenced by wave processes that reworked the sediments associated with a seagrass; II) grainstone to packstone with small porcellaneous foraminifera and abundant permanently-attached gypsinids deposited in a more protected (e.g., small embayment) in situ vegetated environment; III) bioclastic packstone with parautochthonous material reworked from the seagrass by rip currents and accumulated into rip channels in a slightly deeper environment. The biotic assemblages suggest that the depositional environment is consistent with tropical to subtropical vegetated environments within oligotrophic conditions.

  6. A new brontothere from the Eocene of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Averianov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper Eocene Youganwo Formation in Maoming Province, Guangdong Province, China, produced abundant remains of turtles and crocodiles, but mammalian remains are rare. The previously found mammals from Youganwo Formation include a nimravid carnivore and an amynodontid perissodactyl. Here we report on a new brontotheriid perissodactyl from the Youganwo Formation. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is described based on a maxillary fragment with P4 and M1–2 (SYSU-M-4. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the combination of a simple P4 without a hypocone with derived molars having large molar fossae and large anterolingual cingular cusp. A parsimony implied weighting character analysis places Maobrontops gen. nov. in the clade Embolotheriita as a sister taxon to the terminal subclade containing Nasamplus, Protembolotherium, and Embolotherium. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is one of the largest Asian brontotheres. The brontotheriid fauna of South China is endemic and includes at least three valid taxa: Dianotitan from Brontotheriita and Pygmaetitan and Maobrontops gen. nov. from Embolotheriita.

  7. METALLOGENY OF EOCENE SYNCOLLISIONAL GRANITES OF MOTAJICA AND PROSARA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geological setting is dominated by Eocene (48.7 Ma syncollisional granitoids in the form of a small pluton in the Motajica Mt. and in the form of numerous sills and dykes in the Prosara Mt. Microelement paragenesis of these magmatites, pegmatites, greisens and quartz veins are distinguished by U, Th, Ce, Y, P, Nb, Ta, B, Li, F, Be, Sn, Mo, W, Fe, Cu, Pb. These elements and 87Sr/86Sr and 18O isotopic values indicate the mantle origin of magma contaminated by relatively sterile lithospheric rocks. The most probable hypothesis of such a hybrid magma formation is the "slab break-off model". Deep erosion of Motajica granitoid pluton opened its acrobatholitic and epibatholitic level with numerous, but small pegmatite deposits (beryllites, tourmalinites, emeraldites and sylexites with piezoelectric quartz. Greisenization marked by strong silicification and muscovitization affected less than 1% of pluton. It is characterized by minor and accessory molybdenite, wolframite, huebnerite, scheelite, fluorite. Hydrothermal occurrences, galena and Fe minerals have only a mineralogical significance. Economically significant are numerous autochthonous kaolin deposits formed in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Prosara apomagmatic granitoids, exclusively granite dykes are metallogenetically sterile.

  8. Water isotopes and the Eocene. A tectonic sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrande, A. N.; Roberts, C. D.; Tripati, A.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2009-04-01

    The early Eocene (54 Million years ago) is one of the warmest periods in the last 65 Million years. Its climate is postulated to have been the result of enhanced greenhouse gas concentration, with CO2 roughly 4 times pre-industrial and methane 7 times pre-industrial concentrations. One interesting feature of this period to emerge recently is the intermittent presence of fossilized Azolla, a type of freshwater fern, in the Arctic Ocean. Synchronous (within dating error) with this appearance were major changes in the restriction of the Arctic Ocean and the other global oceans. We investigate this time period using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE-R, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model that incorporates water isotopes throughout the hydrologic cycle, making it an ideal model to test hypotheses of past climate change and to compare to paleoclimate proxy data. We assess the impact of tectonic variability by using minimal and maximal levels of restriction for the Arctic Ocean seaways. We find that the modulation of connectivity of these basins dramatically alters global salinity distribution, leading to large changes in ocean circulation. Greater restriction of the Arctic Basin is associated with fresh and relatively warmer conditions. The same mechanisms responsible for this redistribution of salt also change the global distribution of water isotopes, and can alias (water isotope) proxy climate signals of warmth.

  9. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  10. Geology of the Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Groenewald

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Gate Highlands National Park is underlain by stratigraphic units belonging to the upper part of the Karoo Sequence. These units include part of the Beaufort Group and the Molteno, Elliot, Clarens and Drakensberg Formations. Dolerite dykes and sills are intruded into the succession while recent alluvium and scree cover the valley floors and mountain slopes. The Beaufort Group is represented by red mudstone and light brown fine-grained feldspathic sandstone of the Tarkastad Subgroup. The Molteno Formation consists of medium- to coarse-grained trough cross-bedded sandstone, while the Elliot Formation comprises a thick succession of red mudstone, siltstone and interlayered fine- to medium-grained, light yellow-brown sandstone. The most characteristic feature of the park is the yellowish sandstone cliffs of the Clarens Formation. Cave formation is caused by exudation, differential weathering due to different degrees of carbonate cementation and undercutting of the sandstone. The highest peaks are capped by numerous layers of amygdaloidal and massive varieties of basaltic lava of the Drakensberg Formation. A possible volcanic pipe occurs in the eastern part of the park. The Elliot and Clarens Formations are rich in vertebrate fossil remains, especially Massospondylus sp. Remains of Notochampsa sp., Pachygenelus monus, Clarencea gracilis, Lanasaurus scalpridens and a cluster of unidentified dinosaur eggs have also been found. The formations underlying the Golden Gate Highlands National Park were formed during the Late Triassic Epoch and the Jurassic Period (roughly 150 to 230 million years ago. The strata in the park show very little structural deformation and the only obvious structures are faults which are intruded by dolerite.

  11. Determinants of child malnutrition in rural and urban Ecuadorian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Wijaya, Sylviana; Donoso, Silvana; Huybregts, Lieven

    2014-09-01

    To identify and compare the sociodemographic determinants of stunting, wasting and overweight among infants of urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands. Cross-sectional study. Nabon (rural) and Cuenca (urban) cantons, Azuay Province, Ecuador. A total of 703 children aged 0-24 months and their caregivers (227 rural and 476 urban) recruited during the period from June to September 2008. Stunting prevalence was significantly higher in the rural area (37·4 % v. 17·7 %; P child's age (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07; P = 0·011), maternal education (OR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99; P = 0·025) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P Rural determinants of stunting were maternal height (OR = 0·004; 95 % CI 0·00004, 0·39; P = 0·018), diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 2·18; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·21; P = 0·02), socio-economic status (OR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·98; P = 0·030) and child's age (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·005). Urban determinants were: maternal BMI for stunting (OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·99; P = 0·027), cough prevalence (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·96; P = 0·036) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·73; P = 0·011) for overweight, and hygiene for wasting (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89; P = 0·013). Infant malnutrition was associated with different sociodemographic determinants between urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands, a finding which contributes to prioritize the determinants to be assessed in nutritional interventions.

  12. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  13. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  14. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene–Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Paleocene–Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet, which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa. The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation—from the Miscellanea–Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites–Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites. Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P–E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  15. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    The degradation and fragmentation of the northern Ethiopian highlands has resulted in frequent encounters of large carnivores with humans and their livestock. We interviewed 500 randomly selected households to estimate economic impact of livestock predation by spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta...

  16. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    , Ethiopia. Brief Communication. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray. Teklay Kidane1, Aregai Woldegebriel2. Abstract. A cross-sectional community based goiter prevalence survey was conducted in February ...

  17. Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoso, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
    Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining

  18. The Map of General Wade’s Clans (1731, or Map of the Highlands Loyalties

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    MALKIN S.G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is prepared with the support of London School of Economics and Political Sciences in the scope of implementation of research projects “Imperial Identity in Britain and Russia: Scotland and Ukraine, 1707–1914” (2010 and “Modernizing Empires: Regular State on the Margins of Europe – Britain and Russia in the Age of Reason” (2013. The article analyzes the attempts of the British Military responsible for the appeacement of the Scottish Highlands in the first half of the 18th century, to localize rebellion with the help of military topography and ethnic cartography. The material deals with the representation, interpretation and use of cartographic information about the Highlands. Rhetoric strategies of the military cartographers, their aims and role are also the objects of the analysis.In the light of the evidence provided by the most famous analysts on the state of Scottish Highlands and, respectively, on the “the Highland Problem” (support for the second restoration of the Stuart dynasty on the British throne from the disaffected clans which were armed and loyal only to their chiefs, with the help of the analysis of official and non-official documentary on the “Highland Problem” and keeping in mind sense of active corporative unity which was spread among the Military during the first half of the XVIII century, respecting colonial questions and policy on the other imperial margins, the author sought to concentrate research of military topography and ethnic cartography of the “Highland Problem”, represented in this article, on the data represented in “The Description of the Highlands of Scotland” (1731 by Clement Lemprière. In the end it is possible to conclude that the data collected and arranged by Clement Lemprière was not sufficient for the military aims during campaigns against the rebels in the Highlands and served as a frame for account of General Wade on his deeds as Commanderin-Chief in Scotland

  19. Cosmologic principles of Moche-highland interactions during the Middle Horizon period in Jequetepeque

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, I argue that developments characterizing the Late Moche Period in the Jequetepeque Valley, including both the adoption of highland artistic styles at San José de Moro and Huaca Colorada, as well as the proliferation of Moche religious architecture throughout the hinterland, were significantly influenced by interactions with highland societies, including Wari and Cajamarca. I support this thesis by examining the reconfiguration of the chicha-based political economy and the int...

  20. New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John I

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria cases on the highlands west of Mount Kenya have been noticed since 10 – 20 years ago. It was not clear whether these cases were introduced from the nearby lowland or resulted from local transmission because of no record of vector mosquitoes on the highlands. Determination of presence and abundance of malaria vector is vital for effective control and epidemic risk assessment of malaria among both local residents and tourists. Methods A survey on 31 aquatic sites for the malaria-vector mosquitoes was carried out along the primary road on the highlands around Mount Kenya and the nearby Mwea lowland during April 13 to June 28, 2005. Anopheline larvae were collected and reared into adults for morphological and molecular species identification. In addition, 31 families at three locations of the highlands were surveyed using a questionnaire about their history of malaria cases during the past five to 20 years. Results Specimens of Anopheles arabiensis were molecularly identified in Karatina and Naro Moru on the highlands at elevations of 1,720 – 1,921 m above sea level. This species was also the only malaria vector found in the Mwea lowland. Malaria cases were recorded in the two highland locations in the past 10 years with a trend of increasing. Conclusion Local malaria transmission on the Mount Kenya highlands is possible due to the presence of An. arabiensis. Land use pattern and land cover might be the key factors affecting the vector population dynamics and the highland malaria transmission in the region.

  1. Upper Eocene Spherules at ODP Site 1090B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Kyte, F. T.; Glass, B. P.; Gersonde, R.

    2000-01-01

    Our two labs independently discovered upper Eocene microtektites and microkrystites at ODP Site 1090, a new South Atlantic locality near the Agulhus Ridge. This is a significant new data point for the strewn fields of these spherules, which were recently extended into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean when they were reported at ODP Site 689 on the Maude Rise. The microtektites have been regarded as related to North American tektites and the microkrystites as belonging to the clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherule strewn field. Initial reports indicate that Site 1090 contains a complete sequence of upper Eocene sediments composed of diatom and nannofossil oozes. The magneto- and bio-stratigraphy indicate that impact-age sediments should occur in core 30X of Hole 1090B. One of us (FTK) took 2 cc samples at 10 cm intervals over 600 cm of core for Ir analyses and the senior author (SL) took 3 cc samples at 20 cm intervals to search for spherules. Both studies proved successful and additional samples were obtained to confirm initial results and better define the Ir anomaly and spherule abundances. Peak Ir concentrations of 0.97 ng/g were found at 1090B-30X-5, 105-106cm and 0.78 ng/g at 115-116 cm. Anomalous Ir concentrations (greater than 0.1 ng/g) extend over about 100 cm of core. Preliminary results indicate that the excess Ir at this site is about 25 ng per sq cm. About 380 microtektites (>63 pm) and 2492 microkrystites (>63 pm) were recovered over a 1.8 m interval with a peak abundance of microtektites (106/gram) and microkrystites (562/gram) at 1090B-30X- 5, 114-115 cm. The largest microtektite is approximately 960 x 1140 micron in size. About 55 % are spherical, and the rest are disc, cylinder, dumbbell, teardrop, or fragments. Most of the microtektites are transparent colorless, but a few are transparent pale brown or green. Preliminary data indicate that the microtektites at Site 1090 have similar major oxide compositions to those at Site 689. About 50% of

  2. Isotopic evidence of a rapid cooling and continuous sedimentation across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary of Wagapadhar and Waior, Kutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, S.; Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Ray, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution oxygen isotope analysis of samples from two different Eocene Oligocene Boundary (EOB) sections of Wagapadhar and Waior of Kutch area and their correlation with DSDP sites indicate continuity of sedimentation at these sites. A rapid cooling of ∼ 6 degC across the EOB, synchronous with extinction of Eocene larger benthic foraminifera is also observed. (author)

  3. Lepidological review on the fish fauna of the Kučlín locality (Upper Eocene, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, 3/4 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil fish fauna * Osteichthyes * scales * morphology * Paleogene * Upper Eocene * Upper Eocene (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv-en.php?id=4&rok=67&kcislu=3-4&f_=Show

  4. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  5. Indigenous abundances of siderophile elements in the lunar highlands: implications for the origin of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, J.W.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Substantial indigeneous abundances of siderophile elements have been found to be present in the lunar highlands. The abundances of 13 siderophile elements in the parental magma were estimated by using a simple model. It is shown that metal/silicate fractionation within the Moon cannot have been the cause of the siderophile element abundances in the parental highlands magma and primitive, low-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundances of the indigenous siderophile elements in highlands and mare samples seem, instead, to be the result of complex processes which operated prior to the Moon's accretion. The abundances of the relatively involatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are strikingly similar to the abundances observed in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. Furthermore, the abundances of the relatively volatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are also systematically related to the corresponding abundances in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. In fact, the parental magma of the lunar highlands can be essentially regarded as having been a volatile-depleted terrestrial oceanic tholeite. The origin of the moon is discussed in the context of the results. The probability that depletion of siderophile elements occurred in an earlier generation of differentiated planetesimals similar to those which formed the basaltic achondrites, stony-irons, and irons is examined but can be dismissed on several grounds. It seems that the uniquely terrestrial 'siderophile signature' within the Moon can be explained only if the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle subsequent to core-formation. (Auth.)

  6. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  7. Monophyly and extensive extinction of advanced eusocial bees: insights from an unexpected Eocene diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M S

    2001-02-13

    Advanced eusociality sometimes is given credit for the ecological success of termites, ants, some wasps, and some bees. Comprehensive study of bees fossilized in Baltic amber has revealed an unsuspected middle Eocene (ca. 45 million years ago) diversity of eusocial bee lineages. Advanced eusociality arose once in the bees with significant post-Eocene losses in diversity, leaving today only two advanced eusocial tribes comprising less than 2% of the total bee diversity, a trend analogous to that of hominid evolution. This pattern of changing diversity contradicts notions concerning the role of eusociality for evolutionary success in insects.

  8. Eocene and miocene rocks off the northeastern coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.

    1965-01-01

    A grab sample from a depth of 1675 m at a point south of Cape Cod contains early Eocene planktonic Foraminifera and is correlated with the Globorotalia rex zone of Trinidad. The assemblage indicates a depth comparable to that existing today. Regional relations suggest that the Cretaceous and Eocene deposits deepen to the west toward New Jersey. Two mollusk-bearing blocks dredged from the northern side of Georges Bank are correlative with the Miocene Yorktown Formation. Rocks from two other stations are probably Miocene. Benthonic Foraminifera in one sample indicate deposition in cool temperate waters of less than 60 m depth. ?? 1965.

  9. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  10. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...... Clay Formation deposits derive from just after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum, a period of global elevated temperatures resulting from rapid greenhouse warming. Comparison between this bird assemblage and the recently revised assemblage from the older (earliest Ypresian) Fur Formation of Denmark...

  11. The sponge genus Ephydatia from the high-latitude middle Eocene: environmental and evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisera, Andrzej; Manconi, Renata; Siver, Peter A; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2016-01-01

    The freshwater sponge species Ephydatia cf. facunda Weltner, 1895 (Spongillida, Spongillidae) is reported for the first time as a fossil from middle Eocene lake sediments of the Giraffe kimberlite maar in northern Canada. The sponge is represented by birotule gemmuloscleres as well as oxea megascleres. Today, E. facunda inhabits warm-water bodies, so its presence in the Giraffe locality provides evidence of a warm climate at high latitudes during the middle Eocene. The morphological similarity of the birotules to modern conspecific forms suggests protracted morphological stasis, comparable to that reported for other siliceous microfossils from the same locality.

  12. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  13. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ CROP COMMERCILIZATION IN THE HIGHLANDS OF EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alelign ADEME

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper sorts out the most important factors influencing crop market participation of smallholder farmers in the highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. The study used primary data collected from 385 smallholder farmers during the year 2015. Heckman two-stage and Tobit models were employed for the analyses. Heckman model of first-stage results indicated that households’ decision to participate in crop output markets were influenced by factors such as sex of household head, farming experience, livestock holding, cultivated land size, off/non-farm income, fertilizer used, on-farm income, market distance, and crop diversification. Moreover, the second-stage results revealed that farm households’ intensity of crop output market participation was influenced by different factors such as dependency ratio, cultivated land size, education status, chemical fertilizer, and distance to market. The Tobit model result also indicated that the extent of farm household’s participation in annual crop fertilizer market as buyer is influenced by the amount of cultivated land, land allocated to khat crop, off/ non-farm income (log, amount of manure used and distance to the main road. From policy perspective, we recommend that strategies aimed at improving commercial behaviour of smallholder farmers in the study area should be directed in addressing the determining factors of both crop input and output market participation.

  14. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Danish Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Beyer, Claus; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Spores (massulae and megaspores) of the freshwater fern Azolla are recorded in several Danish Eocene outcrops and boreholes. The Azolla-bearing interval is 0.5 - ca. 3 m thick and occurs within the L2 Bed, a unit in the lower part of the hemipelagic, bathyal Lillebælt Clay Formation deposited in the central and eastern parts of the North Sea Basin. Intervals of organic-rich clay, usually including two distinctive, black sapropels, are present in the lower part of Bed L2, indicating a generally reduced oxygen content in the bottom waters during this time, with at least two episodes of severe, basinwide stagnation. The oxygen-deficit points to reduced circulation and/or enhanced marine productivity in the North Sea Basin. Azolla occurs in the upper part of this mainly organic-rich interval. The frequency of Azolla spores relative to marine dinoflagellate cysts fluctuates within the interval. The Azolla interval has previously been correlated to levels near the Ypresian/Lutetian transition in Belgium, based on dinoflagellate stratigraphy. Calibration of a new magnetostratigraphic study of the lower Lillebælt Clay with the dinoflagellate biostratigraphy suggests that Bed L2 spans the upper part of Chron 22r, C22n and lower part of C21r. The Azolla pulse spans the upper part of C22n and lowermost part of C21r. The combined bio-magnetostratigraphy from Denmark allows a detailed comparison with published data from the northern part of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (ODP Hole 913B). The correlation confirms earlier assumptions, which were based on biostratigraphy alone, that the marine Azolla pulse in the two areas, and therefore probably over the whole Norwegian-Greenland Sea - North Sea region, is of the same age. An ongoing palynological study of the L2 Bed has so far revealed no indication for freshwater episodes or brackish waters in the basin during the Azolla pulse, except perhaps for Azolla itself. It is, therefore, suggested that the Azolla spores were transported

  15. Tropical and Holarctic Ants in Late Eocene Ambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkovsky E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on representative collections, the ratio of tropical and Holarctic ant species in Priabonian (Late Eocene Baltic, Bitterfeld (Saxonian, Danish and Rovno ambers is analyzed for the first time. In surveyed representative collections of Baltic amber, the ratios of Holarctic and tropical ant species are from 1.1 to 1.5; with 10 Holarctic and 9 tropical species (out of 31 in the PIN-964 collection, and 9 and 5 species (out of 29 in the Giecewicz collection; the ratio in the representative collection of Saxonian amber is 0.9, 11 Holarctic species vs. 12 tropical species (out of 55; in the representative collection of Rovno amber it is 0.65, 15 vs. 23 species (out of 79; and in the representative collection of Danish amber it is 0.64, 7 vs. 11 species (out of 36. Hence, in representative collections of Baltic amber, Holarctic species clearly prevail not just in terms of the share of their specimens (by 9.8 to 19.6 times, but also by the number of species. In Bitterfeld amber, Holarctic species are somewhat less numerous than tropical ones, but their specimens are 6 times greater. In representative collections of Rovno and Danish ambers, the number of Holarctic species is 1.5 to 1.7 times smaller than that of tropical species, but the number of their specimens is 4.9 to 6.9 times greater. The numbers of tropical and Holarctic species represented by more than one specimen is similar in Priabonian ambers, 25 versus 22, but Holarctic species include four dominants or subdominants. The abundance of temperate elements in the Priabonian amber ant fauna along with the relatively small number of tropical elements greatly distinguishes it from the Middle European Lutetian ant faunas of Messel and Eckfeld in shale, which do not have temperate elements at all. Formica phaethusa Wheeler, Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus Wheeler, Plagiolepis squamifera Mayr, Proceratium eocenicum Dlussky, Hypoponera atavia (Mayr, Ponera lobulifera Dlussky, Aphaenogaster mersa

  16. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman M A Syamsul; Nur A'in C M; Ramachandran S; Ahmad S

    2014-01-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (€1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach

  17. Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events. Geologica Ultraiectina (328)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

  18. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms and Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  19. Reinterpretation of Azolla primaeva (Azollaceae, Eocene, Canada) using electron microscopy and X-ray tomographic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collinson, Margaret E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H.A.; Marone, Federica; Brain, Anthony P.R.

    Azolla primaeva (Penhallow) Arnold fertile whole plants from the lower Eocene of Driftwood Creek, Canada have been examined using LM, SEM, TEM and SRXTM methods on hand specimens and sieved residues. The new data have resulted in an emended diagnosis. The megaspore is partly covered by filosum and

  20. Coeval Eocene blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla in and around Arctic and Nordic seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Burgh, A.H.P. van der; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. van; Collinson, M.E.; Pearce, M.A.; Bujak, J.; Heilman-Clausen, C.; Lotter, A.F.; Speelman, E.N.; Kempen, M.M.L. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    For a short time interval (c. 1.2 Myr) during the early middle Eocene (~ 49 Myr), the central Arctic Ocean was episodically densely covered by the freshwater fern Azolla, implying sustained freshening of surface waters. Coeval Azolla fossils in neighboring Nordic seas were thought to have been

  1. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.

    2010-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  2. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms And Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  3. Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Advokaat, Eldert; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073584223; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Cherchi, A.; Schroeder, R.; Madani, H.; Columbu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ~50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of

  4. Triggers and consequences of glacial expansion across the Eocene - Oligocene Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The results described in this thesis provide a rather complex picture of climatic, environmental and biotic changes preceding and arising from the onset of Antarctic glaciation. This period is commonly known as the greenhouse to icehouse transition across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 34-33

  5. Justitia Holthuis, 1946 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridea) from the Middle Eocene of Verona and Vicenza (northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Angeli, De Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Beschin et al. (2001) have described two specimens of palinurids, discovered at Chiampo (“Albanello” quarry, Vicenza, northern Italy). Preserved three dimensionally, these were collected from limestones of Lutetian (middle Eocene) age. The peculiar ornament of the dorsal carapace surface,

  6. A new raninid crab, Pseudorogueus Rangiferus (Decapoda, Crustacea, from the Eocene of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraaye, R. H.B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available new genus and species of raninid crab, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, is described from the Lower Eocene of Catalunya, Spanish Pyrenees.Se describe un nuevo género y especie de cangrejo Raninidae, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, proveniente del Eoceno inferior de los Pirineos Catalanes (Cataluña, España.

  7. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  8. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Huurdeman, Emiel; Rem, Charlotte; Donders, T.H.; Pross, Jorg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy; Gallagher, Stephen; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the

  9. A review of the platanaceous woods from the Eocene paratropical rainforest of south-east England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Davies, Kevin L.; Wilkinson, Hazel P.

    2002-01-01

    Small diameter pyritized axes, commonly referred to as ‘twigs’, of fossil platanaceous wood are described from the Lower Eocene London Clay Formation of south-east England. These twigs are characterized by solitary vessels with scalariform perforation plates, opposite intervessel pits, and tall,

  10. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Duncan, Robert A.; Swisher, III, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a sudden release of carbon dioxide and/or methane. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that the Danish Ash-17 deposit, which overlies the PETM by about 450,000 years in the Atlantic, and the Skraenterne Formation Tuff, representing ...

  11. Emplacement and geochemical evolution of eocene plutonic rocks in the Colville batholith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Eocene plutonic rocks in the Colville batholith are divided on the basis of field evidence and chemical composition into, in order of decreasing age, (1) several calc-alkalic biotite-hornblende monzodiorite to granodiorite intrusions referred to as the Devils Elbow suite, and (2) compositionally variable calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic intrusions referred to as the Herron Creek suite. These Eocene suites are distinct from older, more voluminous, leucocratic granite and granodiorite intrusions, designated the Keller Butte suite, which are calcic and characteristically lack hornblende. Results of qualitative and computer modeling of major element variation and quantitative models of trace element variation in the chemically coherent Bridge Creek intrusions, a member of the Herron Creek suite, are compatible with fractionation of plagioclase feldspar + hornblende + biotite + magnetite + apatite from a parent magma of andesitic composition to account for the observed variation. Strongly curved variation trends preclude mixing as the primary mechanism for the observed variation. It is suggested that parallel variation trends in the other Eocene intrusions are also the result of crystal fractionation. Lateral chemical variations including a decrease in silica saturation suggest the chemical characteristics of these rocks reflect those of parental magmas derived from the mantle, with an unknown amount of crustal contribution. Rotated and angular xenoliths, discordant contacts, and temporal and spatial proximity to graben structures indicate that the Eocene plutons were passively implaced into the upper crust along graben-bounding faults during graben formation, the earlier stages of which appear to have been contemporaneous with regional mylonitic deformation

  12. Diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy for the late Eocene: ODP 1090 (sub-Antarctic Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Gersonde, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Abundant and well-preserved diatoms and silicofl agellate assemblages are documented through a complete late Eocene sequence, ODP Hole 1090B, recovered from the southern Agulhas Ridge in the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. A sequence of Cestodiscus (diatom) species occurrence events involving C. pulchellus var. novazealandica, C. fennerae, C. antarcticus, C. convexus, C. trochus, and C. robustus is tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy and provides the basis of proposing a new diatom zonation for the latest middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~37.6–33.4 Ma) of the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. Comparison with previously published diatom occurrence charts suggested this zonation should be applicable throughout the low latitude regions of the world’s oceans. Silicofl agellates belong to the Dictyocha hexacantha and the overlying Corbisema apiculata Zones. The late Eocene succession of silicofl agellate species is dominated by Naviculopsis (20–60%). Naviculopsis constricta and N. foliacea dominate the D. hexacantha Zone, followed by the N. constricta, then N. biapiculata in the C. apiculata Zone. Cold-water Distephanus is most abundant in the latest Eocene along with N. biapiculata. The tops of zonal guide fossils Dictyocha hexacantha and Hannaites quadria (both 36.6 Ma) and Dictyocha spinosa (37.1 Ma) are tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy.

  13. New euprimate postcrania from the early Eocene of Gujarat, India, and the strepsirrhine-haplorhine divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rachel H; Rose, Kenneth D; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws. The Vastan fossils are dated at ∼54.5 Myr based on associated dinoflagellates and isotope stratigraphy. Here, we describe new, exquisitely preserved limb bones of these Indian primates that reveal more primitive postcranial characteristics than have been previously documented for either clade, and differences between them are so minor that in many cases we cannot be certain to which group they belong. Nevertheless, the small distinctions observed in some elements foreshadow postcranial traits that distinguish the groups by the middle Eocene, suggesting that the Vastan primates-though slightly younger than the oldest known euprimates-may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Astrochronology of extreme global warming events during the early Eocene greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauretano, V.

    2016-01-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of enhanced global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system and the relationship between carbon cycling and climate. During this time interval, the Earth’s surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of

  15. A new sawshark, Pristiophorus laevis, from the Eocene of Antarctica with comments on Pristiophorus lanceolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The highly fossiliferous Eocene deposits of the Antarctic Peninsula are among the most productive sites for fossil remains in the Southern Hemisphere and offer rare insights into high-latitude faunas during the Palaeogene. Chondrichthyans, which are represented by abundant isolated remains, seemingly dominate the marine assemblages. Eocene Antarctic sawsharks have only been known from few isolated rostral spines up to now, that were assigned to Pristiophorus lanceolatus . Here, we present the first oral teeth of a sawshark from the Eocene of Seymour Island and a re-evaluation of previously described Pristiophorus remains from Gondwana consisting exclusively of rostral spines. The holotype of Pristiophorus lanceolatus represents a single, abraded and insufficiently illustrated spine from the Oligocene of New Zealand. All other Cenozoic rostral spines assigned to this species are morphologically very indistinct and closely resemble those of living taxa. Consequently, we regard this species as dubious and introduce a new species, Pristiophorus laevis , based on oral teeth. The combination of dental characteristics of the new species makes it unique compared to all other described species based on oral teeth. Rostral spines from the Eocene of Seymour Island are assigned to this new species whereas those from other Cenozoic Gondwana localities remain ambiguous.

  16. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov...

  17. Paleocene-Eocene Sediments Interbedded With Volcanics Within the Lycian Nappes: Faralya Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şenel

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The presumably allochthonous structural units in the Southwestern Turkey between the Menderes massif and Beydağları autochthon are known as the Lycian nappes. Some of these units particularly beneath the ophiolite nappe end up with the Faralya formation of Paleocene-Lutetian age. The striking feature of this formation which includes micrite, clayey micrite, claystone, sandstone and conglomerate, is the presence of basic volcanite interbeds of Eocene age, This volcanite bearing formation exhibits a strong similarity to those of the other formations in Southwestern Turkey most of which include similar basic volcanites. Eocene basic volcanites are also known in the Akseki autochthon to the south of Seydişehir (Geyikdağ unit in broad sense. Similar extensive lateral movements (Eocene mountain building processes developed over the Faralya formation are seen over the volcanite bearing formations to the south of Menderes massif as well as to the north of Isparta angle and the Akseki autochthon. These features indicate that the area between the Menderes massif and Akseki autochthon (Geyikdağ unit reflects common basinal characters in terms of depositional conditions, volcanism and the traces of Eocene mountain building process.

  18. Eocene to Oligocene benthic foraminiferal isotopic record in the Bay of Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.G.; Curry, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic records of Eocene to Oligocene benthic foraminifera from two Bay of Biscay Deep Sea Drilling Project sites are presented. The delta 18 O figures for benthic foraminifera are significantly higher than those previously reported from deeper North Atlantic sites, the differences arising it is believed from diagenetic alteration of the sediments in the deeper-buried sites. (U.K.)

  19. Exploration potential of the Eocene deposits in central Romanian block sea off shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambrea, D; Raileanu, A; Barbuliceanu, N; Borosi, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The study area comprises the Eocene Istria Depression bounded by Peceneaga- Camena and Heracleea faults, in front of North Dobrogea Orogene and Central Dobrogea, in the Romanian Black Sea offshore. The analysis of 100 two- dimensional (2D) seismic lines and two- three dimensional (3D) seismic surveys and well data has permitted to outline that the geo dynamic evolution of Eocene basins has led to the deposition of carbonate- sliciclastic turbidity, porous carbonate shelf margin reservoir deposits, and muddy carbonate turbiditic source rocks that present new Eocene petroleum targets. The main Eocene sub basin located in Iris-Venus area is deep, rhombic shaped, del imitated by normal faults, and may be connected with the strike-slip deformation component of Peceneaga- Camena fault. The next sub basin, located on West Lebeda area may be considered a cross- fault extensional zone. In the following sub basin East Lebada- Minerva area, normal faults generated a tectonic corridor characterized by high subsidence rate and local submarine/sub aerial intra slope topographic high. The last sub basin localized in Histria is a ponded one and captured highly organic matter rich muddly carbonate turgidities. In all sub basins, there is a progression from structure control to sediment control deposition

  20. Taphonomy and abundance of birds from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyke, Gareth; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    to quantify the shape of this radiation, but have largely been lacking. Here we report on a large collection of fossil birds from the Lower Eocene of Denmark (ca. 54 Ma) that includes three-dimensionally preserved, articulated specimens from carbonate concretions as well as skeletal imprints and feathers...

  1. Body size and premolar evolution in the early-middle eocene euprimates of Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katrina E; Rose, Kenneth D; Perry, Jonathan M G

    2014-01-01

    The earliest euprimates to arrive in North America were larger-bodied notharctids and smaller-bodied omomyids. Through the Eocene, notharctids generally continued to increase in body size, whereas omomyids generally radiated within small- and increasingly mid-sized niches in the middle Eocene. This study examines the influence of changing body size and diet on the evolution of the lower fourth premolar in Eocene euprimates. The P4 displays considerable morphological variability in these taxa. Despite the fact that most studies of primate dental morphology have focused on the molars, P4 can also provide important paleoecological insights. We analyzed the P4 from 177 euprimate specimens, representing 35 species (11 notharctids and 24 omomyids), in three time bins of approximately equal duration: early Wasatchian, late Wasatchian, and Bridgerian. Two-dimensional surface landmarks were collected from lingual photographs, capturing important variation in cusp position and tooth shape. Disparity metrics were calculated and compared for the three time bins. In the early Eocene, notharctids have a more molarized P4 than omomyids. During the Bridgerian, expanding body size range of omomyids was accompanied by a significant increase in P4 disparity and convergent evolution of the semimolariform condition in the largest omomyines. P4 morphology relates to diet in early euprimates, although patterns vary between families. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fission track dating of tuffaceous eocene formations of the North Bakony Mountains (Transdanubia, Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkl, I.

    1990-01-01

    Fission track dating was performed in accessory minerals of strongly altered, clay mineralized tuffite strata lying in the upper part of the Eocene sequence of the North Bakony Mountains. The homogeneity of the fission track (FT) ages measured on apatite and zircon refers only to insignificant redeposition, no remarkable mingling of the detrital matter vould be stated. The average of the FT-ages falls to the Bartonian, into the time interval determined by nannoplankton guide horizons for the volcanic activity (41.9 ± 4.1 Ma). As to their biostratigraphic age the Middle Eocene samples show an FT-average of 44.2 ± 3.4 Ma, the average of the Upper Eocene group is 39.9 ± 4.1 Ma. The difference between the two groups refers to the two phases of the volcanic activity. The first maximum of volcanism generated the Upper Lutetian to Bartonian glauconitic sequence while the second maximum at the Bartonian-Priabonian boundary produced the tuff strata. The strata in the neighbouring areas relate to continuous volcanism in the Upper Eocene, in the studied area, however, the upper part of the Priabonian was eroded. (author) 51 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests...

  4. An antarctic stratigraphic record of stepwise ice growth through the eocene-oligocene transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, Sandra; Ciarletta, Daniel J.; Miriagos, Triantafilo E.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bohaty, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Earth's current icehouse phase began ~34 m.y. ago with the onset of major Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Changes in ocean circulation and a decline in atmospheric greenhouse gas levels were associated with stepwise cooling and ice growth at southern high latitudes. The

  5. A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, J.C.; Folie, A.; Rana, R.S.; Singh, H.; Rose, K.D.; Smith, T. [Museum National Historical Nature, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The early Eocene (Ypresian) Cambay Formation of Vastan Lignite Mine in Gujarat, western India, has produced a diverse assemblage of snakes including at least ten species that belong to the Madtsoiidae, Palaeophiidae (Palaeophis and Pterosphenus), Boidae, and several Caenophidia. Within the latter taxon, the Colubroidea are represented by Russellophis crassus sp. nov. (Russellophiidae) and by Procerophis sahnii gen. et sp. nov. Thaumastophis missiaeni gen. et sp. nov. is a caenophidian of uncertain family assignment. At least two other forms probably represent new genera and species, but they are not named; both appear to be related to the Caenophidia. The number of taxa that represent the Colubroidea or at least the Caenophidia, i.e., advanced snakes, is astonishing for the Eocene. This is consistent with the view that Asia played an important part in the early history of these taxa. The fossils come from marine and continental levels; however, no significant difference is evident between faunas from these levels. The fauna from Vastan Mine includes highly aquatic, amphibious, and terrestrial snakes. All are found in the continental levels, including the aquatic palaeophiids, whereas the marine beds yielded only two taxa. Vastan Mine is only the second locality in which the palaeophiids Palaeophis and Pterosphenus co-occur. The composition of the fauna from Vastan is on the whole similar to that of the early Eocene of Europe; however, comparisons with early Eocene faunas of other continents are not possible because they are poorly known or unknown.

  6. Early Eocene climatic optimum: Environmental impact on the North Iberian continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Payros, A.; Ortiz, S.; Millán, I.; Arostegi, J.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Apellaniz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum, which constituted the peak of the long-term early Cenozoic global warming, had a significant impact on the environmental evolution of terrestrial and oceanic areas. Surprisingly, however, its influence on continental margins is poorly known. New insights are

  7. New stalked and sessile cirripedes from the Eocene Mo Clay, northwest Jutland (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriol, René-Pierre; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Jakobsen, Sten Lennart

    2016-01-01

    New taxa of thoracican cirripedes are recorded from the Eocene Mo Clay of northwest Jutland, Denmark, namely Stipilepas molerensis Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a scalpelliform gooseneck barnacle, and Plesiobrachylepas jutlandica Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a brachylepadomorph sessile form. This material...

  8. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F

    2014-12-12

    The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event.

  9. Diachronous seawater retreat from the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Zhiliang; Fu, Bihong; Li, Shihu|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411296248

    In contrast to the present hyper-arid inland basin surrounded by the high mountains of Central Asia, the western Tarim Basin was once connected with the Tajik Basin at least in the late Eocene, when an epicontinental sea extended from the western Tarim Basin to Europe. Western Tarim is a key site

  10. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  11. Tectonic Reorganization and the Cause of Paleocene and Eocene pCO2 Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Carter, Laura B.; Middleton, Jennifer; Stellmann, Jessica; Pyle, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotope records reveal that deep-sea temperatures were relatively stable in the early and mid Paleocene before they rose by approx. 4°C to peak in the early Eocene. This Early Eocene Climate Optimum was followed by a 17 Myr cooling trend that led to the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the end of the Eocene. Several studies have examined the potential influence of perturbations to the sinks and sources of atmospheric carbon as mechanisms for the temperature drawdown over the Eocene. Examination of the changing magnitude of carbon sinks has focused on the importance of increased weathering associated with the uplift of the Tibetan plateau (Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992), the continental drift of basaltic provinces through the equatorial humid belt (Kent and Muttoni, 2013), or the emplacement of ophiolites during arc-continent collision in the face of a closing Tethys ocean (Jagoutz et al., 2016). With respect to carbon sources, the shutdown of Tethys subduction and related arc volcanism has been argued to significantly decrease carbon emissions and consequently global temperatures (Hoareau et al., 2015). In this study, we re-assess and quantify proposed atmospheric carbon sinks and sources to obtain an integrated picture of carbon flux changes over the Paleocene and Eocene and to estimate the relative importance of different mechanisms. To constrain carbon sources, we attempt to calculate the outgassing associated with large igneous provinces, mid-ocean ridges and volcanic arcs. We use plate reconstructions to track changes in length and divergence / convergence rates at plate boundaries as well as account for the onset and extinction of volcanic arcs. To constrain carbon sinks, we account for the sequestering of carbon due to silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. We again make use of plate reconstructions to trace highly weatherable arc systems and basaltic extrusions through the tropical humid belt and to assess the interplay between warmer Eocene

  12. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  13. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  14. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  15. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  16. Mid-latitude continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Riegel, Walter; Wilde, Volker; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel J.; Valdes, Paul; Robson, Brittany E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Lenz, Olaf K.; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-02-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are increasingly used to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, the application of this proxy in coal deposits is limited and brGDGTs have only been detected in immature coals (i.e. lignites). Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany (∼48°N palaeolatitude), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of early Eocene lignites and associated interbeds. BrGDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences between lignites - representing peat-forming environments - and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed depositional environments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration (MATmr) developed for soils, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26 °C while those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds exceed 20 °C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude environments and model simulations, indicating enhanced mid-latitude, early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section studied, warming is recorded in both the lignites (∼2 °C) and nearshore marine interbeds (∼2-3 °C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this long-term warming trend is relatively well established in the marine realm, it has rarely been shown in terrestrial settings. Using a suite of model simulations we show that the magnitude of warming at Schöningen is broadly consistent with a doubling of CO2, in agreement with late Paleocene and early Eocene pCO2 estimates.

  17. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  18. Persistent near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Jörg; Contreras, Lineth; Bijl, Peter K; Greenwood, David R; Bohaty, Steven M; Schouten, Stefan; Bendle, James A; Röhl, Ursula; Tauxe, Lisa; Raine, J Ian; Huck, Claire E; van de Flierdt, Tina; Jamieson, Stewart S R; Stickley, Catherine E; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2012-08-02

    The warmest global climates of the past 65 million years occurred during the early Eocene epoch (about 55 to 48 million years ago), when the Equator-to-pole temperature gradients were much smaller than today and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were in excess of one thousand parts per million by volume. Recently the early Eocene has received considerable interest because it may provide insight into the response of Earth's climate and biosphere to the high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that are expected in the near future as a consequence of unabated anthropogenic carbon emissions. Climatic conditions of the early Eocene 'greenhouse world', however, are poorly constrained in critical regions, particularly Antarctica. Here we present a well-dated record of early Eocene climate on Antarctica from an ocean sediment core recovered off the Wilkes Land coast of East Antarctica. The information from biotic climate proxies (pollen and spores) and independent organic geochemical climate proxies (indices based on branched tetraether lipids) yields quantitative, seasonal temperature reconstructions for the early Eocene greenhouse world on Antarctica. We show that the climate in lowland settings along the Wilkes Land coast (at a palaeolatitude of about 70° south) supported the growth of highly diverse, near-tropical forests characterized by mesothermal to megathermal floral elements including palms and Bombacoideae. Notably, winters were extremely mild (warmer than 10 °C) and essentially frost-free despite polar darkness, which provides a critical new constraint for the validation of climate models and for understanding the response of high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems to increased carbon dioxide forcing.

  19. The Early Eocene equable climate problem: can perturbations of climate model parameters identify possible solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Navjit; Valdes, Paul; Flecker, Rachel; Gregoire, Lauren J

    2013-10-28

    Geological data for the Early Eocene (56-47.8 Ma) indicate extensive global warming, with very warm temperatures at both poles. However, despite numerous attempts to simulate this warmth, there are remarkable data-model differences in the prediction of these polar surface temperatures, resulting in the so-called 'equable climate problem'. In this paper, for the first time an ensemble with a perturbed climate-sensitive model parameters approach has been applied to modelling the Early Eocene climate. We performed more than 100 simulations with perturbed physics parameters, and identified two simulations that have an optimal fit with the proxy data. We have simulated the warmth of the Early Eocene at 560 ppmv CO2, which is a much lower CO2 level than many other models. We investigate the changes in atmospheric circulation, cloud properties and ocean circulation that are common to these simulations and how they differ from the remaining simulations in order to understand what mechanisms contribute to the polar warming. The parameter set from one of the optimal Early Eocene simulations also produces a favourable fit for the last glacial maximum boundary climate and outperforms the control parameter set for the present day. Although this does not 'prove' that this model is correct, it is very encouraging that there is a parameter set that creates a climate model able to simulate well very different palaeoclimates and the present-day climate. Interestingly, to achieve the great warmth of the Early Eocene this version of the model does not have a strong future climate change Charney climate sensitivity. It produces a Charney climate sensitivity of 2.7(°)C, whereas the mean value of the 18 models in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is 3.26(°)C±0.69(°)C. Thus, this value is within the range and below the mean of the models included in the AR4.

  20. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... not show or at least it is difficult to define a clear pore-stiffening contact cementation trend as the Ontong Java Plateau chalk. Mechanical compaction is the principal cause of porosity reduction (at shallow depths) in the studied Eocene chalk, at least down to about 5MPa Terzaghi׳s effective stress...

  1. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands

  2. Malaria in east African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El - Safi Himeidan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia to 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 - 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda to 2838000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained.

  3. A newly isolated Haloalkaliphilic bacterium from middle-late Eocene halite formed in salt lakes in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meng, F. W.; Wang, X.-Q.; Ni, P.; Kletetschka, Günther; Li, Y-P.; Yang, Ch.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 321-330 ISSN 0891-2556 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ancient microorganism * primary fluid inclusion * halite * Eocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.440, year: 2015

  4. A Model-Model and Data-Model Comparison for the Early Eocene Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Huber, Matthew; Heinemann, Malte; Kiehl, Jeffrey; LeGrande, Allegra; Loptson, Claire A.; Roberts, Chris D.; Sagoo, Navjit; Shields, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A range of proxy observations have recently provided constraints on how Earth's hydrological cycle responded to early Eocene climatic changes. However, comparisons of proxy data to general circulation model (GCM) simulated hydrology are limited and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised. In this work, we undertake an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation and P - E distributions within the extended EoMIP ensemble (Eocene Modelling Intercomparison Project; Lunt et al., 2012), which includes previously published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure, and precipitation-relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle, manifested in enhanced global precipitation and evaporation rates, is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to the preindustrial conditions. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, resulting in elevated temperatures, although the effects of differences in paleogeography and ice sheets are also important in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely arising from different simulated surface air temperatures. Models with a similar global sensitivity of precipitation rate to temperature (dP=dT ) display different regional precipitation responses for a given temperature change. Regions that are particularly sensitive to model choice include the South Pacific, tropical Africa, and the Peri-Tethys, which may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of early and middle Eocene leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with the GCM output illustrates that GCMs generally underestimate precipitation rates at high latitudes, although a possible seasonal bias of the proxies cannot be excluded. Models which warm these regions, either via elevated CO2 or by varying poorly constrained model parameter values, are most successful in simulating a

  5. Smallholder Led Irrigation Development in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, S. A.; Schmitter, P.; Alemie, T. C.; Yilak, D. L.; Yimer, A.; Mamo, A.; Langan, S.; Baronn, J.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 70% of the population of in sub-Saharan Africa are living in rural areas that depend on the rainfed agriculture for their livelihood on the rainfed agriculture. With the rapidly increasing population, competition for land and water is growing is intensifying. This, together with future landscape and climate change, the rainfed agriculture is unlikely to meet the future food demands. Many donors see irrigation a rational way to solve the future food crises. In Ethiopia, less than 10% of the irrigatable area has been developed. The main limitation of increasing the irrigatable areas is a severe lack of surface water during an extended dry phase of almost seven months. Flow in most rivers currently have dried up before the rain phase begins middle of the dry periods. In response, the Ethiopian government is installing large reservoirs at great cost to store water from the wet monsoon phase. At the same time, small scale household have started using irrigation using wells on sloping lands that have sprung up with minimal governmental intervention. It could be one of the strategies to increase the irrigated acreage without large investments. Donors and governmental planners are eager to follow the farmer's initiatives and intensify irrigation on these hillside areas. However, it is not yet known to the extent that it is sustainable. For this reason, shallow ground water levels and river discharge were measured over a three-year period in the Robit Bata and Dangishta watersheds in Northern Ethiopian highlands for assessing recharge and use of shallow groundwater irrigation during dry period. The theoretical results show that the ground water availability depends on the slope of the land and the depth of the soil. In sloping Robit Bata watershed the groundwater runs out under gravity to the stream channel in 3-4 months after the rainfall stops. The only wells that remain productive are those associated with fractures in the bedrock. For the less sloping

  6. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology

  7. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  8. Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

  9. Experience in well logging study of Eocene deposits at the territory of Central and West Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, G.Ya.; Makhmudova, V.M.; Agabekova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experience of investigation of Eocene deposits in Azerbaijan by well-logging methods (WLM), including gamma-logging (GL), neutron gamma-logging (NGL), gamma-gamma logging (GGL), is generalized. Clay rocks are characterized by the maximal NGL and GL values, tuff sandstones - by the average NGL values. NGL and GGL data are used to determine porosity of strata. Complex interpretation of WLM data enables to obtain reliable evaluations of lithology, porosity and oil saturation of Eocene rocks. Algorithm of quantitative interpretation of WLM materials is suggested. Efficiency of WLM interpretation was equal to 95 %. Since the suggested algorithm is formalized completely, it can be realized in systems of complex WLM interpretation by computer

  10. Earth system feedback statistically extracted from the Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments recording Eocene hyperthermals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Kentaro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Ikehara, Minoru; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-12

    Multiple transient global warming events occurred during the early Palaeogene. Although these events, called hyperthermals, have been reported from around the globe, geologic records for the Indian Ocean are limited. In addition, the recovery processes from relatively modest hyperthermals are less constrained than those from the severest and well-studied hothouse called the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In this study, we constructed a new and high-resolution geochemical dataset of deep-sea sediments clearly recording multiple Eocene hyperthermals in the Indian Ocean. We then statistically analysed the high-dimensional data matrix and extracted independent components corresponding to the biogeochemical responses to the hyperthermals. The productivity feedback commonly controls and efficiently sequesters the excess carbon in the recovery phases of the hyperthermals via an enhanced biological pump, regardless of the magnitude of the events. Meanwhile, this negative feedback is independent of nannoplankton assemblage changes generally recognised in relatively large environmental perturbations.

  11. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V; Bonde, Niels

    2016-09-27

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies.

  12. Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2007-08-01

    Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

  13. Evolution of and Factors Controlling Eocene Sedimentation in the Darende-Balaban Basin, Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, KEMAL GÜRBÜZ & MURAT

    2005-01-01

    Collision of the Arabian and Anatolian plates affected evolution of basins located along the southern flank of the Anatolian Plate. The Darende-Balaban foreland basin is one such basin – a basin filled with Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sediments, accumulated unconformably and transgressively above ophiolitic and carbonate basement rocks. This basin is locally surrounded, to the north and south, by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous structural highs created by tectonic elements during the collision...

  14. Evolution of and Factors Controlling Eocene Sedimentation in the Darende-Balaban Basin, Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, KEMAL GÜRBÜZ & GÜL, MURAT

    2014-01-01

    Collision of the Arabian and Anatolian plates affected evolution of basins located along the southern flank of the Anatolian Plate. The Darende-Balaban foreland basin is one such basin – a basin filled with Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sediments, accumulated unconformably and transgressively above ophiolitic and carbonate basement rocks. This basin is locally surrounded, to the north and south, by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous structural highs created by tectonic elements during the collision...

  15. Integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning of Smirra cores, lower Eocene, Umbria-Marche basin, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, Vittoria; Turtù, Antonio; Hilgen, Frits; Galeotti, Simone; Catanzariti, Rita; Reichart, Gert Jan; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-04-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of increase global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system. During this time interval, the Earth's surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of sustained high temperatures called the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These perturbations of the ocean-atmosphere system involved the global carbon cycle and global temperatures and have been linked to orbital forcing. Unravelling this complex climatic system strictly depends on the availability of high-quality suitable geological records and accurate age models. However, discrepancies between the astrochronological and radioisotopic dating techniques complicate the development of a robust time scale for the early Eocene (49-54 Ma). Here we present the first magneto-, bio-, chemo- and cyclostratigraphic results of the drilling of the land-based Smirra section, in the Umbria Marche Basin. The sediments recovered at Smirra provide a remarkably well-preserved and undisturbed succession of the early Palaeogene pelagic stratigraphy. Bulk stable carbon isotope and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning records are employed in the construction of an astronomically tuned age model for the time interval between ~49 and ~54 Ma based on the tuning to long-eccentricity. These results are then compared to the astronomical tuning of the benthic carbon isotope record of ODP Site 1263 to evaluate the different age model options and improve the time scale of the early Eocene by assessing the precise number of eccentricity-related cycles comprised in this critical interval.

  16. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E

    2009-07-16

    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  17. Magnetostratigraphy in the Lodo Formation, CA: An Attempt to Locate Hyperthermals of the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, N. C.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gibbs, S.; Rieth, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lodo Formation in the California Coast Range, Fresno County records the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and possibly other Early Eocene hyperthermal events. The Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2, ELMO, or H1) represents a hyperthermal event that occurred approximately 2 million years after the PETM and just prior to the C24r - C24n magnetic reversal (≈ 53.9 Ma) in the Ypresian. While the ETM2 event has been located in offshore samples, it has been more difficult to locate in a terrestrial section. This project attempts to locate the ETM2 magnetostratigraphically by finding the paleomagnetic reversal at C24r-C24n.3n, provide geochronological framework, and assess sedimentation rate changes during this time. This area is known to have had a high rate of deposition (16.8 cm/kyr ) during the PETM, which is found lower in the section. We collected 36 new samples from a 13.44m section spanning stratigraphy thought to cover the ETM2 along with 31 previous samples spanning the PETM, and prepared them for paleomagnetic and paleontological analysis. We analyzed samples using standard paleomagnetic methods including low-temperature and thermal demagnetization. Preliminary results suggest that the magnetostratigraphy spans the C24r-C24n boundary, while the micropaleontology shows the NP10-NP11 boundary, which occurs near the ETM2 as well as the NP11-NP12 boundary. The data indicate an order-of-magnitude drop in sedimentation rate in the lower Eocene at this site, concomitant with a drop in grain size, compared with the PETM.

  18. MECO Warming Changes Continental Rainfall Patterns in Eocene Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, K.; Mulch, A.; Fiebig, J.; Wacker, U.; Gerdes, A.; Graham, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an existing warm climate. They dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, but still remain among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. To evaluate the impacts of global warm periods on terrestrial temperature and rainfall records in continental interiors, we sampled a suite of middle Eocene ( 40 Ma) paleosols from a high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera (Sage Creek Basin, Montana, USA) and integrated laser ablation U-Pb dating of pedogenic carbonate, stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records. Δ47 temperature data of soil carbonates progressively increase from 23 °C ±3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ±3 °C and subsequently drop to 21 °C ±2 °C and delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. This hyperthermal event is accompanied by large and rapid shifts towards low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic CaCO3 contents. U-Pb geochronology of the paleosol carbonate confirms a middle Eocene age for soil carbonate formation (39.5 ±1.4 Ma and 40.1 ±0.8 Ma). Based on U-Pb geochronology, magneto- and biostratigraphy we suggest that the recorded Δ47 temperature excursion reflects peak warming during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). The MECO in continental western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions in this high-elevation site. Shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes and require modification of mid-latitude rainfall patterns, indicating a profound impact of the MECO on the hydrological cycle and consequently on atmospheric circulation patterns in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera.

  19. The Upper Eocene crustose coralline algal pavement in the Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Bassi

    2005-01-01

    A crustose coralline algal pavement, identified in Upper Eocene (Priabonian) shallow water, middleramp carbonates in north-eastern Italy (Colli Berici, Southern Alps), represents a rare example of this facies.The crustose pavement consists of a coralline crust bindstone with a wackestone-packstone matrix, and is characterised by the dominance of crustose coralline thalli composed primarily of melobesioids (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum) and mastophoroids (Spongites, Lithoporella, Neogoniolith...

  20. Atmospheric pCO2 Reconstructed across the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Schubert, B.

    2015-12-01

    Negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are commonly associated with extreme global warming. The Early Eocene is punctuated by five such CIEs, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ca. 55.8 Ma), H1 (ca. 53.6 Ma), H2 (ca. 53.5 Ma), I1 (ca. 53.3 Ma), and I2 (ca. 53.2 Ma), each characterized by global warming. The negative CIEs are recognized in both marine and terrestrial substrates, but the terrestrial substrates exhibit a larger absolute magnitude CIE than the marine substrates. Here we reconcile the difference in CIE magnitude between the terrestrial and marine substrates for each of these events by accounting for the additional carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased atmospheric pCO2. Our analysis yields background and peak pCO2 values for each of the events. Assuming a common mechanism for each event, we calculate that background pCO2 was not static across the Early Eocene, with the highest background pCO2 immediately prior to I2, the last of the five CIEs. Background pCO2 is dependent on the source used in our analysis with values ranging from 300 to 720 ppmv provided an injection of 13C-depleted carbon with δ13C value of -60‰ (e.g. biogenic methane). The peak pCO2 during each event scales according to the magnitude of CIE, and is therefore greatest during the PETM and smallest during H2. Both background and peak pCO2 are higher if we assume a mechanism of permafrost thawing (δ13C = -25‰). Our reconstruction of pCO2 across these events is consistent with trends in the δ18O value of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, suggesting a strong link between pCO2 and temperature during the Early Eocene.

  1. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  2. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, New Jersey. Aside from previously-described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical...

  3. Terrestrial cooling in Northern Europe during the eocene-oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Michael T; Sheldon, Nathan D; Grimes, Stephen T; Collinson, Margaret E; Hooker, Jerry J; Bugler, Melanie; Lohmann, Kyger C

    2013-05-07

    Geochemical and modeling studies suggest that the transition from the "greenhouse" state of the Late Eocene to the "icehouse" conditions of the Oligocene 34-33.5 Ma was triggered by a reduction of atmospheric pCO2 that enabled the rapid buildup of a permanent ice sheet on the Antarctic continent. Marine records show that the drop in pCO2 during this interval was accompanied by a significant decline in high-latitude sea surface and deep ocean temperature and enhanced seasonality in middle and high latitudes. However, terrestrial records of this climate transition show heterogeneous responses to changing pCO2 and ocean temperatures, with some records showing a significant time lag in the temperature response to declining pCO2. We measured the Δ47 of aragonite shells of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus lentus from the Solent Group, Hampshire Basin, United Kingdom, to reconstruct terrestrial temperature and hydrologic change in the North Atlantic region during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Our data show a decrease in growing-season surface water temperatures (~10 °C) during the Eocene-Oligocene transition, corresponding to an average decrease in mean annual air temperature of ~4-6 °C from the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene. The magnitude of cooling is similar to observed decreases in North Atlantic sea surface temperature over this interval and occurs during major glacial expansion. This suggests a close linkage between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, Northern Hemisphere temperature, and expansion of the Antarctic ice sheets.

  4. Primate tarsal bones from Egerkingen, Switzerland, attributable to the middle Eocene adapiform Caenopithecus lemuroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Erik R; Costeur, Loïc; Boyer, Doug M

    2015-01-01

    The middle Eocene species Caenopithecus lemuroides, known solely from the Egerkingen fissure fillings in Switzerland, was the first Paleogene fossil primate to be correctly identified as such (by Ludwig Rütimeyer in 1862), but has long been represented only by fragmentary mandibular and maxillary remains. More recent discoveries of adapiform fossils in other parts of the world have revealed Caenopithecus to be a biogeographic enigma, as it is potentially more closely related to Eocene adapiforms from Africa, Asia, and North America than it is to any known European forms. More anatomical evidence is needed, however, to provide robust tests of such phylogenetic hypotheses. Here we describe and analyze the first postcranial remains that can be attributed to C. lemuroides-an astragalus and three calcanei held in the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel that were likely recovered from Egerkingen over a century ago. Qualitative and multivariate morphometric analyses of these elements suggest that C. lemuroides was even more loris-like than European adapines such as Adapis and Leptadapis, and was not simply an adapine with an aberrant dentition. The astragalus of Caenopithecus is similar to that of younger Afradapis from the late Eocene of Egypt, and parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses that include the new tarsal data strongly support the placement of Afradapis and Caenopithecus as sister taxa to the exclusion of all other known adapiforms, thus implying that dispersal between Europe and Africa occurred during the middle Eocene. The new tarsal evidence, combined with previously known craniodental fossils, allows us to reconstruct C. lemuroides as having been an arboreal and highly folivorous 1.5-2.5 kg primate that likely moved slowly and deliberately with little or no capacity for acrobatic leaping, presumably maintaining consistent powerful grasps on branches in both above-branch and inverted postures.

  5. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  6. Late cretaceous to early eocene foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Rakhi Nala area, Sulaiman Range, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaly intervals from late cretaceous to early eocene sediments of the Rakhi Nala Section (Sulaiman Range) were analysed for the foraminiferal micro fauna (Planktons, smaller and larger benthics). The faunal record is interpreted for the precise age and paleo environments. These fresh results, in the light of modern bio stratigraphic knowledge, are compared with the previous bio stratigraphic information available about this area. Several discrepancies regarding the litho and biostratigraphy from the previous literature were addressed and tried to remove. (author)

  7. Integrated stratigraphy of a shallow marine Paleocene-Eocene boundary section, MCBR cores, Maryland (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, J. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Powars, D. S.; Wandless, G. A.; Willard, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    An exceptional Paleocene-Eocene boundary section occurs in a cluster of six short (color from gray to alternating gray and pink also occurs within the CIE transition. These alternating changes in color coincide with cyclic peaks in the carbon isotope and percent calcium carbonate curves, where gray color corresponds to a positive shift in carbon isotope values and to a corresponding increase in percent benthic and planktic foraminifera. The upper third of the Marlboro Clay is barren of all calcareous microfossil material, although the presence of foraminiferal molds and linings proves that deposition occurred in a marine environment. Co-occurrence of the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum and Phthanoperidinium crenulatum at the top of the Marlboro Clay suggests that the Marlboro Clay at Mattawoman Creek is truncated. This is corroborated by the absence in the Marlboro of specimens of the calcareous nannofossil Rhomboaster-Discoaster assemblage, which is restricted to early Eocene Zone NP9b. Based on planktic/benthic foraminifera ratios, deposition of sediments at Mattawoman Creek occurred predominantly in an inner neritic environment, at water depths between 25-50 m. Occasional deepening to approximately 75m (middle neritic environment) occurred in the early Eocene, as represented by the basal Marlboro Clay. The planktic/benthic ratio, however, could also be affected by surface productivity and/or river runoff. The gradual shift up-section in core color from gray to alternating gray and red, to dark red, coupled with dissolution of calcareous microfossil assemblages, is possibly secondary and may represent lysocline shoaling in a nearshore environment. This would suggest that lysocline shoaling continued after the CIE and well into the early Eocene.

  8. Climatic controls of ecohydrological responses in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, Samuale; Birhane, Emiru; Leijnse, Toon; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability and recurrent droughts have a strong negative impact on agricultural production and hydrology in the highlands northern Ethiopia. Since the 1980s, numerous mitigation and land rehabilitation measures have been implemented by local and national authorities to reduce these impacts,

  9. Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Rowlands, G.J.; Thorpe, W.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 1755 households in the Kenya highlands was conducted between June 1996 and April 1998 to quantify cattle population dynamics in smallholder herds. The free-, semi-zero- and zero-grazing systems practised represented increasing levels of

  10. Embracing epiphytes in sustainable forest management: a pilot study from the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Scatena, F.N.; Hamilton, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular epiphyte biomass and species richness were investigated in 16 anthropogenically disturbed pine-oak forests within an area of ~400 km2 in the Highlands of Chiapas, southern Mexico. Epiphyte biomass on 35 host oak trees in six diameter classes varied from 0.8 to 243 kg dry-weight and

  11. Aulacoseira coroniformis sp. nov., a new diatom (Bacillariophyta) species from Highland Hammock State Park, Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.; Pearce, C.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aulacoseira coroniformis sp. nov. is described from a short peat core recovered in Highlands Hammock State Park, Florida, U.S.A. The morphology of the new diatom species is documented by light and scanning electron micrographs and discussed in detail, including a comparison with related species in

  12. Effectiveness of sustainable land management measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Okoba, Barrack; Sterk, Geert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157276465

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem that affects food security and social livelihoods in the highlands of East Africa. Sustainable land management (SLM) measures have been widely promoted to reduce erosion and increase crop yield, but the adoption of SLM measures has remained low. In order to

  13. 77 FR 68854 - Highland Associates, Inc. and Financial Investors Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... shareholders, and does not involve a conflict of interest from which the Adviser or the Affiliated Subadviser... shareholder approval. Applicants: Highland Associates, Inc. (the ``Adviser'') and Financial Investors Trust... be issued unless the Commission orders a hearing. Interested persons may request a hearing by writing...

  14. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  15. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  16. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  17. Drought is a major yield loss factor for rainfed East African highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.; Asten-Fermont, van A.M.; Taulya, G.

    2011-01-01

    Although drought stress has been identified among the production constraints of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome), no quantitative data were available to support this assumption. This study uses data from three on-station fertilizer trials (5–6 cycles) in Central and Southwest

  18. Genetic structure of the population of Phytophthora infestans attacking Solanum ochranthum in the highlands of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacón, M.G.; Adler, N.E.; Jarrin, F.; Flier, W.G.; Gessler, C.; Forbes, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-nine isolates of Phytophthora infestans were collected from the wild host Solanum ochranthum in the highland tropics of Ecuador and characterized with a set of phenotypic and molecular markers (mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity, the allozyme loci Gpi, and Pep, mitochondrial DNA haplotype,

  19. Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheldeman, X.; Willemen, L.; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Restrepo, M.T.; Romero Motoche, J.; Jimenez, D.; Lobo, M.; Medina, C.I.; Reyes, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Ocampo, J.A.; Damme, van P.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in

  20. Site factors influencing oak decline in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    Oak decline is affecting the forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. In 2002 and 2003, field plots were established throughout the region to evaluate the influence of topographic position and aspect on oak decline. Density and basal area of dead and dying oaks did not significantly differ by either topographic position or aspect. Lack of...

  1. Stability of diameter distributions in a managed uneven-aged oak forest in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiming Wang; Paul S. Johnson; H. E. Garrett; Stephen R. Shifley

    1997-01-01

    We studied a privately owned 156,000-acre oak-dominated forest in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The forest has been managed by the single-tree selection method since 1952. Using 40 years of continuous forest inventory records, we analyzed the stability of the shape of tree diameter distributions at the forest-wide scale. Results show that for trees ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahutu, J.B.; Steininger, C.; Shyirambere, C.; Zeile, I.; Cwinya-Ay, N.; Danquah, I.; Larsen, C.H.; Eggelte, T.A.; Uwimana, A.; Karema, C.; Musemakweri, A.; Harms, G.; Mockenhaupt, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Zeile, Irene; Cwinya-Ay, Neniling; Danquah, Ina; Larsen, Christoph H.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Uwimana, Aline; Karema, Corine; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in

  4. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell

    2006-01-01

    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  5. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  6. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  7. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869–2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed ...

  8. Does meat come from animals? A multispecies approach to classification and belonging in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Guatemalan highlands, distinctions between human and animal are often irrelevant to the treatment of an object as meat. I draw from my ethnographic fieldwork on eating practices in that region to suggest that if the recent social science turn to species is to be a departure from the

  9. Climate change as an amplifier of health risks: highland malaria in Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, Maud; Martens, Pim

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between climate and non-climate factors are of vital importance in shaping human vulnerability to global warming. In this chapter, this is illustrated for an important health risk induced by climate change, namely highland malaria in Africa. Despite the known causal links between

  10. Evaluation of the LISEM soil erosion model in two catchments in the East African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Bosch, van den R.; Vigiak, O.

    2006-01-01

    Under increasing population pressure, soil erosion has become a threat in the East African Highlands, and erosion modelling can be useful to quantify this threat. To test its applicability for this region, the LISEM soil erosion model was applied to two small catchments, one in the Usumbara

  11. Continuous miner and friction bolts play key roles in Highland's move underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.J.; Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Exxon has added underground mining operations to the open pits at its Highland uranium mine and mill complex 60 mi northeast of Casper in the Powder River Basin and has, in the process, adopted some innovative mining techniques. A continuous shield miner is being used in conjunction with continuous ground support--thought to be the first truly successful combination of these techniques in a US uranium mine. Highland miners are also making extensive use of ''Split Sets,'' a patented friction rock bolt system invented in 1973, which has proven to be a successful cost-saving substitute for timber supports in Highland's soft, water-saturated, extremely unstable sediments. Initial mine production at Highland began in July 1972, and the mill started up the following October. Design capacity at startup was 2,000 tpd, a figure that has since been expanded to 3,000 tpd through mill modifications but without a major construction program. Current production is about 2 million lb per year of U 3 O 8

  12. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and

  13. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more

  14. Disputes over territorial boundaries and diverging valuation languages : The Santurban hydrosocial highlands territory in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Abadía, B.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the divergent modes of conceptualizing, valuing and representing the páramo highlands of Santurban, Colombia, as a struggle over hydrosocial territory. Páramo residents, multinational companies, government and scientists deploy territorial representations and valuation languages that

  15. Disputes over territorial boundaries and diverging valuation languages: the Santurban hydrosocial highlands territory in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the divergent modes of conceptualizing, valuing and representing the páramo highlands of Santurban, Colombia, as a struggle over hydrosocial territory. Páramo residents, multinational companies, government and scientists deploy territorial representations and valuation languages that

  16. Pesticides and health in highland Ecuadorian potato production: assessing impacts and developing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.; Sherwood, S.G.; Crissman, C.; Barrera, V.H.; Espinosa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in highland Ecuador is concentrated in the high-risk, commercial production of potatoes. Small farm families experience considerable exposure and adverse health consequences. The authors describe a three-pronged strategy to reduce health impacts: 1) a community-based process of

  17. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 04008964, NRC-2012-0214] Power Resources, Inc., Smith... available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland... (Smith Ranch Technical Report); Accession No. ML12234A539 (Smith Ranch Environmental Report). In addition...

  18. Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African highland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa. Our analyses rely on a

  19. Shading by Napier grass reduces malaria vector larvae in natural habitats in western Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamae, P.M.; Githeko, A.K.; Menya, D.M.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Increased human population in the Western Kenya highlands has led to reclamation of natural swamps resulting in the creation of habitats suitable for the breeding of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in the region. Here we report on a study to restore the reclaimed swamp and reverse its

  20. Ky’osimba Onaanya: understanding productivity of East African Highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall

  1. Phosphorus Response and Fertilizer Recommendations for Wheat Grown on Nitisols in the Central Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Nelson, Paul N.; Bird, Michael I.; Beek, van Christy

    2015-01-01

    The provision of farmers with proper and balanced fertilizer recommendations is becoming increasingly important, for reasons of crop productivity, food security, and sustainability. Phosphorus (P) response trials with wheat were conducted on Nitisols at 14 sites in the central Ethiopian highlands

  2. The effectiveness of soil conservation measures at a landscape scale in the West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Masselink, Rens; Sterk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies among small holder farmers in the East African highlands is an area which poses many challenges. When adoption occurs across a vast landscape, the locations and effectiveness of the adopted measures are often not adequately known. For

  3. Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been

  4. Urban and rural risks of Lyme disease in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; Hopkins, P C; MacLennan, A; Joss, A W L; Ho-Yen, D O

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of Lyme disease testing and infection within the Highland region of Scotland. Data from all Highland samples tested during 2004-2006 were analysed according to result and patient's residence in relation to the eight fold Scottish Executive's urban/rural classification, and distance from woodland. In total, 1602 patients were tested for Lyme disease, 0.71% of the Highland population. From these, 104 (6.5%) were seropositive. There were more patients tested, and seropositive patients from rural than urban locations, 1113 vs 489, and 79 vs 25 respectively. There were also significantly more seropositive patients per patients tested from rural locations (chi2, prural areas become more remote. The likelihood of being tested for Lyme disease also increased as the distance between a patient's residence and woodland decreased. The relative risk of being tested elevated by 74% for those patients living within 200 metres of woodland. Those living in the most rural areas of Highland and those living closest to woodland have an increased risk of being tested and having Lyme disease.

  5. Farmers' indicators for soil erosion mapping and crop yield estimation in central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    The central highlands of Kenya is characterised by abundant rainfall and fertile volcanic soils that support agricultural activities but problems of soil erosion are widespread in the region. Past efforts to control the soil erosion problems were through application of regulations that enforced

  6. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  7. Social and economic factors for adoption of soil and water conservation in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is one of the major constraints to agricultural production in many parts of the Tanzanian highlands. Although several soil and water conservation technologies have been developed and promoted, the adoption of many recommended measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to

  8. Embodying Authentic Leadership through Popular Education at Highlander Research and Education Center: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Griswold, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, workshops were held at Highlander Research and Education Center that explored the topics of authentic leadership and popular education. The participants shared their experiences through reflective writing upon completion of the workshops and approximately a year following. These reflections were developed into a case study. This…

  9. Key-socio economic factors influencing sustainable land management investments in the West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by

  10. 76 FR 80424 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Portfolio Securities as a result of the rebalancing of an Underlying Index. A tradable round lot will be the... Highland Senior Loan Portfolio, (``Initial Fund'') whose performance will correspond generally to the price... a portfolio of securities (``Portfolio Securities'') selected to correspond generally to the price...

  11. 78 FR 41891 - Proposed Establishment of the Upper Hiwassee Highlands Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... gorges. To the west, below the Hiwassee Dam, are a series of lower ridges, mountains, and deep, narrow... Hiwassee Highlands viticultural area also has significantly shallower slope angles. According to the slope...

  12. Astronomical calibration of the middle Eocene Contessa Highway section (Gubbio, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovane, Luigi; Sprovieri, Mario; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Florindo, Fabio; Marsili, Andrea; Laskar, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    The Eocene climatic system experienced an important transition from warm Paleocene greenhouse to icehouse Oligocene conditions. This transition could first appear as a long-term cooling trend but, at an up-close look, this period is a complex combination of climatic events and, for most of them, causes and consequences are still not fully characterized. In this context, a study has been carried out on the middle Eocene sedimentary succession of the Contessa Highway section, central Italy, which is proposed as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Lutetian/Bartonian boundary at the top of the Chron 19n, with an astronomically calibrated age of 41.23 Ma. Through a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the rhythmic sedimentary alternations and combination with the results of time series analysis of the proxy record, we provide an orbital tuning of the middle Eocene and astronomical calibration of the bio-magnetostratigraphic events (particularly for the C19n/C18r Chron boundary) recognized at the Contessa Highway section.

  13. Astronomical calibration of the geological timescale: closing the middle Eocene gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Röhl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    To explore cause and consequences of past climate change, very accurate age models such as those provided by the astronomical timescale (ATS) are needed. Beyond 40 million years the accuracy of the ATS critically depends on the correctness of orbital models and radioisotopic dating techniques. Discrepancies in the age dating of sedimentary successions and the lack of suitable records spanning the middle Eocene have prevented development of a continuous astronomically calibrated geological timescale for the entire Cenozoic Era. We now solve this problem by constructing an independent astrochronological stratigraphy based on Earth's stable 405 kyr eccentricity cycle between 41 and 48 million years ago (Ma) with new data from deep-sea sedimentary sequences in the South Atlantic Ocean. This new link completes the Paleogene astronomical timescale and confirms the intercalibration of radioisotopic and astronomical dating methods back through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.930 Ma) and the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (66.022 Ma). Coupling of the Paleogene 405 kyr cyclostratigraphic frameworks across the middle Eocene further paves the way for extending the ATS into the Mesozoic.

  14. A Possible Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Ocean Acidification Event Recoded in the Adriatic Carbonate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Oefinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event ( 56.3 Ma) was a period of massive carbon release into the Earth system, resulting in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. It has been proposed that ocean acidification - a decrease in the pH and carbonate saturation state of the water as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water - occurred in both the shallow and deep marine realms. Ocean acidification would have had a devastating impact on the benthic ecosystem, and has been proposed as the cause of decreased carbonate deposition in marine sections and coral reef collapse during the late Paleocene. To date, however, the only physical evidence of Paleocene-Eocene ocean acidification has been shown for offshore sites (i.e., a shallow carbonate compensation depth), but isotope analysis (i.e. B, I/Ca) suggests that acidification occurred in the shallow shelves as well. Several sites in the Kras region of Slovenia, has been found to contain apparent erosion surfaces coeval with the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary. We have investigated these potentially acidified horizons using petrography, stable carbon isotopes, cathodoluminescence, and elemental mapping. These datasets will inform whether the horizons formed by seafloor dissolution in an acidified ocean, or are due to subaerial exposure, or burial diagenesis (i.e. stylotization). Physical erosion and diagenesis can easily be ruled out based on field relationships and petrography, but the other potential causes must be analyzed more critically.

  15. Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R; Mathewes, Rolf W; Greenwood, David R

    2011-12-22

    Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene.

  16. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friðgeir Grímsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background We revisit the palaeopalynological record of Loranthaceae, using pollen ornamentation to discriminate lineages and to test molecular dating estimates for the diversification of major lineages. Methods Fossil Loranthaceae pollen from the Eocene and Oligocene are analysed and documented using scanning-electron microscopy. These fossils were associated with molecular-defined clades and used as minimum age constraints for Bayesian node dating using different topological scenarios. Results The fossil Loranthaceae pollen document the presence of at least one extant root-parasitic lineage (Nuytsieae and two currently aerial parasitic lineages (Psittacanthinae and Loranthinae by the end of the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere. Phases of increased lineage diversification (late Eocene, middle Miocene coincide with global warm phases. Discussion With the generation of molecular data becoming easier and less expensive every day, neontological research should re-focus on conserved morphologies that can be traced through the fossil record. The pollen, representing the male gametophytic generation of plants and often a taxonomic indicator, can be such a tracer. Analogously, palaeontological research should put more effort into diagnosing Cenozoic fossils with the aim of including them into modern systematic frameworks.

  17. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  18. Eocene greenhouse climate revealed by coupled clumped isotope-Mg/Ca thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Sagoo, Navjit; Renema, Willem; Cotton, Laura J; Müller, Wolfgang; Todd, Jonathan A; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar; Stassen, Peter; Ziegler, Martin; Pearson, Paul N; Valdes, Paul J; Affek, Hagit P

    2018-02-06

    Past greenhouse periods with elevated atmospheric CO 2 were characterized by globally warmer sea-surface temperatures (SST). However, the extent to which the high latitudes warmed to a greater degree than the tropics (polar amplification) remains poorly constrained, in particular because there are only a few temperature reconstructions from the tropics. Consequently, the relationship between increased CO 2 , the degree of tropical warming, and the resulting latitudinal SST gradient is not well known. Here, we present coupled clumped isotope (Δ 47 )-Mg/Ca measurements of foraminifera from a set of globally distributed sites in the tropics and midlatitudes. Δ 47 is insensitive to seawater chemistry and therefore provides a robust constraint on tropical SST. Crucially, coupling these data with Mg/Ca measurements allows the precise reconstruction of Mg/Ca sw throughout the Eocene, enabling the reinterpretation of all planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca data. The combined dataset constrains the range in Eocene tropical SST to 30-36 °C (from sites in all basins). We compare these accurate tropical SST to deep-ocean temperatures, serving as a minimum constraint on high-latitude SST. This results in a robust conservative reconstruction of the early Eocene latitudinal gradient, which was reduced by at least 32 ± 10% compared with present day, demonstrating greater polar amplification than captured by most climate models.

  19. A new primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches (Middle Eocene, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Becker, Damien; Costeur, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus. Microchoerines are also represented by two species of Pseudoloris, P. pyrenaicus and Pseudoloris parvulus, constituting the unique joint record of these two species known up to now. Remains of Adapiformes are limited to one isolated tooth of a large anchomomyin and another tooth belonging to the small adapine Microadapis cf. sciureus. The studied primate association allows assigning La Verrerie de Roches to the Robiacian Land Mammal Age. More specifically, this site can be confidently situated between the MP15 and MP16 reference levels, although the primate assemblage probably indicates some degree of temporal mixing. This is the first record of P. pyrenaicus and a form closely related to N. anadoni out of the Iberian Peninsula. The identification of these microchoerines in Switzerland gives further support to the connection of NE Spain and Central Europe during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S. Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Greenwood, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene. PMID:21543354

  1. Sensitivity of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum climate to cloud properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Shields, Christine A

    2013-10-28

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a significant global warming event in the Earth's history (approx. 55 Ma). The cause for this warming event has been linked to increases in greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide and methane. This rapid warming took place in the presence of the existing Early Eocene warm climate. Given that projected business-as-usual levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reach concentrations of 800-1100 ppmv by 2100, it is of interest to study past climates where atmospheric carbon dioxide was higher than present. This is especially the case given the difficulty of climate models in simulating past warm climates. This study explores the sensitivity of the simulated pre-PETM and PETM periods to change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and microphysical properties of liquid water clouds. Assuming lower levels of CCN for both of these periods leads to significant warming, especially at high latitudes. The study indicates that past differences in cloud properties may be an important factor in accurately simulating past warm climates. Importantly, additional shortwave warming from such a mechanism would imply lower required atmospheric CO2 concentrations for simulated surface temperatures to be in reasonable agreement with proxy data for the Eocene.

  2. Virtual endocranial cast of earliest Eocene Diacodexis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and morphological diversity of early artiodactyl brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orliac, M. J.; Gilissen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of brain evolution, particularly that of the neocortex, is of primary interest because it directly relates to how behavioural variations arose both between and within mammalian groups. Artiodactyla is one of the most diverse mammalian clades. However, the first 10 Myr of their brain evolution has remained undocumented so far. Here, we used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate the endocranial cast of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Eocene age. Its virtual reconstruction provides unprecedented access to both metric parameters and fine anatomy of the most complete endocast of the earliest artiodactyl. This picture is assessed in a broad comparative context by reconstructing endocasts of 14 other Early and Middle Eocene representatives of basal artiodactyls, allowing the tracking of the neocortical structure of artiodactyls back to its simplest pattern. We show that the earliest artiodactyls share a simple neocortical pattern, so far never observed in other ungulates, with an almond-shaped gyrus instead of parallel sulci as previously hypothesized. Our results demonstrate that artiodactyls experienced a tardy pulse of encephalization during the Late Neogene, well after the onset of cortical complexity increase. Comparisons with Eocene perissodactyls show that the latter reached a high level of cortical complexity earlier than the artiodactyls. PMID:22764165

  3. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Kapli, Paschalia; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido W

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the palaeopalynological record of Loranthaceae, using pollen ornamentation to discriminate lineages and to test molecular dating estimates for the diversification of major lineages. Fossil Loranthaceae pollen from the Eocene and Oligocene are analysed and documented using scanning-electron microscopy. These fossils were associated with molecular-defined clades and used as minimum age constraints for Bayesian node dating using different topological scenarios. The fossil Loranthaceae pollen document the presence of at least one extant root-parasitic lineage (Nuytsieae) and two currently aerial parasitic lineages (Psittacanthinae and Loranthinae) by the end of the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere. Phases of increased lineage diversification (late Eocene, middle Miocene) coincide with global warm phases. With the generation of molecular data becoming easier and less expensive every day, neontological research should re-focus on conserved morphologies that can be traced through the fossil record. The pollen, representing the male gametophytic generation of plants and often a taxonomic indicator, can be such a tracer. Analogously, palaeontological research should put more effort into diagnosing Cenozoic fossils with the aim of including them into modern systematic frameworks.

  4. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  5. Tarsal morphology of the pleuraspidotheriid mammal Hilalia from the middle Eocene of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire Metais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleuraspidotheriids are a group of primitive ungulate mammals that, until recently, were thought to be restricted to the late Paleocene of Western Europe. It has been hypothesized that this family actually survived in Central Anatolia until at least the middle Eocene. However, these anachronistically young Anatolian “survivors”, including the genus Hilalia, were previously documented mainly by dental remains. Here, we describe the previously unknown astragalus of Hilalia saribeya, which confirms the pleuraspidotheriid affinities of the genus, and supports phylogenetic reconstructions that place Hilalia as the sister group of Pleuraspidotherium. The morphology of the astragalus suggests sub-cursorial plantigrade locomotion for H. saribeya, although its tarsal morphology remains generalized enough that scansorial capabilities cannot be ruled out. The evolution of Hilalia is addressed in the context of the apparent geographic isolation of Central Anatolia during the Eocene. The endemic character of the mammalian fauna of Central Anatolia during the middle Eocene emphasizes how the complex paleogeography of the northern margin of Neotethys impacted local biotas in a region situated at the crossroads of very distinctive biogeographic zones.

  6. Fossil cyclanthus (cyclanthaceae, pandanales) from the eocene of Germany and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selena Y; Collinson, Margaret E; Rudall, Paula J

    2008-06-01

    The first known fossil fruits and seeds of Cyclanthaceae are described here. Cyclanthus messelensis sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany, has discoidal fruiting cycles up to 6 cm in diameter, with a central hole, radiating fiber strands, a thickened outer rim, and paratetracytic stomata. In situ seeds are up to 2 mm long, with an elongate micropylar end, a chalazal neck, and adpressed bands. The Messel fruits and seeds are nearly identical to those of Cyclanthus, differing in minor details of cuticular structure and seeds. The exceptional preservation at Messel (including in situ and isolated seeds) has also allowed us to establish the taxonomic affinity of isolated seeds ('Scirpus' lakensis) that are spatially and temporally widespread in the late Early and early Middle Eocene of southern England. Cyclanthus lakensis comb. nov. is described here as a morphotaxon for isolated fossil Cyclanthus seeds, preserved only as cuticular envelopes. Cyclanthus is another example of links between Eocene Europe and Recent South American floras because it is found today only from Mexico to South America. This material represents the first fossil fruits and seeds of Cyclanthus, which clearly was once growing in the Paleogene of the Old World.

  7. Retention among ART patients in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: evaluating the PAPUA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sarthak; Carmone, Andy; Franke, Molly F; Frank, Dale; Kiromat, Hannelly; Kaima, Petronia; Kiromat, Mobumo

    2014-02-01

    Despite more than 10,000 patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there remains a dearth of operational research in Papua New Guinea related to HIV service delivery. This study examined the effectiveness of a locally developed model of HIV service delivery called PAPUA (Patient and Provider Unified Approach) in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The model emphasizes coordinated patient and provider support along with decentralized services to rural districts in the Highlands. We conducted a chart review among HIV-infected adults on ART at clinics in Eastern Highlands Province, where the PAPUA model was implemented in addition to the standard of care, and in Western Highlands Province, where the standard of care was implemented. We calculated yearly retention rates and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to compare retention rates across the provinces. Data for 2457 patients from the 2 provinces were analyzed. Among patients receiving ART under the PAPUA model in Eastern Highlands, the 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month retention proportions were 0.79, 0.73, 0.68, and 0.63, respectively. When we compared retention probabilities across the 2 provinces, patients receiving care under the PAPUA model had a 15% lower rate of attrition from care during the first 4 years of ART (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 0.99; P = 0.03), after adjusting for age, gender, and year of enrollment. The PAPUA model seems to be a promising intervention although it is inextricably linked to the limitations posed by a resource-constrained health system.

  8. Sea Surface Warming and Increased Aridity at Mid-latitudes during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Hoenisch, B.; Schrader, C.; Lourens, L. J.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Early Eocene hyperthermals, i.e. abrupt global warming events characterized by the release of isotopically light carbon to the atmosphere, can provide insight into the sensitivity of the Earth's climate system and hydrologic cycle to carbon emissions. Indeed, the largest Eocene hyperthermal, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), has provided one case study of extreme and abrupt global warming, with a mass of carbon release roughly equivalent to total modern fossil fuel reserves and a release rate 1/10 that of modern. Global sea surface temperatures (SST) increased by 5-8°C during the PETM and extensive evidence from marine and terrestrial records indicates significant shifts in the hydrologic cycle consistent with an increase in poleward moisture transport in response to surface warming. The second largest Eocene hyperthermal, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2) provides an additional calibration point for determining the sensitivity of climate and the hydrologic cycle to massive carbon release. Marine carbon isotope excursions (CIE) and warming at the ETM-2 were roughly half as large as at the PETM, but reliable evidence for shifts in temperature and the hydrologic cycle are sparse for the ETM-2. Here, we utilize coupled planktic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca to determine ΔSST and ΔSSS (changes in sea surface temperature and salinity) for ETM-2 at ODP Sites 1209 (28°N paleolatitude in the Pacific) and 1265 (42°S paleolatitude in the S. Atlantic), accounting for potential pH influence on the two proxies by using LOSCAR climate-carbon cycle simulated ΔpH. Our results indicate a warming of 2-4°C at both mid-latitude sites and an increase in SSS of 1-3ppt, consistent with simulations of early Paleogene hydroclimate that suggest an increase in low- to mid-latitude aridity due to an intensification of moisture transport to high-latitudes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the CIE and warming for ETM-2 scales with the CIE and warming for the PETM, suggesting that

  9. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

  10. Biogeographic implications of small mammals from Northern Highlands in Tanzania with first data from the volcanic Mount Kitumbeine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabuni, C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Crocidura montis group * cytochrome b * Lophuromys * montane habitats * Northern Highlands of Tanzania Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016

  11. Distribution of Early, Middle, and Late Noachian cratered surfaces in the Martian highlands: Implications for resurfacing events and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Robbins, Stuart J.

    2013-02-01

    Most of the geomorphic changes on Mars occurred during the Noachian Period, when the rates of impact crater degradation and valley network incision were highest. Fluvial erosion around the Noachian/Hesperian transition is better constrained than the longer-term landscape evolution throughout the Noachian Period, when the highland intercrater geomorphic surfaces developed. We interpret highland resurfacing events and processes using a new global geologic map of Mars (at 1:20,000,000 scale), a crater data set that is complete down to 1 km in diameter, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography. The Early Noachian highland (eNh) unit is nearly saturated with craters of 32-128 km diameter, the Middle Noachian highland (mNh) unit has a resurfacing age of ~4 Ga, and the Late Noachian highland unit (lNh) includes younger composite surfaces of basin fill and partially buried cratered terrain. These units have statistically distinct ages, and their distribution varies with elevation. The eNh unit is concentrated in the high-standing Hellas basin annulus and in highland terrain that was thinly mantled by basin ejecta near 180° longitude. The mNh unit includes most of Arabia Terra, the Argyre vicinity, highland plateau areas between eNh outcrops, and the Thaumasia range. The lNh unit mostly occurs within highland basins. Crater depth/diameter ratios do not vary strongly between the eNh and mNh units, although crater losses to Noachian resurfacing appear greater in lower lying areas. Noachian resurfacing was spatially non-uniform, long-lived, and gravity-driven, more consistent with arid-zone fluvial and aeolian erosion and volcanism than with air fall mantling or mass wasting.

  12. Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its Utility in Paleoecological Reconstruction of Eocene High Latitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; LePage, B. A.; Vann, D. R.; Johnson, A. H.

    2001-05-01

    Abundant fossil plant remains are preserved in the Eocene-aged deposits of the Buchanan Lake formation on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. Intact leaf litter, logs, and stumps preserved in situ as mummified remains present an opportunity to determine forest composition, structure, and productivity of a Taxodiaceae-dominated forest that once grew north of the Arctic Circle (paleolatitude 75-80° N). We excavated 37 tree stems for dimensional analysis from mudstone and channel-sand deposits. Stem length ranged from 1.0 m to 14.8 m (average = 3.2 m). Stem diameter ranged from less than 10 cm to greater than 75 cm (average = 32.2 cm). All stem wood was tentatively identified to genus as Metasequoia sp. The diameters and parabolic shape of the preserved tree trunks indicate that the Metasequoia were about 39 m tall across a wide range of diameters. The allometric relationships we derived for modern Metasequoia (n=70) allowed independent predictions of Metasequoia height given the stand density and stump diameters of the fossil forest. The two height estimates of 40 and 40.5 m match the results obtained from measurements of the Eocene trees. We used stump diameter data (n =107, diameter > 20 cm) and an uniform canopy height of 39 m to calculate parabolic stem volume and stem biomass for a 0.22 ha area of fossil forest. Stem volume equaled 2065 m3 ha-1 and stem biomass equaled 560 Mg ha-1 . In the Eocene forest, as determined from length of stems that were free of protruding branches and from 7 exhumed tree tops, the uppermost 9 m of the trees carried live branches with foliage. In living conifers, branch weights and the amount of foliage carried by branches are well correlated with branch diameters measured where the branch joins the main stem. To determine the biomass in branches and foliage in the Eocene forest, we used relationships derived from large modern Metasequoia. Based on the regression of branch weight v. branch diameter (r2 = 0.97) and foliar biomass v

  13. Fuenferrada 3, the first Eocene mammal locality in the depression of Montalbán (Teruel, Spain), with some remarks on the fauna of Olalla 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The rodent fauna of Fuenferrada contains two species of Theridomyidae and three species of Gliridae. It is compared with the Early Oligocene fauna of Olalla 4A, and with the Late Eocene fauna of Aguatón 2D. The absence of Cricetidae serves to determine its age as latest Eocene.

  14. Estimates of clear night sky emissivity in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Runsheng; Etzion, Y.; Meir, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    A simple method was introduced to estimate the atmospheric emissivity of clear night skies based on the water temperature variation inside an open shallow pond. The method used the pond as an absorber of atmospheric radiation by measuring the water evaporation rate from the pond to ambient air and then calculating the heat loss inside the pond due to the radiative heat exchange between the pond and sky dome. An empirical correlation for the calculations of clear night sky emissivity in the Negev Highlands, Israel, was found. It showed that the emissivity of clear night sky in the Negev Highlands is slightly lower than that expected by Berdahl et al. and Clark's correlations under the climatic conditions during the period of measurements

  15. Poverty and soil conservation efforts among smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Yirga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the influence of incidence of poverty and plot-level perception of soil degradation, on soil conservation behaviour of small subsistence farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The study results confirm that poverty in assets significantly reduces the probability of soil-conservation efforts as measured by use of stone/soil bund structures in the highlands of Ethiopia. Perception of soil degradation, public assistance with sharing initial costs of constructing soil-conservation structures, improved security of land tenure and farmers’ education and access to information on soil degradation are essential for farmers making long-term investment in conserving soil resources. On the other hand, improved access to short-term credit for the purchase of inorganic fertilizers acts as a disincentive for long-term conservation practices, an important trade-off with serious policy implications that should be carefully evaluated.

  16. Multi-scale Food Energy and Water Dynamics in the Blue Nile Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Simane, B.; Block, P. J.; Foltz, J.; Mueller-Mahn, D.; Gilioli, G.; Sciarretta, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are often called the "water tower of Africa," giving rise to major transboundary rivers. Rapid hydropower development is quickly transforming these highlands into the "power plant of Africa" as well. For local people, however, they are first and foremost a land of small farms, devoted primarily to subsistence agriculture. Under changing climate, rapid national economic growth, and steadily increasing population and land pressures, these mountains and their inhabitants have become the focal point of a multi-scale food-energy-water nexus with significant implications across East Africa. Here we examine coupled natural-human system dynamics that emerge when basin and nation scale resource development strategies are superimposed on a local economy that is largely subsistence based. Sensitivity to local and remote climate shocks are considered, as is the role of Earth Observation in understanding and informing management of food-energy-water resources across scales.

  17. A-B-O and Rh affinities between highland and lowland Quechua-speaking Peruvian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A R; Klayman, J E

    1975-09-01

    According to the accounts of the Spanish chronicles and various historical analyses the Quechua-speaking population inhabiting the Province of Lamas in the Eastern Tropical Lowlands of Peru are descendants of the Chanca Tribes that migrated from the highlands about 500 years ago. The results of the present study indicate that in terms of the A-B-O and Rh systems the lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas and the highland Quechua population from the Province of Junin are more similar to each other than to other tropical tribes. Therefore, it is quite possible that the present lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas may be descendants of Andean populations.

  18. Assessing the impact of model and climate uncertainty in malaria simulations for the Kenyan Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Thomson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of the impact of climate variations on a vector-bornedisease such as malaria are subject to a number of sources ofuncertainty. These include the model structure and parameter settingsin addition to errors in the climate data and the neglect of theirspatial heterogeneity, especially over complex terrain. We use aconstrained genetic algorithm to confront these two sources ofuncertainty for malaria transmission in the highlands of Kenya. Thetechnique calibrates the parameter settings of a process-based,mathematical model of malaria transmission to vary within theirassessed level of uncertainty and also allows the calibration of thedriving climate data. The simulations show that in highland settingsclose to the threshold for sustained transmission, the uncertainty inclimate is more important to address than the malaria modeluncertainty. Applications of the coupled climate-malaria modelling system are briefly presented.

  19. High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanci, L.; Lowrie, W.; Montanari, A.

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies. [Italiano] La stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene ed il magnetismo delle rocce sono stati studiati in dettaglio per verificare la presenza di eventuali inversioni di polarita` brevi (short chrons) e variazioni delle intensita` del campo geomagnetico che possano essere messe in relazione con le anomalie oceaniche a bassa ampiezza e corto periodo.

  20. The Eocene climate of China, the early elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and the onset of the Asian Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Spicer, Robert A; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2013-12-01

    Eocene palynological samples from 37 widely distributed sites across China were analysed using co-existence approach to determine trends in space and time for seven palaeoclimate variables: Mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean temperature of the warmest month, mean temperature of the coldest month, mean annual range of temperature, mean maximum monthly precipitation and mean minimum monthly precipitation. Present day distributions and observed climates within China of the nearest living relatives of the fossil forms were used to find the range of a given variable in which a maximum number of taxa can coexist. Isotherm and isohyet maps for the early, middle and late Eocene were constructed. These illustrate regional changing patterns in thermal and precipitational gradients that may be interpreted as the beginnings of the modern Asian Monsoon system, and suggest that the uplift of parts of the Tibetan Plateau appear to have taken place by the middle to late Eocene. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  2. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L Franzen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  3. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  4. Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum linked to continental arc flare-up in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Kuiper, K.; van der Ploeg, R.; Cramwinckel, M.; Honarmand, M.; Sluijs, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    A 500 kyr episode of 3-5 °C gradual global climate warming, some 40 Myr ago, has been termed the Middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO). It has been associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the source of this carbon remains enigmatic. We show, based on new Ar-Ar ages of volcanic rocks in Iran and Azerbaijan, that the time interval spanning the MECO was associated with a massive increase in continental arc volcanism. We also collected almost 300 Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages from literature. Typically, U-Pb ages from the Eocene are slightly younger, by 3 Myr, than Ar-Ar ages. We observed that U-Pb ages are obtained mostly from intrusive rocks and therefore must reflect an intrusive stage that post-dated extrusive volcanism. Combining all ages for extrusive rocks, we show that they cluster around 40.2 Ma, exactly within the time span of the MECO (40.5-40.0 Ma). We estimate volumes of volcanism based on a shapefile of outcrops and average thickness of the sequences. We calculate CO2 estimates using a relation volcanism-CO2 that was earlier used for the Deccan traps (Tobin et al., 2017). Our calculations indicate that the volume of the Iranian middle Eocene volcanic rocks (estimated at 37000 km3) is sufficient to explain the CO2 rise during the MECO. We conclude that continental arc flare-up in the Neotethys subduction zone is a plausible candidate for causing the MECO.

  5. The evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick; Dumas, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that the Middle to Late Eocene has witnessed the waxing and waning of relatively small ephemeral ice sheets. These alternating episodes culminated in the Eocene-Oligocene transition (34 - 33.5 Ma) during which a sudden and massive glaciation occurred over Antarctica. Data studies have demonstrated that this glacial event is constituted of two 50 kyr-long steps, the first of modest (10 - 30 m of equivalent sea level) and the second of major (50 - 90 m esl) glacial amplitude, and separated by 200 kyrs. Since a decade, modeling studies have put forward the primary role of CO2 in the initiation of this glaciation, in doing so marginalizing the original "gateway hypothesis". Here, we investigate the impacts of CO2 and orbital parameters on the evolution of the ice sheet during the 500 kyrs of the EO transition using a tri-dimensional interpolation method. The latter allows precise orbital variations, CO2 evolution and ice sheet feedbacks (including the albedo) to be accounted for. Our results show that orbital variations are instrumental in initiating the first step of the EO glaciation but that the primary driver of the major second step is the atmospheric pCO2 crossing a modelled glacial threshold of 900 ppm. Although model-dependant, this higher glacial threshold makes a stronger case for ephemeral Middle-Late Eocene ice sheets. In addition, sensitivity tests demonstrate that the small first step only exists if the absolute pCO2 value remains within 100 ppm higher than the glacial threshold during the first 250 kyrs of the transition. Thereby, the pCO2 sufficiently counterbalances the strong insolation minima occurring at 33.9 and 33.8 Ma but is low enough to allow the ice sheet to nucleate. Nevertheless, questions remain as to what may cause this pCO2 drop.

  6. Eocene climate and Arctic paleobathymetry: A tectonic sensitivity study using GISS ModelE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. D.; Legrande, A. N.; Tripati, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The early Paleogene (65-45 million years ago, Ma) was a ‘greenhouse’ interval with global temperatures warmer than any other time in the last 65 Ma. This period was characterized by high levels of CO2, warm high-latitudes, warm surface-and-deep oceans, and an intensified hydrological cycle. Sediments from the Arctic suggest that the Eocene surface Arctic Ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions remain uncertain. We present equilibrium climate conditions derived from a fully-coupled, water-isotope enabled, general circulation model (GISS ModelE-R) configured for the early Eocene. We also present model-data comparison plots for key climatic variables (SST and δ18O) and analyses of the leading modes of variability in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Our tectonic sensitivity study indicates that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the seaways connecting the Arctic to the Atlantic and Tethys. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2°C in the North Atlantic and 5-10°C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We also suggest that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates in the Atlantic.

  7. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E N; Van Kempen, M M L; Barke, J; Brinkhuis, H; Reichart, G J; Smolders, A J P; Roelofs, J G M; Sangiorgi, F; de Leeuw, J W; Lotter, A F; Sinninghe Damsté, J S

    2009-03-01

    Enormous quantities of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene, as was demonstrated by microscopic analysis of microlaminated sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302. The timing of the Azolla phase (approximately 48.5 Ma) coincides with the earliest signs of onset of the transition from a greenhouse towards the modern icehouse Earth. The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic oceanic basin may have contributed to decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels via burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. The consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms for regional and global nutrient and carbon cycles are still largely unknown. Cultivation experiments have been set up to investigate the influence of elevated pCO2 on Azolla growth, showing a marked increase in Azolla productivity under elevated (760 and 1910 ppm) pCO2 conditions. The combined results of organic carbon, sulphur, nitrogen content and 15N and 13C measurements of sediments from the Azolla interval illustrate the potential contribution of nitrogen fixation in a euxinic stratified Eocene Arctic. Flux calculations were used to quantitatively reconstruct the potential storage of carbon (0.9-3.5 10(18) gC) in the Arctic during the Azolla interval. It is estimated that storing 0.9 10(18) to 3.5 10(18) g carbon would result in a 55 to 470 ppm drawdown of pCO2 under Eocene conditions, indicating that the Arctic Azolla blooms may have had a significant effect on global atmospheric pCO2 levels through enhanced burial of organic matter.

  8. Atmospheric and oceanic impacts of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A T; Farnsworth, A; Lunt, D J; Lear, C H; Markwick, P J

    2015-11-13

    The glaciation of Antarctica at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (approx. 34 million years ago) was a major shift in the Earth's climate system, but the mechanisms that caused the glaciation, and its effects, remain highly debated. A number of recent studies have used coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models to assess the climatic effects of Antarctic glacial inception, with often contrasting results. Here, using the HadCM3L model, we show that the global atmosphere and ocean response to growth of the Antarctic ice sheet is sensitive to subtle variations in palaeogeography, using two reconstructions representing Eocene and Oligocene geological stages. The earlier stage (Eocene; Priabonian), which has a relatively constricted Tasman Seaway, shows a major increase in sea surface temperature over the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in response to the ice sheet. This response does not occur for the later stage (Oligocene; Rupelian), which has a more open Tasman Seaway. This difference in temperature response is attributed to reorganization of ocean currents between the stages. Following ice sheet expansion in the earlier stage, the large Ross Sea gyre circulation decreases in size. Stronger zonal flow through the Tasman Seaway allows salinities to increase in the Ross Sea, deep-water formation initiates and multiple feedbacks then occur amplifying the temperature response. This is potentially a model-dependent result, but it highlights the sensitive nature of model simulations to subtle variations in palaeogeography, and highlights the need for coupled ice sheet-climate simulations to properly represent and investigate feedback processes acting on these time scales. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Normal polarity magnetosubchrons in 24r and the age of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbekmo, J.F.; Heaman, L.M.; Baadsgaard, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Evans, M.E.; Sweet, A.R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    A late Paleocene to early Eocene sequence of flat-lying continental strata occurs in an area known as Obed Mountain, west-central Alberta. The upper 110 m consist of interbedded fluvial channel sandstones and overbank mudrocks containing five back swamp coal seams. Two coreholes, 3.5 km apart, that extend through the entire coal zone were sampled for magnetostratigraphy and {sup 13}C isotope analysis. Bentonites in the No. 1 (lowest) and No. 5 coal seams and a tuff in the No. 3 coal seam were sampled for U-Pb and (or) Rb-Sr dating of zircon and biotite, respectively. Magnetostratigraphic analysis of 520 samples identified the younger part of chron 25r, the whole of chron 25n and the older half of chron 24r. We find six normal polarity subzones in this part of chron 24r, which we correlate to tiny wiggles 6 to 11 in marine magnetic profiles. Carbon isotope analysis of 14 samples from two cores revealed a negative shift of about 2 parts per thousand peaking near the base of 24r.8r. We interpret this as the carbon isotope excursion (CIE), the base of which is now accepted as defining the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. The thickness of the CIE in the Obed Mountain section implies that it lasted between 210 000 and 254 000 years. Radiometric dates of 58.4 {+-} 0.2, 57.7 {+-} 0.3, and 56.9 {+-} 0.8 Ma are obtained for the No. 1, No. 3, and No. 5 coals, respectively. Combining these with magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy yields an age of 57.1 {+-} 0.1 Ma for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

  10. Ironstone deposits hosted in Eocene carbonates from Bahariya (Egypt)-New perspective on cherty ironstone occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives new insight into the genesis of cherty ironstone deposits. The research was centered on well-exposed, unique cherty ironstone mineralization associated with Eocene carbonates from the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Egypt). The economically important ironstones occur in the Naqb Formation (Early Eocene), which is mainly formed of shallow marine carbonate deposits. Periods of lowstand sea-level caused extensive early dissolution (karstification) of the depositional carbonates and dolomitization associated with mixing zones of fresh and marine pore-water. In faulted areas, the Eocene carbonate deposits were transformed into cherty ironstone with preservation of the precursor carbonate sedimentary features, i.e. skeletal and non-skeletal grain types, thickness, bedding, lateral and vertical sequential arrangement, and karst profiles. The ore deposits are composed of iron oxyhydroxides, mainly hematite and goethite, chert in the form of micro- to macro-quartz and chalcedony, various manganese minerals, barite, and a number of subordinate sulfate and clay minerals. Detailed petrographic analysis shows that quartz and iron oxides were coetaneous and selectively replaced carbonates, the coarse dolomite crystals having been preferentially transformed into quartz whereas the micro-crystalline carbonates were replaced by the iron oxyhydroxides. A number of petrographic, sedimentological and structural features including the presence of hydrothermal-mediated minerals (e.g., jacobsite), the geochemistry of the ore minerals as well as the structure-controlled location of the mineralization suggest a hydrothermal source for the ore-bearing fluids circulating through major faults and reflect their proximity to centers of magmatism. The proposed formation model can contribute to better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) that were abundant during the Precambrian.

  11. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens L; Gingerich, Philip D; Habersetzer, Jörg; Hurum, Jørn H; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Smith, B Holly

    2009-05-19

    The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record. We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest. Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  12. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, M H M; Ahmad, B

    2014-01-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest

  13. Maize Diversity, Market Access, and Poverty Reduction in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The western highlands of Guatemala lie within the area where maize was first domesticated, and maize remains central to farmers' livelihood security. Over 50% of the population in the region are in poverty, and over 48% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Development efforts have focused on improved land management, crop diversification, and improved access to markets, especially for high-value vegetable crops such as snow peas. As a result of successful initiatives worldwide, more attention is being directed at the extent to which farmers can benefit from market opportunities for indigenous crops by receiving a price premium for providing the environmental service of conserving agricultural biodiversity. Such an approach bridges the gap between poverty alleviation and in situ conservation. We explored this potential development pathway through both qualitative and quantitative research. Focus groups were conducted in 5 communities in the maize-growing highlands of Guatemala, followed by a survey of 989 farm households in 59 locations. Our results show that most farmers in the western highlands of Guatemala are severely maize deficient; on average, farm households produce enough maize for only 6.9 months of consumption a year and are forced to purchase maize to meet basic consumption needs. The results are in sharp contrast to research conducted in highland communities in neighboring Mexico, where many farmers are able to sell their maize in relatively lucrative specialty maize markets. In the context of renewed interest in reducing poverty in Central America, our research suggests that rather than focus on market development for local maize varieties, development efforts should target other types of interventions.

  14. Intercultural relations in Northern Peru: the north central highlands during the Middle Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, George

    2014-01-01

    This contribution surveys the emergence and character of the Middle Horizon in Peru’s north highlands. It centers on Ancash department, a region with a rich and unique archaeological record for contextualizing interaction during the period. My discussion begins by detailing the sequence and variability of interregional interaction in Ancash Department during the latter half of the 1st millennium AD. Then I will examine the general implications of the available data – especially architecture, ...

  15. Ky'osimba Onaanya: Understanding Productivity of East African Highland Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taulya, G.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall and application of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers on banana growth and yields. In areas that receive less than 1100 mm of rainfall per year, additional rainfall increases yields by 65%. Application...

  16. Population of Aedes sp in Highland of Wonosobo District and Its Competence as A Dengue Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Martini; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Hestiningsih, Retno; Purwantisari, Susiana; Yuliawati, Sri

    2017-02-01

    The increased cases of dengue fever have occurred in the highland of Wonosobo District, and the epidemic taken place in 2009 had 59.3 cases per 100,000 populations. This study aimed to describe of vector competence of the mosquitoes as a dengue vector in the highland of Wonosobo District, Central Java Province. The serial laboratory work was done to measure of vector competence complementary with vector bionomic study. The samples were 20 villages, which were located at Wonosobo sub district. Every village was observed about 15-20 houses. The observed variables were vector competition, bionomic and transovarial infection level, and titer of virus on the mosquitoes after injection. Immunohistochemistry or IHC methods were used to identify transovarial infection status. The number of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were almost similar and both were found indoors or outdoors. Based on HI and OI index, the larvae density in the highland was enough high than standard of the program. Transovarial infection was found on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Environment parameters such as temperature and relative humidity fulfilled the optimum requirement to support the vectors’ life cycle. Transovarial infection has been proven, thus, it indicates that the local transmission has been occurred in this area. Titer of virus was also increasing after day per day. This indicate that the mosquitoes has the ability being vector. As used to do in other area, it is important to conduct breeding places elimination (PSN) indoors as well as outdoors, through active participation of the community in highland area.

  17. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  18. Maize Diversity, Market Access, and Poverty Reduction in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Hellin; Rachael Cox; Santiago López-Ridaura

    2017-01-01

    The western highlands of Guatemala lie within the area where maize was first domesticated, and maize remains central to farmers' livelihood security. Over 50% of the population in the region are in poverty, and over 48% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Development efforts have focused on improved land management, crop diversification, and improved access to markets, especially for high-value vegetable crops such as snow peas. As a result of successful initiatives worldwide, more attention is...

  19. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  20. Origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana in the Center Asian Highlands and Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lili; Sun, Yongshuai; Zou, Jiabin; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary history of current species diversity, especially trees with large effective population sizes and long generation times, is a complicated exercise confounded by gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. In the present study, we aim to determine the origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana using population genetic data from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt), and nuclear (nr) genomes. These two species occur in the Central Asian Highlands and...

  1. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  2. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  3. Eonandeva gen. nov., a new distinctive genus from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Giłka, Wojciech

    2015-11-20

    A new fossil genus, Eonandeva gen. nov., with two new species: E. helva sp. nov. (type for the genus) and E. latistyla sp. nov., is described from Eocene Baltic amber (~45-40 Ma). Adult males of both new species show the wing venation pattern, shape and chaetotaxy typical for the tribe Tanytarsini. The characters defined as prior apomorphies for the new genus--the gonostylus with a subapical flattened lobe and the stout, strongly elongated superior volsella--separate Eonandeva from the closely related extant genus Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss et Fittkau, 1998.

  4. Paleoecological evaluation of Late Eocene biostratigraphic zonations of the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin

    1980-01-01

    The late Eocene zonal criteria of the west coast of North America are to a large extent controlled by paleoecology and, therefore, the correlation of coeval but environmentally different benthic foraminiferal faunas cannot be achieved before paleoecological control of the biostratigraphy is understood. The faunal trends, morphology, characteristic occurrences and estimated upper depth limits of the benthic foraminifers and associated microfossils in the Oregon and Washington study sections lead to the recognition of paleoecologic facies. The interpretation of these late Eocene facies as bathymetric and low-oxygen facies is based on analogous late Eocene and Holocene assemblages. The paleoecologic facies criteria are often identical to the stage and zonal criteria. In the California zonal schemes, the Narizian zones are identified by lower and middle bathyal faunas whereas the Refugian zones are identified by outer neritic and upper bathyal faunas. The Washington late Eocene zones are identified by middle bathyal and transported neritic faunas. Modifications of the existing zonal schemes such that time and not paleoecology is the controlling factor results in a zonation that synthesizes the existing zonal schemes, recognizes regional stratigraphic ranges of diagnostic species, and removes paleoecologically controlled species occurrences. The late Narizian encompasses a bathyal and a neritic facies. The bathyal facies is correlative with a modified Bulimina corrugata Zone of California and the Uvigerina cf. U. yazooensis Zone of Washington. The neritic late Narizian facies corresponds to a modified Bulimina schencki-Plectofrondicularia cf. P. jenkinsi Zone of Washington and a modified Amphimorphina jenkinsi Zone of California. The Refugian can also be divided into a neritic and a bathyal facies. Although the early and late subdivisions of this stage are tentative, the early Refugian is equivalent to the modified versions of the Cibicides haydoni and the Uvigerina

  5. Oldest new genus of Myrmeleontidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene Green River Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-10-20

    Epignopholeon sophiae gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Green River Formation (Colorado, U.S.A.). It represents the oldest confident record of the family. The new genus is remarkable in that tergite 7 of the female is much shorter than its long sternite 7. The preserved wing venation shows that the genus belongs to the subfamily Myrmeleontinae, and most probably to the tribe Gnopholeontini. The discovery of this species is consistent with estimations of relatively dry and warm conditions during deposition of the upper Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation.

  6. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  7. An interesting new genus of Berothinae (Neuroptera: Berothidae) from the early Eocene Green River Formation, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-01-30

    Xenoberotha angustialata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Berothidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to Berothinae as an oldest known member of the subfamily based on the presence of scale-like setae on the foreleg coxae. Distal crossveins of the fourth (outer) gradate series which are located very close to the wing margin in Xenoberotha gen. nov. is a character state previously unknown in Berothinae.

  8. A remarkable new genus of Protosmylinae (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) from late Eocene Florissant, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-05-18

    Pseudosmylidia relicta gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) is described from the late Eocene of Florissant (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to the subfamily Protosmylinae based on the presence of two venational features characteristic of the subfamily: most crossveins in the radial to intramedial spaces of the forewing are arranged in four gradate series, and CuP is short and simple or forked only once in the hind wing. This genus is remarkable by CuP in the forewing bearing few pectinate branches. This is the only genus of extant and Cenozoic fossil Osmylidae in which this plesiomorphic condition is retained.

  9. Terrestrial and lacustrine gastropods from the Priabonian (upper Eocene) of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Neubauer, Thomas A; Kadolsky, Dietrich; Pickford, Martin; Nordsieck, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic gastropods from the upper Eocene (Priabonian) Zalumah Formation in the Salalah region of the Sultanate of Oman are described. The assemblages reflect the composition of the continental mollusc fauna of the Palaeogene of Arabia, which, at that time, formed parts of the southeastern Tethys coast. Several similarities with European faunas are observed at the family level, but are rarer at the genus level. These similarities point to an Eocene (Priabonian) rather than to a Rupelian age, although the latter correlation cannot be entirely excluded. At the species level, the Omani assemblages lack any relations to coeval faunas. This suggests the possible presence of a distinct biogeographic province during the Palaeogene or may simply reflect the extremely sparse non-marine fossil record of the Eocene in the Tethys region. The occurrence of the genera Lanistes, Pila, and Gulella along with some pomatiids, probably related to extant genera, suggests that the modern African-Arabian continental faunas can be partly traced back to Eocene times and reflect very old autochthonous developments. In contrast, the diverse Vidaliellidae went extinct, and the morphologically comparable Neogene Achatinidae may have occupied the equivalent niches in extant environments. Carnevalea Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabiella Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pyrgulella Harzhauser, Kadolsky and Neubauer nov. gen., Salalahia Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanitopsis Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabicolaria Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pacaudiella Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Goniodomulus Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Eoquickia Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanillya H. Nordsieck nov. gen. and Omanifera H. Nordsieck nov. gen. are introduced as new genera. Pila neuberti Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Arabiella arabica Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Pyrgulella parva Harzhauser, Kadolsky and

  10. Rectification of invalidly published new names for plants from the late Eocene of North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaček Zlatko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valid publication of new names of fossil plant taxa published since 1 January 1996 requires a diagnosis or description in English, besides other requirements included in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 (McNeill et al. 2012. In order to validate names published from the late Eocene flora of the Staré Sedlo Formation, North Bohemia, diagnosed only in German (Knobloch et al. 1996, English translations are provided, including references to the type material and further relevant information.

  11. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  12. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.

  13. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Baabdullah, Rnda; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K

    2015-03-14

    Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands. In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples. Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

  14. The interbelic Germans from the Banat Highland. Coal, steel, mines and forges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, C.; Micliuc, D. M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Birtarescu, E.; Varga, A.

    2018-01-01

    The difficulties of the reconstruction era, following World War I had been increased by the cessation of some activities in the industrial centres of the Banat Highland. For instance, the copper mines were closed in 1921, the Romanian state forbidding the extraction of this ore. Only in Ocna de Fier a special dispensation had been given. The copper mines from Moldova Nouă, Sasca Montană, Ciclova, Dognecea had also been shut down. This fact caused the acid reaction of some writers. We recall that one of the main ways for improving the material condition, embraced by the ethnic Germans, was working abroad. Many German workers of the Banat Highland had emigrated, taking up an offer of well-paid work during the crisis years: 1929-1933. The miners of the Banat Highland, especially those of German origin, travelled to the areas rich in iron ore and coal of France, namely Alsace and Loraine. Considering that German was spoken there by a significant percentage of the population, the integration into the new working environment did not represent a problem.

  15. Agricultural Commercialisation, Diversification, and Conservation of Renewable Resources in Northern Thailand Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Trébuil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of commercialisation-diversification in the highlands of upper northern Thailand and the accompanying dismissal of self-subsistence are documented based on the findings from seven case studies carried out in different agricultural and social situations during the past decade. The characteristics of the key driving forces powering this agrarian transition such as rapid economic growth, decrease in the share of labour employed in the agriculture, urbanization and changes in food consumption patterns, and improved communication infrastructures, are presented in the Thai context. The environmental impact of these profound agrarian transformations on the degradation of key renewable resources, particularly soil erosion, is assessed. Their socio-economic consequences on an extensive differentiation among farming households and equity issues are also discussed. Finally the authors draw several lessons from this Thai experience that illustrate the very strong adaptive capacity of small highland farmers. They could be useful in similar agro-ecological zones of neighbouring countries that are presently experiencing the same kind of agricultural transition in the Montane Mainland Southeast Asia ecoregion. Particularly, the article underlines the need for more holistic and integrated approaches to agricultural development and the management of renewable resources in highland agro-ecosystems to alleviate poverty while conserving the resource base.

  16. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  17. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

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    Elijah Njuguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]. Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  18. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

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    Garry D. Peterson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  19. Diversification of African tree frogs (genus Leptopelis) in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Manthey, Joseph D; Freilich, Xenia; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    The frog genus Leptopelis is composed of ~50 species that occur across sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of these frogs are typically arboreal; however, a few species have evolved a fossorial lifestyle. Most species inhabit lowland forests, but a few species have adapted to high elevations. Five species of Leptopelis occupy the Ethiopian highlands and provide a good opportunity to study the evolutionary transition from an arboreal to a fossorial lifestyle, as well as the diversification in this biodiversity hot spot. We sequenced 14 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and generated thousands of SNPs from ddRAD sequencing to study the evolutionary relationships of Ethiopian Leptopelis. The five species of highland Leptopelis form a monophyletic group, which diversified during the late Miocene and Pliocene. We found strong population structure in the fossorial species L. gramineus, with levels of genetic differentiation between populations similar to those found between arboreal species. This could indicate that L. gramineus is a complex of cryptic species. We propose that after the original colonization of the Ethiopian highlands by the ancestor of the L. gramineus group, episodes of vicariance fragmented the ancestral populations of this group. We also report the re-evolution of arboreality in L. susanae, which evolved from a fossorial ancestor, a rare ecological switch in frogs that had previously been reported only once. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rust and schreibersite in Apollo 16 highland rocks - Manifestations of volatile-element mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    Rust is a manifestation of halogen and volatile-metal mobility in the lunar environment. Schreibersite is stable as the primary phosphorus-bearing phase in the highland rocks, a consequence of the inherently low oxygen fugacity within impact-generated melts. Apatite and whitlockite are subordinate in these rocks. The partitioning of P into phosphide in impact-generated melts, and the failure of phosphate to crystallize, effects a decoupling of the halogens and phosphorus. Of the Apollo 16 rocks, 63% contain rust, 70% contain schreibersite, and 52% contain both phases, thereby establishing the pervasiveness of volatile-elements throughout the highland rocks. The major portion of these volatile-bearing phases occur in impact melt-rocks or in breccia matrices. Rhabdites of schreibersite in some of the FeNi grains indicate that there is a meteoritic contribution to the phosphorus in these rocks. Cl/P2O5 ratios in lunar highland rocks are a function of secondary effects, with any apparent Cl-P correlations being coincidential. The present observations preclude the validity of models based on such elemental ratios in these rocks. The presence of rust in the clast laden matrices of pristine rocks indicates fugitive element localization. Pristine clasts may have been contaminated. The basis for a pristine volatile chemistry is questioned.

  1. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

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    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  2. The terrestrial hydro-climate of the Early Eocene: insights from the oxygen and clumped isotope composition of pedogenic siderite

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, J.; Fernandez, A.; Müller, I.; White, T. S.; Bernasconi, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Eocene (56 Ma) is the youngest period of Earth's history when CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere (600-1500 ppm) reached levels close to those predicted for future emission scenarios. Proxy-based climate reconstructions from this interval can therefore be used to gain insights on effects that anthropogenic emissions might have on the climate system. So far, Early Eocene climatic data is limited to the oceans, where proxies for temperature are abundant and relatively well understood. However, in order to get a complete picture of the Early Eocene climate, temperature and rainfall reconstructions on the continental paleo-surface are needed. Here, we present clumped and stable oxygen isotope measurements of siderite samples collected along a North-South transect in the North American Continent. These siderites formed in kaolinitic soils that developed globally under the extremely wet and warm conditions of the Early Eocene. They provide a record of both soil temperature and the δ18O composition of meteoric water, which can be used to unravel the regional paleo-precipitation rate. Both parameters were estimated using an elaborate in-house calibration constructed with synthetic siderite precipitated in the presence or absence of iron reducing bacteria. Measurements of δD on plant-derived N-alkanes present within the same soils align well with our δ18Owater data, confirming an Early Eocene meteoric water line similar to the present day. We provide an estimate of the meridional temperature gradient during the Early Eocene and offer constraints on the boundary conditions of the Earth's hydrologic cycle under high pCO2.

  3. Testing the ``Wildfire Hypothesis:'' Terrestrial Organic Carbon Burning as the Cause of the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. A.; Kurtz, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    The 3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary has generally been attributed to dissociation of seafloor methane hydrates. We are testing the alternative hypothesis that the carbon cycle perturbation resulted from wildfires affecting the extensive peatlands and coal swamps formed in the Paleocene. Accounting for the CIE with terrestrial organic carbon rather than methane requires a significantly larger net release of fossil carbon to the ocean-atmosphere, which may be more consistent with the extreme global warming and ocean acidification characteristic of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). While other researchers have noted evidence of fires at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in individual locations, the research presented here is designed to test the "wildfire hypothesis" for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary by examining marine sediments for evidence of a global increase in wildfire activity. Such fires would produce massive amounts of soot, widely distributed by wind and well preserved in marine sediments as refractory black carbon. We expect that global wildfires occurring at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary would produce a peak in black carbon abundance at the PETM horizon. We are using the method of Gelinas et al. (2001) to produce high-resolution concentration profiles of black carbon across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary using seafloor sediments from ODP cores, beginning with the Bass River core from ODP leg 174AX and site 1209 from ODP leg 198. This method involves the chemical and thermal extraction of non-refractory carbon followed by combustion of the residual black carbon and measurement as CO2. Measurement of the δ 13C of the black carbon will put additional constraints on the source of the organic material combusted, and will allow us to determine if this organic material was formed prior to or during the CIE.

  4. New data on Amynodontidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Eastern Europe: Phylogenetic and palaeobiogeographic implications around the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Jérémy; Becker, Damien; Codrea, Vlad; Costeur, Loïc; Fărcaş, Cristina; Solomon, Alexandru; Venczel, Marton; Maridet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Amynodontidae is a family of Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) known from the late Early Eocene to the latest Oligocene, in North America and Eurasia. European Amynodontidae are very rare, and all remains belong almost exclusively to a single post-Grande Coupure genus from the Oligocene, Cadurcotherium. The "Grande Coupure" defines an extinctions and dispersal-generated originations event in Europe that is nearly contemporaneous with the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Perissodactyls are one of the major groups affected by this event: Palaeotheriidae went almost extinct during this crisis, whereas Rhinocerotidae appeared for the first time in Europe. Study of fossiliferous Eastern-European localities from this age is crucial for the understanding of this crisis. We report here three new localities of Amynodontidae in Eastern Europe. Two of them are dated from the Eocene (Morlaca, Romania; Dorog, Hungary), whereas the other is either Late Eocene or Early Oligocene (Dobârca, Romania). The skull from this latter locality belongs unexpectedly to the same individual as a previously described mandible attributed to "Cadurcodon" zimborensis. As a result, this specimen can be allocated to its proper locality, Dobârca, and is assigned to a new genus, Sellamynodon gen. nov. It is characterised by an extraordinary growth of the nuchal crest, a unique character among amynodontids. Along with this remarkable material from Dobârca, two specimens from another Romanian locality, Morlaca, have been recently discovered and are dated from the Late Eocene. They belong, as well as new material from Dorog (Middle Eocene, Hungary), to the genus Amynodontopsis, also found in North America. The new Hungarian material represents the earliest occurrence of Amynodontidae in Europe. New phylogenetic hypotheses of Rhinocerotoidea are proposed, including the new material presented here, and show that Amynodontidae may be closer to the polyphyletic family 'Hyracodontidae' than to

  5. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family

  6. Eoalosa janvieri gen. et sp. nov., a new clupeid fish (Teleostei, Clupeiformes) from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Fishes of the family Clupeidae are extremely abundant in the Eocene fossiliferous limestone of Monte Bolca representing the most common group from this celebrated locality. A new clupeid from the Pesciara site, Eoalosa janvieri gen. et sp. nov., is described. The new taxon exhibits a unique combination of characters supporting its recognition as a new genus and species of clupeid fish that is tentatively placed in the subfamily Alosinae. The description of this new taxon improves our knowledge of the diversity of clupeoid fishes in the Eocene of Monte Bolca.

  7. A new avian fauna from the early-middle Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    A number of hitherto undescribed fossil bird remains have been recovered from the Lillebælt Clay Formation of central Denmark, which is early-middle Eocene in age (~50 to 43 mya). The core of the material consists of fossils acquired through the Danish ‘Danekræ' fossil treasure trove legislation......, a member of the extinct 'pseudo-toothed birds' and the first representative of this group known from Denmark. Other taxa present include remains of Lithornithidae and a new taxon possessing a massive, psittacid-like beak. The Lillebælt Clay Formation birds are temporally placed just after the Early Eocene...

  8. Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti Volcanic Highland, Georgia:The Result of Mantle Plumes Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti continental volcanic highland (1500-2500 m a.s.l) is located in the SW part of the Lesser Caucasus. In Georgia the highland occupies more than 4500 km2, however its large part spreads towards the South over the territories of Turkey and Armenia. One can point out three stages of magmatic activity in this volcanic highland: 1. Early Pliocene activity (5.2-2.8 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when a large part of the highland was built up. It is formed from volcanic lava-breccias of andesite-dacitic composition, pyroclastic rocks and andesite-basalt lava flow. The evidences of this structure are: a large volume of volcanic material (>1500 km3); big thickness (700-1100 m in average), large-scale of lava flows (length 35 km, width 2.5-3.5 km, thickness 30-80 m), big thickness of volcanic ash horizons (300 cm at some places) and big size of volcanic breccias (diameter >1 m). Based on this data we assume that a source of this structure was a supervolcano (Okrostsvaridze et al., 2016); 2. Early Pleistocene activity (2.4 -1.6 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when continental flood basalts of 100-300 m thickness were formed. The flow is fully crystalline, coarse-grained, which mainly consist of olivine and basic labradorite. There 143Nd/144Nd parameter varies in the range of +0.41703 - +0.52304, and 87Sr/88Sr - from 0.7034 to 0.7039; 3. Late Pleistocene activity (0.35-0.021 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when intraplate Abul-Samsari linear volcanic ridge of andesite composition was formed stretching to the S-N direction for 40 km with the 8-12 km width and contains more than 20 volcanic edifices. To the South of the Abul-Samsari ridge the oldest (0.35-0.30 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) volcano Didi Abuli (3305 m a.s.l.) is located. To the North ages of volcano edifices gradually increase. Farther North the youngest volcano Tavkvetili (0.021-0. 030 Ma) is located (2583 m a.s.l.). One can see from this description that the Abul-Samsari ridge has all signs characterizing

  9. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF A SINGULAR PENGUIN SCAPULA (AVES, SPHENISCIFORMES FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

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    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 

  10. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

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    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  11. Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.

    2017-04-01

    The role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „modern" North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the Early Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (Petroleum Geology, v. 22, no. 9, p. 977-1005. Hohbein, M. W., Sexton, P. F., and Cartwright, J. A., 2012, Onset of North Atlantic Deep Water production coincident with inception of the Cenozoic global cooling trend: Geology, v. 40, no. 3, p. 255-258.

  12. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Stein, R.; Matthiessen, J.; Lourens, L.J.; Pedentchouk, N.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Clemens, S.; Cronin, T.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Martinez, N.C.; McInroy, D.; Moore, T.C.; O'Regan, M.; Onodera, J.; Palike, H.; Rea, B.; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D.C.; St John, K.E.K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M. E.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ???55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ???18??C to over 23??C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10??C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  14. The onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at Branch Stream, Clarence River valley, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Strong, C.P.; Phillips, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present new lithologic, biostratigraphic and carbon isotope records for a calcareous-rich ∼84m thick, early Eocene, upper continental slope section now exposed along Branch Stream, Marlborough. Decimetre-scale limestone-marl couplets comprise the section. Several marl-rich intervals correspond to carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) representing increased 13 C -depleted carbon fluxes to the ocean. These records are similar to those at nearby Mead Stream, except marl-rich intervals at Branch Stream are thicker with a wider δ 13 C range. Comparison to other sites indicates the section spans ∼53.4-51.6 Ma, the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). The most prominent CIE is correlated with the K/X event (52.9 Ma). Prominent marl-rich intervals resulted from increased fluxes of terrigenous material and associated carbonate dilution. We find multiple warming events marked lowermost EECO, each probably signaling enhanced seasonal precipitation. Branch Stream bulk isotopic records suggest 'differential diagenesis' impacted the sequence during sediment burial. (author).

  15. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique M L; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  16. Quantifying the Eocene to Pleistocene topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauquette, Séverine; Bernet, Matthias; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Guillot, Stéphane; van der Beek, Peter; Jourdan, Sébastien; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Bertini, Adele; Pittet, Bernard; Tricart, Pierre; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Zheng, Zhuo; Roche, Emile; Pavia, Giulio; Gardien, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate the topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps using Eocene to Pleistocene pollen data combined with existing sedimentological, petrographic and detrital geo- and thermochronological data. We report 32 new pollen analyses from 10 sites completed by an existing dataset of 83 samples from 14 localities situated across the southwestern Alps, including both the pro- and the retro-foreland basins. The presence of microthermic tree pollen (mainly Abies, Picea) indicates that this part of the mountain belt attained elevations over 1900 m as early as the Oligocene. Inferred rapid surface uplift during the mid-Oligocene coincided with a previously documented brief phase of rapid erosional exhumation, when maximum erosion rates may have reached values of up to 1.5-2 km/Myr. Slower long-term average exhumation rates of ∼0.3 km/Myr since the Late Oligocene helped maintaining the high Alpine topography of the southwestern Alps until today. The relative abundances of meso-microthermic tree pollen (Cathaya, Cedrus and Tsuga) and microthermic tree pollen (Abies, Picea) in the pro- and retro-foreland basin deposits, indicate that the present-day asymmetric topography, with a relatively gentle western flank and steeper eastern flank, was established early in the southwestern Alps, at least since the Early Miocene, and possibly since the Oligocene or Late Eocene. Therefore, the high topography and asymmetric morphology of this part of the Alps has been maintained throughout the past ∼30 Ma.

  17. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  18. Global warming and ocean acidification through halted weathering feedback during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R.; Selby, D. S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) represents a 500 kyr period of global warming 40 million years ago associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its cause remains enigmatic. Moreover, on the timescale of the MECO, an increase in silicate weathering rates on the continents is expected to balance carbon input and restore the alkalinity of the oceans, but this is in sharp disagreement with observations of extensive carbonate dissolution. Here we show, based on osmium isotope ratios of marine sediments from three different sites, that CO2 rise and warming did not lead to enhanced continental weathering during the MECO, in contrast to expectations from carbon cycle theory. Remarkably, a minor shift to lower, more unradiogenic osmium isotope ratios rather indicates an episode of increased volcanism or reduced continental weathering. This disproves silicate weathering as a geologically constant feedback to CO2 variations. Rather, we suggest that global Early and Middle Eocene warmth diminished the weatherability of continental rocks, ultimately leading to CO2 accumulation during the MECO, and show the plausibility of this scenario using carbon cycle modeling simulations. We surmise a dynamic weathering feedback might explain multiple enigmatic phases of coupled climate and carbon cycle change in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

  19. A new commelinid monocot seed fossil from the early Eocene previously identified as Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Kottner, Sören; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Ahmed, Farah; Knapp, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Fossils provide minimum age estimates for extant lineages. Here we critically evaluate Cantisolanum daturoides Reid & Chandler and two other early putative seed fossils of Solanaceae, an economically important plant family in the Asteridae. Three earliest seed fossil taxa of Solanaceae from the London Clay Formation (Cantisolanum daturoides) and the Poole and Branksome Sand Formations (Solanum arnense Chandler and Solanispermum reniforme Chandler) were studied using x-ray microcomputed tomography (MCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MCT scans of Cantisolanum daturoides revealed a high level of pyrite preservation at the cellular level. Cantisolanum daturoides can be clearly excluded from Solanaceae and has more affinities to the commelinid monocots based on a straight longitudinal axis, a prominent single layer of relatively thin-walled cells in the testa, and a clearly differentiated micropyle surrounded by radially elongated and inwardly curved testal cells. While the MCT scans show no internal preservation in Solanum arnense and Solanispermum reniforme, SEM images show the presence of several characteristics that allow the placement of these taxa at the stem node of Solanaceae. Cantisolanum daturoides is likely a member of commelinid monocots and not Solanaceae as previously suggested. The earliest fossil record of Solanaceae is revised to consist of fruit fossil with inflated calyces from the early Eocene of Patagonia (52 Ma) and fossilized seeds from the early to mid-Eocene of Europe (48-46 Ma). The new identity for Cantisolanum daturoides does not alter a late Cretaceous minimum age for commelinids. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Ninon; Foldi, Imre; Godinot, Marc; Petit, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites. Identified as Coccidae, these larvae are the earliest stage of the scale insect development ever reported as fossil, revealing the specific environment of preservation that fossilized scats may provide. These observations, combined to the coprolites morphotype, enable to ascribe the fossil scats producer to a small herbivorous mammal present in the deposit (early perissodactyls or Plesiadapidae). Regarding the ecology of extant representatives of Coccidae, this mammal was a likely foliage consumer, and the abundant Juglandaceae and/or Tiliaceae from Le Quesnoy might have lived parasitized by scale insects. These Early Eocene parasites had an already well-established dissemination strategy, with prevalent minute first-instar larvae. The herein performed extraction technique appears well-suited for the study of carbonate coprolites and could certainly be useful for evidencing other kind of microorganisms (including internal parasites).

  1. Agerinia smithorum sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenias-Gual, Joan; Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The new species Agerinia smithorum (Adapiformes, Primates) from the early Eocene of the Iberian Peninsula is erected in this work. An emended diagnosis of the genus is provided, together with a broad description of the new species and comparisons with other samples assigned to Agerinia and other similar medium-sized cercamoniines. The new species is based on the most complete specimen of this genus published to date, a mandible preserving the alveoli of the canine and P1 , the roots of the P2 and all teeth from P3 to M3 . It was found in Casa Retjo-1, a new early Eocene locality from Northeastern Spain. The studied specimen is clearly distinguishable from other cercamoniines such as Periconodon, Darwinius, and Donrussellia, but very similar to Agerinia roselli, especially in the similar height of P3 and P4 and the general morphology of the molars, therefore allowing the allocation to the same genus. However, it is undoubtedly distinct from A. roselli, having a less molarized P4 and showing a larger paraconid in the M1 and a tiny one in the M2 , among other differences. The body mass of A. smithorum has also been estimated, ranging from 652 to 724 g, similar to that of A. roselli. The primitive traits shown by A. smithorum (moderately molarized P4 , large paraconid in the M1 and small but distinct in the M2 ) suggest that it could be the ancestor of A. roselli. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Inducement of heterochronic variation in a species of planktic foraminifera by a Late Eocene impact event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, N.; Kitchell, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    While it is well known that the cosmic impact event at or near the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary coincides with an interval of mass extinction, a similar impact (or series of impacts) near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary presents a more complex picture, in terms of associated fluctuations in marine biotic diversity. Tektites, microtektites, and mineral grains exhibiting features of shock metamorphism found in Eocene sediments of the western N. Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico (comprising the North American microtektite strewn field) offer compelling evidence for a catastrophic impact event. Despite the magnitude of this event, however, few extinctions in the planktic marine fauna are known to have occurred coincident with this event. Instead, changes in relative abundance, morphology, and development occurred. Cosmic impacts generally have been interpreted as influencing the course of evolution through the wholesale elimination of significant portions of standing biotic diversity. Indeed, extinction traditionally has been viewed as the negative side of evolution. In some instances, it is suggested such impact events can serve instead to increase, rather than decrease, morphological and ecological diversity, by altering the developmental programs within species at the level of the local population.

  3. Analysis of systematic fracturing in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vrabec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse systematic fractures occurring in sandstone beds in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal area. Two nearly perpendicular fracture sets were identifid: fractures F1 are generally NW-SE oriented, wellexpressed and predominately planar, whereas fractures F2 are NE-SW-striking, shorter, more irregular in shape, and terminate against the F1 set. The average orientation of both sets does not change signifiantly in a coastal transect crossing all principal structural domains of the area. We analysed fracture spacing with respect to layer thickness and determined fracture spacing index for both fracture sets. We interpret both fracture sets as tensional (Mode I joints originating in two distinct extensional episodes. Set F1 is older and formed in NE-SW directed tension which we correlate with the well-documented regional post-Dinaric orogen-perpendicular extension of presumably mid-Miocene age. Set F2 formed in NW-SE oriented tension, which is compatible with previously documented NE-SW-striking normal faults occurring in the area, but was so far not documented elsewhere. We interpret that F1 fractures predate folding and thrusting in the coastal belt. Earlier, Eocene-Oligocene Dinaric thrusting therefore did not signifiantly affect the coastal area, whereas post-F1 shortening, associated with northward indentation and underthrusting of the Adria microplate, did not commence before late Miocene.

  4. Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Matthew J; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-02-24

    Rapid global cooling at the Eocene - Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9-33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO 2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO 2 at the EOT.

  5. A new miniaturized lizard from the late Eocene of France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolet, Arnau; Augé, Marc

    2014-03-01

    We report here a new lizard genus and species shared by two late Eocene localities situated at both versants of the present Pyrenees (South-Western Europe), one located in France (Escamps, MP19), and the other in Catalonia, Spain (Sossís, MP17a). The recovered specimens are remarkable because of their small size and peculiar morphology. Features of the dentary are interpreted as adaptations to a fossorial or semi-fossorial lifestyle, although such modifications obscure the exact phylogenetic relationships of the new taxon. We suggest that it might represent a further example of scincoid lizard that independently achieved adaptations for burrowing or surface-dwelling. This taxon reinforces the hypotheses that link the Southern Pyrenean assemblages to those from France rather than to those of the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, which are supposed to be somehow isolated and endemic to a certain degree during the middle and late Eocene, forming part of the so-called Western Iberian Bioprovince. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  7. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lorenz Franzen

    Full Text Available The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany, is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  8. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens Lorenz; Aurich, Christine; Habersetzer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany), is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  9. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  10. The freshwater fern Azolla (Azollaceae) from Eocene Arctic and Nordic Sea sediments: New species and their stratigraphic distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, J.; Collinson, M.E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Barke, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the freshwater fern Azolla are described from Eocene marine deposits of the Arctic and Nordic seas, bringing the total number of species now documented from these areas to five. Azolla arctica Collinson et al., Azolla jutlandica Collinson et al., Azolla nova sp. nov. and Azolla

  11. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions

  12. Reducing Disparity in Radio-Isotopic and Astrochronology-Based Time Scales of the Late Eocene and Oligocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Kuiper, Klaudia F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258125772

    2017-01-01

    A significant discrepancy of up to 0.6 Myr exists between radio-isotopically calibrated and astronomically tuned time scales of the late Eocene-Oligocene. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy through the acquisition of “high-precision” 206Pb/238U dating of zircons from 11 volcanic ash

  13. A new mechanism for the two-step d18O signal at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, M.; von der Heydt, A.S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The most marked step in the global climate transition from “Greenhouse” to “Icehouse” Earth occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary, 33.7 Ma. Evidence for climatic changes comes from many sources, including the marine benthic 18O record, showing an increase by 1.2– 1.5‰ at this time. This

  14. The Middle and Upper Eocene sections of the Omsk trough, West Siberian Platform: Palynological, stratigraphic, hydrologic, and climatic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaporozhets, N. I.; Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The thorough analysis and correlation of Middle-Upper Eocene sections in the Omsk trough (southern West Siberian Platform) recovered by Borehole 9 in its axial part near the Chistoozernoe Settlement (Novosibirsk region) and Borehole 8 on the southern limb near the Russkaya Polyana Settlement (southern Omsk region) revealed hiatuses at the base and top of the Russkaya Polyana Beds, a lithostratigraphic unit defined in the Lyulinvor Formation based on its substantially fine-grained composition and poor siliceous microplankton fossil remains. The overlying Tavda Formation (Middle-Upper Eocene) is traditionally accepted to consist of two subformations. The last formation was deposited in the West Siberian inner sea isolated from the Arctic basin. Particular attention is paid to eustatic sea level fluctuation especially during the period marked by accumulation of Azolla Beds under considerable desalination of surface waters in the basin. The curve of variations in the open sea factor based on the quantitative ratio between organic-walled phytoplankton fossils and higher plant palynomorphs is correlated with the modified version of the wellknown Vail curve. It is established that the West Siberian sea level experienced a brief rise in the terminal late Eocene prior to its complete desiccation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition because of global regression in response to glaciation in Antarctica.

  15. The Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North Alpine Foreland Basin and subsequent closure of a Paratethys gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Boon, A.; Beniest, A.; Ciurej, A.; Gaździcka, E.; Grothe, A.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Langereis, C. G.; Krijgsman, W.

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), a major palaeoenvironmental change took place in the Paratethys Sea of central Eurasia. Restricted connectivity and increased stratification resulted in wide-spread deposition of organic-rich sediments which nowadays make up important hydrocarbon source

  16. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records

  17. Clay mineralogical constraints on weathering in response to early Eocene hyperthermal events in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (Western Interior, USA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chaowen; Adriaens, Rieko; Hong, Hanlie; Elsen, Jan; Vandenberghe, Noël; Lourens, Lucas J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103; Gingerich, Philip D.; Abels, Hemmo A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018

    2017-01-01

    Series of transient greenhouse warming intervals in the early Eocene provide an opportunity to study the response of rock weathering and erosion to changes in temperature and precipitation. During greenhouse warming, chemical weathering is thought to increase the uptake of carbon from the

  18. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  19. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  20. A new Late Eocene primate from the Krabi Basin (Thailand) and the diversity of Palaeogene anthropoids in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Lazzari, Vincent; Euriat, Adélaïde; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2013-11-22

    According to the most recent discoveries from the Middle Eocene of Myanmar and China, anthropoid primates originated in Asia rather than in Africa, as was previously considered. But the Asian Palaeogene anthropoid community remains poorly known and inadequately sampled, being represented only from China, Myanmar, Pakistan and Thailand. Asian Eocene anthropoids can be divided into two distinct groups, the stem group eosimiiforms and the possible crown group amphipithecids, but the phylogenetic relationships between these two groups are not well understood. Therefore, it is critical to understand their evolutionary history and relationships by finding additional fossil taxa. Here, we describe a new small-sized fossil anthropoid primate from the Late Eocene Krabi locality in Thailand, Krabia minuta, which shares several derived characters with the amphipithecids. It displays several unique dental characters, such as extreme bunodonty and reduced trigon surface area, that have never been observed in other Eocene Asian anthropoids. These features indicate that morphological adaptations were more diversified among amphipithecids than was previously expected, and raises the problem of the phylogenetic relations between the crown anthropoids and their stem group eosimiiforms, on one side, and the modern anthropoids, on the other side.

  1. Paleomagnetism and the Alpine tectonics of Eurasia IV : Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene pole positions from northeastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voo, R. van der

    In April 1965 and May 1966 several groups of samples were collected by the author in northern and eastern Turkey in view of a study of their magnetic properties. The characteristic magnetizations of four groups of Eocene and Cretaceous volcanic rocks and sediments had the following directions of

  2. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorpha...

  3. Eocene tectonic compression in Northern Zealandia: Magneto-biostratigraphic constraints from the sedimentary records of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallanave, E.; Agnini, C.; Pascher, K. M.; Maurizot, P.; Bachtadse, V.; Hollis, C. J.; Dickens, G. R.; Collot, J.; Sevin, B.; Strogen, D.; Monesi, E.

    2017-12-01

    Published seismic profiles acquired from the Tasman Sea and northern Zealandia area (southwest Pacific) point to a widespread Eocene convergent deformation of oceanic and continental crust, with reverse faults and uplift (Tectonic Event of the Cenozoic in the Tasman Area; TECTA). The TECTA is interpreted as the precursor of the Tonga-Kermadec subduction initiation. Grande Terre is the main island of the New Caledonia archipelago and the largest emergent portion of northern Norfolk Ridge (part of northern Zealandia). Eocene sedimentary records exposed in Grande Terre contain a transition from pelagic micrite to terrigenous-rich calciturbidites, marking a shift from passive margin to convergent tectonic regime. This could represent the local expression of the convergence inception observed on a regional scale. We conducted an integrated magneto-biostratigraphic study, based on calcareous nannofossil and radiolaria, of two early-middle Eocene records cropping out near Noumea (southwest Grande Terre) and Koumac (northwest Grande Terre). The natural remanent magnetization of the sediments is complicated by multiple vector components, likely related to the late Eocene obduction, but a characteristic remanent magnetization has been successfully isolated. Overall the record spans from magnetic polarity Chron C23n to C18n, i.e. from 51 to 39 Ma. In this robust magnetic polarity-based chronological frame, the pelagic micrite to terrigenous-rich calciturbidites occurred near the top of Chron C21n and is dated 46 Ma. Furthermore, the magnetic mineral assemblage within part of the calciturbidites consists of hematite associated with maghemite. This association indicates emergent land as source of the terrigenous, suggesting a considerable uplift. Because 94% of the Zealandia continent is submerged, ocean drilling is needed to gauge the full extent and timing of Eocene compressive deformation revealed by the seismic profiles acquired in the Tasman area. This is a primary aim of

  4. Rainforest conifers of Eocene Patagonia: attached cones and foliage of the extant Southeast Asian and Australasian genus Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Eocene caldera-lake beds at Laguna del Hunco (LH, ca. 52.2 Ma) and Río Pichileufú (RP, ca. 47.7 Ma) in Argentine Patagonia provide copious information about the biological history of Gondwana. Several plant genera from these sites are known as fossils from southern Australia and New Zealand and survive only in Australasian rainforests. The potential presence of Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae) holds considerable interest due to its extensive foliage-fossil record in Gondwana, its remarkably broad modern distribution in Southeast Asian and Australasian rainforests, its high physiological moisture requirements, and its bird-dispersed seeds. However, the unique seed cones that firmly diagnose Dacrycarpus were not previously known from the fossil record. I describe and interpret fertile (LH) and vegetative (LH and RP) material of Dacrycarpus and present a nomenclatural revision for fossil Dacrycarpus from South America. Dacrycarpus puertae sp. nov. is the first fossil occurrence of the unusual seed cones that typify living Dacrycarpus, attached to characteristic foliage, and of attached Dacrycarpus pollen cones and foliage. Dacrycarpus puertae is indistinguishable from living D. imbricatus (montane, Burma to Fiji). Dacrycarpus chilensis (Engelhardt) comb. nov. is proposed for Eocene vegetative material from Chile. Modern-aspect Dacrycarpus was present in Eocene Patagonia, demonstrating an astonishingly wide-ranging paleogeographic history and implying a long evolutionary association with bird dispersers. Dacrycarpus puertae provides the first significant Asian link for Eocene Patagonian floras, strengthens the biogeographic connections from Patagonia to Australasia across Antarctica during the warm Eocene, and indicates high-rainfall paleoenvironments.

  5. The Eocene Arctic Azolla phenomenon: species composition, temporal range and geographic extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14; and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle

  6. The Rajang Unconformity: Major provenance change between the Eocene and Miocene sequences in NW Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Hennig, J.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The offshore Sarawak Basin NW of North Sarawak is a major hydrocarbon province in SE Asia. A very thick sedimentary sequence of Oligocene to ?Early Miocene age, named Cycle 1, is an important hydrocarbon source and reservoir. Despite numerous wells the stratigraphy and tectonic history is not very well understood. The Nyalau Formation of onshore North Sarawak is the supposed equivalent of the offshore Cycle 1 sequence. The Nyalau Formation is a thick sedimentary sequence of mainly tidal to deltaic deposits. The formation is dominated by well-bedded sandstone-mudstone alternations and thicker sandstones with abundant bioturbation. The sandstones are predominantly arenaceous. Various lithic fragments and feldspar indicate multiple sources and fresh input from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Interbedded thin limestone beds and marls yielded Early Miocene foraminifera for the upper part of the succession. Zircons separated from the sandstones yielded mainly Cretaceous and Triassic ages. The Triassic is the dominant age population. The Nyalau Formation conformably overlies the Buan Shale and the Tatau Formation, and in places unconformably overlies the Belaga Formation. The Belaga Formation is part of the Rajang Group that represents remnants of a large submarine fan deposited in the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in Central Sarawak. In contrast to the Nyalau Formation, the majority of zircons from the Rajang Group have Cretaceous ages. This marks an important change in provenance at the major unconformity separating the Belaga and Nyalau Formations. This unconformity was previously interpreted as the result of an orogeny in the Late Eocene. However, there is no evidence for a subduction or collision event at this time in Sarawak. We interpret it to mark plate reorganisation in the Middle Eocene and name it the Rajang Unconformity. Borneo is the principal source of Cretaceous zircons which were derived from the Schwaner Mountains and West Sarawak. The dominant Triassic zircon

  7. Influence of Large Lakes on Methane Greenhouse Forcing in the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Granberg, D. L.; Kasprak, A. H.; Taylor, K. W.; Pancost, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Long-duration elevated global temperatures and increased atmospheric pCO2 levels (~1000-2000 ppm) characterized the earliest portion of the Eocene (Ypressian; ~55 to 49 Ma). This extended period of global warmth was also punctuated by a series of short (sub-precessional) hyperthermal events in which atmospheric CO2 (>2000 ppm) and global temperatures rose with unprecedented and (as of yet) unexplained rapidity. This interval is perhaps the best temporal analog for assessing contemporary response of the biosphere and global carbon cycle to increased CO2 emissions. Although these hyperthermals appear paced by 100 Ka and 1 Ma scale orbital (eccentricity) cycles in the marine realm, high frequency forcing processes have not yet been examined, and long continental records have yet to be explored for their expression. To identify sub-eccentricity (Messel Shale, (Darmstadt, Germany.) We demonstrate that in addition to the expected 100 Ka eccentricity cycle, the 40 Ka cycle of obliquity is also an important component of climate variability as reflected in the lacustrine carbon cycle and hence a potential driver of global carbon cycling. We further investigated carbon cycle dynamics by examining biomarker evidence for changes in the terrestrial methane cycle during this time interval. Due to their increased volumes (>60,000 km2), highly stratified and cyclically anoxic lakes of the Eocene could have provided enough methane to alter global radiative forcing. This is consistent with our data, which demonstrate that the GRF and Messel Shale both exhibit strongly reducing conditions as well as abundant methanogen and methanotroph biomarkers. Further, the GRF lacustrine environment was highly stratified with, at times, euxinic waters extending into the photic zone, as inferred from the presence of isorenieratene derivatives. Thus, the GRF was likely an area of elevated methanogenic activity during this time. Increasing input of terrestrial matter into the GRF correlates with

  8. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinzimana, Emmanuel; Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Li, Li; Feng, Chen-Chieng; Bian, Ling; Kitron, Uriel; Schmidt, Cindy; Beck, Louisa; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2006-02-16

    In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3-22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1-25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya highlands.

  9. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  10. Deposition of eroded soil on terraced croplands in Minchet catchment, Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemtsehay Subhatu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ethiopian Highlands, soil and water conservation practices are of utmost importance to conserve eroded soil and combat soil loss. This study provides detailed results on on-site sediment deposition and net soil loss in terraced croplands in a catchment in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands. Sediment deposition was measured on horse bean and maize fields during the crop growing seasons of 2014 and 2015. Measurements took place on observation plots on terraced cropland with varying spacing between terraces and varying slope gradients. Net soil loss, in this case the amount leaving the terraced cropland, was calculated by modelling the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for the whole observation field and subtracting the measured sediment deposition. The study result showed about 8–11 t ha−1 sediment was deposited in the deposition zone of the terraced cropland, with greater sediment deposition on terraces with narrow spacing and steeper slope gradients. Sediment deposition was highest in July and August, and relatively low in September. Annual soil loss ranged from 32 to 37 t ha−1 in the terraced cropland of the study area. From the total soil loss in the crop growing season, about 54–74% sediment was deposited on the deposition zone of terraced crop fields. Implementation of soil and water conservation with narrow spacing, especially on the steep slopes of the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands or other similar area, are thus highly recommended as they enable conservation of the eroded soil in the cropland.

  11. Glucose intolerance associated with hypoxia in people living at high altitudes in the Tibetan highland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumiya, Kiyohito; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wenling; Kato, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kasahara, Yoriko; Fujisawa, Michiko; Wada, Taizo; Wang, Hongxin; Dai, Qingxiang; Xu, Huining; Qiao, Haisheng; Ge, Ri-Li; Norboo, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Ando, Kazuo; Inamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shinya; Ishine, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2016-02-23

    To clarify the association between glucose intolerance and high altitudes (2900-4800 m) in a hypoxic environment in Tibetan highlanders and to verify the hypothesis that high altitude dwelling increases vulnerability to diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerated by lifestyle change or ageing. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on Tibetan highlanders. We enrolled 1258 participants aged 40-87 years. The rural population comprised farmers in Domkhar (altitude 2900-3800 m) and nomads in Haiyan (3000-3100 m), Ryuho (4400 m) and Changthang (4300-4800 m). Urban area participants were from Leh (3300 m) and Jiegu (3700 m). Participants were classified into six glucose tolerance-based groups: DM, intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG), normoglycaemia (NG), fasting DM, fasting IHG and fasting NG. Prevalence of glucose intolerance was compared in farmers, nomads and urban dwellers. Effects of dwelling at high altitude or hypoxia on glucose intolerance were analysed with the confounding factors of age, sex, obesity, lipids, haemoglobin, hypertension and lifestyle, using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of DM (fasting DM)/IHG (fasting IHG) was 8.9% (6.5%)/25.1% (12.7%), respectively, in all participants. This prevalence was higher in urban dwellers (9.5% (7.1%)/28.5% (11.7%)) and in farmers (8.5% (6.1%)/28.5% (18.3%)) compared with nomads (8.2% (5.7%)/15.7% (9.7%)) (p=0.0140/0.0001). Dwelling at high altitude was significantly associated with fasting IHG+fasting DM/fasting DM (ORs for >4500 and 3500-4499 m were 3.59/4.36 and 2.07/1.76 vs intolerance. Socioeconomic factors, hypoxaemia and the effects of altitudes >3500 m play a major role in the high prevalence of glucose intolerance in highlanders. Tibetan highlanders may be vulnerable to glucose intolerance, with polycythaemia as a sign of poor hypoxic adaptation, accelerated by lifestyle change and ageing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  12. Accounting for user expectations in the valuation of reliable irrigation water access in the Ethiopian highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassahun, Habtamu Tilahun; Nicholson, Charles F.; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reliable access to irrigation water for a sample of farmers in a watershed of the Ethiopian highlands who do not have prior experience with irrigation. To address the lack of previous irrigation experience, we account for underlying expectations...... of future irrigation productivity using an Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) econometric model. We then compare the ICLV estimates with alternative models that do not account for expectations regarding productivity increases with irrigation. Our results indicate that both the ICLV and alternative...

  13. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  14. Post-Grampian top-to-WNW Caledonian ductile shear in the Grampian Highlands [abstract only

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Graham; Campbell, Seumas

    2008-01-01

    The Glendoe Hydro Scheme involves construction of an 4.6 m diameter bored tunnel, extending 8.6 km SSE-ward from Fort Augustus and the Great Glen, through mainly Grampian Group Dalradian rocks deformed in the Grampian orogeny. The great prize though is access to an 8 km long borehole driven perpendicular to regional strike through the footwall and hanging wall of the Eilrig Shear Zone. The Eilrig Shear Zone is unique in the geology of the Grampian Highland ‘terrane’ and is reve...

  15. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  16. Highland Summer Pastures Play a Fundamental Role for Dairy Systems in an Italian Alpine Region

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Zendri; Enrico Sturaro; Maurizio Ramanzin

    2013-01-01

    In the Alps, summer farms are temporary units where the livestock herds are moved during summer to graze on highland pastures. This study aimed to analyze the role of summer farms in the dairy farming systems of the Trento province, in the eastern Italian Alps. Data on the structures and management of the 395 active summer farms were collected from the veterinarian services of the province: 345 summer farms keep dairy cattle (83 only replacement, and 262 also lactating cows). Almost all the r...

  17. Management of organic and inorganic soil fertility inputs in indigenous agricultural communities in the Bolivian Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Javier; Miranda, R.; Motavalli, Peter P.; Tangara, E.; Herrera, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Bolivian highland plateau region (Altiplano) is a semi-arid region in the Andes Mountains that has a range in elevation of between 3600 and 4300 m above sea level. The region's climate is characterized by high diurnal temperature variations, frost risks, low and irregular precipitation and high risks of drought during the growing season (Garcia et al., 2007). Recent research has indicated that the Andes region will experience temperature increases of up to 6 degrees C by the end of the ce...

  18. Determination of Sediment Profile for 210Pb, Pb, U and Th from Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Due to Soil Erosion from Highland Agriculture Area, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaini Hamzah; Seh D. Riduan; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Cameron Highlands act as a catchments to accumulate all eroded soil carried by the run off flow through Bertam River, the main river that passes through the highland agriculture area. All suspended solid that carried out by the river contain various kind of hazard potential to the environment. U, Th and Pb are the potential hazard elements carried out by water and accumulate at the dam. Approach: Five sampling point were selected where five 30cm core...

  19. Volume Tables and Point-Sampling Factors for Shortleaf Pines in Plantation on Abandoned Fields in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; David R. Bower

    1968-01-01

    The tables and equations published here provide ways to estimate total and merchantable cubic-foot volumes, both inside and outside bark, of shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted on abandoned fields in the Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, Eastern Highland Rim, and Western Highland Rim regions of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia (fig. 1). There already are...

  20. Ground truth assessments of forests affected by oak decline and red oak borer in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri: preliminary results from overstory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; John M. Kabrick; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Forests of the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri are being affected by oak decline and an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle called the red oak borer. On average, Interior Highlands stands contained 236 trees per acre, of which 32 trees per acre (13.4 percent) were dead or dying. Stands averaged 97 square feet per acre of basal area, of...

  1. Effects of a deep-rooted crop and soil amended with charcoal on spatial and temporal runoff patterns in a degrading tropical highland watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Tebebu, Tigist Y.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-01-01

    Placement and hence performance of many soil and water conservation structures in tropical highlands has proven to be challenging due to uncertainty of the actual location of runoff-generating areas in the landscape. This is the case especially in the (sub-)humid areas of the Ethiopian highlands,

  2. Effect of Deforestation and Land Use Changes on Mosquito Productivity and Development in Western Kenya Highlands: Implication for Malaria Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Munga, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. This has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. This increased temperature has resulted in the shortening of developmental stages of aquatic stages of mosquitoes and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes. Assessment of the effects of deforestation and land coverage changes (decrease), which leads to temperature changes and subsequently increases survivorship of adults and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes' body was gathered from previous data collected from 2003 to 2012 using different analysis techniques. Habitats productivity, species dynamics and abundance, mosquitoes feeding rates, and sporogony development are presented in relation to temperature changes. The effects of temperature rise due to land cover changes in highlands of western Kenya on larval developmental rates, adult sporogony developments, and malaria risk in human population were derived. Vector species dynamics and abundance in relation to land use changes have been found to change with time. This study found that, land cover changes is a key driver for the temperature rise in African highlands and increases the rate of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae ssp., An. Funestus , and An. arabiensis colonizing the highlands. It has also significantly enhanced sporogony development rate and adult vector survival and therefore the risk of malaria transmission in the highlands.

  3. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  4. Xenoliths in Eocene lavas from Central Tibet record carbonated metasomatism of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussin, Fanny; Cordier, Carole; Boulvais, Philippe; Guillot, Stéphane; Roperch, Pierrick; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Cenozoic post-collisional volcanism of the Tibetan Plateau, emplaced on an accreted continental margin under compression, could bring important information regarding the edification of the Plateau. In this study, we combined petrography, whole rock geochemistry, stable isotopes and in situ mineral analysis to decipher the genesis of Eocene-Oligocene magmatic rocks from the Nangqian basin (35-38 Ma, [Spurlin et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2016]), located at the hinge between Central Tibet and the Eastern Indo-Asia Collision Zone. Our dataset includes potassic trachyandesites; amphibole-bearing potassic trachytes; and rare ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O ≥ 4) mafic syenites. All samples have high REE abundances (La = 100 - 500 x primitive mantle). Fractionation of heavy REE (Gd/YbN > 3) indicates melting in the garnet stability field, and relative depletion in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta) indicates a selective enrichment of the source by metasomatic fluids. This metasomatism event is also evidenced by the occurrence of re-equilibrated mantle xenocrysts of phlogopite (Mg# = 88 - 90 and Cr2O3 content = 0.9 - 1.82 wt%) in mafic syenites. Potassic trachyandesites have specific composition, with negative Zr-Hf anomaly and low Hf/Sm (0.2 - 0.4). Indeed, they include xenocrystic aggregates, composed of magmatic clinopyroxene, apatite and subordinate biotite and feldspar, with interstitial calcite and dolomite. δ18OV -SMOW (9.2 - 11.0 ) and δ13CV -PDB (-6.1 - -4.0 ) of these rocks indicate the presence of primary, mantle-derived carbonates. In situ analysis of the major and trace element compositions of the carbonates, clinopyroxenes and apatites further suggest that these aggregates represent cumulates of a carbonate-bearing magma. These xenoliths thus show that the lithospheric mantle was also metasomatized by CO2-rich fluids. Cenozoic carbonatites in China have been identified in Maoniuping in Western Sichuan (31.7 Ma), Lixian in the Western Qinlin (22-23 Ma), and

  5. Furrowed outcrops of Eocene chalk on the lower continental slop offshore New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, James M.; Kirby, John R.; Hampson, John C., Jr.; Gibson, Patricia R.; Hecker, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    A sea bottom of middle Eocene calcareous claystone cut by downslope-trending furrows was observed during an Alvin dive to the mouth of Berkeley Canyon on the continental slope off New Jersey. The furrows are 10 to 50 m apart, 4 to 13 m deep, linear, and nearly parallel in water depths of 2,000 m. They have steep walls and flat floors 3 to 5 m wide, of fine-grained sediment. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images show that similarly furrowed surfaces are found on nearby areas of the lower continental slope, not associated with canyons. The furrows are overlain in places by Pleistocene sediments. Although they show evidence of erosional origin, they do not appear to be related to observed structures, and their straight, parallel pattern is not well understood. A general cover of flocky unconsolidated sediments implies that bottom-current erosion is not active now.

  6. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  7. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  8. A fossil unicorn crestfish (Teleostei, Lampridiformes, Lophotidae) from the Eocene of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Lophotidae, or crestfishes, is a family of rare deep-sea teleosts characterised by an enlarged horn-like crest on the forehead. They are poorly represented in the fossil record, by only three described taxa. One specimen attributed to Lophotidae has been described from the pelagic fauna of the middle-late Eocene Zagros Basin, Iran. Originally considered as a specimen of the fossil lophotid † Protolophotus , it is proposed hereby as a new genus and species † Babelichthys olneyi , gen. et sp. nov., differs from the other fossil lophotids by its relatively long and strongly projecting crest, suggesting a close relationship with the modern unicorn crestfish, Eumecichthys . This new taxon increases the diversity of the deep-sea teleost fauna to which it belongs, improving our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the early Cenozoic mesopelagic ecosystems.

  9. A fossil unicorn crestfish (Teleostei, Lampridiformes, Lophotidae from the Eocene of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davesne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lophotidae, or crestfishes, is a family of rare deep-sea teleosts characterised by an enlarged horn-like crest on the forehead. They are poorly represented in the fossil record, by only three described taxa. One specimen attributed to Lophotidae has been described from the pelagic fauna of the middle-late Eocene Zagros Basin, Iran. Originally considered as a specimen of the fossil lophotid †Protolophotus, it is proposed hereby as a new genus and species †Babelichthys olneyi, gen. et sp. nov., differs from the other fossil lophotids by its relatively long and strongly projecting crest, suggesting a close relationship with the modern unicorn crestfish, Eumecichthys. This new taxon increases the diversity of the deep-sea teleost fauna to which it belongs, improving our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the early Cenozoic mesopelagic ecosystems.

  10. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D; Kopp, Robert E; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V; Sears, S Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-11-18

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 microm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 microm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability--a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming--drove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes.

  11. Nannoplankton malformation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and its paleoecological and paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Self-Trail, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by a transient group of nannoplankton, belonging to the genus Discoaster. Our investigation of expanded shelf sections provides unprecedented detail of the morphology and phylogeny of the transient Discoasterduring the PETM and their relationship with environmental change. We observe a much larger range of morphological variation than previously documented suggesting that the taxa belonged to a plexus of highly gradational morphotypes rather than individual species. We propose that the plexus represents malformed ecophenotypes of a single species that migrated to a deep photic zone refuge during the height of PETM warming and eutrophication. Anomalously, high rates of organic matter remineralization characterized these depths during the event and led to lower saturation levels, which caused malformation. The proposed mechanism explains the co-occurrence of malformed Discoaster with pristine species that grew in the upper photic zone; moreover, it illuminates why malformation is a rare phenomenon in the paleontological record.

  12. New Carcharhiniform Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Early to Middle Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its wealth of fossil remains. This island provides one of the richest fossiliferous Paleogene sequences in the world. Chondrichthyans seemingly dominate this Eocene marine fauna and offer a rare insight into high-latitude faunas during the Palaeogene. So far, only a few isolated teeth of carcharhinid sharks have been reported from Seymour Island. Bulk sampling in the well-exposed La Meseta and Submeseta formations yielded new and abundant chondrichthyan material, including numerous teeth of carcharhinid and triakid sharks. Here, we present a reevaluation of the previously described carcharhinid remains and a description of new taxa: Meridiogaleus cristatus, gen. et sp. nov., Kallodentis rythistemma, gen. et sp. nov., Abdounia richteri, sp. nov., and Abdounia mesetae, sp. nov. The carcharhiniforms Mustelus sp. and Galeorhinus sp. are reported based on rare material, whereas teeth previously assigned to Scoliodon represent a nomen dubium. PMID:29551850

  13. MIDDLE EOCENE TO EARLY MIOCENE FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE EPILIGURIAN SUCCESSION (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETTA MANCIN

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative biostratigraphical study was performed on the foraminiferal assemblages from 15 stratigraphic sections of the Epiligurian Succession (Middle Eocene-Early Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy. This study enabled us to identify the presence of some of the standard bioevents and to note that other bioevents are absent or show a different chronostratigraphic range. Other additional bioevents, identified throughout the area, have therefore been utilised to improve the biostratigraphical resolution of the Epiligurian sediments. These bioevents include the massive extinction of the muricate species at the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary; the increasing abundance of Paragloborotalia opima opima near Subzone P21a/P21b and the Rupelian/Chattian boundaries; and the FO of Globoquadrina dehiscens at the Subzone N4a/N4b boundary. 

  14. Spicules of Litistidic sponges from the upper Eocene Verhivtsevska depression (Miiddle Dniprean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a taxonomic composition of lithistid sponges which are lived in the Late Eocene basin of Verchovtzev depression Ukrainian Shield is supposed by the spicules morphological analysis. There are sponges of ten geneses and seven families presented in paleocoenosis, but families Theonellidae (geneses Lerouxia, Rhagadinia andPlinthosellidae (genusPlinthosella are dominated. Threenewmorphospeciesof spicules aredescribed: Phyllotriaenapartita T.A.Ivanova morphosp.n., Ph. araneola T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n., Tetracrepides semiornatus T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n. Their stratigraphical meaning is determined. These spicules are characteristic for the Obuchovian Suite and would be used as the paleontological criterion of the Obuchovian Suite determination in geological sections of the Middle Dnieper region.

  15. Palaeoenvironment of Eocene prodelta in Spitsbergen recorded by the trace fossil Phycosiphon incertum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichnological, sedimentological and geochemical analyses were conducted on the Eocene Frysjaodden Formation in order to interpret palaeoenvironment prodelta sediments in the Central Basin of Spitsbergen. Phycosiphon incertum is the exclusive ichnotaxon showing differences in size, distribution, abundance and density, and relation to laminated/bioturbated intervals. Large P. incertum mainly occur dispersed, isolated and randomly distributed throughout the weakly laminated/non-laminated intervals. Small P. incertum occur occasionally in patches of several burrows within laminated intervals or as densely packed burrows in thin horizons in laminated intervals or constituting fully bioturbated intervals that are several centimetres thick. Ichnological changes are mainly controlled by oxygenation, although the availability of benthic food cannot be discarded. Changes in oxygenation and rate of sedimentation can be correlated with the registered variations in the Bouma sequence of the distal turbiditic beds within prodeltal shelf sediments.

  16. Paleokarst processes in the Eocene limestones of the Pyramids Plateau, Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aref, M. M.; Refai, E.

    The Eocene limestones of the Pyramids plateau are characterized by landforms of stepped terraced escarpment and karst ridges with isolated hills. The carbonate country rocks are also dominated by minor surface, surface to subsurface and subsurface solution features associated with karst products. The systematic field observations eludicate the denudation trend of the minor solution features and suggest the origin of the regional landscapes. The lithologic and structural characters of the limestone country rocks comprise the main factors controlling the surface and subsurface karst evolution. The development of the karst features and the associated sediments in the study area provides information on the paleohydrolic, chemical and climatic environments involved in the origin of the karstification.

  17. Evolution of the earliest horses driven by climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Ross; Bloch, Jonathan I; Chester, Stephen G B; Boyer, Doug M; Wood, Aaron R; Wing, Scott L; Kraus, Mary J; McInerney, Francesca A; Krigbaum, John

    2012-02-24

    Body size plays a critical role in mammalian ecology and physiology. Previous research has shown that many mammals became smaller during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but the timing and magnitude of that change relative to climate change have been unclear. A high-resolution record of continental climate and equid body size change shows a directional size decrease of ~30% over the first ~130,000 years of the PETM, followed by a ~76% increase in the recovery phase of the PETM. These size changes are negatively correlated with temperature inferred from oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth and were probably driven by shifts in temperature and possibly high atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. These findings could be important for understanding mammalian evolutionary responses to future global warming.

  18. Eocene fossil is earliest evidence of flower-visiting by birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Wilde, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Birds are important pollinators, but the evolutionary history of ornithophily (bird pollination) is poorly known. Here, we report a skeleton of the avian taxon Pumiliornis from the middle Eocene of Messel in Germany with preserved stomach contents containing numerous pollen grains of an eudicotyledonous angiosperm. The skeletal morphology of Pumiliornis is in agreement with this bird having been a, presumably nectarivorous, flower-visitor. It represents the earliest and first direct fossil evidence of flower-visiting by birds and indicates a minimum age of 47 million years for the origin of bird-flower interactions. As Pumiliornis does not belong to any of the modern groups of flower-visiting birds, the origin of ornithophily in some angiosperm lineages may have predated that of their extant avian pollinators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Isotopic compositions and probable origins of organic molecules in the Eocene Messel shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Takigiku, Ray; Ocampo, Ruben; Callot, Enry J.; Albrecht, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    It is shown here that the carbon isotopic compositions of biomarkers from the Eocene Messel shale, accumulated 47 + or - 2 million years ago in anaerobic waters at the bottom of a lake, allow identification of specific sources for some materials and reconstruction of carbon flows within the lake and its sediments. The C-13 content of organic matter synthesized by lacustrine primary producers can be estimated from the observed C-13 content of the geoporphyrins derived from their chlorophylls. Total organic material in the shale is depleted in C-13 by six parts per thousand relative to that input. This difference cannot be explained by selective loss of components enriched in C-13, nor, as shown by isotopic compositions of other biomarkers, by inputs from land plants surrounding the lake or from methanogenic bacteria.

  20. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Henrik; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2017-08-01

    Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario) and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2-thin clouds or LCTC scenario) . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has ˜ 11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  1. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups (Eocene) in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, W.P.; Templain, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Rocks of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups crop out in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain and are represented by a series of sands and shales which reflect oscillation of the strandline. The Wilcox Group (lower Eocene), usually undifferentiated in Texas, consists of very fine sands and clays and abundant lignite. The Claiborne Group (middle Eocene) comprises, in ascending order, Carrizo Sand, Reklaw Formation (clay), Queen City Sand, Weches Formation (clay), Sparta Sand, Cook Mountain Formation (clay), and Yegua Formation (sand). Fluvial systems of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups exist in east Texas and trend perpendicular to the present coastline. In central Texas, sand bodies are parallel to the present coastline and are strand-plain, barrier-bar systems. Since the time of deposition of the Queen City Sand, a significant fluvial sand buildup occurred in the area of the present Rio Grande embayment where the marine clays pinch out. Known occurrences of mineral matter in the Wilcox and Claiborne (up to the Yegua) are limited to lignite (particularly in the Wilcox), cannel coal in the upper Claiborne, and hydrocarbons throughout. No uranium mineralization is known, and no uranium is likely to be discovered in the Claiborne and Wilcox. Approximately 50 surface samples and many gamma-ray logs showed no significant anomalies. The sands are very good potential host rocks, but no uranium source was discovered. During deposition of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups, there was no volcanism to serve as a source of uranium (as with the prolific occurrences in the younger rocks of south Texas); also, Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Llano uplift were not exposed

  2. Geochemical and geological control on filling history of Eocene reservoirs, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M.; Maguregui, J.; Toro, C.; Marquina, M. [Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    Crude oils of Eocene fluvio-deltaic reservoirs in {open_quotes}Bloque V{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Centro Lago{close_quotes} fields in the center of the Maracaibo Lake show many differences in composition, which are due to stratigraphically and structurally controlled reservoir geometry and a low rate of in-reservoir mixing of at least two successive petroleum charges. Oils produced from the top of structural highs contain 18(H) oleanane, higher Pr/Ph and C{sub 23-3}/C{sub 24-4} ratios, a lower proportion of DBT/P compounds, and clearly different fingerprint patterns in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} range, than those observed in oils produced from the lower parts of the structures. These compositional differences suggest that two source rocks, or two distinctive organic facies within the same Cretaceous La Luna Formation, generated and filled vertically poorly connected Eocene reservoirs. On the other hand, saturate-biomarkers ratios, triaromatics (C{sub 21}/C{sub 21}+C{sub 28}), n-paraffins (n-C{sub 20}/n-C{sub 29}) and n-heptane index suggest that oils in upper reservoirs are slightly less mature than oils in lower reservoirs and, consequently filled the structure first. Additional evidence from formation water analysis and tectonic basin evolution allow us to interpret at least two petroleum pulses from Cretaceous source rocks during Upper Miocene to present day kitchens located in the Andes foredeep at the southeast of the study area.

  3. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carlson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG scenario and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2–thin clouds or LCTC scenario . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has  ∼  11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  4. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  5. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V; Tellería, María C; Bremer, Kåre; Passalia, Mauro G; Passala, Mauro G; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate-imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae-Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously thought, which can be traced back at least 47·5

  6. High Arctic Forests During the Middle Eocene Supported by ~400 ppm Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, D. P.; Royer, D. L.; LePage, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Paleogene High Arctic deposits provide some of the clearest evidence for greenhouse climates and offer the potential to improve our understanding of Earth system dynamics in a largely ice-free world. One of the most well-known and exquisitely-preserved middle Eocene (47.9-37.8 Myrs ago) polar forest sites, Napartulik, crops out on eastern Axel Heiberg Island (80 °N), Nunavut, Canada. An abundance of data from Napartulik suggest mean annual temperatures of up to 30 °C warmer than today and atmospheric water loads 2× above current levels. Despite this wealth of paleontological and paleoclimatological data, there are currently no direct constraints on atmospheric CO2 levels for Napartulik or any other polar forest site. Here we apply a new plant gas-exchange model to Metasequoia (dawn redwood) leaves to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 from six fossil forests at Napartulik. Individual reconstructions vary between 405-489 ppm with a site mean of 437 ppm (337-564 ppm at 95% confidence). These estimates represent the first direct constraints on CO2 for polar fossil forests and suggest that the temperate conditions present at Napartulik during the middle Eocene were maintained under CO2 concentrations ~1.6× above pre-industrial levels. Our results strongly support the case that long-term climate sensitivity to CO2 in the past was sometimes high, even during largely ice-free periods, highlighting the need to better understand the climate forcing and feedback mechanisms responsible for this amplification.

  7. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  8. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  9. Environmental forcing of terrestrial carbon isotope excursion amplification across five Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Abels, H.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the isotope composition of exogenic carbon pools accompany many major episodes of global change in the geologic record. The global expression of this change in substrates that reflect multiple carbon pools provides important evidence that many events reflect persistent, global redistribution of carbon between reduced and oxidized stocks. As the diversity of records documenting any event grows, however, discrepancies in the expression of carbon isotope change among substrates are almost always revealed. These differences in magnitude, pace, and pattern of change can complicate interpretations of global carbon redistribution, but under ideal circumstances can also provide additional information on changes in specific environmental and biogeochemical systems that accompanied the global events. Here we evaluate possible environmental influences on new terrestrial records of the negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with multiple hyperthermals of the Early Eocene, which show a common pattern of amplified carbon isotope change in terrestrial paleosol carbonate records relative to that recorded in marine substrates. Scaling relationships between climate and carbon-cycle proxies suggest that that the climatic (temperature) impact of each event scaled proportionally with the magnitude of its marine CIE, likely implying that all events involved release of reduced carbon with a similar isotopic composition. Amplification of the terrestrial CIEs, however, does not scale with event magnitude, being proportionally less for the first, largest event (the PETM). We conduct a sensitivity test of a coupled plant-soil carbon isotope model to identify conditions that could account for the observed CIE scaling. At least two possibilities consistent with independent lines of evidence emerge: first, varying effects of pCO2 change on photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination under changing background pCO2, and second, contrasting changes in regional

  10. Late Eocene Myanmar tectonics constrained by magnetostratigraphy of the Yaw Formation, Chidwin Basin, Kalewa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Licht, Alexis; Bernard, Annabelle; Roperch, Pierrick; Win, Zaw; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Aung, Day Wa; Kaythi, Myat; Hnin Swe, Hnin; Poblete, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Sedimentary basins in Myanmar have recorded key events of the India-Asia collision including associated geodynamic movements and paleoclimatic records. In particular, Paleogene deposits provide invaluable insight on the accretion of the Burma terrane, its rotation associated with the alleged extrusion of Indochina and the formation of the Indo-Burman ranges. They also yield unique records of monsoonal intensity during the growth of the Tibetan Plateau and a rich paleontological assemblage including some of the earliest primates. However, understanding the potential relations between these recorded events is strongly hindered by insufficient age control on these deposits. As part of the Myanmar Geodynamic & Paleoclimate Initiative and the ERC "MAGIC" project, our initial focus is to date Paleogene deposits of Myanmar with better accuracy using magnetostratigraphy. We present preliminary results from the Chindwin Basin where we sampled a 400-meter section of the top of the Yaw formation recording a major sedimentological facies transition previously estimated roughly as Eocene to Oligocene in age. Detailed rock magnetic analyses enabled to identify and isolate primary Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations of normal and reversed polarities carried by iron sulfides, iron carbonates and/or iron oxides. A correlation to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale can be proposed suggesting deposition between the base of chrons C16n2n and the base of C13r (36.3 and 34.8 Ma). This age suggests the facies transition may be more likely associated with regional tectonics such as the Indo-Burman uplift rather than sea-level drop linked to ice-sheet formation at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition at 33.9 Ma. In addition, the mean observed paleomagnetic declination (13.3+/-3.7°) is statistically indistinguishable from declinations expected by geodynamic models with limited vertical-axis rotations of the Burma terrane and therefore supports little to no rotational extrusion since 35 Ma.

  11. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  12. Taxonomic description of in situ bee pollen from the middle Eocene of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, FriĐgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-02

    The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records. Typically, a single or two pollen types are found on each fossil bee specimen, the maximum number of distinct pollen types on a single individual is five. Only five of the 23 pollen types obtained are angiosperms of unknown affinity, the remainder cover a broad taxonomic range of angiosperm trees and include members of several major clades: monocots (1 pollen type), fabids (7), malvids (4), asterids (5) and other core eudicots (1). Seven types each can be assigned to individual genera or infrafamilial clades. Since bees visit only flowers in the relative vicinity of their habitat, the recovered pollen provides a unique insight into the autochthonous palaeo-flora. The coexistence of taxa such as Decodon, Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron and other Tilioideae, Mastixoideae, Olax, Pouteria and Nyssa confirms current views that diverse, thermophilic forests thrived at the Messel and Eckfeld localities, probably under a warm subtropical, fully humid climate. Our study calls for increased attention to pollen found in situ on pollen-harvesting insects such as bees, which can provide new insights on insect-pollinated plants and complement even detailed palaeo-palynological knowledge obtained mostly from pollen of wind-pollinated plants in the dispersed pollen record of sediments. In the case of Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron, Olax and Pouteria the pollen collected by the middle Eocene bees

  13. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  14. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  15. Stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikin, N.P. (University Coll., Cardiff (UK)); Harmon, R.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1983-02-01

    D/H and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members.

  16. A stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikin, N.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members. (author)

  17. Doctors and retribution: the hospitalisation of compensation claims in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Hans; van der Geest, Sjaak

    2004-11-01

    The cultures in the Papua New Guinea Highlands are characterised by a tradition of retribution. Compensation is part of an elaborate system of exchanging gifts, goods and services. Compensation is paid to those who have suffered some kind of loss for which others are held responsible. Such incidents include death or injury caused by fighting, a road accident or domestic violence, theft, rape, gossip, and property damage. Fear of revenge is an important motive for paying compensation. The hospital has become an increasingly important institution for retribution. It provides medical reports to support compensation claims of physical damage in cases involving violence or an accident. Case material, collected by one of the authors who conducted fieldwork in a hospital in the Southern Highlands, shows that the hospital has established itself as an authoritative actor in the local compensation culture. Doctors spend about one afternoon per week writing medical reports for compensation claims. These reports have become an attractive extra source of income for the hospital. The article describes and analyses a number of cases to illustrate the hospital's role in the production and legitimisation of retribution.

  18. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminu, M; Yusof, K W; Matori, A N

    2014-01-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem

  19. Childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Vallely, Andrew; Homer, Caroline S E; Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    to explore men's and women's experiences, beliefs and practices surrounding childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea. a qualitative study comprising focus group discussions, key informant and in depth interviews. the study was undertaken in a rural community in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. 51 women and 26 men participated in 11 focus group discussions. Key informant and in depth interviews were undertaken with 21 women and five men. both women and men recognised the importance of health facility births, linking village births with maternal and newborn deaths. Despite this, many women chose to give birth in the community in circumstances influenced by cultural and customary beliefs and practices. Women giving birth in the community frequently gave birth in an isolated location. Traditional beliefs surrounding reasons for difficult births, including spiritual beliefs were reported along with the use of traditional methods used to help prolonged and difficult births. while the importance of health facility births is recognised in this rural community many women continue to give birth in the village. Identifying and understanding local customs, beliefs and practices, particularly those that may be harmful to women and their newborn infants, is critical to the development of locally-appropriate community-based strategies for improving maternal and infant health in rural communities in PNG and other resource-limited, high burden settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of sedimentation using integration of RS, RUSLE model and GIS in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, A. H. A.; Lihan, T.; Rahim, S. A.; Musthapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahman, Z. A.

    2013-11-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use change. Spatially distributed erosion models are of great interest to predict soil erosion loss and sediment yield. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine sediment yield using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. Sediment yield at the study area was determined using RUSLE model in GIS environment The RUSLE factors were computed by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map and field measurement, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, length and steepness (LS) using contour map and conservation practices using satellite images based on land use/land cover. Field observations were also done to verify the predicted sediment yield. The results indicated that the rate of sediment yield in the study area ranged from very low to extremely high. The higher SY value can be found at middle and lower catchments of Cameron Highland. Meanwhile, the lower SY value can be found at the north part of the study area. Sediment yield value turned out to be higher close to the river due to the topographic characteristic, vegetation type and density, climate and land use within the drainage basin.

  1. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoff, K A; Thompson, Lisa M; Bly, K C; Romero, Carolina

    2013-03-01

    Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Claw size of Scottish Highland Cows after pasture and housing periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Kolp, E; Braun, U; Weidmann, E; Hässig, M

    2014-09-01

    The claws of pastured Scottish Highland Cattle are large and this may raise the question if regular claw trimming is necessary. Therefore, the claws of the right thoracic and pelvic limbs were measured in 22 Scottish Highland cows 4 times 8 weeks apart. The cows were kept on various alpine pastures before the first measurement, on a two-hectare low-land pasture before the second measurement, in a welfare-compliant straw-bedded free stall before the third measurement and on alpine pasture before the fourth measurement. Housing conditions significantly affected claw dimensions. The claws were composed of dry, hard horn during pasture periods, and had prominent weight-bearing hoof-wall borders and soles with a natural axial slope. Long dorsal walls and heels and a greater symmetry were common. Claw lesions were absent. In contrast, free-stall housing was associated with shorter toes and steeper toe angles, but white line deterioration, heel horn erosion, wearing of the axial slope and hoof wall edges were common.

  3. Presence of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in sylvatic habitats in the southern highlands (Loja Province) of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, M J; Villacis, A G

    2009-05-01

    The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The latter species occupies domestic and peridomestic habitats, as well as sylvatic ecotopes--particularly associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees--in the western coastal region of Ecuador. In the southern highlands, however, such palm tree habitats are uncommon, and sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis have not previously been reported to date. This study was carried out in five rural communities in Loja Province in southern Ecuador, where manual triatomine searches were conducted in various sylvatic habitats. A total of 81 squirrel nests (Sciurus stramineus) and > 200 bird nests and other habitats were searched. One hundred three R. ecuadoriensis individuals were found in 11 squirrel nests (infestation index = 13.6%, density = 2 bugs per nest searched, crowding = 9.5 bugs per infested nest, colonization index = 72.7% of infested nests with nymphs). No triatomines were found in bird nests or other sylvatic habitats. The presence of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis in the southern highlands of Ecuador has important implications for the long-term control of Chagas disease in the region because of the possibility of reinfestation of dwellings after insecticide-based control interventions.

  4. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, M.; Matori, A. N.; Yusof, K. W.

    2014-02-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem.

  5. Assessment of Nitrate in Wells and Springs in the North Central Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugnaw T. Akale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the auspices of the UN Millennium Development Goals, access to safe drinking water in the developing world, including the Ethiopian highlands, has improved greatly. However, in many cases, it is not known how safe the water is. With the intensification of agriculture and increasing applications of fertilizers, high levels of nitrate are a concern. The objective of this study is to assess the nitrate levels in drinking water supply systems. To assess nitrate levels, we sampled 213 water supply points in a 4880 km2 area in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. The results show that the average concentration was below the World Health Organization (WHO health standard of 10 mg N-NO3/L. The average concentration in wells was 3.3 mg N-NO3/L and in springs was 1.8 mg N-NO3/L. Only in three wells, that were in agricultural cropped areas, was the WHO standard exceeded. Wells in the agricultural fields had an average nitrate concentration of 3.6 mg N-NO3/L, which was almost twice that on grazing land and four times that in upland wells. Spatially, the groundwater nitrate concentrations were greater in the moderately sloped parts of the study area where agriculture was intensive and denitrification limited. Thus, although current nitrate levels are safe, in the future, the nitrate concentration could exceed the WHO health standard when fertilizer use increases.

  6. K-Ar chronological study of the quaternary volcanic activity in Shin-etsu Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Shimizu, Satoshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the temporal and spatial patterns in arc volcanism, 55 K-Ar ages of volcanic rocks from 17 volcanoes in Shin-etsu Highland, central Japan were determined. In addition, life spans, volume of erupted materials and eruption rates of each volcano were estimated. Graphical analysis demonstrates that volume of ejecta varies proportionately with both life span and eruption rate, and that there is no significant correlation between eruption rate and distance from the volcanic front. The life span of each volcano in this Highland is less than 0.6 m.y. In the central Shiga and southern Asama area, the volcanism started at 1 Ma and is still active. However the former had a peak in the activity at around 0.5 Ma, while the latter is apparently most intense at present. Northern Kenashi area has the volcanism without peak in 1.7 - 0.2 Ma, though the activity within a volcanic cluster or chain in central Japan lasts generally for 1 m.y. or less with a peak. (author)

  7. Photogeology: Part D: Descartes highlands: possible analogs around the Orientale Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann

    1972-01-01

    The Descartes highlands are adjacent to the terra plain on which the Apollo 16 lunar module landed (fig. 29-13). A variety of volcanic origins was proposed for the highlands before the mission (refs. 29-4, 29-21, and 29-35 to 29-37), but the returned samples of the area consist almost exclusively of nonvolcanic breccias. The breccias obtained from Stone Mountain have not been identified conclusively as sample materials of the Descartes Mountains (ref. 29-35). A volcanic origin is thus not yet precluded (sec. 6 of this report), but a review of possible impact-related origins seems to be appropriate. The orbital photography acquired during the Apollo 16 mission provides excellent imagery on which geomorphic interpretations may be based. No obvious local crater is a plausible source of the material, but there may be a relation to either the Nectaris or Imbrium Basin. The less degraded Orientale Basin (fig. 29-24) provides a model by which these comparisons can be made (part F of this section).

  8. Refining the Early and Middle Eocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale: new results from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Florindo, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Raffi, I.; Agnini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomical calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for the Eocene (34-56 Ma) has advanced tremendously in recent years. Combining a cyclostratigraphic approach based on the recognition of the stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of Earth's orbit with high-resolution bio- and magnetostratigraphy from deep-sea sedimentary records (ODP Legs 171B, 189 and 207; IODP Exp. 320/321) resulted in a new calibration of the middle-to-late Eocene GPTS spanning Chrons C12r to C19n (30.9-41.3 Ma). A fully astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Eocene was established recently by integrating cyclo-bio-magnetostratigraphy from ODP Sites 702 and 1263 records spanning the middle Eocene with Site 1258 records covering the early Eocene. Comparison of this deep sea-derived GPTS with GTS2012 and GPTS calibration points from terrestrial successions show overall consistent results, but there are still major offsets for the duration of Chrons C20r, C22r and C23n.2n. Because of the relatively large uncertainty of the calibration point, a radioisotopic dated ash layer in DSDP 516F, at C21n.75 (46.24±0.5 Ma) the duration of C20r in GPTS2012 (2.292 myr) is uncertain. Offsets in durations of C22r and C23n.2n between GPTS2012 and the new astronomical GPTS (~400-kyr longer C22r; ~400-kyr shorter C23n.2n) could be due to uncertainties in the interpretation of Site 1258 magnetostratigraphic data. Here we present new results toward establishing a more accurate and complete bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy for South Atlantic Leg 208 sites encompassing magnetochrons C13 to C24 (33 to 56 Ma). Our study aims to integrate paleomagnetic records from multiple drilled sites with physical property data, stable isotope data and XRF core scanning data to construct an astronomically calibrated framework for refining GPTS age estimates. This effort will complete the Early-to-Middle Eocene GPTS and allow evaluation of the relative position of calcareous nannofossil events to magnetostratigraphy.

  9. Stratigraphic and climatic implications of clay mineral changes around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary of the northeastern US margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Bybell, L.M.; Mason, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Kaolinite usually is present in relatively small amounts in most upper Paleocene and lower Eocene neritic deposits of the northern US Atlantic Coastal Plain. However, there is a short period (less than 200,000 k.y.) in the latest Paleocene (upper part of calcareous nannoplankton Zone NP 9) when kaolinite-dominated clay mineral suites replaced the usual illite/smectite-dominated suites. During this time of global biotic and lithologic changes, kaolinite increased from less than 5% of the clay mineral suite to peak proportions of 50-60% of the suite and then returned to less than 5% in uppermost Paleocene/lowermost Eocene strata. This kaolinite pulse is present at numerous localities from southern Virginia to New Jersey. These sites represent both inner and middle neritic depositional environments and reflect input from several river drainage systems. Thus, it is inferred that kaolinite-rich source areas were widespread in the northeastern US during the latest Paleocene. Erosion of these source areas contributed the kaolinite that was transported and widely dispersed into shelf environments of the Salisbury embayment. The kaolinite increase, which occurred during a time of relatively high sea level, probably is the result of intensified weathering due to increased temperature and precipitation. The southern extent of the kaolinite pulse is uncertain in that uppermost Paleocene beds have not been identified in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The late Paleocene kaolinite pulse that consists of an increase to peak kaolinite levels followed by a decrease can be used for detailed correlation between more upbasin and more downbasin sections in the Salisbury embayment. Correlations show that more upbasin Paleocene/Eocene boundary sections are erosionally truncated. They have varying portions of the kaolinite increase and, if present at all, discontinuous portions of the subsequent kaolinite decrease. As these truncated sections are disconformably overlain by lower

  10. Tempo and scale of late Paleocene and early Eocene carbon isotope cycles: Implications for the origin of hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, James C.; McCarren, Heather; Murphy, Brandon; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The upper Paleocene and lower Eocene are marked by several prominent (> 1‰) carbon isotope (δ 13C) excursions (CIE) that coincide with transient global warmings, or thermal maxima, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The CIE, which are recorded mainly in marine sedimentary sequences, have also been identified in continental sequences, occurred episodically, and yet appear to be paced or triggered by orbital forcing. To constrain the timing and scale of the CIE relative to long-term baseline variability, we have constructed a 4.52 million year (myr) long, high-resolution (~ 3 kyr) bulk sediment carbon isotope record spanning the lower Eocene to upper Paleocene (C25r-C24n) from a pelagic sediment section recovered at ODP Site 1262 in the southeast Atlantic. This section, which was orbitally-tuned utilizing high-resolution core log physical property and geochemical records, is the most stratigraphically complete upper Paleocene to lower Eocene sequence recovered to date. Time-series analysis of the carbon isotope record along with a high-resolution Fe intensity record obtained by XRF core scanner reveal cyclicity with variance concentrated primarily in the precession (21 kyr) and eccentricity bands (100 and 400-kyr) throughout the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene. In general, minima in δ 13C correspond with peaks in Fe (i.e., carbonate dissolution), both of which appear to be in phase with maxima in eccentricity. This covariance is consistent with excess oceanic uptake of isotopically depleted carbon resulting in lower carbonate saturation during periods of high eccentricity. This relationship includes all late Paleocene and early Eocene CIE confirming pacing by orbital forcing. The lone exception is the PETM, which appears to be out of phase with the 400-kyr cycle, though possibly in phase with the 100-kyr cycle, reinforcing the notion that a mechanism other than orbital forcing and/or an additional source of carbon is required to account for the

  11. Eocene sea temperatures for the mid-latitude southwest Pacific from Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic and benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, John B.; Baker, Joel A.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Smith, Euan G. C.

    2010-11-01

    We have used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure elemental (Mg/Ca, Al/Ca, Mn/Ca, Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca) ratios of 13 species of variably preserved early to middle Eocene planktonic and benthic foraminifera from New Zealand. The foraminifera were obtained from Ashley Mudstone, mid-Waipara River, South Island, which was deposited at bathyal depth ( ca. 1000 m) on the northern margin of the east-facing Canterbury Basin at a paleo-latitude of ca. 55°S. LA-ICP-MS data yield trace element depth profiles through foraminifera test walls that can be used to identify and exclude zones of surficial contamination and infilling material resulting from diagenetic coatings, mineralisation and detrital sediment. Screened Mg/Ca ratios from 5 species of foraminifera are used to calculate sea temperatures from late Early to early Middle Eocene ( ca. 51 to 46.5 Ma), a time interval that spans the termination of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). During this time, sea surface temperatures (SST) varied from 30 to 24 °C, and bottom water temperatures (BWT) from 21 to 14 °C. Comparison of Mg/Ca sea temperatures with published δ 18O and TEX 86 temperature data from the same samples (Hollis et al., 2009) shows close correspondence, indicating that LA-ICP-MS can provide reliable Mg/Ca sea temperatures even where foraminiferal test preservation is variable. Agreement between the three proxies also implies that Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations for modern planktonic and benthic foraminifera can generally be applied to Eocene species, although some species (e.g., V. marshalli) show significant calibration differences. The Mg/Ca ratio of the Eocene ocean is constrained by our data to be 35-50% lower than the modern ocean depending on which TEX 86 - temperature calibration (Kim et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009) - is used to compare with the Mg/Ca sea temperatures. Sea temperatures derived from δ 18O analysis of foraminifera from Waipara show

  12. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  13. Beyond the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mitchell, P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho Peter Mitchell1, Ina Plug2, Geoff Bailey3, Ruth Charles4, Amanda Esterhuysen5, Julia Lee Thorp6, Adrian Parker7 & Stephan Woodborne8 The activities...

  14. Median nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the New Jersey Highlands Region estimated using regression models and land-surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Chepiga, Mary M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate-concentration data are used in conjunction with land-use and land-cover data to estimate median nitrate concentrations in groundwater underlying the New Jersey (NJ) Highlands Region. Sources of data on nitrate in 19,670 groundwater samples are from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the NJ Private Well Testing Act (PWTA).

  15. A multi-century analysis of disturbance dynamics in pine-oak forests of the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad King; Rose-Marie. Muzika

    2013-01-01

    Using dendrochronology and growth release approaches, we analyzed the disturbance history of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mich.) white oak (Quercus alba L.) forests in the Missouri Ozark Highlands. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify growth release events using living and remnant shortleaf pine and white oak, (2)...

  16. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.; Gotora, T.; Velthorst, E.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

  17. Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces for soil and water conservation in an Ethiopian highland watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsalu, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Ethiopian highlands, land degradation resulting from soil erosion and nutrient depletion is a serious environmental and socio-economic problem. Although soil and water conservation techniques have extensively been introduced over the past decades, sustained use of the measures was not as

  18. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  19. A remote sensing-assisted risk rating study to predict oak decline and recovery in the Missouri Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuizhen Wang; Hong S. He; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Forests in the Ozark Highlands underwent widespread oak decline affected by severe droughts in 1999-2000. In this study, the differential normalized difference water index was calculated to detect crown dieback. A multi-factor risk rating system was built to map risk levels of stands. As a quick response to drought, decline in 2000 mostly occurred in stands at low to...

  20. A Matrix Transition Model for an Uneven-Aged, Oak-Hickory Forest in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We present a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed-...