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Sample records for eocene green river

  1. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  2. Review of rare earth element concentrations in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the lanthanide series or rare earth elements and yttrium were determined for lacustrine oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of Colorado and the Uinta Basin of Utah. Unprocessed oil shale, post-pyrolysis (spent) shale, and leached shale samples were examined to determine if oil-shale processing to generate oil or the remediation of retorted shale affects rare earth element concentrations. Results for unprocessed Green River oil shale samples were compared to data published in the literature on reference materials, such as chondritic meteorites, the North American shale composite, marine oil shale samples from two sites in northern Tibet, and mined rare earth element ores from the United States and China. The Green River oil shales had lower rare earth element concentrations (66.3 to 141.3 micrograms per gram, μg g-1) than are typical of material in the upper crust (approximately 170 μg g-1) and were also lower in rare earth elements relative to the North American shale composite (approximately 165 μg g-1). Adjusting for dilution of rare earth elements by organic matter does not account for the total difference between the oil shales and other crustal rocks. Europium anomalies for Green River oil shales from the Piceance Basin were slightly lower than those reported for the North American shale composite and upper crust. When compared to ores currently mined for rare earth elements, the concentrations in Green River oil shales are several orders of magnitude lower. Retorting Green River oil shales led to a slight enrichment of rare earth elements due to removal of organic matter. When concentrations in spent and leached samples were normalized to an original rock basis, concentrations were comparable to those of the raw shale, indicating that rare earth elements are conserved in processed oil shales.

  3. Characterization of petroleum reservoirs in the Eocene Green River Formation, Central Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C.D.; Bereskin, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The oil-productive Eocene Green River Formation in the central Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah is divided into five distinct intervals. In stratigraphically ascending order these are: 1) Uteland Butte, 2) Castle Peak, 3) Travis, 4) Monument Butte, and 5) Beluga. The reservoir in the Uteland Butte interval is mainly lacustrine limestone with rare bar sandstone beds, whereas the reservoirs in the other four intervals are mainly channel and lacustrine sandstone beds. The changing depositional environments of Paleocene-Eocene Lake Uinta controlled the characteristics of each interval and the reservoir rock contained within. The Uteland Butte consists of carbonate and rare, thin, shallow-lacustrine sandstone bars deposited during the initial rise of the lake. The Castle Peak interval was deposited during a time of numerous and rapid lake-level fluctuations, which developed a simple drainage pattern across the exposed shallow and gentle shelf with each fall and rise cycle. The Travis interval records a time of active tectonism that created a steeper slope and a pronounced shelf break where thick cut-and-fill valleys developed during lake-level falls and rises. The Monument Butte interval represents a return to a gentle, shallow shelf where channel deposits are stacked in a lowstand delta plain and amalgamated into the most extensive reservoir in the central Uinta Basin. The Beluga interval represents a time of major lake expansion with fewer, less pronounced lake-level falls, resulting in isolated single-storied channel and shallow-bar sandstone deposits.

  4. Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions and landscape destabilization at eccentricity minima: Green River Formation of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Carroll, Alan R.; Scott, Jennifer J.; Singer, Brad S.

    2014-10-01

    Repeated global reorganizations of carbon cycling and biotic, oceanic and terrestrial processes occurred during the Early Eocene, and appear to have been paced by cyclic variations in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The phase relationship(s) between insolation variation, terrestrial paleoclimate, and atmospheric pCO2 during these events remains enigmatic however, due to their poorly constrained timing relative to specific orbital configurations. Here we use tiered interpolation between radioisotopic ages and paleomagnetic polarity chrons to compare high-resolution δ13C and lithofacies records from the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation of western North America to a Fe-intensity XRF record from the western Atlantic Ocean, and to numerical solutions for Earth's orbital configuration. Wilkins Peak Member lithofacies stacking patterns record cyclic geomorphic responses to insolation and climate fluctuations, spanning an interval of 1.8 Ma. Previous macrostratigraphic analyses using 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ash bed ages indicate that these cycles reflect long and short eccentricity modulation of precession. Hydrologic variance appears to have occurred inversely with intervals of maximum sediment advection, with carbonate- and evaporite-dominated lacustrine modes during eccentricity maxima, and siliciclastic-dominated alluvial modes during eccentricity minima. Stable carbon isotope analyses of 126 meters of Wilkins Peak Member strata reveal a regular ∼5 per mil oscillation between high-δ13C lacustrine modes and low-δ13C alluvial modes. Tiered interpolation between paleomagnetically characterized terrestrial ash beds facilitates the integration of 11 radioisotopic ages with the geomagnetic polarity timescale, resulting in significant expansion of chron C23 and shortening of chron C22 relative to timescales based on seafloor magnetic anomaly profiles. The new proposed timescale permits direct comparison of terrestrial and marine climate proxy records

  5. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars.

  6. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  7. Colemanus keeleyorum (Braconidae, Ichneutinae s. l.: a new genus and species of Eocene wasp from the Green River Formation of western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Ichneutinae s. l., Colemanus keeleyorum Fisher, is described from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, USA. Colemanus was placed on a phylogenetic hypothesis using morphological data. Using a parsimony criterion, Colemanus is placed within Proteropini (Ichneutinae s. l.. Reconstructions of well-preserved regions (mesosomal dorsum and wings are included. A previously described species from lower Oligocene Baltic amber is transferred to Colemanus, resulting in the new combination C. contortus (Brues, 1933.

  8. 17alpha/H/ hopane identified in oil shale of the Green River formation /Eocene/ by carbon-13 NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Christiansen, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    During an investigation of C-13 NMR shifts and the structural correspondence of pentacyclic triterpenes a C-13 NMR study was conducted on one of the most abundant components of the hexane soluble fraction of oil shale bitumen of the Green River formation. A rigorous proof was derived exclusively from C-13 NMR data for the structure of the important triterpenoid fossil molecule. It was established that the structure of the isolated triterpane was 17alpha(H) hopane.

  9. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  10. Large-scale mud diapirism as a record of late-stage Laramide tectonism within the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Samuel M.; Klimek, Jason N.

    2017-08-01

    The Gruene and Verde mud diapirs, which range in size from 70 to 95 m in diameter, are exposed within the Wilkins Peak Member of the Eocene Green River Formation near Flaming Gorge Reservoir, southwest Wyoming. These diapirs are sourced from the lower unit of the Wilkins Peak Member (lower, middle, and upper units can be defined based on dominant lithology), and were emplaced into the upper unit of the Wilkins Peak Member, cross-cutting hundreds of meters of strata. The structures contain brecciated dolomicritic and lime mudstones with minor amounts of siliciclastic clays. Pervasive quartz veining is present throughout both diapirs. Though heavily disturbed, original bedding can be seen in both localities, either dipping radially outward towards the margins of the diapir as is dominant at the Gruene diapir or tilted but near horizontal as is the dominant expression at the smaller Verde diapir. The Gruene diapir can be seen in contact with several fluvial sandstone bodies within the upper Wilkins Peak strata in outcrop, and these fluvial sandstones transition from regional, near-horizontal dips to steeply dipping beds and bedsets within 50 m of the diapir. These sands show no signs of brittle deformation, and dip ranges from 20 to 50° radially away from the center of the diapir to the north, west, and east where sands are observed. These are interpreted here to have been deformed pre-lithification, at or near the surface, by the rising mud diapir, offering an important control on the timing of diapirism near the end of the early Eocene. Deformation structures such as clastic dikes, brecciation, and convoluted bedding have been documented by others at or near this stratigraphic interval in Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and these smaller structures have been interpreted as seismites. We suggest that these mud diapirs are a larger-scale expression of this same seismic activity.

  11. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the CSX...

  12. Magnetostratigraphy and Tectonic Rotation of the Eocene-Oligocene Makah and Hoko River Formations, Northwest Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Prothero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene-Oligocene Makah Formation and subjacent middle Eocene Hoko River Formation of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, yield mollusks, crustaceans, foraminifera, and early neocete whales; their age has never been precisely established. We sampled several sections; most samples showed a stable single-component remanence held largely in magnetite and passed a Class I reversal test. The upper Refugian (late Eocene and lower Zemorrian (early Oligocene rocks at Baada Point correlate with Chron C13r (33.7–34.7 Ma and Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The Ozette Highway section of the Makah Formation spanned the early Refugian to late Refugian, with a sequence that correlates with Chrons C15r-C13r (33.7–35.3 Ma, and a long reversed early Zemorrian section that correlates with Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The type section of the Hoko River Formation correlates with Chron C18r (40.0–41.2 Ma. The area sampled shows about 45∘ of post-Oligocene counterclockwise tectonic rotation, consistent with results obtained from the Eocene-Oligocene rocks in the region.

  13. Effects of Green River Project on Cassava Farmers Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effects of Green River project on cassava farmers' production in Ogba/Egbema/ Ndoni LGA of Rivers State. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured questionnaire, a field ...

  14. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors

  15. Eocene and Miocene extension, meteoric fluid infiltration, and core complex formation in the Great Basin (Raft River Mountains, Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Wells, Michael L.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gottardi, Raphael; Gebelin, Aude; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) in the North American Cordillera reflect the effects of lithospheric extension and contribute to crustal adjustments both during and after a protracted subduction history along the Pacific plate margin. While the Miocene-to-recent history of most MCCs in the Great Basin, including the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek MCC, is well documented, early Cenozoic tectonic fabrics are commonly severely overprinted. We present stable isotope, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar), and microstructural data from the Raft River detachment shear zone. Hydrogen isotope ratios of syntectonic white mica (δ2Hms) from mylonitic quartzite within the shear zone are very low (−90‰ to −154‰, Vienna SMOW) and result from multiphase synkinematic interaction with surface-derived fluids. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology reveals Eocene (re)crystallization of white mica with δ2Hms ≥ −154‰ in quartzite mylonite of the western segment of the detachment system. These δ2Hms values are distinctively lower than in localities farther east (δ2Hms ≥ −125‰), where 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data indicate Miocene (18–15 Ma) extensional shearing and mylonitic fabric formation. These data indicate that very low δ2H surface-derived fluids penetrated the brittle-ductile transition as early as the mid-Eocene during a first phase of exhumation along a detachment rooted to the east. In the eastern part of the core complex, prominent top-to-the-east ductile shearing, mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar ages, and higher δ2H values of recrystallized white mica, indicate Miocene structural and isotopic overprinting of Eocene fabrics.

  16. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $4,300,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $9,600,000 for disposal at a distance of about 30 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Green River tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $1,800/lb by heap leach and $1,600/lb by conventional plant processes

  17. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  18. Remedial action at the Green River uranium mill tailings site, Green River, Utah: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The inactive Green River uranium mill tailings site is one mile southeast of Green River, Utah. The existing tailings pile is within the floodplain boundaries of the 100-year and 500-year flood events. The 48-acre designated site contains eight acres of tailings, the mill yard and ore storage area, four main buildings, a water tower, and several small buildings. Dispersion of the tailings has contaminated an additional 24 acres surrounding the designated site. Elevated concentrations of molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and gross alpha activity exceed background levels and the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum concentration limits in the groundwater in the unconsolidated alluvium and in the shallow shales and limestones beneath the alluvium at the mill tailings site. The contamination is localized beneath, and slightly downgradient of, the tailings pile. The proposed action is to relocate the tailings and associated contaminated materials to an area 600 feet south of the existing tailings pile where they would be consolidated into one, below-grade disposal cell. A radon/infiltration barrier would be constructed to cover the stabilized pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to ensure the long-term stability of the stabilized pile. 88 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  19. A terrestrial Eocene stack: tying terrestrial lake ecology to marine carbon cycling through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; Musher, D.; Rosengard, S. Z.; Vankeuren, M. A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The lacustrine Green River Formation is known to span ≥15 million years through the early-middle Eocene, and recent work on radioisotopic dating has provided a framework on which to build ties to the orbitally-tuned marine Eocene record. Here we present a spliced stack of Fischer assay data from drilled cores of the Green River Formation that span both an East-West and a North-South transect of the Uinta Basin of Utah. Detailed work on two cores demonstrate that Fischer assay measurements covary with total organic carbon and bulk carbon isotopes, allowing us to use Fisher assay results as a representative carbon cycling proxy throughout the stack. We provide an age model for this core record by combining radioisotopic dates of tuff layers with frequency analysis of Fischer assay measurements. Identification of orbital frequencies tied directly to magnetochrons through radioisotopic dates allows for a direct comparison of the terrestrial to the marine Eocene record. Our analysis indicates that the marker beds used to correlate the stack cores represent periods of enhanced lake productivity and extreme carbon burial; however, unlike the hyperthermal events that are clearly marked in the marine Eocene record, the hydrocarbon-rich "Mahogany Bed" period of burial does not correspond to a clear carbon isotope excursion. This suggests that the terrestrial realm may have experienced extreme ecological responses to relatively small perturbations in the carbon cycle during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. To investigate the ecological responses to carbon cycle perturbations through the hydrocarbon rich beds, we analyzed a suite of microbial biomarkers, finding evidence for cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and potentially green sulfur bacteria. These taxa indicate fluctuating oxic/anoxic conditions in the lake during abrupt intervals of carbon burial, suggesting a lake biogeochemical regime with no modern analogues.

  20. Comparisons of dental morphology in river stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) with new fossils from the middle Eocene of Peruvian Amazonia rekindle debate on their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, Sylvain; Salas Gismondi, Rodolfo; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Endemic South American river stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), which include the most diversified living freshwater chondrichthyans, were conspicuously absent from pre-Neogene deposits in South America despite the fact that recent phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest an older origination for this clade. To date, the rare representatives of this family were mostly represented by ambiguous isolated remains. Here, we report 67 isolated fossil teeth of a new obligate freshwater dasyatoid (Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp) from the fossiliferous level CTA-27 (Yahuarango Formation), near Contamana, in the Peruvian Amazonia. We assigned this sample to a new representative of Potamotrygon by comparison with numerous fresh jaws of living specimens of Potamotrygonidae, thus providing the first detailed review of dental morphology for this poorly understood clade. These new fossils fill a long stratigraphic gap by extending the family range down to the middle Eocene (~41 Mya). Moreover, the relative modernity and diversity in tooth morphology among Eocene freshwater stingrays (including Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp. and coeval North American dasyatoids) indicate that the hypothetically marine ancestor of potamotrygonids probably invaded the rivers earlier than in the middle Eocene. The first potamotrygonids and affiliates were possibly more generalized and less endemic than now, which is consistent with an opportunistic filling of vacated ecospace.

  1. A Collection of Chemical, Mineralogical, and Stable Isotopic Compositional Data for Green River Oil Shale from Depositional Center Cores in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.

    2009-01-01

    For over half a century, the U.S. Geological Survey and collaborators have conducted stratigraphic and geochemical studies on the Eocene Green River Formation, which is known to contain large oil shale resources. Many of the studies were undertaken in the 1970s during the last oil shale boom. One such study analyzed the chemistry, mineralogy, and stable isotopy of the Green River Formation in the three major depositional basins: Piceance basin, Colo.; Uinta basin, Utah; and the Green River basin, Wyo. One depositional-center core from each basin was sampled and analyzed for major, minor, and trace chemistry; mineral composition and sulfide-mineral morphology; sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon forms; and stable isotopic composition (delta34S, delta15N, delta13C, and delta18O). Many of these data were published and used to support interpretative papers (see references herein). Some bulk-chemical and carbonate-isotopic data were never published and may be useful to studies that are currently exploring topics such as future oil shale development and the climate, geography, and weathering in the Eocene Epoch. These unpublished data, together with most of the U.S. Geological Survey data already published on these samples, are tabulated in this report.

  2. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  3. Geochemical, biogeochemical, and sedimentological studies of the Green River Formation. Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The report contains the following sections: Introduction; Sulfur geochemistry and isotopy of the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; A preliminary study of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic biogeochemistry of lacustrine sedimentary rocks from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; Trace elements in pyrites of the Green River Formation oil shales, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; An experimental study of goethite sulfidization--Relationships to the diagenesis of iron and sulfur; Effects of source, depositional environment, and diagenesis on characteristics of organic matter in oil shale from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; Petrography of iron sulfide minerals in the Green River Formation of Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.

  4. Wrench related faults and their control on the tectonics and Eocene sedimentation in the L13-L15 sub-sag area, Pearl River Mouth basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuping; Xu, Shunshan; Cai, Yu; Ma, Xiaodan

    2017-09-01

    Recent oil discoveries in the L13-L15 sub-sag area in the Pearl River Mouth basin have inspired interest in Paleogene hydrocarbon targets. However, the structures and their control on reservoirs have not been completely studied. The aim of this paper is to address the tectonics and Eocene sedimentation based on 3D seismic data. We documented characteristics from four aspects of the faults in the study area: (a) fault arrangement; (b) fault segmentation; (c) flower structures; and (d) distribution of the depocenters along the faults. Based on the above data, we propose that the structures in the studied area were formed by a right-handed wrench. The principal shear for this model was caused by NNE- to NE-ward motion of the eastern part of the Eurasia plate due to the collision of the Indian-Australian and Eurasian plates starting approximately 49 Ma ago. The L13-L15 sub-sag area underwent early Eocene rifting, a late Eocene rifting-depression transition and an Oligocene-Quaternary thermal depression. The rift phase included three stages: the initial rifting, intensive rifting and late rifting. The deep lake mudstone deposited during the intensive rifting stage is the source rock with the most potential for oil generation. Shallow lake source rocks formed in the late rifting and transition stages are the secondary source rocks. Reservoir sweet spots were formed in the early period of the intensive rifting and late rifting stages. The junction sites between the front of the meandering river delta plain and fault steps are favorable places for good reservoirs. The sediments in the transition stage are rich in sandstone, making them perfect sites for prospecting reservoirs.

  5. [Treatment of polluted urban river water using filamentous green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous green algae dominated treatment system was set up to remove contaminants from polluted urban river water under lab conditions. Experiments show that TP is decreased up to 50%, associated with 72% removal of TSS. The removal efficiencies of soluble species, PO4(3-) and NH4(+)-N, are up to 90% and 85% respectively. Under heavily polluted conditions (TP > 3.0 mg x L(-1), TN > 22.0 mg x L(-1)), the average removal efficiencies of TP and TN are 89% and 45% respectively, while under light polluted conditions (TP filamentous green algae is increased significantly (38.78%), and at the same time a large number of unicellular Chlorophytes and Cyanophytes species are occurred on the interior wall surface of experimental fertility. The maximum biomass occurs at the highest concentration of DO.

  6. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOWER GREEN RIVER FORMATION, SOUTHWEST UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Robert Bereskin

    2003-02-11

    Anastamosing, low gradient distributary channels produce {approx}30 gravity, paraffinic oils from the Middle Member of the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation in the south-central portion of the Uinta Basin. This localized depocenter was situated along the fluctuating southern shoreline of Lake Uinta, where complex deposits of marginal-lacustrine to lower delta plain accumulations are especially characteristic. The Middle Member contains several fining-upward parasequences that can be recognized in outcrop, core, and downhole logs. Each parasequence is about 60 to 120 feet thick and consists of strata deposited during multiple lake level fluctuations that approach 30 to 35 feet in individual thickness. Such parasequences represent 300,000-year cycles based on limited absolute age dating. The subaerial to subaqueous channels commonly possess an erosional base and exhibit a fining upward character. Accordingly, bedding features commonly range from large-scale trough and planar cross bedding or lamination at the base, to a nonreservoir, climbing ripple assemblage near the uppermost reservoir boundary. The best reservoir quality occurs within the laminated to cross-stratified portions, and the climbing ripple phase usually possesses more deleterious micas and/or detrital clays. Diagenesis also exerts a major control on reservoir quality. Certain sandstones were cemented by an early, iron-poor calcite cement, which can be subsequently leached. Secondary intergranular porosity (up to 20%) is largely responsible for the 10 -100 millidarcy rock, which represents petrophysical objectives for both primary and secondary production. Otherwise, intense compaction, silicic and iron-rich carbonate cements, and authigenic clays serve to reduce reservoir quality to marginal economic levels.

  7. Summary of the Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Green River site, Utah. The services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 123 thousand tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented are dike stabilization, fencing, on- and off-site decontamination and maintenance; improvements in the stabilization cover and diking plus cleanup of the site and Browns Wash, and realignment of Browns Wash; and addition of stabilization cover to a total of 2 ft, realignment of Browns Wash and placement of additional riprap, on-site cleanup and drainage improvements. All options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the three options range from $700,000 to $926,000

  8. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Green River site, Utah. Services included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations , the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 123 thousand tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented are dike stabilization, fencing, on- and off-site decontamination and maintenance (Option I); improvements in the stabilization cover and diking plus cleanup of the site and Browns Wash, and realignment of Browns Wash (Option II); and addition of stabilization cover to a total of 2 ft, realignment of Browns Wash and placement of additional riprap, on-site cleanup and drainage improvements (Option III). All options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the three options range from $700,000 to $926,000

  9. 77 FR 24195 - Green River Energy BFD, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green River Energy BFD, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Green River Energy BFD, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Green River Energy BFD, LLC, 1035 Pearl Street 4th Floor, Boulder, CO 80302. (720) 295-3317. FERC...

  10. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  11. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... and three boats, operating within the main channel of the Fox River. The Captain of the Port, Lake... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River...

  12. High-resolution mass spectrometry of nitrogenous compounds of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Schnoes, H. K.; Haug, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Basic nitrogenous compounds isolated from extracts of Green River Formation oil shale were analyzed. The major homologous constituents found were the compositional types - namely, quinolines, tetrahydrequinolines with minor amounts of pyridines and indoles series and traces of more aromatized nitrogen compounds. These results are correlated with nitrogen compounds isolated from Green River Formation retort oil and are a survey of the unaltered nitrogen compounds indigeneous to the shale.

  13. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  14. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  15. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei

    2016-11-01

    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  17. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: water allocation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, N.J.

    1982-04-01

    According to preliminary studies, operation of a nine-reactor Nuclear Energy Center near Green River, Utah would require the acquisition of 126,630 acre-feet per year. Groundwater aquifers are a potential source of supply but do not present a viable option at this time due to insufficient data on aquifer characteristics. Surface supplies are available from the nearby Green and San Rafael Rivers, tributaries of the Colorado River, but are subject to important constraints. Because of these constraints, the demand for a dependable water supply for a Nuclear Energy Center could best be met by the acquisition of vested water rights from senior appropriators in either the Green or San Rafael Rivers. The Utah Water Code provides a set of procedures to accomplish such a transfer of water rights

  18. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  1. 2012 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Cory C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  2. 78 FR 33049 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Green River/Tusher Diversion Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., Salt Lake City, Utah 84138-1100, or via email at bronson.smart@ut.usda.gov . Information may also be... publicly available at any time during the EIS process. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bronson Smart... held on November 15, 2012 at Green River City Hall in Green River, Utah. Through additional...

  3. The demographic response of bank-dwelling beavers to flow regulation: A comparison on the Green and Yampa rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, S.W.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the effects of flow regulation on the demography of beavers (Castor canadensis) by comparing the density, home-range size, and body size of bank-dwelling beavers on two sixth-order alluvial river systems, the flow-regulated Green River and the free-flowing Yampa River, from 1997 to 2000. Flow regulation on the Green River has altered fluvial geomorphic processes, influencing the availability of willow and cottonwood, which, in turn, has influenced the demography of beavers. Beaver density was higher on the Green River (0.5–0.6 colonies per kilometre of river) than on the Yampa River (0.35 colonies per kilometre of river). Adult and subadult beavers on the Green River were in better condition, as indicated by larger body mass and tail size. There was no detectable difference in home-range size, though there were areas on the Yampa River that no beavers used. We attribute the improved habitat quality on the Green River to a greater availability of willow. We suggest that the sandy flats and sandbars that form during base flows and the ice cover that forms over winter on the Yampa River increase the energy expended by the beavers to obtain food and increase predation risk and thus lowers the availability of woody forage.

  4. Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains the geochemical data and the methods of data collection from the former tailings site at Green River, Utah. Data are from a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The water samples were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  6. Algal diversity of Adada River, Nigeria. I. Chlorophyta (green algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial water tankers collect water and sell to indigenes and towns around the river, hence the need to investigate the algal biodiversity in other to access its suitability for human consumption using known algal indicators of water quality and add to the pool of data useful for long term trends in floral composition in ...

  7. Timing and origin for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland of Illinois, upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Wang, Hongfang; Young, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in dune studies in North America has been heavily focused in the Great Plains, while less attention has historically been given to the dune fields east of the Mississippi River. Here we report ages and suggest a potential sediment source for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland, Illinois, which may provide a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between eolian, glacial, lacustrine and fluvial processes that shaped the landscapes of the upper Midwest. Seven coherent optically stimulated luminescence ages (OSL, or optical ages) obtained from four sites suggest that major dune construction in the Green River Lowland occurred within a narrow time window around 17,500 ago. This implies either an enhanced aridity or an episodic increase of sediment supply at 17,500 years ago, or combination of the both. Contrary to previous assertions that dune sand was sourced from the deflation of the underlying outwash sand deposited when the Lake Michigan Lobe retreated from the area, we propose that Green River Lowland dunes sand originated from the Green Bay Lobe through the Rock River. Specifically, sediment supply increased in the Rock River valley during drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, which formed between ???18,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the Green Bay Lobe retreated from its terminal moraine. The lake drained catastrophically through the Rock River valley, providing glacial sediment and water to erode the preexisting sandy sediments. Throughout the remainder of the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet drained into larger more northerly glacial lakes that in turn drained through other river valleys. Therefore, the dunes in the Green River Lowland formed only during the catastrophic drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, but were stabilized through the remainder of the Pleistocene. This scenario explains the abrupt dune construction around 17,500 years ago, and explains the lack of later dune activity up to the Pleistocene

  8. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

  9. Processesof Tamarix invasion and floodplain development along the lower Green River, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Adam S; Cooper, David J

    2006-06-01

    Significant ecological, hydrologic, and geomorphic changes have occurred during the 20th century along many large floodplain rivers in the American Southwest. Native Populus forests have declined, while the exotic Eurasian shrub, Tamarix, has proliferated and now dominates most floodplain ecosystems. Photographs from late 19th and early 20th centuries illustrate wide river channels with largely bare in-channel landforms and shrubby higher channel margin floodplains. However, by the mid-20th century, floodplains supporting dense Tamarix stands had expanded, and river channels had narrowed. Along the lower Green River in eastern Utah, the causal mechanism of channel and floodplain changes remains ambiguous due to the confounding effects of climatically driven reductions in flood magnitude, river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam, and Tamarix invasion. This study addressed whether Tamarix establishment and spread followed climate- or dam-induced reductions in annual peak flows or whether Tamarix was potentially a driver of floodplain changes. We aged 235 Tamarix and 57 Populus individuals, determined the hydrologic and geomorphic processes that controlled recruitment, identified the spatial relationships of germination sites within floodplain stratigraphic transects, and mapped woody riparian vegetation cohorts along three segments of the lower Green River. The oldest Tamarix established along several sampling reaches in 1938, and 1.50-2.25 m of alluvium has accreted above their germination surfaces. Nearly 90% of the Tamarix and Populus samples established during flood years that exceeded the 2.5-year recurrence interval. Recruitment was most common when large floods were followed by years with smaller peak flows. The majority of Tamarix establishment and Green River channel narrowing occurred long before river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam. Tamarix initially colonized bare instream sand deposits (e.g., islands and bars), and most channel and floodplain changes

  10. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  11. Hydrogeology, groundwater levels, and generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, 2010–14, in the northern Green River structural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl

    2015-07-14

    In cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, groundwater levels in wells located in the northern Green River Basin in Wyoming, an area of ongoing energy development, were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2010 to 2014. The wells were completed in the uppermost aquifers of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, which is a complex regional aquifer system that provides water to most wells in the area. Except for near perennial streams, groundwater-level altitudes in most aquifers generally decreased with increasing depth, indicating a general downward potential for groundwater movement in the study area. Drilled depth of the wells was observed as a useful indicator of depth to groundwater such that deeper wells typically had a greater depth to groundwater. Comparison of a subset of wells included in this study that had historical groundwater levels that were measured during the 1960s and 1970s and again between 2012 and 2014 indicated that, overall, most of the wells showed a net decline in groundwater levels.

  12. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out

  14. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  15. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  16. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish

  17. 2014 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, L. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, C. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  18. Characterization of DOE reference oil shale: Tipton member, Green River formation oil shale from Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1988-08-01

    Measurements have been made of the chemical and physical properties of a Tipton Member Green River Formation oil shale from Wyoming. This shale has been designated as a western reference shale by the Department of Energy. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shale. Kerogen concentrates were also prepared. Most of the measured properties of the Tipton shale are comparable to results from previous studies of similar shales. 22 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: regional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This document constitutes one segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid and remote Western region. This phase of the study discusses regional considerations involved in nuclear energy center development at Green River, Utah. Regional support for NEC development is assessed. In addition, possible regulatory constraints to NEC development are identified and analyzed. Possible resource allocation shortages resulting from NEC development are also considered. A comparison with a similar study on NEC development in the Southeastern United States is also included

  20. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  1. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: licensing considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdle, M.; Russell, R.; Zillman, D.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines the laws governing the location of a 9-unit nuclear energy center (NEC) near Green River, Utah. The time frame being considered for development of the conceptual NEC is from 1995 to 2013. Accordingly, the report is forced to speculate about some aspects of the plant, its site and its construction. Most of the report examines existing legal requirements for constructing an NEC. Where pertinent, changes in the law are discussed that would affect an NEC that is to be licensed in one or two decades. In general, no insurmountable legal problems exist that would prevent an NEC from being licensed at the Green River location. Several legal requirements pose significant concerns and would have to be faced before an NEC could be built. Among the major legal constraints are radiation protection, regulatory approval of financing, access to water, and local zoning restrictions. Two other constraints that involve legal matters are the wisdom of standardization of the units and the responsibility of the NEC builder to correct socio-economic impacts on the local area.

  2. Consumption of freshwater bivalves by muskrats in the Green River, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Kimberly Asmus; Clark, Joseph D.; Layzer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are known to prey on freshwater bivalves (mussels and clams) and can negatively impact imperiled mussel species. However, factors that influence muskrat predation on bivalves are poorly understood. We evaluated the feeding ecology of muskrats in the Green River, Kentucky, by using stable isotope analysis of muskrat hair samples and by monitoring bivalve shell deposition at muskrat middens. Bayesian mixing-model analysis of stable isotope δ15N and δ13C ratios revealed that the median muskrat biomass derived from bivalves was 51.4% (5th and 95th percentiles were 39.1 to 63.4%, respectively), a much higher dietary proportion than previously reported. Shell depositions by muskrats at middens decreased with the availability of seasonal emergent vegetation, suggesting that the consumption of animal matter is in response to a scarcity of plant foods, perhaps exacerbated by the altered flow regimes on the Green River. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that muskrats have the potential to impact mussel population growth and recovery in some environments.

  3. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: licensing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, M.; Russell, R.; Zillman, D.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines the laws governing the location of a 9-unit nuclear energy center (NEC) near Green River, Utah. The time frame being considered for development of the conceptual NEC is from 1995 to 2013. Accordingly, the report is forced to speculate about some aspects of the plant, its site and its construction. Most of the report examines existing legal requirements for constructing an NEC. Where pertinent, changes in the law are discussed that would affect an NEC that is to be licensed in one or two decades. In general, no insurmountable legal problems exist that would prevent an NEC from being licensed at the Green River location. Several legal requirements pose significant concerns and would have to be faced before an NEC could be built. Among the major legal constraints are radiation protection, regulatory approval of financing, access to water, and local zoning restrictions. Two other constraints that involve legal matters are the wisdom of standardization of the units and the responsibility of the NEC builder to correct socio-economic impacts on the local area

  4. Assessment of Land Degradation and Greening in Ken River Basin of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Palmate, Santosh S.

    2017-04-01

    Natural systems have significant impact of land degradation on biodiversity loss, food and water insecurity. To achieve the sustainable development goals, advances in remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) are progressively utilized to combat climate change, land degradation and poverty issues of developing country. The Ken River Basin (KRB) has dominating land cover pattern of agriculture and forest area. Nowadays, this pattern is affected due to climate change and anthropogenic activity like deforestation. In this study, land degradation and greening status of KRB of Central India during the years 2001 to 2013 have been assessed using MODIS land cover (MCD12Q1) data sets. International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land cover data has been extracted from the MCD12Q1 data product. Multiple rasters of MODIS landcover were analyzed and compared for assigning unique combination of land cover dynamics employing ArcGIS software. Result reveals that 14.38% natural vegetation was degraded, and crop land and woody savannas were greened by 9.68% to 6.94% respectively. Natural vegetation degradation have been observed in the upper KRB area, and resulted to increase in crop land (3418.87 km2) and woody savannas (1242.23 km2) area. Due to transition of 1043.6 km2 area of deciduous broadleaf forest to woody savannas greening was also observed. Moreover, both crop land and woody savannas showed inter-transitions of 669.31 km2 into crop land to woody savannas, and 874.09 km2 into woody savannas to crop land. The present analysis reveals that natural vegetation has more land conversions into woody savannas and crop land in the KRB area. Further, Spatial change analysis shows that land degradation and greening has occurred mostly in the upper part of the KRB. The study reveals that the land transition information can be useful for proper planning and management of natural resources.

  5. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  6. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  7. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  8. Hazard assessment of selenium and other trace elements in wild larval razorback sucker from the Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Muth, R.T.; Waddell, B.; May, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminant investigations of the Green River in northeastern Utah have documented selenium contamination at sites receiving irrigation drainage. The Green River provides critical habitat for four endangered fishes including the largest extant riverine population of endangered razorback sucker. Although 2175 larval razorback suckers were collected from the river between 1992 and 1996, very few juveniles have been captured within recent decades. Selenium concentrations were measured in larval razorback suckers collected from five sites in the Green River (Cliff Creek, Stewart Lake Drain, Sportsman's Drain, Greasewood Corral, and Old Charlie Wash) to assess the potential for adverse effects on recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage and the adult population. Larvae from all sites contained mean selenium concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 ??g/g. These values were at or above the proposed toxic threshold of 4 ??g/g for adverse biological effects in fish, which was derived from several laboratory and field studies with a wide range of fish species. At two sites, Cliff Creek and Stewart Lake Drain, selenium concentrations in larvae increased over time as fish grew, whereas selenium concentrations decreased as fish grew at Sportsman's Drain. Evaluation of a 279-larvae composite analyzed for 61 elements demonstrated that selenium and, to a lesser extent, vanadium were elevated to concentrations reported to be toxic to a wide range of fish species. Elevated selenium concentrations in larval razorback suckers from the five sites suggest that selenium contamination may be widespread in the Green River, and that survival and recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage may be limited due to adverse biological effects. Selenium contamination may be adversely affecting the reproductive success and recruitment of endangered razorback sucker.

  9. High resolution cyclostratigraphy of the early Eocene – new insights into the origin of the Cenozoic cooling trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Westerhold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a high-resolution cyclostratigraphy based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF core scanning data from a new record retrieved from the tropical western Atlantic (Demerara Rise, ODP Leg 207, Site 1258. The Eocene sediments from ODP Site 1258 cover magnetochrons C20 to C24 and show well developed cycles. This record includes the missing interval for reevaluating the early Eocene part of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS, also providing key aspects for reconstructing high-resolution climate variability during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. Detailed spectral analysis demonstrates that early Eocene sedimentary cycles are characterized by precession frequencies modulated by short (100 kyr and long (405 kyr eccentricity with a generally minor obliquity component. Counting of both the precession and eccentricity cycles results in revised estimates for the duration of magnetochrons C21r through C24n. Our cyclostratigraphic framework also corroborates that the geochronology of the Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA is still questionable mainly due to the uncertain correlation of the "Sixth tuff" to the GPTS.

    Right at the onset of the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend the dominant eccentricity-modulated precession cycles of ODP Site 1258 are interrupted by strong obliquity cycles for a period of ~800 kyr in the middle of magnetochron C22r. These distinct obliquity cycles at this low latitude site point to (1 a high-latitude driving mechanism on global climate variability from 50.1 to 49.4 Ma, and (2 seem to coincide with a significant drop in atmospheric CO2 concentration below a critical threshold between 2- and 3-times the pre-industrial level (PAL. The here newly identified orbital configuration of low eccentricity in combination with high obliquity amplitudes during this ~800-kyr period and the crossing of a critical pCO2 threshold may have led to the formation of the first ephemeral

  10. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.T. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a representative Western site. The site selected for this conceptual study, an area of about 50 square miles, is located 15 miles south of Green River, Utah. The conceptual NEC would consist of nine nuclear electric generating units, arranged on the site in three clusters of three reactors each (triads), separated by about 2 1/2 miles. Of the total electric output of 11,250 MWe that the NEC could produce, about 82% is assumed to be transmitted out of Utah to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The technical engineering issues studied included geology and seismology, plant design, low-level radioactive waste disposal, transmission, and construction schedules and costs. Socioeconomic issues included were demographics, land use, community service needs, and fiscal impacts. Environmental considerations included terrestrial and aquatic ecology, visual impact, and secondary population impacts. Radiological issues were concerned with the safety and risks of an NEC and an on-site low-level waste facility. Institutional issues included methods of ownership, taxation, implications of energy export, and water allocation. The basic finding was that an NEC would be technically feasible, but a number of socioeconomic and institutional issues would require resolution before a Western regional NEC could be considered a viable power plant siting option.

  11. Framing Violence and Serial Murder in My Friend Dahmer and Green River Killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Earle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The comics form has not remained untouched by true crime’s massive surge in status across popular culture, especially in America. Comics as a form is uniquely positioned to represent violent and graphic narratives in such a way as to maximise reader affect and create a chronicle of crime that is both entertaining and captivating, guiding and being guided by the reader. Two comics have received massive critical acclaim for their portrayals of ‘famous’ American serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer in Derf’s 'My Friend Dahmer' (2012 and Arthur Shawcross in Jeff Jensen & Jonathan Case’s 'Green River Killer' (2011. This article considers the framing techniques deployed in both comics. I consider how these two comics, distinct in their artistic presentation and their focus, frame their respective subjects and represent the complexities of serial murder. To conclude, I perform a close analysis of one framing aspect of 'My Friend Dahmer' and expand on what the execution of this technique can tell us about comics as a true crime form.

  12. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah, are relatively low in 226 Ra content and concentration (20 Ci and 140 pCi/g, respectively) because the mill was used to upgrade the uranium ore by separating the sand and slime fractions; most of the radium was transported along with the slimes to another mill site. Spread of tailings was observed in all directions, but near-background gamma exposure rates were reached at distances of 40 to 90 m from the edge of the pile. Water erosion of the tailings is evident and, since a significant fraction of the tailings pile lies in Brown's Wash, the potential exists for repetition of the loss of a large quantity of tailings such as occurred during a flood in 1959. In general, the level of surface contamination was low at this site, but some areas in the mill site, which were being used for nonuranium work, have gamma-ray exposure rates up to 143 μR/hr

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  15. Lacustrine 87Sr/86Sr as a tracer to reconstruct Milankovitch forcing of the Eocene hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddouh, M'bark; Meyers, Stephen R.; Carroll, Alan R.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2016-08-01

    The Green River Formation (GRF) provides one of the premier paleoclimate archives of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (∼50 Ma), representing the apex of the early Cenozoic greenhouse climate. Rhythmic lake-level variability expressed in the GRF has inspired numerous hypotheses for the behavior of the Eocene hydrologic cycle, including its linkage to astronomical forcing, solar variability, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the lack of sufficient proxy data to document atmospheric water-mass transport and the geographic pattern of evaporation/precipitation/runoff has made it difficult to discriminate between different models for astronomical forcing. Variable 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bedrock that encompass the GRF provide an opportunity to reconstruct the spatial expression of the Eocene hydrologic cycle and its linkage to lake level. Here Sr isotope data from the Wilkins Peak Member, a rhythmic succession that has been demonstrated to record Milankovitch forcing of lake levels, indicate that high lake levels reflect an increased proportion of runoff from less radiogenic rocks west of the basin, eliminating a number of the existing astronomical-forcing hypotheses. The 87Sr/86Sr variability is consistent with a change in mean ENSO state, which is predicted by climate models to be linked to orbital-insolation. Thus, the 87Sr/86Sr data reveal a coupling of high frequency (ENSO) and low frequency (astronomical) climate variability, and also predict the existence of sizable astronomically-forced alpine snowpack during the last greenhouse climate. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of 87Sr/86Sr as a powerful tool for reconstructing the deep-time hydrologic cycle.

  16. Chemical concentrations in water and suspended sediment, Green River to Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Chapman, Elena A.

    2018-01-05

    From August 2016 to March 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected representative samples of filtered and unfiltered water and suspended sediment (including the colloidal fraction) at USGS streamgage 12113390 (Duwamish River at Golf Course, at Tukwila, Washington) during 13 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyltins, the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, water-quality field parameters were measured, and representative water samples were collected and analyzed for river suspended-sediment concentration and particle-size distribution. The results provide new data that can be used to estimate sediment and chemical loads transported by the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway.

  17. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  18. Potential effects of elevated base flow and midsummer spike flow experiments on riparian vegetation along the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program has requested experimental flow releases from Flaming Gorge Dam for (1) elevated summer base flows to promote larval endangered Colorado pikeminnow, and (2) midsummer spike flows to disadvantage spawning invasive smallmouth bass. This white paper explores the effects of these proposed flow modifications on riparian vegetation and sediment deposition downstream along the Green River. Although modest in magnitude, the elevated base flows and possible associated reductions in magnitude or duration of peak flows would exacerbate a long-term trend of flow stabilization on the Green River that is already leading to proliferation of vegetation including invasive tamarisk along the channel and associated sediment deposition, channel narrowing and channel simplification. Midsummer spike flows could promote establishment of late-flowering plants like tamarisk. Because channel narrowing and simplification threaten persistence and quality of backwater and side channel features needed by endangered fish, the proposed flow modifications could lead to degradation of fish habitat. Channel narrowing and vegetation encroachment could be countered by increases in peak flows or reductions in base flows in some years and by prescription of rapid flow declines following midsummer spike flows. These strategies for reducing vegetation encroachment would need to be balanced with flow

  19. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement

  20. Suspended-sediment transport from the Green-Duwamish River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington, 2013–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Craig A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.

    2018-02-28

    The Green-Duwamish River transports watershed-derived sediment to the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site near Seattle, Washington. Understanding the amount of sediment transported by the river is essential to the bed sediment cleanup process. Turbidity, discharge, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle-size data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from February 2013 to January 2017 at the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (USGS streamgage 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). This report quantifies the timing and magnitude of suspended-sediment transported in the Duwamish River. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity and SSC and discharge to estimate 15- minute SSC. Suspended-sediment loads were calculated from the computed SSC and time-series discharge data for every 15-minute interval during the study period. The 2014–16 average annual suspended-sediment load computed was 117,246 tons (106,364 metric tons), of which 73.5 percent or (86,191 tons; 78,191 metric tons) was fine particle (less than 0.0625 millimeter in diameter) suspended sediment. The seasonality of this site is apparent when you divide the year into "wet" (October 16– April 15) and "dry" (April 16–October 15) seasons. Most (97 percent) of the annual suspended sediment was transported during the wet season, when brief periods of intense precipitation from storms, large releases from the Howard Hanson Dam, or a combination of both were much more frequent.

  1. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B L; Albeke, S E; Bergman, H L; Walters, A; Ben-David, M

    2015-11-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture-recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45-2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  3. Synergizing green and gray infrastructures to increase water supply resilience in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Finley, T.; Bohn, T. J.; Low, G.; Sabo, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water infrastructure lies at the heart of the challenges and opportunities of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). Green infrastructure (e.g., wetlands restoration) presents an alternative to its hard-path counterpart - gray infrastructure, which often has external, economic and unmeasured ecological costs. But the science framework to prioritize green infrastructure buildout is nascent. In this study, we addressed this gap in Brazos River basin in Texas, in the context of corporate decisions to secure water supplies for various water stewardship objectives. We developed a physically-based tool to quantify the potential for wetland restoration to restore desired flows (hydrology), and a financial framework for comparing its cost-benefit with heightening an existing dam (conservation finance). Our framework has three components. First, we harnessed a topographic index (HAND) to identify the potential wetlands sites. Second, we coupled a land surface model (VIC) with a hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood) to investigate the effects of wetland size, location, and vegetation on hydrology. Finally, we estimated the net present value, indirect rate of return and payback period for green (wetlands) vs. gray (reservoir expansion) infrastructure. We found wetlands have more substantial impact on peak flow than baseflow. Interestingly, wetlands can improve baseflow reliability but not directly except with the largest (>400 km2) projects. Peak flow reduction volumes of wetlands if used as credits towards reservoir flood-control storage provide adequate conservation storage to deliver guaranteed reliability of baseflow. Hence, the synergy of existing dams with newly created wetlands offers a promising natural solution to increase water supply resilience, while green projects also generate revenue compared to their gray counterparts. This study demonstrates the possibility of using innovative engineering design to synergize green and gray infrastructures to convert water

  4. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  5. Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila

    2017-12-01

    The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. A new seed fossil genus and species, Passifloroidesperma sogamosense gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that P. sogamosense is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  7. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  8. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  9. Data compilation for assessing sediment and toxic chemical loads from the Green River to the lower Duwamish Waterway, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Between February and June 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey collected representative samples of whole water, suspended sediment, and (or) bed sediment from a single strategically located site on the Duwamish River, Washington, during seven periods of different flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other semivolatile compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclors and the 209 congeners, metals, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, butyltins, hexavalent chromium, and total organic carbon. Chemical concentrations associated with bulk bed sediment (chemical concentrations associated with suspended sediment. Bulk bed sediment concentrations generally were lower than fine bed sediment and suspended-sediment concentrations. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, additional parameters were measured, including instantaneous river discharge, suspended-sediment concentration, sediment particle-size distribution, and general water-quality parameters. From these data, estimates of instantaneous sediment and chemical loads from the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway were calculated.

  10. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i1.4 Adoption of Green River Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i1.4. Adoption of Green River Project Fish Farming Technologies by Farmers in Niger ... production and standard of living of beneficiary fish farmers. However, despite the ..... do not fulfil their promises with regards to time of visitation (0.881), consumers' preference for wild fish to cultured fish ...

  11. Mapping river bathymetry with a small footprint green LiDAR: Applications and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Legleiter, Carl; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne bathymetric Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems designed for coastal and marine surveys are increasingly sought after for high-resolution mapping of fluvial systems. To evaluate the potential utility of bathymetric LiDAR for applications of this kind, we compared detailed surveys collected using wading and sonar techniques with measurements from the United States Geological Survey’s hybrid topographic⁄ bathymetric Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). These comparisons, based upon data collected from the Trinity and Klamath Rivers, California, and the Colorado River, Colorado, demonstrated

  12. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Township 8 North (T.8N.), Range 9 West (R.9W.) intersects River Road. (1) From the beginning point, the... Bodega Road, until Bodega Road intersects with Pleasant Hill Road; (5) Thence in a southerly direction on Pleasant Hill Road until it intersects with Water Trough Road; (6) Thence westerly and then northwesterly...

  13. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  14. Hinterland drainage closure and lake formation in response to middle Eocene Farallon slab removal, Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Cassel, Elizabeth J.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Canada, Andrew S.

    2017-12-01

    Hinterland basins can accumulate high resolution archives of orogenic processes and continental climate, but are challenging to reconstruct due to tectonic overprinting and the inherent complexity of their lithofacies assemblages. The Cordilleran hinterland of northeast Nevada has been interpreted to have overlain a flattened Farallon slab from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. Slab removal and advection of asthenospheric mantle beneath Nevada have been invoked to explain a southwestward migrating wave of Eocene to Oligocene volcanism and proposed as a driver for topographic uplift. However, the timing of slab removal and possible subsequent delamination of North American lithospheric mantle can only ambiguously be related to the surface record. Subsequent Neogene extension and basin filling has complicated the correlation and interpretation of strata that record these events. Here we apply single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to 26 ash beds in northeast Nevada to reconstruct Paleogene geographic and hydrologic evolution. We use these ages and legacy geochronology to compare lithofacies and isotope proxy records of meteoric waters to regional tectonics and global climate, and assess competing tectonic interpretations for lake basin formation. Lakes formed locally prior to ca. 48.7 Ma in northeast Nevada, coeval with foreland lakes of the Green River Formation. The most expansive phase of lacustrine deposition resulted in onlap onto locally derived fluvial deposits and folded Paleozoic bedrock, and occurred between ca. 43.4 and ca. 40.8 Ma. Elko Formation strata exhibit a basin-wide transition from fluvial-lacustrine to fluctuating profundal lithofacies at ca. 42.7 Ma, suggesting a shift towards regional hydrologic closure. The stromatolitic upper Elko Formation is intercalated with ash fall tuffs and several partially welded to unwelded ignimbrites from increasingly proximal volcanism. Elko Formation deposition ended by ca. 40.4 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar ages for seven

  15. Profundal sideritic mudstone from an Eocene lake in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual iron-meromictic Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Upper Cretaceous Darby pluton and on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. The lake sediments included a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital grains, mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidites. The lacustrine rocks graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake occupied a small, deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixis was apparently stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixis decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the dissolved iron in the monoimolimnion was probably the Eocene basalt. Carbon isotope analysis of the siderite suggests that the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (δ 13 C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbonate formed during methanogenic fermentation

  16. First known feeding trace of the eocene bottom-dwelling fish Notogoneus osculus and its paleontological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anthony J; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Page, Michael

    2010-05-05

    The Green River Formation (early Eocene, about 42-53 Ma) at and near Fossil Butte National Monument in Wyoming, USA, is world famous for its exquisitely preserved freshwater teleost fish in the former Fossil Lake. Nonetheless, trace fossils attributed to fish interacting with the lake bottom are apparently rare, and have not been associated directly with any fish species. Here we interpret the first known feeding and swimming trace fossil of the teleost Notogoneus osculus Cope (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae), which is also represented as a body fossil in the same stratum. A standard description of the trace fossil, identified as Undichna cf. U. simplicatas, was augmented by high-resolution digital images and spatial and mathematical analyses, which allowed for detailed interpretations of the anatomy, swimming mode, feeding behavior, and body size of the tracemaker. Our analysis indicates that the tracemaker was about 45 cm long; used its caudal, anal, and pelvic fins (the posterior half of its body) to make the swimming traces; and used a ventrally oriented mouth to make overlapping feeding marks. We hypothesize that the tracemaker was an adult Notogoneus osculus. Our results are the first to link a specific teleost tracemaker with a trace fossil from the Green River Formation, while also interpreting the size and relative age of the tracemaker. The normal feeding and swimming behaviors indicated by the trace fossil indicate temporarily oxygenated benthic conditions in the deepest part of Fossil Lake, counter to most paleoecological interpretations of this deposit. Lastly, our spatial and mathematical analyses significantly update and advance previous approaches to the study of teleost trace fossils.

  17. First known feeding trace of the eocene bottom-dwelling fish Notogoneus osculus and its paleontological significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Green River Formation (early Eocene, about 42-53 Ma at and near Fossil Butte National Monument in Wyoming, USA, is world famous for its exquisitely preserved freshwater teleost fish in the former Fossil Lake. Nonetheless, trace fossils attributed to fish interacting with the lake bottom are apparently rare, and have not been associated directly with any fish species. Here we interpret the first known feeding and swimming trace fossil of the teleost Notogoneus osculus Cope (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae, which is also represented as a body fossil in the same stratum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A standard description of the trace fossil, identified as Undichna cf. U. simplicatas, was augmented by high-resolution digital images and spatial and mathematical analyses, which allowed for detailed interpretations of the anatomy, swimming mode, feeding behavior, and body size of the tracemaker. Our analysis indicates that the tracemaker was about 45 cm long; used its caudal, anal, and pelvic fins (the posterior half of its body to make the swimming traces; and used a ventrally oriented mouth to make overlapping feeding marks. We hypothesize that the tracemaker was an adult Notogoneus osculus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are the first to link a specific teleost tracemaker with a trace fossil from the Green River Formation, while also interpreting the size and relative age of the tracemaker. The normal feeding and swimming behaviors indicated by the trace fossil indicate temporarily oxygenated benthic conditions in the deepest part of Fossil Lake, counter to most paleoecological interpretations of this deposit. Lastly, our spatial and mathematical analyses significantly update and advance previous approaches to the study of teleost trace fossils.

  18. Modifications to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Modifications to the water resources protection strategy detailed in the remedial action plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site are presented. The modifications are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The modifications will result in compliance with the U.S. EPA proposed ground water standards (52 FR 36000 (1987))

  19. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  20. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation

  1. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  2. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  3. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on the fishes of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Aerial videography and modeling were used to evaluate the impacts of four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, on trout and native fishes in the Green River, Utah and Colorado. The four operational scenarios studied were year-round high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. Impacts on trout were evaluated by examining differences among scenarios in the areas of inundated substrates that serve as spawning and feeding habitat. All scenarios would provide at least 23 acres per mile of habitat for spawning and food production; seasonally adjusted operations would provide additional areas during periods of sustained high release. Seasonally adjusted high fluctuations would increase inundated areas by 12 to 26% for a short period in winter and spring, but food production and reproduction would not be expected to increase. Seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations and steady flows would produce similar increases in area, but the longer period of inundation could also result in increased food production and provide additional spawning sites for trout. Impacts on native fishes were assessed by examining daily changes in backwater nursery areas. Compared with year-round high fluctuations, the daily changes in backwater area would decrease by about 47, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. Similarly, daily stage fluctuations during the nursery period would decrease by 72, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. These reductions in daily fluctuations in backwater area and stage would improve conditions in nursery habitats and could in turn improve recruitment and overwinter survival. Introduced fish species could also benefit from the seasonally adjusted operational scenarios.

  4. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  5. Simulation of the reduction of runoff and sediment load resulting from the Gain for Green Program in the Jialingjiang catchment, upper region of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Seiji; Murakami, Shogo; Xu, Kai-Qin; Watanabe, Masataka

    2015-02-01

    A distributed catchment hydrologic model (Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN; HSPF) with improved sediment production processes was used to evaluate the effect of restoration of cultivated land to forest on the reduction of runoff and sediment load in the Jialingjiang basin, which forms part of the Yangtze River basin, China. The simulation results showed that restoration to forest reduced sediment production even in the case of minimum restoration at a threshold catchment slope of 25°, as advocated in the "Gain for Green Program " planned by the Chinese government, even though reduction of the peak flow rate in the river channel was small. The increase in forest area resulting from lowering of the threshold catchment slope reduced sediment production further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

  7. Application Of A Dynamic Model to Assess Geomorphic and Hydrologic Controls on Age-0 Colorado Pikeminnow Distribution in the Green River, Colorado And Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of field data and development and application of a dynamic model indicate that water releases from Flaming Gorge Dam have a large potential effect on larval drift and distribution of age-0 Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the middle Green River. The model predicts that high releases at the time of drift greatly increase the proportion of the population transported beyond the study area to unfavorable river environments. The model also predicts that channel simplification caused by flow regulation results in a more even longitudinal distribution of larval fish habitat. Colorado pikeminnow are a federally endangered species endemic to the Colorado River basin that utilize backwaters during their larval stage. The present agency-mandated field-sampling program for backwater habitats is probably inadequate, because it takes place at a time when the model predicts that most larval fish have drifted beyond the study area. Development of the model shows that the role of the geomorphic and hydraulic attributes that control larval drift and transport into backwaters, and that were parameterized in the model, are not well known.

  8. Knowledge, Norms and Preferences for Tamarisk Management in the Green and Colorado River Corridors of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, E. Clay

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research exists regarding invasive alien plant species including impacts to native ecosystems and efficacy of control methods on public lands and river corridors. Many studies have identified the need for more research regarding the social implications of invasive alien species management. More specifically, additional research is needed regarding the impacts of invasive alien plant management on the Colorado Plateau to river-based recreation experiences. It is important for public ...

  9. Chemical quality and temperature of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, and the effect of the reservoir on the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolke, E.L.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1975-01-01

    The major tributaries to Flaming Gorge Reservoir contribute an average of about 97 percent of the total streamflow and 82 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The Green River is the largest tributary, and for the 1957-72 water years it contributed 81 percent of the total streamflow and 70 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The principal constituents in the tributary streamflow are calcium and sulfate during periods of lowest flow and calcium and bicarbonate during periods of highest flow.Flaming Gorge Dam was closed in November 1962, and the most significant load changes of chemical constituents due to the net effect of inflow, outflow, leaching, and chemical precipitation in the reservoir have been load changes of sulfate and bicarbonate. The average increase of dissolved load of sulfate in the reservoir for the 1969-72 water years was 110,000 tons (99,790 t) per year, which was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year less than for the 1963-66 water years. The average decrease of dissolved load of bicarbonate in the reservoir for 1969-72 was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year, which was the same as the decrease for 1963-66.Anaerobic conditions were observed in the deep, uncirculated part of the reservoir near the dam during the 1971 and 1972 water years, and anaerobic or near-anaerobic conditions were observed near the confluence of the Blacks Fork and Green River during the summers of 1971 and 1972.The water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir is in three distinct layers, and the upper two layers (the epilimnion and the metalimnion) mixed twice during each of the 1971-72 water years. The two circulation periods were in the spring and fall. The water in the deepest layer (the hypolimnion) did not mix with the waters of the upper zones because the density difference was too great and because the deep, narrow shape of the basin probably inhibits mixing.The depletion of flow in the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam between closure of the dam and the end

  10. Strong Equatorial Seasonality during Early Eocene greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arpita; Sarkar, Anindya

    2017-04-01

    A warm greenhouse climate, punctuated by a series of rapid warming events (known as hyperthermals), is characteristic of the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene period. Rapid addition of 13C depleted carbon to the exogenic carbon cycle, in an otherwise overall higher atmospheric CO2 level, is thought to set off the hyperthermal events. For understanding the fate of ongoing global warming and response of the climate system and biota, researchers for past few decades are paying more attention to comprehend this climatic enigma. Existing proxies from the most distinct hyperthermal event i.e., PETM indicate that the mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) was comparatively higher (by ˜8 ˚ C) at high latitude and to a lesser extent towards the equator. Apart from the prominent hyperthermal events the rest of the Early Eocene was significantly warmer and thought to be more equable compare to present. Terrestrial proxy records from the mid-latitude regions indicated that the Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Minimum Winter Temperature (MWT) was high, thus reducing the seasonality or difference between MWT and Maximum Summer Temperature (MST). In absence of proxy data from the low latitude region, a ≥40 ˚ C summer temperature was predicted assuming a mild Eocene temperature gradient of ˜0.4 ˚ C/ ˚ latitude and mid-latitude temperature data. Even question was raised about the existence of the tropical rain forest in such climatic extreme. Recent pollen census data, on contrary, suggest proliferation of the tropical rain forest during this climatic extreme. Important in this context is that there is a very few direct evidence of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene MAT and seasonality data from the low latitude/equatorial regions. To resolve this issue, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of larger benthic foraminifera (Nummulites burdigalensis) were measured in laser based carbonate device attached with the Delta V advantage continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer

  11. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/124/06/1201-1221. Keywords. Mammalia; Rodentia; Chapattimyidae; Eocene; Subathu Formation; India. Abstract. Based on isolated upper cheek teeth, two new early Eocene rodents (Subathumys solanorius gen. et sp. nov. and Subathumys globulus gen. et sp. nov.) ...

  12. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which...

  13. Analysis of the urban green areas of Nicosia: the case study of Linear Park of Pedieos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Pavlos; Georgi, Julia

    2017-09-01

    At present, the need for creating outdoor green areas is unquestionable. Their value is shown through their use for recreation, sports, cultural and socioeconomic purposes, the ecology and especially biodiversity, which has always been considered as one of the most important factors in recent years, as well as in the future. With the creation of new parks and open green spaces, the legacy will be continued for the next generations, with designs that will be pleasantly utilized through the years. In the first part of this study, we examined the way the largest urban green spaces in Nicosia affect and contribute to the lifestyle of the inhabitants of the city, as well as the reasons why the citizens of Cyprus embraced urban parks in their everyday life, making them so popular. The present paper, therefore, analyses both the effect and the changes in the urban structure while urban green spaces in the city of Nicosia are being created, as well as which areas are affected, how they are affected and to what extent. We have conducted a field-based survey, providing the urban parks' visitors with questionnaires. This enabled us to draw a wealth of essential conclusions concerning the visitors' preferences. We have also listed both the positive and negative impacts of urban green spaces on both the economic and urban design sectors, as well as on Cypriots' recreation time. The green areas of Nicosia, along with their detailed analysis, are extensively presented in this study. Moreover, in the second part of this study, the G.I.S program was used to create a space presentation of the urban linear park of Pedieos, where the area was mapped and the positive and negative elements of the park were analysed. In this part, ways to address the emerging issues are also proposed.

  14. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Main Glauconite Bed in the Middle Eocene of Texas: Paleoenvironmental Implications for the Verdine Facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Sherie C.; Nash, Barbara P.; Petersen, Erich U.; Ekdale, A. A.; Bradbury, Christopher D.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2014-01-01

    The Main Glauconite Bed (MGB) is a pelleted greensand located at Stone City Bluff on the south bank of the Brazos River in Burleson County, Texas. It was deposited during the Middle Eocene regional transgression on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Stratigraphically it lies in the upper Stone City Member, Crockett Formation, Claiborne Group. Its mineralogy and geochemistry were examined in detail, and verdine facies minerals, predominantly odinite, were identified. Few glauconitic minerals were found in the green pelleted sediments of the MGB. Without detailed mineralogical work, glaucony facies minerals and verdine facies minerals are easily mistaken for one another. Their distinction has value in assessing paleoenvironments. In this study, several analytical techniques were employed to assess the mineralogy. X-ray diffraction of oriented and un-oriented clay samples indicated a clay mixture dominated by 7 and 14Å diffraction peaks. Unit cell calculations from XRD data for MGB pellets match the odinite-1M data base. Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) from the average of 31 data points from clay pellets accompanied with Mössbauer analyses were used to calculate the structural formula which is that of odinite: Fe3+ 0.89 Mg0.45 Al0.67 Fe2+ 0.30 Ti0.01 Mn0.01) Σ = 2.33 (Si1.77 Al0.23) O5.00 (OH)4.00. QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) data provided mineral maps of quantitative proportions of the constituent clays. The verdine facies is a clay mineral facies associated with shallow marine shelf and lagoonal environments at tropical latitudes with iron influx from nearby runoff. Its depositional environment is well documented in modern nearshore locations. Recognition of verdine facies clays as the dominant constituent of the MGB clay pellets, rather than glaucony facies clays, allows for a more precise assessment of paleoenvironmental conditions. PMID:24503875

  15. Flashy Water and Sediment Delivery to Fluvial Megafan andFan Delta Systems on Opposing Shorelines of an Early Eocene Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.

    2015-12-01

    Flashy delivery of water and sediment had distinct effects on the process of deposition in coeval fluvial megafan and fan delta deposits on opposing shorelines of a paleolake that occupied the Uinta Basin throughout the Eocene. The Tertiary Uinta Basin was an asymmetric continental interior basin with a steep northern margin, adjacent to the block uplift controlling basin subsidence, and a low gradient southern margin. A ~140 km wide fluvial megafan with catchments as far as ~750 km away occupied the southern margin of the lacustrine basin. Within this megafan system, fluvial deposits contain within-channel continental bioturbation and paleosol development on bar accretion surfaces that are evidence of prolonged periods of groundwater flow or channel abandonment. These are punctuated by channel fills exhibiting a suite of both high-deposition rate and upper flow regime sedimentary structures that were deposited by very rapid suspension-fallout during seasonal to episodic river flooding events. A series of small (~8 km wide) and proximally sourced fan deltas fed sediment into the steeper northern margin of the lacustrine basin. 35-50% of the deposits in the delta plain environment of these fan deltas are very sandy debris flows with as low as 5% clay and silt sized material. Detrital zircon geochronology shows that these fan deltas were tapping catchments where mostly unconsolidated Cretaceous sedimentary cover and thick Jurassic eolianites were being eroded. A combination of flashy precipitation, arid climate, catchments mantled by abundant loose sand-sized colluvium, and steep depositional gradients promoted generation of abundant very sandy (5-10% clay and silt sized material) debris flows. In this way, the Wasatch and Green River Formations in the Uinta Basin, Utah, U.S.A. gives us two very different examples of how routing flashy water and sediment delivery (associated with pulses of hyperthermal climate change during the Early Eocene) through different

  16. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  17. Chemical concentrations and instantaneous loads, Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Sissel, Stephen K.

    2015-12-23

    In November 2013, U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging equipment was installed at a historical water-quality station on the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (U.S. Geological Survey site 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). Publicly available, real-time continuous data includes river streamflow, stream velocity, and turbidity. Between November 2013 and March 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected representative samples of water, suspended sediment, or bed sediment from the streamgaging station during 28 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, butytins, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclors and the 209 PCB congeners, volatile organic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Metals, PCB congeners, and dioxins/furans were frequently detected in unfiltered-water samples, and concentrations typically increased with increasing suspended-sediment concentrations. Chemical concentrations in suspendedsediment samples were variable between sampling periods. The highest concentrations of many chemicals in suspended sediment were measured during summer and early autumn storm periods.

  18. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Bourdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene flu-vio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corresponds to the middle Ypresian, early Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird Gastornis parisiensis (Gastornithidae. These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the late Paleocene to middle Eocene of Europe, early Eocene of Asia and early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis giganteus in several features, including the more ventral position of the narial openings and the slender orbital process of quadrate. Two tibiotarsi and one tarsometatarsus are assigned to a new genus and species of Geranoididae, Galligeranoides boriensis gen. et sp. nov. So far, this family was known only from the early and middle Eocene of North America. The fossils from La Borie constitute the first record of the Geranoididae in Europe. We show that Gastornis coexisted with the Geranoididae in the early Eocene of both Europe (La Borie and North America (Willwood Formation. The presence of Geranoididae and the large flightless bird Gastornis on either side of the present-day North Atlantic provides further evidence that a high-latitude land connection existed between Europe and North America in the early Eocene.

  19. Integrated stratigraphy of a shallow marine Paleocene-Eocene boundary section, MCBR cores, Maryland (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, J. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Powars, D. S.; Wandless, G. A.; Willard, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    An exceptional Paleocene-Eocene boundary section occurs in a cluster of six short (Paleocene Aquia Formation and silty clay of the lower Eocene Marlboro Clay. Sediment samples were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes, percent calcium carbonate, calcareous nannofossils, planktic and benthic foraminifera, dinoflagellates, pollen, and lithology. A well-defined carbon isotope excursion (CIE) documents a gradual negative shift in δ13C values that starts below the lithologic break between the Aquia Formation and the Marlboro Clay. A benthic foraminifer extinction event, reduction of calcareous nannofossil assemblages, and change in core color from gray to alternating gray and pink also occurs within the CIE transition. These alternating changes in color coincide with cyclic peaks in the carbon isotope and percent calcium carbonate curves, where gray color corresponds to a positive shift in carbon isotope values and to a corresponding increase in percent benthic and planktic foraminifera. The upper third of the Marlboro Clay is barren of all calcareous microfossil material, although the presence of foraminiferal molds and linings proves that deposition occurred in a marine environment. Co-occurrence of the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum and Phthanoperidinium crenulatum at the top of the Marlboro Clay suggests that the Marlboro Clay at Mattawoman Creek is truncated. This is corroborated by the absence in the Marlboro of specimens of the calcareous nannofossil Rhomboaster-Discoaster assemblage, which is restricted to early Eocene Zone NP9b. Based on planktic/benthic foraminifera ratios, deposition of sediments at Mattawoman Creek occurred predominantly in an inner neritic environment, at water depths between 25-50 m. Occasional deepening to approximately 75m (middle neritic environment) occurred in the early Eocene, as represented by the basal Marlboro Clay. The planktic/benthic ratio, however, could also be affected by surface productivity and/or river runoff

  20. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen; D’haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P.; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  1. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused, or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Studies at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge indicated that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue were sufficiently large to be harmful to fish and wildlife, and to adversely affect beneficial uses of water. Selenium is the principal element of concern in both areas. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in irrigation drain water entering Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area ranged from 14-140 micrograms/L (ug/L) and consistently exceeded Utah standards for wildlife protection in water in two of the four drains. Concentrations of boron and zinc exceeded Utah standards only occasionally in the drain waters. Concentrations of total selenium in sediments collected where the drains discharge into the lake were 10-85 ug/gm. Liver tissue collected from American coots at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area contained concentrations of selenium from 4.9-26 ug/gm (dry weight), and whole body samples of carp contained as much as 31 ug/gm (dry weight). Concentrations of selenium in Potamogeton and blue-green algae ranged from 2.1-27 ug/gm. Concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc were also measured in water from Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Liver tissue of American coots from the North Roadside Pond, which receives irrigation tailwater, contained a geometric-mean concentration of selenium of 32 ug/gm (dry weight). Five water-bird eggs collected from the North and South Roadside Ponds contained selenium concentrations of 63-120 ug/gm (dry weight). (Lantz-PTT)

  2. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of freshwater green algae, Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa, from Nan River in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawut Chulalaksananukul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic solvent and hot water extracts of freshwater macroalgae, Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa, harvested from Nan River in northern Thailand were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activities using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition of proliferation of the KB human oral cancer cell lines respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of C. glomerata showed the highest total phenol content (18.1±2.3 mg GAE/g, radical scavenging activity (49.8±2.7% DPPH scavenging at 100 g/ml and in vitro growth inhibition (IC50=1420.0±66 g/g of the KB cell lines. These results indicate that C. glomerata could be a source of valuable bioactive materials.

  3. Oceanographic data collected from Marsh Island (USCG day mark green 21) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2001-09-17 to 2006-10-12 (NCEI Accession 0162177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162177 contains navigational and physical data collected at Marsh Island (USCG day mark green 21), a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  4. In-place oil shale resources of the Mahogany zone sorted by grade, overburden thickness and stripping ratio, Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado and Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    A range of geological parameters relevant to mining oil shale have been examined for the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, and Uinta Basin, Utah, using information available in the U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment database. Basinwide discrete and cumulative distributions of resource in-place as a function of (1) oil shale grade, (2) Mahogany zone thickness, (3) overburden thickness, and (4) stripping ratio (overburden divided by zone thickness) were determined for both basins on a per-acre basis, and a resource map showing the areal distribution of these properties was generated. Estimates of how much of the Mahogany zone resource meets various combinations of these parameters were also determined. Of the 191.7 billion barrels of Mahogany zone oil in-place in the Piceance Basin, 32.3 percent (61.8 billion barrels) is associated with oil shale yielding at least 25 gallons of oil per ton (GPT) of rock processed, is covered by overburden 1,000 feet thick or less, and has a stripping ratio of less than 10. In the Uinta Basin, 14.0 percent (29.9 billion barrels) of the 214.5 billion barrels of Mahogany zone oil in-place meets the same overburden and stripping ratio criteria but only for the lower grade cutoff of 15 GPT.

  5. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Middle Green River basin, Utah 1988-89, with selected data for 1982-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Lorri A.; Waddell, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in the middle Green River basin, eastern Utah, between 1988 and 1989, as part of a detailed study of the effects of irrigation drainage on wetland areas. Data-collection efforts were concentrated in the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area near Jensen, and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge near Ouray. Data also were collected from Ashley Creek near Vernal, Pelican Lake near Ouray, and in Pariette Wetlands near Myton. A limited quantity of data collected during earlier studies (1982-87), funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, also is included. This report contains data needed to assess the effects of selenium and other potentially toxic contaminants on streams and wetlands. Data consist of concentrations of trace elements and common elements in samples of water, sediment, plants, waterfowl, birds, fish, and invertebrates. Other data presented in the report are ground-water levels, surface-water discharges, radiochemical constituents in water, analyses of organochlorine compounds in biota, and morphonetric measurements of biota.

  6. Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

  7. Geological evolution of Eocene Aǧrı Basin (Eastern Anatolia-Turkey): Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat Demirkaya, Demirkan; Aksoy, Necmettin; Üner, Serkan

    2017-04-01

    Continental collision zones are sites of intense crustal deformation resulting in different geological processes such as crustal thickening, regional contraction, and volcanic activity. The East Anatolian Plateau emerges from the compression and following collision between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Numerous basins were formed by this compressional tectonism, including the Pasinler, Muş, and Lake Van basins. The E-W trending Aǧrı Basin is located at north of the collision zone formed by compressional tectonism in Eocene and shaped by the volcanism that was active since Miocene. The basins fill initiates with Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene shallow marine deposits composing of reefal limestones, mudstones, and sandstones. Ongoing compressional regime and related regional uplift caused regression and latter transition from shallow marine to terrestrial environments in Middle Miocene took place. Marine units are unconformably overlain by Upper Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits. The Quaternary sedimentation is represented by alluvial fan deposits derived from the northern margin of the basin and young fluvial sediments. Volcanic and volcanoclastic products are frequently observed in Miocene to Recent basin deposits. Currently, E-W trending thrust faults, forming the Aǧrı Basin, continue to control the shape and depositional processes of the basin. Deformation of alluvial fans and channel shifting of the Murat and Seryan rivers which longitudinally passing the basin are the prominent geomorphological indicators of this tectonic activity.

  8. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea in early Eocene Cambay amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina. Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  9. Skull osteology of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium (Reptilia, Squamata) suggests convergent evolution and reversals of fossorial adaptations in worm lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Maisano, Jessica A

    2016-11-01

    The fossorial amphisbaenians, or worm lizards, are characterized by a suite of specialized characters in the skull and postcranium, however fossil evidence suggests that at least some of these shared derived traits evolved convergently. Unfortunately the lack of detailed knowledge of many fossil taxa has rendered a more precise interpretation difficult. Here we describe the cranial anatomy of the oldest-known well-preserved amphisbaenian, Spathorhynchus fossorium, from the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming, USA, using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT). This taxon possesses one of the most strongly reinforced crania known among amphisbaenians, with many dermal bones overlapping each other internally. In contrast to modern taxa, S. fossorium has a paired orbitosphenoid, lacks a true compound bone in the mandible, and possesses a fully enclosed orbital rim. The last feature represents a highly derived structure in that the jugal establishes contact with the frontal internally, reinforcing the posterior orbital margin. S. fossorium also possesses a strongly modified Vidian canal with a previously unknown connection to the ventral surface of the parabasisphenoid. Comparison with the closely related fossil taxon Dyticonastis rensbergeri reveals that these derived traits are also shared by the latter species and potentially represent synapopmorphies of an extinct Paleogene clade of amphisbaenians. The presence of a reinforced orbital rim suggests selection against the loss of a functional eye and indicates an ecology potentially different from modern taxa. Given the currently accepted phylogenetic position of Spathorhynchus and Dyticonastis, we predict that supposedly 'unique' cranial traits traditionally linked to fossoriality such as a fused orbitosphenoid and the reduction of the eye show a more complex character history than previously assumed, including both parallel evolution and reversals to superficially primitive conditions. © 2016

  10. Large amplitude variations in carbon cycling and terrestrial weathering during the latest Paleocene and earliest Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Nicolo, M.J.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Strong, C.P.; Zachos, J.C.; Sluijs, A.; Lourens, L.; Lauretano, V.

    2011-01-01

    Global temperatures rose ~6°C from the late Paleocene ca. 58 Ma to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) ca. 52–50 Ma. Superimposed, were certainly two geologically brief (< 200 kyr) intervals of extreme warming, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and Eocene thermal maximum 2 (ETM-2

  11. A diverse Eocene fish scale assemblage from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Vodrážka, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 895-908 ISSN 1280-9659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Teleostei * scales * lepidology * Eocene * La Meseta Formation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2012

  12. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India. 1. Introduction ... family (Dutta et al. 2009, 2011b). These are also known as dammar resins and have been classified as Class II resins (Anderson et al. 1992; Dutta et al. 2009). These have been reported ...

  13. Multiple states in the late Eocene ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.J. Baatsen; A.S. von der Heydt; M. Kliphuis; J.P. Viebahn (Jan); H.A. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) marks a major step within the Cenozoic climate in going from a greenhouse into an icehouse state, with the formation of a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet. The roles of steadily decreasing CO2 concentrations versus changes in ocean

  14. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  15. Late Paleocene–early Eocene carbon isotope stratigraphy from a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) witnessed a series of short-lived hyperthermal events (Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), H1/ETM2/ELMO, H2, I1, and I2), superimposed on the long-term global warming trend (Cramer et al. 2003; Nicolo et al. 2007; Zachos et al.

  16. Maastrichtian Paleocene and Eocene pollen and spores from Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeken-Klinkenberg, van P.M.J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to continue the investigation of the Nigerian Maastrichtian pollenflora (van Hoeken-Klinkenberg, 1964) with Lower Tertiary material, a study has been made of some boreholesamples of the Maastrichtian, Paleocene and Eocene in Nigeria. A comparison is made with the South American pollen and

  17. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  18. Towards a robust and consistent middle Eocene astronomical timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Laskar, Jacques; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pälike, Heiko; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Until now, the middle Eocene has remained a poorly constrained interval of efforts to produce an astrochronological timescale for the entire Cenozoic. This has given rise to a so-called "Eocene astronomical timescale gap" (Vandenberghe et al., 2012). A high-resolution astrochronological calibration for this interval has proven to be difficult to realize, mainly because carbonate-rich deep-marine sequences of this age are scarce. In this paper, we present records from middle Eocene carbonate-rich sequences from the North Atlantic Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (IODP Exp. 342, Sites U1408 and U1410), of which the cyclical sedimentary patterns allow for an orbital calibration of the geologic timescale between ∼38 and ∼48 Ma. These carbonate-rich cyclic sediments at Sites U1408 and U1410 were deposited as drift deposits and exhibit prominent lithological alternations (couplets) between greenish nannofossil-rich clay and white nannofossil ooze. The principal lithological couplet is driven by the obliquity of Earth's axial tilt, and the intensity of their expression is modulated by a cyclicity of about 173 kyr. This cyclicity corresponds to the interference of secular frequencies s3 and s6 (related to the precession of nodes of the Earth and Saturn, respectively). This 173-kyr obliquity amplitude modulation cycle is exceptionally well recorded in the XRF (X-ray fluorescence)-derived Ca/Fe ratio. In this work, we first demonstrate the stability of the (s3-s6) cycles using the latest astronomical solutions. Results show that this orbital component is stable back to at least 50 Ma, and can thus serve as a powerful geochronometer in the mid-Eocene portion of the Cenozoic timescale. We then exploit this potential by calibrating the geochronology of the recovered middle Eocene timescale between magnetic polarity Chrons C18n.1n and C21n. Comparison with previous timescales shows similarities, but also notable differences in durations of certain magnetic polarity chrons. We

  19. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At

  20. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At the

  1. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K; Bendle, James A P; Bohaty, Steven M; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E; McKay, Robert M; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-06-11

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52-50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ~49-50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2-4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling.

  2. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.

    2009-12-01

    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  3. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Bendle, James A. P.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E.; McKay, Robert M.; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk; Klaus, Adam; Fehr, Annick; Williams, Trevor; Carr, Stephanie A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Gonzàlez, Jhon J.; Hayden, Travis G.; Iwai, Masao; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Katsuki, Kota; Kong, Gee Soo; Nakai, Mutsumi; Passchier, Sandra; Pekar, Stephen F.; Riesselman, Christina; Sakai, Toyosaburo; Shrivastava, Prakash K.; Sugisaki, Saiko; Tuo, Shouting; van de Flierdt, Tina; Welsh, Kevin; Yamane, Masako

    2013-01-01

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52–50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ∼49–50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2–4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling. PMID:23720311

  4. Preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and to obtain a broad overview of the physical and economic factors which would have an effect on the suitability of the oil shale formations for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. These physical and economic factors are discussed in sections on magnitude of the oil shales, waste disposal relations with oil mining, cavities requirements, hydrological aspects, and study requirements

  5. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  6. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  7. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  8. An occurrence of the protocetid whale "Eocetus" wardii in the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, R.E.; Edwards, L.E.; Osborne, J.E.; Alford, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two protocetid whale vertebrae, here referred to “Eocetus” wardii, have been recovered from the riverbed of the Pamunkey River in east-central Virginia. Neither bone was found in situ, but both were found with lumps of lithified matrix cemented to their surfaces. Most of this matrix was removed and processed for microfossils. Specimens of dinoflagellates were successfully recovered and this flora clearly demonstrates that both vertebrae came from the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation, which crops out above and below river level in the area where the bones were discovered. These vertebrae are the oldest whale remains reported from Virginia and are as old as any cetacean remains known from the western hemisphere.

  9. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  10. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  11. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  12. Eocene Hyperthermal Climate Sensitivity to Greenhouse Gas and Aerosol Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winguth, A. M. E.; Hughlett, T. M.; Brown, M.; Rothstein, M.; Shields, C. A.; Winguth, C.

    2017-12-01

    A series of DeepMIP climate sensitivity experiments have been carried out with the Community Earth System Model CESM1.2 to evaluate how changes in the radiative forcing could have contributed to explain Eocene hyperthermal events. A rise in Eocene greenhouse gas forcing could have been linked to an increase in volcanism and associated destabilization of marine carbon reservoirs by dissociation of clathrathes, reorganization of the marine microbial loop, or terrestrial sources from e.g. wetlands. Such environmental changes could potentially have led to additional biophysical feedbacks altering the cloud aerosol optical depth for example by alteration of marine plankton productivity and DMS emissions to the atmosphere. The analysis of our simulations suggests a substantial warming from 3x to 12x CO2 PAL, reaching moderate temperatures of up to 20 °C over Antarctica and in the Article realm in the most extreme scenario, consistent to proxy estimates in a high CO2 world. The lower equator-to-pole temperature gradient compared to present-day is due to the lack of an ice sheet, an increase in greenhouse gases, and a lower cloud optical depth. The climate simulations suggest an intensified hydrological cycle with higher precipitation in the tropics, particularly over the Indian Eocene continent, and in mid-latitudes, whereas mega-droughts are prominent in the subtropics, particularly in Africa and South America. The Eocene geography (the closure of the Drake Passage and the more southern location of Australia) and a lower-than-present meridional temperature gradient contribute to a much weaker surface ocean circulation near the Antarctic continent as compared to the current pronounced Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  13. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Krayenhoff and Bass, 2003; Foster, Lowe and Winkelman, 2012; Gill, 2007).spell out all authors first time referenced Biophilic urbanism and green infrastructure Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson popularised the concept of biophilia, describing it as “the...

  14. Multiple states in the late Eocene ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, M. L. J.; von der Heydt, A. S.; Kliphuis, M.; Viebahn, J.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) marks a major step within the Cenozoic climate in going from a greenhouse into an icehouse state, with the formation of a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet. The roles of steadily decreasing CO2 concentrations versus changes in ocean circulation at the EOT are still debated and the threshold for Antarctic glaciation is obscured by uncertainties in global geometry. Here, a detailed study of the late Eocene ocean circulation is carried out using an ocean general circulation model under two slightly different geography reconstructions of the middle-to-late Eocene (38 Ma). Using the same atmospheric forcing, both geographies give a profoundly different equilibrium ocean circulation state. The underlying reason for this sensitivity is the presence of multiple equilibria characterised by either North or South Pacific deep water formation. A possible shift from a southern towards a northern overturning circulation would result in significant changes in the global heat distribution and consequently make the Southern Hemisphere climate more susceptible for significant cooling and ice sheet formation on Antarctica.

  15. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C García-R

    Full Text Available Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  16. The river research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available OF CONTENTS The Zones of a River Headwaters: the mountain stream The middle reaches The mature lover reaches The estuary CHAPTER 2. HYPOTEESES CONCERNING RIVER ECOSYSTFM The river continuum concept The nutrient sp i r a l l i ng hypothesis... banks. Algae and mosses are present only in small quantities because little light reaches them. Even where sunlight does reach the water, green plantt are still relatively rare because the water is very poor in nutrients. Phyto- and zooplanktonic...

  17. Modern Mammals dispersion linked to the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and early Eocene climatic optimum, new insights from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozyem, H. M.; Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Spangenberg, J.; Bajpai, S.; Samant, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.9Ma)) is globally related with the extinction of deep benthic foraminifera, the diversification of both planktic foraminifera and modern mammals. In India, the tempo and timing of modern mammal dispersion, their association with the PETM or EECO (Early Eocene Climatic Optimum) and the India-Asia collision remain uncertain. Four Indian sections (Giral, Bhavnagar, Vastan and Tadkeshware lignite mines) have been studied using sedimentology, micropaleontology, mineralogy (bulk and clay mineralogy) and geochemistry (stable isotopes, major and trace elements, organic matter). Both PETM and ETM2 (second Eocene Thermal Maximum, 53.7Ma), a short-lived warming episode that followed the PETM, are globally marked by a pronounced δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg negative excursion. Both isotopic excursions have been recognized in the Vastan and Tarkeswhar lignite mines (Cambay basin, Gujarat) associated with the main mammal bearing level. The lower shift is located above the first lignite seam and corresponds to the transition from continental to shallow marine conditions. The upper excursion appears to be linked to the ETM2 and corresponds to a second marine incursion containing bivalves, benthic (Nummulites burdigalensis) and planktic foraminifera located below the second lignite seam. A very pronounced δ13Corg peak has been detected in the Giral lignite mine (Barmer, Rajhastan) around 6m above the vertebrate bearing level and may correspond to the PETM. This correlation is confirmed by palynological data and more particularly by a dinoflagellate acme that globally characterizes the PETM interval. Our micropaleontological data combined with stable carbone isotopes indicate the presence of both PETM and ETM2 events and constrain the age of the early mammals in northwestern India in between these two thermal events in the early Eocene. These new data will significantly improve the ongoing debate on whether mammals originated in or out of

  18. Cretaceous-Eocene provenance connections between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Qiao, Peijun; Zhang, Xiangtao; Li, Qianyu; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2017-11-01

    The plate kinematic history of the South China Sea opening is key to reconstructing how the Mesozoic configuration of Panthalassa and Tethyan subduction systems evolved into today's complex Southeast Asian tectonic collage. The South China Sea is currently flanked by the Palawan Continental Terrane in the south and South China in the north and the two blocks have long been assumed to be conjugate margins. However, the paleogeographic history of the Palawan Continental Terrane remains an issue of uncertainty and controversy, especially regarding the questions of where and when it was separated from South China. Here we employ detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral analysis on Cretaceous and Eocene strata from the northern South China Sea and Palawan to constrain the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic provenance and paleogeographic evolution of the region testing possible connection between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin. In addition to a revision of the regional stratigraphic framework using the youngest zircon U-Pb ages, these analyses show that while the Upper Cretaceous strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are characterized by a dominance of zircon with crystallization ages clustering around the Cretaceous, the Eocene strata feature a large range of zircon ages and a new mineral group of rutile, anatase, and monazite. On the one hand, this change of sediment compositions seems to exclude the possibility of a latest Cretaceous drift of the Palawan Continental Terrane in response to the Proto-South China Sea opening as previously inferred. On the other hand, the zircon age signatures of the Cretaceous-Eocene strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are largely comparable to those of contemporary samples from the northeastern South China Sea region, suggesting a possible conjugate relationship between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin. Thus, the Palawan Continental

  19. Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile district in the YTU in Alaska and propose an exhumation model that is consistent with preservation of volcanic rocks in valleys that requires base level stability of several drainages since latest Cretaceous–Paleocene time. AFT thermochronology indicates widespread cooling below ∼110 °C at ∼56–47 Ma (early Eocene) and ∼44–36 Ma (middle Eocene). Samples with ∼33–27, ∼19, and ∼10 Ma AFT ages, obtained near a major northeast-trending fault zone, apparently reflect hydrothermal fluid flow. Uplift and erosion following ∼107 Ma magmatism exposed plutonic rocks to different extents in various crustal blocks by latest Cretaceous time. We interpret the Eocene AFT ages to suggest that higher elevations were eroded during the Paleogene subtropical climate of the subarctic, while base level remained essentially stable. Tertiary basins outboard of the YTU contain sediment that may account for the required >2 km of removed overburden that was not carried to the sea by the ancestral Yukon River system. We consider a climate driven explanation for the Eocene AFT ages to be most consistent with geologic constraints in concert with block faulting related to translation on the Denali and Tintina faults resulting from oblique subduction along the southern margin of Alaska.

  20. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  1. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  2. Extent and frequency of inundation on the Perkiomen Creek flood plain from Green Lane Reservoir to the Schuylkill River (near Oaks, Pennsylvania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, William F.

    1969-01-01

    This is the fourth report on the extent and frequency of inundation prepared for the Delaware River Basin Commission. The first of these reports covered floods on the Delaware River in the vicinity of Easton, Pennsylvania and Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The second covered a reach of the Schuylkill River from Conshohocken to Philadelphia. The third was for the Delaware River in the vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey. The first and third reports were written by George M. Farlekas of the Trenton district, and the second was written by Arthur T. Alter of the Harrisburg district. Specific information as to the areal extent and contents of these studies can be obtained from the Delaware River Basin Commission, P.O. Box 360, Trenton, New Jersey. This flood inundation study is part of an investigative program financed through a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Delaware River Basin Commission. The report was prepared under the direction of Norman H. Beamer, District, Chief, U.S. Geological Survey, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.The streamflow data for Perkiomen Creek at Graterford were collected by the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters from 1914 to 1931. Since 1931 the data have been collected under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Forests and Waters. Data on high-water marks and areas inundated in past periods of flooding have been obtained from many local residents of Montgomery County. The Reading Company cooperated by allowing survey crews to work on their right-of-way. The author is grateful to Mr. John W. Buchanan for surveys, Mr. Lewis C. Shaw for illustrations and to Mrs. Joan C. King for typing.

  3. Orbital forcing of the Paleocene and Eocene carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E.; Westerhold, Thomas; Littler, Kate; Zachos, James C.

    2017-05-01

    Multimillion-year proxy records across the Paleocene and Eocene show prominent variations on orbital time scales. The cycles, which have been identified at various sites across the globe, preferentially concentrate spectral power at eccentricity and precessional frequencies. It is evident that these cycles are an expression of changes in global climate and carbon cycling paced by astronomical forcing. However, little is currently known about the link between orbital forcing and the carbon cycle-climate system and the amplitude of associated atmospheric CO2 variations. Here we use simple and complex carbon cycle models to explore the basic effect of different orbital forcing schemes and noise on the carbon cycle. Our primary modeling target is the high-resolution, ˜7.7 Myr long, benthic isotope record at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1262 in the South Atlantic. For direct insolation forcing (as opposed to artificial eccentricity-tilt-precession), one major challenge is understanding how the system transfers spectral power from high to low frequencies. We discuss feasible solutions, including insolation transformations analogous to electronic AC-DC conversion (DC'ing). Regarding mechanisms, we focus on tropical insolation and a long-term carbon imbalance in terrestrial organic burial/oxidation but do not rule out other scenarios. Our analysis shows that high-latitude mechanisms are unlikely drivers of orbitally paced changes in the late Paleocene-early Eocene (LPEE) Earth system. Furthermore, we provide constraints on the origin and isotopic composition of a possible LPEE cyclic carbon imbalance/source responding to astronomical forcing. Our simulations also reveal a mechanism for the large δ13C-eccentricity lag at the 400 kyr period observed in Paleocene, Oligocene, and Miocene sections. We present the first estimates of orbital-scale variations in atmospheric CO2 during the late Paleocene and early Eocene.

  4. Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, D.; Raub, T. D.; Kopp, R. E.; Guerquin-Kern, J. L.; Wu, T. D.; Rouiller, I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Sears, S. K.; Lücken, U.; Tikoo, S. M.; Hesse, R.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Vali, H.

    2009-04-01

    et al. 2008] to other PETM locations of the Atlantic margin and to a possible modern analog environment. High surface productivity with low-organic carbon density sediments and meter-scale sedimentary suboxic zones are provided by tropical shelves fed by energetic river systems, such as the Amazon. We inverstigated several magnetic extracts of samples taken from the meter-scale suboxic zones of the Amazone delta system. Sluijs A, Brinkhuis H, Schouten S, Bohaty SM, John CM, Zachos JC, Reichart GJ, Damste JSS, Crouch EM, Dickens GR. 2007. Environmental precursors to rapid light carbon injection at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary. Nature 450:1218-1221. Kopp RE, Raub TD, Schumann D, Vali H, Smirnov AV, Kirschvink JL 2007. Magnetofossil spike during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Ferromagnetic resonance, rock magnetic, and electron microscopy evidence from Ancora, New Jersey, United States. Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2007pa001473. Lipper PC, Zachos JC 2007. A biogenic origin for anomalous fine-grained magnetic material at the Paleocone-Eocene booundary at Wilson Lake, New Jesery. Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2007pa001471. Schumann D, Raub TD, Kopp RE, Guerquin-Kern JL, Wu TD, Rouiller I, Smirnov AV, Sears K, Lücken U, Tikoo SM, Hesse R, Kirschvink JL, Vali H 2008. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. PNAS, 105:17648-17653.

  5. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  6. Connecting America and Russia: Eocene erosion across the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Lisker, Frank; Piepjohn, Karsten; Estrada, Solveig; Lorenz, Henning

    2017-04-01

    The structural evolution of the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding continental areas is still poorly constrained, due to ice coverage and inaccessibility. The only scientific coring campaign within the central Arctic Ocean (the ACEX project) was positioned on the Lomonosov Ridge. This is a pronounced geomorphic structure of presumably continental origin, which stretches across the entire Arctic Ocean between the northernmost margin of the North American continent (Ellesmere Island) and the Siberian Shelf, bordering the New Siberian Islands. Geophysical data suggest that the Lomonosov Ridge may be continuous with the Siberian and Ellesmerian continental margins (e.g., Poselov et al., 2011). Rather unexpectedly, the ACEX project revealed that the Lomonosov Ridge was in very shallow water or even exposed to erosion between 44 and 18 Ma. As an explanation, it was suggested that the Lomonosov Ridge experienced compressional tectonics at that time, which may have affected the entire central Arctic Ocean, propagating from North America towards the Siberian shelf (ÓRegan et al., 2008). Here we present the first low-temperature thermochronological data from northern Ellesmere Island and from the New Siberian Islands, recording the erosion and exhumation history of these areas. Our apatite (U-Th)/He data show that while southern and central Ellesmere Island was characterized by very slow erosion during the Cenozoic, northern Ellesmere Island bordering the Arctic Ocean experienced km-scale erosion during the Eocene, contemporaneously with the stalled subsidence / uplift period of the Lomonosov Ridge. The thermochronology data from the New Siberian Islands reflect a complex erosion history: the eastern part of the North Siberian Islands, the DeLong Island Group, experienced rather limited erosion during the Cenozoic and most of the Mesozoic. By contrast, data from the western New Siberian Islands - the Lyakhov Island Group - in direct continuation of the Lomonosov Ridge are

  7. A new burmagomphid dragonfly from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Petrulevičius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new burmagomphid anisopteran, Satelitala soberana gen. et sp. nov. is described from the lower Eocene of Laguna del Hunco, Patagonia, Argentina. The new genus is characterised by hindwing characters such as the subdiscoidal triangle not elongated; anal loop divided longitudinally; paranal cell divided longitudinally; five terminal cells between RP and MA; five terminal cells between MP and CuA; and obtuse angle between PsA and CuP+AA. Burmagomphid dragonflies were represented so far only by one specimen from the middle Cretaceous of Southeast Asia. This new record extends the distribution to Patagonia, to the Cenozoic, and also to paleolake deposits.

  8. Natural product terpenoids in Eocene and Miocene conifer fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Angelika; White, James D; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-08-30

    Numerous saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, but not polar compounds, originating from plants and microorganisms (biomarkers) have been reported in sediments, coals, and petroleum. Here we describe natural product terpenoids found in two fossil conifers, Taxodium balticum (Eocene) and Glyptostrobus oregonensis (Miocene). A similar terpenoid pattern is also observed in extant Taxodium distichum. The preservation of characteristic terpenoids (unaltered natural products) in the fossil conifers supports their systematic assignment to the Cypress family (Cupressaceae sensu lato). The results also show that fossil conifers can contain polar terpenoids, which are valuable markers for (paleo)chemosystematics and phylogeny.

  9. Aridification in continental Asia after the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322947359; Abels, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018; Hoorn, C.; van den Berg, B.C.J.; Guo, Z.; Dupont-Nivet, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313092559

    2014-01-01

    Global climate cooling from greenhouse to icehouse conditions occurred across an enigmatic transitional interval during the Eocene epoch characterized by incipient polar ice-sheet formation as well as short-lived warming events, of which the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is most noticeable.

  10. Earliest record of the fossil snake Palaeophis from the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Cuny, Gilles; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. – The earliest record of Palaeophis ever found in Denmark is here based on vertebrae described from the Paleocene/Eocene Stolleklint Clay of the Isle of Mors (northern Denmark). Although much smaller, they appear quite similar to the Eocene vertebra described from the Fur Formation in t...

  11. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at

  12. Warm and wet conditions in the Arctic region during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Donders, T.H.; Schoon, P.L.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Kim, J.-H.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several episodes of abrupt and transient warming, each lasting between 50,000 and 200,000 years, punctuated the long-term warming during the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene (58 to 51 Myr ago) epochs1,2. These hyperthermal events, such as the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (EMT2) that took place about

  13. Paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatic constraints on the global Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Stickley, Catherine E.; Bukry, David

    2015-01-01

    Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy are summarized and correlated with the most recent geologic time scale as well as with the global oxygen isotope and eustatic sea level curves. The global distribution of Eocene diatom/silicoflagellate-bearing sediments varies considerably, reflecting changing oceanic gateways and paleoceanography with changing patterns that are punctuated by four major depositional events.

  14. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...

  15. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  16. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  17. The Andean-type Gangdese Mountains: Paleoelevation record from the Paleocene-Eocene Linzhou Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Xu, Qiang; Yue, Yahui; Wang, Houqi; Cai, Fulong; Li, Shun

    2014-04-01

    Paleoelevation reconstruction using oxygen isotopes is making a significant contribution to understanding the Cenozoic uplift of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. This paper presents new oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions from well dated Tertiary paleosols, lacustrine calcareous carbonates, and marls from the Nianbo (60-54 Ma) and upper Pana Formations (51-48 Ma) of the Linzizong Group in the Linzhou (Penbo) Basin. The sediments of the Nianbo Formation, which are >180 m-thick, were deposited in alluvial fans, braided rivers, fan deltas, and on nearshore to offshore lacustrine settings, whereas those of the upper Pana Formation are >100 m-thick and are comprised predominantly of proximal alluvial fan and braided river deposits. Correlations between the lithofacies and stable isotopic compositions suggest that the basin was mainly a hydrologically open environment. It is confirmed that the δ18Oc and δ13Cc values from Nianbo and Pana Formations have not yet been reset by late-stage diagenesis based on petrographic examination, oxygen isotope of the fossil ostracodes, and tectonic deformation of strata. The paleoelevations are reconstructed using the corrected most negative paleosurface water δ18Opsw values. These imply that the Linzhou area had attained an elevation of 4500±400 m during the period of the Indo-Asian collision, i.e., achieved a near-present elevation, and may form an Andean-type mountain range stretching the Gangdese arc before collision. The Gangdese Mountains probably maintained high elevations since at least the Paleocene and could play a crucial role in the climate change in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau during the Early Cenozoic. The paleogeomorphic scenario of the Eocene Tibet is proposed to exist at two high mountains in excess of 4500 m that sandwiched a low elevation basin.

  18. Fluvial-system response to climate change: The Paleocene-Eocene Tremp Group, Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombera, Luca; Arévalo, Oscar J.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-10-01

    The Tremp Group of the Tremp-Graus Basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) is a succession of predominantly continental origin that records the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a transient episode of extreme global warming that occurred across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. For this succession, the stratigraphic position of the PETM is accurately determined, and histories of tectonic and sea-level controls are well constrained. Building upon previous studies, this work assesses changes in sedimentary architecture through the PETM in the Tremp Group, based on quantitative sedimentological analyses documented over a km-scale strike-oriented transect in the Arén area, with the scope to better understand the response of this alluvial system to the hyperthermal event. The analysed features represent a partial record of the geomorphic organization and processes of the system at the time of deposition, and are therefore interpretable in terms of geomorphic change in alluvial landscapes caused by the PETM. The record of the PETM, as previously recognized, begins at a time when erosional palaeotopographic relief was developed and deposition was confined in valleys. A shift between valley back-filling and widespread aggradation is observed at the onset of the PETM interval, which demonstrates uniquely the impact of the hyperthermal on both depositional loci and interfluves. Compared to underlying strata, the interval that embodies the onset and main phase of the PETM is characterized by: (i) higher proportion of channel deposits; (ii) channel complexes of greater average thickness and width; (iii) barforms and channel fills that are slightly thicker; (iv) increased thickness of sets of cross-stratified sandstones; (v) similar values of maximum extraclast size, by architectural element. An evident change in the facies organization of channel deposits is also seen through the stratigraphy, though this appears to predate the PETM. Increased channel-body density in the PETM

  19. The potential impact of green agendas on historic river landscapes: Numerical modelling of multiple weir removal in the Derwent Valley Mills world heritage site, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. J.; Coulthard, T. J.; Knight, D.

    2017-09-01

    The exploitation of river systems for power and navigation has commonly been achieved through the installation of a variety of in-channel obstacles of which weirs in Britain are amongst the most common. In the UK, the historic value of many of these features is recognised by planning designations and protection more commonly associated with historic buildings and other major monuments. Their construction, particularly in the north and west of Britain, has often been associated with industries such as textiles, chemicals, and mining, which have polluted waterways with heavy metals and other contaminants. The construction of weirs altered local channel gradients resulting in sedimentation upstream with the potential as well for elevated levels of contamination in sediments deposited there. For centuries these weirs have remained largely undisturbed, but as a result of the growth in hydropower and the drive to improve water quality under the European Union's Water Framework Directive, these structures are under increasing pressure to be modified or removed altogether. At present, weir modifications appear to be considered largely on an individual basis, with little focus on the wider impacts this might have on valley floor environments. Using a numerical modelling approach, this paper simulates the removal of major weirs along a 24-km stretch of the river Derwent, Derbyshire, UK, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The results suggest that although removal would not result in significant changes to the valley morphology, localised erosion would occur upstream of structures as the river readjusts its base level to new boundary conditions. Modelling indicates that sediment would also be evacuated away from the study area. In the context of the Derwent valley, this raises the potential for the remobilisation of contaminants (legacy sediments) within the wider floodplain system, which could have detrimental, long-term health and environmental implications for the

  20. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  1. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...

  2. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  3. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  4. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  6. Anatomy of a mountain: The Thebes Limestone Formation (Lower Eocene) at Gebel Gurnah, Luxor, Nile Valley, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Dupuis, Christian; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Knox, Robert O.'B.; Galal, Wael Fathi; Baele, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    We present a detailed geologic study of the Thebes Formation at Gebel Gurnah in its locus typicus on the West Bank (opposite Luxor) of the Nile River in the Upper Nile Valley, Egypt. This is the first detailed measurement and lithologic description of the ∼340 m thick (predominantly) carbonate section. The Thebes Formation is divided into thirteen major lithic units (A to M). We interpret data on the lithologic succession and variations, whole rock/clay mineralogy, and macro/micropaleontology in terms of deposition on a shallow carbonate platform episodically influenced by continental runoff, and describe six depositional sequences that we place in the global framework of Lower Eocene (Ypresian) sequence stratigraphy. We note however significant incompatibilities between the Thebes depositional sequences and the global sequences. We emend the definition of the Thebes Formation by defining its top as corresponding to level 326 m at the top of Nodular Limestone 'L' (NLL), and assigning the overlying beds to the Minia Limestone Formation. New biostratigraphic data and revision of previous studies establish the direct assignment of the Thebes Formation to planktonic foraminiferal Zones E4/P6b (upper part), E5/P7 and (indirectly) Zone E6/P8, and (probably, indirectly) Zone E7a/;P9;, and to calcareous nannofossil Zone NP12 and lower Zone NP13 of the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) and provide a temporal framework spanning ∼ 2.8 Myr from <52.45 to ∼49.6 Ma for the deposition of the Thebes Formation prior to the prominent sea level fall (∼49.6 Ma) towards the end of the Early Eocene. Dominantly carbonate deposition, with a strongly reduced detrital influx, occurred on a very wide shelf (probably) at least ∼ 100 km from the coastline. The thick sedimentary succession and the marked vertical lithologic variations are interpreted as resulting from sea level fluctuations imprinted on a long-term decrease in sea-level associated with rapid subsidence reflecting tectonic

  7. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  8. Tracing the Eocene-Oligocene transition: A case study from North Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvaček, Z.; Teodoridis, V.; Mach, K.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Dvořák, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-66 ISSN 1214-1119 Keywords : boundary * climate * Early Oligocene * fauna * flora * Late Eocene * vegetation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2014

  9. Differing Eocene floral histories in southeastern North America and Western Europe: influence of paleogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1995-01-01

    Pollen data show that in southeastern North America, the Eocene angiosperm flora attained its maximum relative diversity some 8 m.y. after the late early Eocene to earliest middle Eocene to earliest middle Eocene climatic maximum. Increasing diversity resulted in part from the flora's position on a large continent which allowed easy migration. In western Europe, the floral diversity began decreasing even before the climatic maximum. Paleogeography played large roles in this diversity decrease. In western Europe, terrestrial floras were on islands and peninsulas in the sea, so that the floras underwent increasing isolation and partial local extermination. Temperate plants generally did not migrate to western Europe, because of a lack of nearby uplands, lack of northern terrestrial source areas for these plants, and presence of the Turgai Straights barrier. -from Authors

  10. First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada’s Western Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Brochu, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Island...

  11. Eocene Antarctic seasonality inferred from high-resolution stable isotope profiles of fossil bivalves and driftwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, E. J.; Ivany, L. C.; Miklus, N. M.; Uveges, B. T.; Junium, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene Epoch was a time of large-scale global climate change, experiencing both the warmest temperatures of the Cenozoic and the onset of southern hemisphere glaciation. The record of average global temperatures throughout this transition is reasonably well constrained, however considerably less is known about the accompanying changes in seasonality. Seasonally resolved temperature data provide a wealth of information not readily available from mean annual temperature data alone. These data are particularly important in the climatically sensitive high latitudes, as they can elucidate the means by which climate changes and the conditions necessary for the growth of ice sheets. Several recent studies, however, have suggested the potential for monsoonal precipitation regimes in the early-middle Eocene high latitudes, which complicates interpretation of seasonally resolved oxygen isotope records in shallow nearshore marine settings. Seasonal precipitation and runoff could create a brackish, isotopically depleted lens in these environments, depleting summertime δ18Ocarb and thereby inflating the inferred mean and range of isotope-derived temperatures. Here, we assess intra-annual variations in temperature in shallow nearshore Antarctic waters during the middle and late Eocene, inferred from high-resolution oxygen isotope profiles from accretionary bivalves of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. To address concerns related to precipitation and runoff, we also subsample exceptionally preserved fossil driftwood from within the formation and use seasonal differences in δ13Corg values to estimate the ratio of summertime to wintertime precipitation. Late Eocene oxygen isotope profiles exhibit strongly attenuated seasonal amplitudes and more enriched mean annual values in comparison with data from the middle Eocene. Preliminary fossil wood data are not indicative of a strongly seasonal precipitation regime, implying that intra-annual variation in oxygen

  12. Development of the Philippine Mobile Belt in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Peña, Rolando E.; Tam, Tomas A.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Usui, Mayumi; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The origin of the Philippine Archipelago is characterized by the combination of the oceanic Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) and the Palawan Continental Block (PCB). This paper is focused on the geologic evolution of the PMB in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene. The study areas (northern Luzon) are situated in the central part of the PMB which is occupied by its typical components made up of a pre-Paleocene ophiolitic complex, Eocene successions, Eocene to Oligocene igneous complex and late Oligocene to Pliocene successions. Facies analysis of the middle Eocene and late Oligocene to early Pliocene successions was carried out to understand the depositional environment of their basins. Modal sandstone compositions, which reflect the basement geology of the source area, were analyzed. Major element geochemistry of sediments was considered to reconstruct the tectonic settings. The following brief history of the PMB is deduced. During the middle Eocene, the PMB was covered by mafic volcanic rocks and was a primitive island arc. In late Eocene to late Oligocene time, the intermediate igneous complex was added to the mafic PMB crust. By late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the PMB had evolved into a volcanic island arc setting. Contributions from alkalic rocks are detected from the rock fragments in the sandstones and chemical composition of the Zigzag Formation. During the middle Miocene to Pliocene, the tectonic setting of the PMB remained as a mafic volcanic island arc.

  13. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  14. Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote the benefits of green infrastructure, help communities overcome barriers to using GI, and encourage the use of GI to create sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that improves water quality and supports and revitalizes communities.

  15. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  16. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on April 16, 2015. [Database subscription]. Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, et al. Green and black ... health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH. ...

  17. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  18. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  19. An ailuravine rodent from the lower Eocene Cambay Formation at Vastan, western India, and its palaeobiogeographic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, R.S.; Kumar, K.; Escarguel, G.; Sahni, A.; Rose, K.D.; Smith, T.; Singh, H.; Singh, L. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India)

    2008-02-15

    A new ailuravine rodent, Meldimys musak sp. nov. (Mammalia: Rodentia, Ischyromyidae), is recorded from the lower Eocene lignites of western India. It is the oldest record of Rodentia from India. M. musak is more derived than the earliest Eocene ailuravine Euromys cardosoi from Portugal and more generalized than late early Eocene E. inexpectatus and Ailuravus michauxi from France. Its dental morphology closely corresponds to the middle early Eocene species M. louisi, which lived about 52 Ma in Western Europe. Meldimys was previously known only from Europe, and ailuravines were previously reported only from Europe and North America. Its occurrence in India allows the first direct correlation between the early Eocene land mammal horizons of Europe and India, and raises the possibility of a terrestrial faunal exchange between India and Eurasia close to the Palaeocene-Eocene transition.

  20. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  1. A new Acartophthalmites Hennig from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera, Acalyptratae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil fly species, Acartophthalmites willii sp. n. (Diptera: Acalyptratae: Opomyzoidea from Baltic amber (Eocene, 56−33.9 Ma, is described based on a male originally assigned by Hennig (1969 to A. tertiaria Hennig, 1965, who erroneously also referred to it in the same work as “A. electrica Hennig” (unavailable name. The new species, representing the third named species of the extinct genus with unclear familial relationships Acartophthalmites Hennig, 1965, is herein described and illustrated in detail, and its systematic implications and relationships are discussed. From the morphological standpoint, the new species represents an intermediate form between the two formerly described species within the genus, therefore expanding the character combination diversity in this lineage of acalyptrate flies. The genus Acartophthalmites is considered to be most closely related to Clusiidae and, therefore, it is herein tentatively classified within the superfamily Opomyzoidea. The current work takes part of an effort to review the Acartophthalmites diversity in order to gain knowledge on the morphological data from the specimens described within the genus and ultimately enable a reliable analysis of its phylogenetic relationships with other acalyptrates.

  2. A new brontothere from the Eocene of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Averianov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper Eocene Youganwo Formation in Maoming Province, Guangdong Province, China, produced abundant remains of turtles and crocodiles, but mammalian remains are rare. The previously found mammals from Youganwo Formation include a nimravid carnivore and an amynodontid perissodactyl. Here we report on a new brontotheriid perissodactyl from the Youganwo Formation. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is described based on a maxillary fragment with P4 and M1–2 (SYSU-M-4. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the combination of a simple P4 without a hypocone with derived molars having large molar fossae and large anterolingual cingular cusp. A parsimony implied weighting character analysis places Maobrontops gen. nov. in the clade Embolotheriita as a sister taxon to the terminal subclade containing Nasamplus, Protembolotherium, and Embolotherium. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is one of the largest Asian brontotheres. The brontotheriid fauna of South China is endemic and includes at least three valid taxa: Dianotitan from Brontotheriita and Pygmaetitan and Maobrontops gen. nov. from Embolotheriita.

  3. Late Eocene stable isotope stratigraphy of North Atlantic IODP Site U1411: Orbitally paced climatic heartbeat at the close of the Eocene greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxall, Helen; Bohaty, Steve; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Nyberg, Anna; Holmström, Max

    2016-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 drilled sediment drifts on the Newfoundland margin to recover high-resolution records of North Atlantic ocean-climate history and track the evolution of the modern climate system through the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic. An early Paleogene deep-sea benthic stable isotope composite record from multiple Exp. 342 sites is currently in development and will provide a key reference section for investigations of Atlantic and global climate dynamics. This study presents initial results for the late Eocene slice of the composite from Site U1411, located at mid depth (˜2850m Eocene paleodepth) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge. Stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios were measured on 640 samples hosting exceptionally well-preserved epifaunal benthic foraminifera obtained from the microfossil-rich uppermost Eocene clays at 4cm spacing. Sedimentation rates average 2-3 cm/kyr through the late Eocene, such that our sampling resolution is sufficient to capture the dominant Milankovitch frequencies. Late Eocene Site U1411 benthic δ18O values (1.4 to 0.5‰ VPDB) are comparable to the Pacific and elsewhere in the Atlantic at similar depths; however, δ13C is lower by ˜0.5 ‰ with values intermediate between those of the Southern Labrador Sea to the north (-1 to 0) and mid latitude/South Atlantic (0.5 to 1.5) to the south, suggesting poorly ventilated bottom waters in the late Eocene North Atlantic and limited production of North Atlantic deep water. Applying the initial shipboard magneto-biostratigraphic age framework, the Site U1411 benthic δ13C and δ18O records display clear cyclicity on orbital timescales. Spectral analysis of the raw unfiltered datasets identifies eccentricity (400 and 100 kyr), obliquity (40 kyr) and precession (˜20 kyr) signals imprinted on our time series, revealing distinct climatic heart beats in the late Eocene prior to the transition into the 'ice house'.

  4. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  5. Green Power Partnership Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  6. Fossil plant stomata indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda S.; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2016-02-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany has been used to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the inverse relationship between the density of stomata and pCO2, we show that pCO2 decreased continuously from the late middle to late Eocene, reaching a relatively stable low value before the end of the Eocene. Based on the subsequent records, pCO2 in parts of the Oligocene was similar to latest Eocene values. These results suggest that a decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oligocene transition and that when a certain threshold of pCO2 change was crossed, the cumulative effects of this and other factors resulted in rapid temperature decline, ice build up on Antarctica and hence a change of climate mode.

  7. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene–Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Paleocene–Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet, which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa. The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation—from the Miscellanea–Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites–Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites. Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P–E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  8. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt: Chapter E in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows up on previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of 14 storage assessment units (SAUs) in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and eight SAUs in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt (WIUTB). The GGRB and WIUTB are contiguous with nearly identical geologic units; however, the GGRB is larger in size, whereas the WIUTB is more structurally complex. This report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries, as well as their sealing and reservoir units, are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are typically provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. This geologic information was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of variably attributed well data and a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling.

  9. Carbon sources during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Peterse, Francien; Lunt, Daniel; Bohaty, Steven; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sluijs, Appy

    2017-04-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 56 Ma) was a period of rapid 4-5°C global warming and a global negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of 3-4.5‰, signaling the input of at least 1500 Gt of δ13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Carbon cycle modeling has indicated that the shape and magnitude of this CIE are generally explained by a large and rapid initial pulse, followed by 50 kyr of 13C-depleted carbon injection. Crucially, some of suggested carbon sources, e.g. submarine methane hydrates and permafrost thawing, may respond to warming and act as positive carbon cycle feedbacks on millennial timescales. Previous analyses showed that warming started prior to the CIE at some high and mid-latitude sites, but is still unknown whether this is a global signal and timing and magnitude of such a warming remain poorly constrained. We generated a new high-resolution TEX86 and δ13C record from Ocean Drilling Program Site 959 in the eastern tropical Atlantic and find that initial warming preceded the PETM CIE by 10 kyr. Moreover, cross-correlation functions on these new and published temperature-δ13C data imply that substantial (2-3 °C) warming lead 13C-depleted carbon injection by an average of 2-3 kyr globally. Finally, a data compilation shows that global burial fluxes of non-detrital Ba approximately tripled across all depths of the ocean studied, which on PETM time scales can only be explained by significant Ba addition to the oceans. Submarine hydrates are Ba-rich and require warming to dissociate. The simplest explanation for the temperature lead and Ba addition to the ocean is that methane hydrates dissociated as a response to initial warming and acted as a positive carbon cycle feedback during the PETM. The attribution of the CIE to a carbon cycle feedback naturally leads to the question what caused the early warming. The absence of a 13C change during the early warming implies a 13C-neutral CO2 source, such as volcanism, is the most

  10. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  11. Warm arctic continents during the Palaeocene Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Johan W. H.; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2007-09-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ˜55.5 Ma) is a geologically relatively brief episode of extreme warmth. Both deep and surface ocean temperatures increased by up to 5 °C in equatorial waters and up to 8 °C in mid and high latitude waters. From the continents, the annual mean air temperature response during the PETM is still largely unknown, mainly due to a lack of quantitative temperature proxies and sufficient suitable, continuous high resolution records. Recently, a new proxy for continental temperature reconstructions has been proposed, based on the distribution of membrane lipids of bacteria in present-day soils [ J.W.H. Weijers, S. Schouten, J.C. van den Donker, E.C. Hopmans, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté (2007) Environmental controls on bacterial tetraether membrane lipid distribution in soils, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 703-713] and shown to reconstruct annual mean air temperature. In this study we applied this new proxy in an attempt to reconstruct the air temperature in high latitude continental areas during the PETM by analysis of a marine sedimentary sequence obtained from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, Site 004, Hole A). The results indicate a warming of ˜8 °C above background values of ˜17 °C. This warming is coincident with a similar rise in sea surface temperatures documented earlier. Our results thus further confirm the warm conditions in the Arctic, and point to a strongly reduced latitudinal temperature gradient during the PETM.

  12. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  13. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  14. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  15. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  16. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  17. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  18. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , and coal, with a concomitant release of greenhouse gases. Green infrastructure seeks to perform those functions in a manner that, at the very least, minimises its impact on the natural environment and, at best, enhances the quality of the natural...

  19. Lepidological review on the fish fauna of the Kučlín locality (Upper Eocene, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, 3/4 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil fish fauna * Osteichthyes * scales * morphology * Paleogene * Upper Eocene * Upper Eocene (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv-en.php?id=4&rok=67&kcislu=3-4&f_=Show

  20. Adubação verde com leguminosas em videira no submédio São Francisco Green manuring grapevine with legumes in the submiddle São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. B. Faria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os solos do Vale do Submédio São Francisco são, de modo geral, arenosos, com baixa capacidade de retenção de nutrientes e, por se localizarem numa região semi-árida, são muito pobres em matéria orgânica, conseqüentemente, são deficientes em N, tornando-se limitante para produção agrícola. Dessa forma, o uso de leguminosas como adubo verde pode contornar esse problema, porque adiciona C e N ao solo. O trabalho constituiu-se de dois experimentos de leguminosas consorciadas com a cultura da videira (Vitis vinifera irrigada, realizados em um Argissolo Amarelo de textura arenosa, em Petrolina (PE, de junho de 1996 a julho de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação verde nas características químicas do solo e na produtividade e qualidade da uva. O primeiro experimento foi realizado até à quarta safra de uva. Os tratamentos foram representados por duas leguminosas: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, submetidas a dois manejos (subtratamentos: (a ceifada e deixada na superfície do terreno e (b ceifada e incorporada ao solo, havendo ainda uma testemunha sem leguminosa. O segundo experimento, que se iniciou com o quinto ciclo de produção de uva, abrangeu três tratamentos: (1 testemunha; (2 crotalária júncea e (3 feijão-de-porco, combinados com dois subtratamentos: (1 100 % da adubação recomendada pela análise de solo e (2 50 % dessa adubação. Ao todo, houve onze ciclos de leguminosas e nove safras de uva. A produção de biomassa das leguminosas decresceu ao longo do tempo. A adubação verde proporcionou uma melhoria nas características químicas do solo, aumentando os teores da MO e do Ca trocável e o valor da CTC na camada de 0-10 cm de profundidade. Não houve um efeito consistente da adubação verde na produtividade e qualidade da uva.The soils of the Submiddle São Francisco River Valley are generally sandy, with low nutrient retention capacity. Since they are

  1. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  2. Large-amplitude variations in carbon cycling and terrestrial weathering during the latest Paleocene and earliest Eocene: The record at Mead Stream, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Nicolo, M.J.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Zachos, J.C.; Sluijs, A.

    The late Paleocene to early Eocene was marked by major changes in Earth surface temperature and carbon cycling. This included at least two, and probably more, geologically brief (<200-k.yr.) intervals of extreme warming, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and the Eocene thermal maximum-2

  3. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  4. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green....... Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built and unbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One...

  5. An eocene hystricognathous rodent from Texas: its significance in interpretations of continental drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A E

    1972-03-17

    The earliest known representative of the fundamentally South American and African hystricognathous rodents has recently been found in the middle or late Eocene of southwestern Texas; this discovery supports the postulate of a northern and independent origin for the two southern groups and increases the evidence against mid-Tertiary trans-Atlantic migration of these rodents at a time when the South Atlantic was narrower than it is at present. The fossil seems to be related to the North American Eocene family Sciuravidae.

  6. Pulses of middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene climatic deterioration in southern California and the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1991-01-01

    A general deterioration of terrestrial climate took place during middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene time in southern California and in the Gulf Coast. Pollen data, calibrated by calcareous nannofossil ages, indicate four events of rapid floral and/or vegetational change among angiosperms during this time interval. The events can be correlated between the two regions even though these regions lay within different floristic provinces, and each event of angiosperm change is interpreted to indicate a pulse of rapid climatic shift. The most distinct of these events is the Middle Eocene Diversity Decline, which resulted from a peak in last appearances (extinctions, emigrations) centered in the early Bartonian. -from Author

  7. Fossil Atherospermataceae from lower Eocene sediments of Austria: Laurelia Juss. from the EECO section at Krappfeld in Carinthia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Egger, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Laurelia Juss. (Atherospermataceae R. Br.) today is a disjunct genus in the southern hemisphere that inhabit temperate moist forests of South America and New Zealand. Unequivocal Atherospermataceae fossils are still rare and are known since the Upper Cretaceous from the southern hemisphere. Here, we present the first findings of Laurelia pollen in the northern hemisphere, preserved in EECO (Early Eocene Climate Optimum) sediments in southern Austria. The sediments of the Paleogene Holzer Formation rest with an erosional unconformity on Campanian rocks, is 8 m-thick and composed of soft red and green claystone, and coaly lenses rich in terrestrial palynomorphs. The pollen and spores were examined with LM and SEM and assigned to botanical families and genera. Overall, three different palynomorph-rich facies were identified: The first, at the base of the Holzer Formation, is characterized by abundant and diverse fern spores, various Arecaceae, Myricaceae, and Juglandaceae. The second is from the black transgressive shale and characterized by the co-occurrence of marine dinoflagellates and Normapolles, Nypa, palm pollen, and Avicennia. The third facies is dominated by wind pollinated triporate taxa (e.g., Normapolles, Myricaceae, Juglandaceae), monosulcate palm taxa and numerous fern spores. The Atherospermataceae pollen, which resembles most closely the genus Laurelia Juss., were encountered in low numbers in all three facies of the Holzer Formation, but previously misidentified. The reason lies in the aperture type: Atherospermataceae pollen are composed of two hemispherical halves that are separated by a complete ring-like aperture or an incomplete a ring-like aperture that acts as a zone of weakness so that the deposited fossil pollen, tend to fall apart. Most fossil Laurelia pollen in the Krappfeld are preserved as rolled up individual halves and look like boat-shaped sulcate pollen grains of monocots or basal angiosperms; preservation of complete grains is rare

  8. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  9. Ancient Fungal Life in North Pacific Eocene Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.; Lustrino, M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the manifold life forms of the deep biosphere although there is increasing scientific evidence that an extensive biosphere does exist in extreme environments such as the rocks below the seafloor. The ODP Leg 200 was devoted to the study of Eocene oceanic crust of the North Pacific Ocean. Within a massive tholeiitic lava flow unit, at depth of 51 mbsf underneath a water column of about 5000 m, we found unique filamentous structures. Based on morphological traits like branching, septa and central pores the filaments are interpreted as fungi. These filaments were found within carbonate-filled vesicles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3 mm in diameter. The net of fungal hyphae completely fills the whole pore space from the basalt-carbonate boundary towards the center of the pores. The cross section dimension of these filaments is about 5-10 micrometer and the length differ from 50 to several hundreds micrometer. Thereby the cell septa of the hyphae are clearly visible. The number of hyphae ranges from some tenth to some hundreds per particular pore. The presence of pyrite within the carbonate cements points out anaerobic conditions in this habitat. After removing the carbonate by etching the vesicles with diluted formic acid, the 3-dimensional structure of the fungus could be clearly visualized. Fine structure analysis of the hyphae obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a network of tiny small fibers coating the surface of the hyphae. Semi-quantitative chemical analyses of the etched hyphae were conducted with an energy dispersive spectrometer system (EDS) coupled with the FE-SEM. The results evidence a chemical composition of the hyphae different from the surrounding carbonate matrix. Undisturbed filamentous growth through different calcite crystals within the vesicles and small open space between the fungi and matrix indicate endolithic fungal growth after the calcium carbonate filling of the vesicles. To the best

  10. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  11. Recent advances on the knowledge of the Eocene primates from the Pyrenean Basins (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Femenias-Gual, Joan; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    The Eocene was one of the warmest epochs of the Cenozoic and documented the first occurrence of several orders of modern mammals. Among them, Euprimates underwent a very important radiation favored by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Two main groups reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, Adapiformes and Omomyiformes, which are related to the main clades of living primates (strepsirrhines and haplorhines, respectively). In the Iberian Peninsula, Eocene primates have been known since the 1960s, when several fossil sites containing prosimian remains were discovered. Nevertheless, it was not until 2010 that the research on Eocene primates from Spain has increased strikingly, and the results achieved in this last stage have surpassed those of the whole past century in terms of number of publications. Besides some interesting findings in the Ebro, Almazán and Miranda-Trebiño basins, the Pyrenees have yielded the most abundant record of Eocene primates from the Iberian Peninsula, constituting therefore an excellent region for evaluating the evolution of primates through this epoch. In the early Eocene continental deposits of the Àger area, adapiforms are well represented, with three species of the genus Agerinia. Besides, the only record of Plesiadapiformes (archaic primates) from Spain has been documented in this zone. The middle Eocene is particularly well represented in the Eastern Pyrenees. In the section of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà, three primate species have been described in the last years. The adapiform Anchomomys frontanyensis and the omomyiform Pseudoloris pyrenaicus, found in the oldest levels of the section, and the omomyiform Necrolemur anadoni, identified in the youngest levels, have allowed reconstructing the relationships of these taxa with their correlatives found in other parts of Europe. Late Eocene deposits with mammal remains crop out in the area of La Pobla de Segur. The most relevant fossil

  12. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  14. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green...... that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...

  15. Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Marivaux, Laurent; Croft, Darin A.; Billet, Guillaume; Ganerød, Morgan; Jaramillo, Carlos; Martin, Thomas; Orliac, Maëva J.; Tejada, Julia; Altamirano, Ali J.; Duranthon, Francis; Fanjat, Grégory; Rousse, Sonia; Gismondi, Rodolfo Salas

    2012-01-01

    The long-term isolation of South America during most of the Cenozoic produced a highly peculiar terrestrial vertebrate biota, with a wide array of mammal groups, among which caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates are Mid-Cenozoic immigrants. In the absence of indisputable pre-Oligocene South American rodents or primates, the mode, timing and biogeography of these extraordinary dispersals remained debated. Here, we describe South America's oldest known rodents, based on a new diverse caviomorph assemblage from the late Middle Eocene (approx. 41 Ma) of Peru, including five small rodents with three stem caviomorphs. Instead of being tied to the Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and drying episode (approx. 34 Ma), as previously considered, the arrival of caviomorphs and their initial radiation in South America probably occurred under much warmer and wetter conditions, around the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum. Our phylogenetic results reaffirm the African origin of South American rodents and support a trans-Atlantic dispersal of these mammals during Middle Eocene times. This discovery further extends the gap (approx. 15 Myr) between first appearances of rodents and primates in South America. PMID:21993503

  16. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Huurdeman, Emiel; Rem, Charlotte; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Pross, Jorg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy; Gallagher, Stephen; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110

    2018-01-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the

  17. Justitia Holthuis, 1946 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridea) from the Middle Eocene of Verona and Vicenza (northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Angeli, De Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Beschin et al. (2001) have described two specimens of palinurids, discovered at Chiampo (“Albanello” quarry, Vicenza, northern Italy). Preserved three dimensionally, these were collected from limestones of Lutetian (middle Eocene) age. The peculiar ornament of the dorsal carapace surface,

  18. Synchronizing terrestrial and marine records of environmental change across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahy, D.; Condon, D.J.; Terry, D.O., Jr.; Fischer, A.U.; Kuiper, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    Records of terrestrial environmental change indicate that continental cooling and/or aridification may have predated the greenhouse-icehouse climate shift at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) by ca. 600 kyr. In North America, marine-terrestrial environmental change asynchronicity is inferred

  19. Eocene relatives of cod icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask

    2013-01-01

    to the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. This group is almost unknown as fossils. Similarities to the living, ‘primitive’ nototheniid Dissostichus eleginoides are indicated in the dentition. Gadiform evolution in the Paleocene-Eocene, and the possibility of a correlation between the origin and evolution...

  20. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  1. Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events. Geologica Ultraiectina (328)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

  2. Terrestrial Palynology of Paleocene and Eocene Sediments Above the Chicxulub Impact Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.; Warny, S.; Bralower, T. J.; Jones, H.; Lowery, C. M.; Smit, J.; Vajda, V.; Vellekoop, J.; 364 Scientists, E.

    2017-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 364, with support from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, cored through Paleocene and Eocene sediments and into the impact structure of the Chicxulub impact crater. Three palynological studies of the post-impact section are currently underway. The two other studies are investigating the dinoflagellate palynology and terrestrial palynology of the K/Pg boundary section, while this study focuses on the early Eocene terrestrial palynology of the IODP 364 core, which has yielded a diverse and well preserved pollen assemblage. A few samples from the Early Paleocene have also been examined but organic microfossil preservation is quite poor. Samples from this core are the oldest palynological record from the Yucatan peninsula. Sample preparation and detailed abundance counts of sixty samples throughout the post-impact section are in progress, with a particular focus on the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Terrestrial palynomorph assemblages will be used to reconstruct paleoclimatological conditions throughout this time period. Floral response to hyperthermal events in the IODP 364 core will be compared with records from other Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sections. In addition to the biological and paleoclimatological implications of this research, age control from foraminiferal and nannofossil biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and radiometric dating will provide a chronological framework for the terrestrial pollen biostratigraphy, with applications to hydrocarbon exploration in the Wilcox Formation and age equivalent sections in the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Salinity of the Eocene Arctic Ocean from oxygen isotope analysis of fish bone carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Moore, Theodore C.

    2008-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis was performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from early and early middle Eocene samples (˜55 to ˜45 Ma) recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302 (the Arctic Coring Expedition). The δ18O values of the Eocene samples ranged from -6.84‰ to -2.96‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite, with a mean value of -4.89‰, compared to 2.77‰ for a Miocene sample in the overlying section. An average salinity of 21 to 25‰ was calculated for the Eocene Arctic, compared to 35‰ for the Miocene, with lower salinities during the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum, the Azolla event at ˜48.7 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ˜47.6 Ma. At the Azolla event, where the organic carbon content of the sediment reaches a maximum, a positive δ13C excursion was observed, indicating unusually high productivity in the surface waters.

  4. Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Advokaat, Eldert; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073584223; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Cherchi, A.; Schroeder, R.; Madani, H.; Columbu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ~50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of

  5. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...

  6. Astrochronology of extreme global warming events during the early Eocene greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauretano, V.

    2016-01-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of enhanced global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system and the relationship between carbon cycling and climate. During this time interval, the Earth’s surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of

  7. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.

    2010-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  8. Diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy for the late Eocene: ODP 1090 (sub-Antarctic Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Gersonde, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Abundant and well-preserved diatoms and silicofl agellate assemblages are documented through a complete late Eocene sequence, ODP Hole 1090B, recovered from the southern Agulhas Ridge in the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. A sequence of Cestodiscus (diatom) species occurrence events involving C. pulchellus var. novazealandica, C. fennerae, C. antarcticus, C. convexus, C. trochus, and C. robustus is tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy and provides the basis of proposing a new diatom zonation for the latest middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~37.6–33.4 Ma) of the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. Comparison with previously published diatom occurrence charts suggested this zonation should be applicable throughout the low latitude regions of the world’s oceans. Silicofl agellates belong to the Dictyocha hexacantha and the overlying Corbisema apiculata Zones. The late Eocene succession of silicofl agellate species is dominated by Naviculopsis (20–60%). Naviculopsis constricta and N. foliacea dominate the D. hexacantha Zone, followed by the N. constricta, then N. biapiculata in the C. apiculata Zone. Cold-water Distephanus is most abundant in the latest Eocene along with N. biapiculata. The tops of zonal guide fossils Dictyocha hexacantha and Hannaites quadria (both 36.6 Ma) and Dictyocha spinosa (37.1 Ma) are tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy.

  9. Climate, carbon cycling and marine ecology during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene are characterized by strong greenhouse climates. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global temperatures were much higher than today. The period from 60 to 50 million years ago (Ma) is marked by a gradual warming trend of ~8 ºC in the deep ocean. The interval from 56 to 50 Ma

  10. Frequency, magnitude and character of hyperthermal events at the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauretano, V.; Littler, K.; Polling, M.; Zachos, J.C.; Lourens, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) was preceded by a series of short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals. Here we present high-resolution benthic stable carbon and oxygen isotope records from ODP Sites 1262 and 1263 (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic)

  11. Triggers and consequences of glacial expansion across the Eocene - Oligocene Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The results described in this thesis provide a rather complex picture of climatic, environmental and biotic changes preceding and arising from the onset of Antarctic glaciation. This period is commonly known as the greenhouse to icehouse transition across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 34-33

  12. Variability in the length of the sea ice season in the middle eocene arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stickley, C.E.; Koç, N.; Pearce, R.B.; Kemp, A.E.S.; Jordan, R.W.; Sangiorgi, F.; St. John, K.

    2012-01-01

    Finely laminated Middle Eocene sediments from the central Arctic contain high abundances of the delicate, sea ice–dwelling fossil diatoms Synedropsis spp. and sea ice–rafted debris (sea ice–IRD), establishing an offshore seasonal sea ice regime ca. 47 Ma. Synedropsis spp. co-occur with other

  13. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F

    2014-12-12

    The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event.

  14. Changes in the hydrological cycle in tropical East Africa during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handley, L.; O'Halloran, A.; Pearson, P.N.; Hawkins, E.; Nicholas, C.J.; Schouten, S.; McMillan, I.K.; Pancost, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), at ca. 55.8 Ma, is one of the most studied instances of past greenhouse gas-induced global warming. As such, it provides a rich opportunity to examine the impact of such global change on local climates. The effects of increased continental and sea surface

  15. THE GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    2013-02-21

    Feb 21, 2013 ... 2010). 73. M. I. Umo, Department of Physics, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. ... Making use of the definition (2) we have … ... In the mean time if we ignore the phonon operators in (17) then we have in our hands the two-particles Green's function …

  16. Modelling the interactions between vegetation and climate from the Cretaceous to the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loptson, Claire; Lunt, Dan; Francis, Jane

    2013-04-01

    The climates during the Cretaceous (~144 to 66 Ma) and the early Eocene (~56 to 48 Ma) were much warmer than the present day. Atmospheric CO2 levels for these past climates have a large uncertainty associated with them, but were possibly as high as 2000 to 3000 ppm for the early Eocene (Beerling and Royer, 2011; Lowenstein and Demicco, 2006) and maximum values are thought to range from 800 to 1800 ppm during the Cretaceous (Royer et al., 2012). Current modelling efforts have had great difficulty in replicating the shallow latitudinal temperature gradient indicated by proxy data for these time periods (e.g. Heinemann et al., 2009; Winguth et al., 2010; Shellito et al., 2009). Mechanisms that can result in such a low temperature gradient have not been found (Winguth et al., 2010; Beerling et al., 2011; Sloan and Morrill, 1998), but a contributing factor could be that not all climate feedbacks are included in these models. Vegetation feedbacks have been shown to be especially important (e.g. Otto-Bliesner and Upchurch, 1997; Bonan, 2008) so by including a more accurate representation of vegetation in the climate model, the model-data discrepancies may be reduced. A fully coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM, HadCM3L, coupled to a dynamic global vegetation model (TRIFFID), was used to simulate the climate and the predicted vegetation distributions for and the early Eocene and 12 different time slices representing different ages throughout the Cretaceous at 4x pre-industrial CO2. The only difference in the way these simulations were set up are different boundary conditions that are specific to that time period, e.g. different solar constants and paleogeographies. This allows a direct comparison between the time slices. We present the changes in climate, and therefore vegetation, during the Cretaceous due to changes in these boundary conditions alone, with a focus on Antarctica. Additional Eocene simulations were also carried out with a) fixed globally-uniform vegetation and b

  17. Occurrence and distribution of bacterial tetraether lipids in the Eocene Canadian Arctic paleosols: paleoclimate implications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, S.; Jahren, A.; Schubert, B.; Eberle, J. J.; Summons, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Early to Middle Eocene (~56-45 Ma) was a “greenhouse” interval with average global temperatures warmer than any other time in the Cenozoic. This period was characterized by warm climates at high latitude leading to lush forests and the arrival of new mammal groups north of the Arctic Circle (>73°N). Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids characteristic of certain archaea and bacteria and it has been demonstrated that branched and cyclic GDGTs derived from soil bacteria vary in structure as a function of environmental factors. Proxies based on the relative abundances of methyl branched and cyclopentyl bacterial tetraethers are hypothesized to correlate with mean annual air temperature and soil pH. Here we present the occurrence and distribution of GDGTs in a range of paleosol and sediment samples from Axel Heiberg Island and Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (eastern Canadian Arctic) and Banks Island in the Northwest Territories (western Canadian Arctic). Preliminary results on 11 paleosol samples from the middle Eocene-aged Geodetic Hills Fossil Forest on Axel Heiberg Island indicate a mean annual air temperature of about 9°C. Earlier paleotemperature estimates for Axel Heiberg Island led to values ranging from 9°C to 15°C for the Middle Eocene. Recent temperature prediction for Ellesmere Island (Early Eocene) based upon oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal and fish fossils led to ~8°C. In contrast, GDGTs from a marine sedimentary sequence from Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean led to much higher Early Eocene temperature. Thus, the evaluation of the paleotemperature for the Early to Middle Eocene is still a subject of controversy. Ongoing GDGTs analysis of samples from Ellesmere and Banks Islands should give a more comprehensive paleoenvironmental description of the Eocene Arctic. Differences observed between the various paleotemperature estimates will also be discussed. GDGTs distributions are

  18. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  19. Tectonic Reorganization and the Cause of Paleocene and Eocene pCO2 Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Carter, Laura B.; Middleton, Jennifer; Stellmann, Jessica; Pyle, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotope records reveal that deep-sea temperatures were relatively stable in the early and mid Paleocene before they rose by approx. 4°C to peak in the early Eocene. This Early Eocene Climate Optimum was followed by a 17 Myr cooling trend that led to the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the end of the Eocene. Several studies have examined the potential influence of perturbations to the sinks and sources of atmospheric carbon as mechanisms for the temperature drawdown over the Eocene. Examination of the changing magnitude of carbon sinks has focused on the importance of increased weathering associated with the uplift of the Tibetan plateau (Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992), the continental drift of basaltic provinces through the equatorial humid belt (Kent and Muttoni, 2013), or the emplacement of ophiolites during arc-continent collision in the face of a closing Tethys ocean (Jagoutz et al., 2016). With respect to carbon sources, the shutdown of Tethys subduction and related arc volcanism has been argued to significantly decrease carbon emissions and consequently global temperatures (Hoareau et al., 2015). In this study, we re-assess and quantify proposed atmospheric carbon sinks and sources to obtain an integrated picture of carbon flux changes over the Paleocene and Eocene and to estimate the relative importance of different mechanisms. To constrain carbon sources, we attempt to calculate the outgassing associated with large igneous provinces, mid-ocean ridges and volcanic arcs. We use plate reconstructions to track changes in length and divergence / convergence rates at plate boundaries as well as account for the onset and extinction of volcanic arcs. To constrain carbon sinks, we account for the sequestering of carbon due to silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. We again make use of plate reconstructions to trace highly weatherable arc systems and basaltic extrusions through the tropical humid belt and to assess the interplay between warmer Eocene

  20. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available for green roofs. A typical method makes use of a studded membrane (resembling an egg box) laid on a suitable waterproofing which, together, provides the waterproofing and the water drainage. A Geotextile blanket is then laid on top of the studded... be advisable to lay a supporting layer between the insulation and the studded membrane to protect the insulation. A further variation is to replace the studded membrane with a gravel drainage layer followed by the growing medium. In this instance it would...

  1. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the middle Eocene Guara carbonate platform near Arguis, South-West Pyrenean foreland: Implications for basin physiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, D.; Castelltort, S.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Filleaudeau, P.-Y.; Emmanuel, L.; Mouthereau, F.; Renard, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Pyrenees results from the collision between Spain and Europe and developed between the upper Cretaceous (Santonian) and the Miocene. Its foreland basins are characterised by a thick fill of detrital and carbonate sediments. The diversity of Eocene deposits in the southern Pyrenean foreland basin is of particular use in facies sedimentology due to their exceptional outcropping quality and well established stratigraphic framework and has been taken as type examples of many different sedimentary environments. Most studies have concerned facies sedimentology of detrital series in turbiditic environments, meandering and braided rivers, alluvial fans, and deltas. In contrast, the Eocene carbonate series have attracted less attention. The marine Guara limestones are a formation of lower to middle Eocene age deposited on the southern border of the western Pyrenean foreland basin (Jaca basin). They were deposited as a retrogradational carbonate platform dominated by large benthic foraminifers near or at the flexural forebulge of the foreland basin as the Pyrenean orogen developed. This formation represents the last episode of carbonate platform in the Pyrenees and remains poorly studied. In the present work our aim is to provide a detailed facies analysis and physiographic reconstructions of the Guara carbonate platform. This is crucial to unravel the respective influences of tectonics, climate and rheology of the lithosphere on the foreland basin tectonic and stratigraphic development, and it brings new constraints on the paleoenvironments and paleogeography during the Lutetian, i.e. at the beginning of the major phase of activity of the Pyrenean orogenesis. Two outcrops were studied in the Sierras Marginales at the localities of Arguis and Lusera. The Lusera section once restored in its initial position is located to the North of the Arguis section in a basinward direction such that comparing time-equivalent facies between these two sections helps us reconstructing

  2. Geochemistry and depositional environments of Paleocene-Eocene phosphorites: Metlaoui Group, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnit, Hechmi; Bouhlel, Salah; Jarvis, Ian

    2017-10-01

    The Late Paleocene-Early Eocene phosphorites of the Metlaoui Group in Tunisia are a world-class phosphate resource. We review the characteristics of phosphorites deposited in three areas: the Northern Basins; Eastern Basins; and Gafsa-Metlaoui Basin. Comprehensive new bulk rock elemental data are presented, together with complementary mineralogical and mineral chemical results. Carbonate fluorapatite (francolite) constitutes the dominant mineral phase in the deposits. Phosphorite samples are enriched in Cd, Sr, U, rare-earth elements and Y, together with environmentally diagnostic trace elements that provide detrital (Cr, Zr), productivity (Cu, Ni, Zn) and redox (Mo, V) proxies. Suboxic bottom-water conditions predominated, with suboxic to anoxic porewaters accompanying francolite precipitation. Phosphorite deposition occurred under increasingly arid climate conditions, accompanying global Paleocene-Eocene warming. The Northern Basins show the strongest Tethys Ocean influence, with surface seawater rare-earth element signatures consistently developed in the phosphorites. Bed-scale compositional variation indicates relatively unstable environmental conditions and episodes of sediment redeposition, with varying detrital supply and a relatively wet local climate. Glauconitic facies in the Northern Basins and the more isolated evaporite-associated phosphorites in the dryer Eastern Basins display the greatest diagenetic influences. The phosphorite - organic-rich marl - diatom-bearing porcelanite facies association in the Gafsa-Metlaoui Basin represents the classic coastal upwelling trinity. Modified Tethyan waters occurred within the Basin during phosphorite deposition, with decreasing marine productivity from NW to SE evidenced by systematically falling enrichment factors for Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn in the phosphorites. Productivity declined in concert with increasing basin isolation during the deposition of the commercial phosphorite beds in the latest Paleocene to earliest

  3. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  4. Paleocene-Eocene magnetostratigraphy and climate-driven rock-magnetism from the Belluno Basin (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, G.; Dallanave, E.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetostratigraphy and rock-magnetism of the Paleocene-Eocene interval has been studied in the recent years in several Tethyan marine sections of the Belluno Basin of NE Italy (Possagno, Cicogna, South Ardo, Alano). The paleomagnetic results, integrated with calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, allowed the recovery of a virtually continuous ~27 Myr-long interval of time spanning from the K/Pg boundary (~65 Ma) at the South Ardo section up to the middle-late Eocene boundary (~38 Ma) at the Alano GSSP candidate, and bracketing some of the most extreme climate conditions of the Cenozoic such the Early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO) and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). The rock-magnetic data indicate that the magnetic mineralogy of the sediments generally consists of variable proportions of magnetite-maghemite-hematite, which are iron oxides characterized by different oxidation states and crystal structures. We reconstructed the rock-magnetic variability across the investigated interval, and placed it on a temporal reference frame using a CK95-based age-depth function for comparison with oxygen isotope data from the literature. The rock-magnetic data indicate that relatively warmer climate periods (i.e. the PETM and the early Eocene warming trend leading to EECO) are associated with high contents of detrital hematite relative to magnetite-maghemite, while relatively cooler climates (i.e. the Paleocene) are associated with a relative increase in magnetite-maghemite. We speculate that the increase of detrital hematite observed during warm periods is due to intensified chemical weathering rates of land silicates under warm and humid climates. We therefore show that rock-magnetic properties can be useful proxies to study the efficiency of the silicate weathering negative feedback mechanism to stabilize long-term Earth's surface temperatures.

  5. A Significant Warming Event in the Southern Ocean During the Late Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, S. M.; Zachos, J. C.

    2002-12-01

    The late middle-to-late Eocene (~45 to 34 Ma) is a critical period of Cenozoic climatic evolution, characterized by long-term cooling of deep waters and small-scale growth of ice sheets on Antarctica. This time interval, however, is poorly represented in deep-sea sediment archives, and high-resolution paleoceanographic records have not been developed for many of the sections that are available. Several Southern Ocean sites have adequate stratigraphic coverage through the middle-to-late Eocene and provide an opportunity to investigate regional paleoceanographic change through this time interval. In order to supplement the existing database, we have generated high-resolution stable isotope records from fine-fraction carbonates and foraminifera at Site 748, located on the southern Kerguelen Plateau. Integration of middle-to-late Eocene oxygen isotope records from Sites 748 and 738 (Kerguelen Plateau) and Site 689 (Maud Rise) reveals a prominent, short-term warming event at ~41.5 Ma, designated as the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). At Site 748, both surface-dwelling (Acarinina spp.) and benthic (Cibicidoides spp.) exhibit two δ 18O minima, indicating that this event is characterized by two brief intervals of peak warming in both surface and deep waters. Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O data further indicate that middle-bathyal waters warmed ~ 4°C on both the Kerguelen Plateau and Maud Rise during the MECO. Accordingly, this transient event (isotope excursion, as observed during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, suggests that this event was not triggered by methane dissociation. Instead, the MECO may possibly be linked to increased pCO2 associated with the Chron C20-19 plate reorganization. Possible sources of CO2 during this period of global tectonic change are metamorphic decarbonation in the Himalayan orogen and inter-plate volcanism.

  6. The Early Eocene equable climate problem: can perturbations of climate model parameters identify possible solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Navjit; Valdes, Paul; Flecker, Rachel; Gregoire, Lauren J

    2013-10-28

    Geological data for the Early Eocene (56-47.8 Ma) indicate extensive global warming, with very warm temperatures at both poles. However, despite numerous attempts to simulate this warmth, there are remarkable data-model differences in the prediction of these polar surface temperatures, resulting in the so-called 'equable climate problem'. In this paper, for the first time an ensemble with a perturbed climate-sensitive model parameters approach has been applied to modelling the Early Eocene climate. We performed more than 100 simulations with perturbed physics parameters, and identified two simulations that have an optimal fit with the proxy data. We have simulated the warmth of the Early Eocene at 560 ppmv CO2, which is a much lower CO2 level than many other models. We investigate the changes in atmospheric circulation, cloud properties and ocean circulation that are common to these simulations and how they differ from the remaining simulations in order to understand what mechanisms contribute to the polar warming. The parameter set from one of the optimal Early Eocene simulations also produces a favourable fit for the last glacial maximum boundary climate and outperforms the control parameter set for the present day. Although this does not 'prove' that this model is correct, it is very encouraging that there is a parameter set that creates a climate model able to simulate well very different palaeoclimates and the present-day climate. Interestingly, to achieve the great warmth of the Early Eocene this version of the model does not have a strong future climate change Charney climate sensitivity. It produces a Charney climate sensitivity of 2.7(°)C, whereas the mean value of the 18 models in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is 3.26(°)C±0.69(°)C. Thus, this value is within the range and below the mean of the models included in the AR4.

  7. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  8. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  9. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  10. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2006-01-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  11. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  12. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  13. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  14. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  15. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  16. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  17. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  18. A Model-Model and Data-Model Comparison for the Early Eocene Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Huber, Matthew; Heinemann, Malte; Kiehl, Jeffrey; LeGrande, Allegra; Loptson, Claire A.; Roberts, Chris D.; Sagoo, Navjit; Shields, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A range of proxy observations have recently provided constraints on how Earth's hydrological cycle responded to early Eocene climatic changes. However, comparisons of proxy data to general circulation model (GCM) simulated hydrology are limited and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised. In this work, we undertake an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation and P - E distributions within the extended EoMIP ensemble (Eocene Modelling Intercomparison Project; Lunt et al., 2012), which includes previously published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure, and precipitation-relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle, manifested in enhanced global precipitation and evaporation rates, is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to the preindustrial conditions. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, resulting in elevated temperatures, although the effects of differences in paleogeography and ice sheets are also important in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely arising from different simulated surface air temperatures. Models with a similar global sensitivity of precipitation rate to temperature (dP=dT ) display different regional precipitation responses for a given temperature change. Regions that are particularly sensitive to model choice include the South Pacific, tropical Africa, and the Peri-Tethys, which may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of early and middle Eocene leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with the GCM output illustrates that GCMs generally underestimate precipitation rates at high latitudes, although a possible seasonal bias of the proxies cannot be excluded. Models which warm these regions, either via elevated CO2 or by varying poorly constrained model parameter values, are most successful in simulating a

  19. A newly isolated Haloalkaliphilic bacterium from middle-late Eocene halite formed in salt lakes in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meng, F. W.; Wang, X.-Q.; Ni, P.; Kletetschka, Günther; Li, Y-P.; Yang, Ch.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 321-330 ISSN 0891-2556 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ancient microorganism * primary fluid inclusion * halite * Eocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.440, year: 2015

  20. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  1. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  2. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The latest Paleocene to middle Eocene interval in the Bay of Biscay - preliminary results from calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, A.

    2009-04-01

    Calcareous plankton (calcareous nannofossils, planktic foraminifera) is currently studied from DSDP Site 401 during the latest Paleocene to Middle Eocene greenhouse episode. This site is situated on the edge of a tilted fault block underlying the southern edge of the Meriadzek terrace on the North Biscay margin and comprises a 100-m-thick, nearly complete sedimentary record of Paleocene to middle Eocene sediments covering the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum as well as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. Detailed age control is achieved by calcareous nannofossil and planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy suggesting that the study interval covers the NP9 to NP16 and P5 to E13 biozones, respectively, with a pronounced condensed interval across the Early to Middle Eocene boundary (NP13/NP14). Besides DSDP Site 550 this site represents one of the most northern locations which consists of Paleogene carbonates and will provide us a more complete picture by considering also long-term records from the northern hemisphere. Here we present first assemblage data from the two plankton groups which are accompanied by planktic and benthic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope data in order to unravel the impact of the long-term climate change on the planktic ecosystem during the Eocene greenhouse.

  4. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  5. Anthracobunids from the middle eocene of India and pakistan are stem perissodactyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S Taseer; Thewissen, J G M

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins.

  6. Anthracobunids from the middle eocene of India and pakistan are stem perissodactyls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Noelle Cooper

    Full Text Available Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans and sea cows (sirenians. We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins.

  7. The green-leaved variant of Eucalyptus largiflorens: a story involving hybridization and observant local people

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Robert F.; Zubrinich, Tatia M.

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) is the most common tree in the Chowilla anabranch system on the Murray River floodplain. It typically has dull, glaucous, grey-green leaves. Occasional trees with smaller, glossy green leaves (Green Box) occur scattered amongst the Black Box. In areas with increasing salinity, they usually appear much healthier than adjacent, normal Black Box trees. Green Box plants are intermediate between normal Eucalyptus largiflorens plants and Eucalyptus gracilis plant...

  8. Strong Central Asian seasonality from Eocene oysters indicates early monsoons and aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Tindall, Julia; Proust, Jean-Noël; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart; Guo, ZhaoJie; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    Climate models suggest that the onset of Asian monsoons and aridification have been governed by Tibetan plateau uplift, global climate changes and the retreat to the west of the vast epicontinental Proto-Paratethys sea during the warm Eocene greenhouse period (55-34 million years ago). However, the role of the Proto-Paratethys sea on climate remains to be quantified by accurate and precise reconstructions. By applying a novel intra-annual geochemical multi-proxy methodology on Eocene oyster shells of the Proto-Paratethys sea and comparing results to climate simulations and sedimentology analyses, we show that the Central Asian region was generally arid with a high seasonal contrast characterized by hot and arid summers and wetter winters. Hotter and more arid summers despite the presence of the Proto-Paratethys may be explained by warmer Eocene global conditions with a strong anticyclonic Hadley cell descending at Central Asian latitudes and a stronger Foehn effect from the emerging Tibetan Plateau to the south. This implies that the shallow sea did not have a strong dampening thermal effect on the monsoonal circulation in contrast to previous circulation models results but in agreement with recent evidence for Eocene summer monsoons. Enhanced winter precipitations, relative to modern, is linked to a westerly moisture source coming from the Proto-Paratethys sea at that time. Additional bulk sediment stable isotope data from marine limestones and pedogenic carbonates suggest a gradual decrease in this westerly moisture source, which is in line with the retreat of the Proto-Paratethys followed by the Oligo-Miocene orogeny of the Central Asian ranges (Tian Shan and Pamir) shielding the westerlies.

  9. Antarctic climate, Southern Ocean circulation patterns, and deep water formation during the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Claire E.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Bohaty, Steven M.; Hammond, Samantha J.

    2017-07-01

    We assess early-to-middle Eocene seawater neodymium (Nd) isotope records from seven Southern Ocean deep-sea drill sites to evaluate the role of Southern Ocean circulation in long-term Cenozoic climate change. Our study sites are strategically located on either side of the Tasman Gateway and are positioned at a range of shallow (fish teeth at intermediate/deep Indian Ocean pelagic sites (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 738 and 757 and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 264), indicate a dominant Southern Ocean-sourced contribution to regional deep waters (ɛNd(t) = -9.3 ± 1.5). IODP Site U1356 off the coast of Adélie Land, a locus of modern-day Antarctic Bottom Water production, is identified as a site of persistent deep water formation from the early Eocene to the Oligocene. East of the Tasman Gateway an additional local source of intermediate/deep water formation is inferred at ODP Site 277 in the SW Pacific Ocean (ɛNd(t) = -8.7 ± 1.5). Antarctic-proximal shelf sites (ODP Site 1171 and Site U1356) reveal a pronounced erosional event between 49 and 48 Ma, manifested by 2 ɛNd unit negative excursions in seawater chemistry toward the composition of bulk sediments at these sites. This erosional event coincides with the termination of peak global warmth following the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum and is associated with documented cooling across the study region and increased export of Antarctic deep waters, highlighting the complexity and importance of Southern Ocean circulation in the greenhouse climate of the Eocene.

  10. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  11. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E

    2009-07-16

    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  12. Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events. Geologica Ultraiectina (328)

    OpenAIRE

    Stap, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma), during which large amounts of carbon were released. More recently, another distinct period of global warming was discovered, similar in nature to the PETM, occurring approximately t...

  13. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  14. Lower Paleogene Tectonostratigraphy of Balochistan: Evidence for Time-Transgressive Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Clyde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of lithofacies, paleoflow directions, and sandstone petrography of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene paralic and continental sediments exposed along the transpressional suture zone of the western margin of the Indian plate indicate that the process of deformation and uplift of the carbonate shelf in this area had started by late Paleocene time. This tectonic uplift and deformation is documented by: (1 an overall shallowing upward synorogenic sequence of sediments, (2 proximal conglomerate facies (consisting of lower Paleocene and Mesozoic clasts dominating in the western part of the study area and distal facies of sandstone and shale dominating in the eastern part of the study area, (3 the existence of an unconformity of late Paleocene-early Eocene age in the Quetta and Kalat regions, (4 paleocurrent directions in deltaic and fluvial deposits indicating southeastward flowing sediment dispersal paths during late Paleocene-early Eocene time, which is opposite to that found in the late Cretaceous, suggesting a reversal in the depositional slope of the Cretaceous shelf, and (5 petrographic study of sandstones indicating a collision suture/fold thrust belt provenance. This episode of uplift and deformation could be the result of India-Arabian transpression with associated ophiolite obduction or, more likely, to represent the local response to initial India-Asia contact. The unroofing pattern and uplift geometry of the western Indian shelf suggests that this tectonism first started in the southern part of the study area (Kalat-Khuzdar area during the late Paleocene-early Eocene and proceeded northward in a time-transgressive fashion.

  15. Tarsal morphology of the pleuraspidotheriid mammal Hilalia from the middle Eocene of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire Metais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleuraspidotheriids are a group of primitive ungulate mammals that, until recently, were thought to be restricted to the late Paleocene of Western Europe. It has been hypothesized that this family actually survived in Central Anatolia until at least the middle Eocene. However, these anachronistically young Anatolian “survivors”, including the genus Hilalia, were previously documented mainly by dental remains. Here, we describe the previously unknown astragalus of Hilalia saribeya, which confirms the pleuraspidotheriid affinities of the genus, and supports phylogenetic reconstructions that place Hilalia as the sister group of Pleuraspidotherium. The morphology of the astragalus suggests sub-cursorial plantigrade locomotion for H. saribeya, although its tarsal morphology remains generalized enough that scansorial capabilities cannot be ruled out. The evolution of Hilalia is addressed in the context of the apparent geographic isolation of Central Anatolia during the Eocene. The endemic character of the mammalian fauna of Central Anatolia during the middle Eocene emphasizes how the complex paleogeography of the northern margin of Neotethys impacted local biotas in a region situated at the crossroads of very distinctive biogeographic zones.

  16. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  17. A new primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches (Middle Eocene, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Becker, Damien; Costeur, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus. Microchoerines are also represented by two species of Pseudoloris, P. pyrenaicus and Pseudoloris parvulus, constituting the unique joint record of these two species known up to now. Remains of Adapiformes are limited to one isolated tooth of a large anchomomyin and another tooth belonging to the small adapine Microadapis cf. sciureus. The studied primate association allows assigning La Verrerie de Roches to the Robiacian Land Mammal Age. More specifically, this site can be confidently situated between the MP15 and MP16 reference levels, although the primate assemblage probably indicates some degree of temporal mixing. This is the first record of P. pyrenaicus and a form closely related to N. anadoni out of the Iberian Peninsula. The identification of these microchoerines in Switzerland gives further support to the connection of NE Spain and Central Europe during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  19. Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

  20. Sensitivity of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum climate to cloud properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Shields, Christine A

    2013-10-28

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a significant global warming event in the Earth's history (approx. 55 Ma). The cause for this warming event has been linked to increases in greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide and methane. This rapid warming took place in the presence of the existing Early Eocene warm climate. Given that projected business-as-usual levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reach concentrations of 800-1100 ppmv by 2100, it is of interest to study past climates where atmospheric carbon dioxide was higher than present. This is especially the case given the difficulty of climate models in simulating past warm climates. This study explores the sensitivity of the simulated pre-PETM and PETM periods to change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and microphysical properties of liquid water clouds. Assuming lower levels of CCN for both of these periods leads to significant warming, especially at high latitudes. The study indicates that past differences in cloud properties may be an important factor in accurately simulating past warm climates. Importantly, additional shortwave warming from such a mechanism would imply lower required atmospheric CO2 concentrations for simulated surface temperatures to be in reasonable agreement with proxy data for the Eocene.

  1. A Possible Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Ocean Acidification Event Recoded in the Adriatic Carbonate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Oefinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event ( 56.3 Ma) was a period of massive carbon release into the Earth system, resulting in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. It has been proposed that ocean acidification - a decrease in the pH and carbonate saturation state of the water as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water - occurred in both the shallow and deep marine realms. Ocean acidification would have had a devastating impact on the benthic ecosystem, and has been proposed as the cause of decreased carbonate deposition in marine sections and coral reef collapse during the late Paleocene. To date, however, the only physical evidence of Paleocene-Eocene ocean acidification has been shown for offshore sites (i.e., a shallow carbonate compensation depth), but isotope analysis (i.e. B, I/Ca) suggests that acidification occurred in the shallow shelves as well. Several sites in the Kras region of Slovenia, has been found to contain apparent erosion surfaces coeval with the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary. We have investigated these potentially acidified horizons using petrography, stable carbon isotopes, cathodoluminescence, and elemental mapping. These datasets will inform whether the horizons formed by seafloor dissolution in an acidified ocean, or are due to subaerial exposure, or burial diagenesis (i.e. stylotization). Physical erosion and diagenesis can easily be ruled out based on field relationships and petrography, but the other potential causes must be analyzed more critically.

  2. Large temperature drop across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, Alessandro; Kohn, Matthew J; MacFadden, Bruce J; Terry, Dennis O

    2007-02-08

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition towards a cool climate (approximately 33.5 million years ago) was one of the most pronounced climate events during the Cenozoic era. The marine record of this transition has been extensively studied. However, significantly less research has focused on continental climate change at the time, yielding partly inconsistent results on the magnitude and timing of the changes. Here we use a combination of in vivo stable isotope compositions of fossil tooth enamel with diagenetic stable isotope compositions of fossil bone to derive a high-resolution (about 40,000 years) continental temperature record for the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We find a large drop in mean annual temperature of 8.2 +/- 3.1 degrees C over about 400,000 years, the possibility of a small increase in temperature seasonality, and no resolvable change in aridity across the transition. The large change in mean annual temperature, exceeding changes in sea surface temperatures at comparable latitudes and possibly delayed in time with respect to marine changes by up to 400,000 years, explains the faunal turnover for gastropods, amphibians and reptiles, whereas most mammals in the region were unaffected. Our results are in agreement with modelling studies that attribute the climate cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene transition to a significant drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

  3. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friðgeir Grímsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background We revisit the palaeopalynological record of Loranthaceae, using pollen ornamentation to discriminate lineages and to test molecular dating estimates for the diversification of major lineages. Methods Fossil Loranthaceae pollen from the Eocene and Oligocene are analysed and documented using scanning-electron microscopy. These fossils were associated with molecular-defined clades and used as minimum age constraints for Bayesian node dating using different topological scenarios. Results The fossil Loranthaceae pollen document the presence of at least one extant root-parasitic lineage (Nuytsieae and two currently aerial parasitic lineages (Psittacanthinae and Loranthinae by the end of the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere. Phases of increased lineage diversification (late Eocene, middle Miocene coincide with global warm phases. Discussion With the generation of molecular data becoming easier and less expensive every day, neontological research should re-focus on conserved morphologies that can be traced through the fossil record. The pollen, representing the male gametophytic generation of plants and often a taxonomic indicator, can be such a tracer. Analogously, palaeontological research should put more effort into diagnosing Cenozoic fossils with the aim of including them into modern systematic frameworks.

  4. Atmospheric CO2 variations on orbital time scale during the Paleocene and Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Westerhold, T.; Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-million-year proxy records (d13C, d18O, %CaCO3, Fe, etc.) show prominent variations on orbital time scale during the Paleocene and Eocene. The cycles have been identified at various sites across the globe and preferentially concentrate spectral power at eccentricity and precessional frequencies. It is almost certain that these cycles are an expression of changes in global climate and carbon cycling paced by orbital variations. However, little is currently known about (1) the driving mechanism linking orbital forcing to changes in climate and carbon cycling and (2) the amplitude of atmospheric CO2 variations associated with these cycles. We have used simple and complex carbon cycle models to explore the basic effect of different orbital forcing schemes and noise on the carbon cycle by forcing different carbon cycle parameters. For direct insolation forcing (opposed to eccentricity - tilt - precession), one major challenge is understanding how the system transfers spectral power from high to low frequencies. We will discuss feasible solutions to this problem, including insolation transformations analogous to electronic AC-DC conversion (DC'ing). Our results show that high-latitude mechanisms are unlikely drivers of orbitally paced changes in the Paleocene-Eocene Earth system. Based on a synthesis of modeling and proxy data analysis, we present the first estimates of orbital-scale variations in atmospheric CO2 during the Paleocene and Eocene.

  5. High resolution deep-sea stable isotopes: do Early Eocene hyperthermals share a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, Vittoria; Lourens, Lucas J.; Zachos, James C.; Sluijs, Appy

    2013-04-01

    During the Early Eocene, the Earth experienced a prolonged warming trend (55-50 Ma), punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, (PETM) is the most extreme, followed by the ETM2 (Elmo) and the ETM3 ("X-event"). Along with these events, a number of less pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions, termed A to L by Cramer et al (2003), occurred throughout the Paleogene up to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). The drastic increase in temperature during the hyperthermals is associated with the release of large amounts of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Several hypotheses have been proposed to determine the sources and mechanisms of these carbon inputs, in particular the dissociation of marine gas hydrates. However, what still remains unclear is whether or not these events share a common source. To address this question we compare the quantitative relationship between high-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope records from benthic foraminiferal tests. A similar correspondence between changes in the carbon cycle and global temperature among the events, regardless of their magnitudes, would imply a similarity in their origins. Following Stap et al. 2010, we present the results of the comparison between our data and previously published data, using deep-sea material to extend the record to the I1-I2 events.

  6. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  7. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  8. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 3). These rivers seem to have maintained ... the river cuts a deep can- yon with practically vertical walls (valley slopes). ... furiously at work, cutting channel beds, eroding slopes, and denuding watersheds. This ever-youthfulness of the.

  9. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  10. Environmental Benefits of Restoring Sediment Continuity to the Kansas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    sediment continuity from the Kansas River watershed to the Kansas River by passing sediment through, rather than trapping sediment in, large Federal...nutrients with a low nitrogen-to-phosphorous ratio, primarily composed of soluble reactive phosphorus (Shaus et al. 1997), which favors blue-green algae...Figure 5. Phytoplankton samples collected in August 2014 from Milford Lake were primarily composed of blue-green algae while those collected from Tuttle

  11. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  12. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  13. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  14. The occurrence of a bloom-forming green alga .i.Pleodorina indica./i. (Volvocales) in the downstream reach of the River Malše (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znachor, Petr; Jezberová, Jitka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 541, č. 1 (2005), s. 221-228 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK2-1999-00213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : green algae * Pleodorina indica * water bloom Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2005

  15. Organic matter composition of two discrete thin layers from the eocene messel oil shale (Germany); Organisch-geochemische und mikroskopische Charakterisierung diskreter, organisch reicher Lagen des Messeler Oelschiefers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerisch, S.

    2005-04-01

    The Messel Pit fossil site near Darmstadt, Germany, is famous because of its numerous well-preserved mammal and other fossils, and therefore, in 1995 became a UNESCO-World Heritage (www.unesco-welterbe.de/en/). The respective host rock, the Messel oil shale is still a matter of intensive studies. This dark, finely laminated organic rich mudstone, was deposited in a Maar lake in the lower middle eocene about 47 Ma ago during a time span of 1 to 1.5 Ma. One subunit, the so-called 'middle Messel formation' can be subdivided by several specifically named marker beds (M, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}), but also by some further layers with distinct macroscopic characteristics. The two layers investigated here represent green-brown deposits with a maximum thickness of up to one millimetre only. They are encountered at a level of 35 cm (herein after referred to as 'layer 0,35m u{alpha}') and 100 cm (herein after referred to as 'layer 1,00 m u{alpha}') below marker bed {alpha}. Typically, both layers are extremely ductile, and thus can easily be manually separated like individual paper-like book-sheets from their adjacent host rock. Because of their leather-like plasticity, they must be considered to be rich in organic material. Accordingly, it was the objective of this study to reveal the type of organic matter they consist of. (orig.)

  16. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  17. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  18. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  19. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  20. Green Nail Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from blue-green to dark green to bluish-grey. Since the discoloration is underneath the nail, it ... infected by P. aeruginosa. Nails repeatedly immersed in water are susceptible. Housewives, dishwashers, cooks, and health care ...

  1. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  2. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...) is extremely environmentally friendly and leaves no toxic residues. Decon Green (trademark) retains the low-temperature decontamination ability of DS2, but it is noncorrosive to aluminum and steel. Decon Green (trademark...

  3. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  4. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  5. Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum linked to continental arc flare-up in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Kuiper, K.; van der Ploeg, R.; Cramwinckel, M.; Honarmand, M.; Sluijs, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    A 500 kyr episode of 3-5 °C gradual global climate warming, some 40 Myr ago, has been termed the Middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO). It has been associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the source of this carbon remains enigmatic. We show, based on new Ar-Ar ages of volcanic rocks in Iran and Azerbaijan, that the time interval spanning the MECO was associated with a massive increase in continental arc volcanism. We also collected almost 300 Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages from literature. Typically, U-Pb ages from the Eocene are slightly younger, by 3 Myr, than Ar-Ar ages. We observed that U-Pb ages are obtained mostly from intrusive rocks and therefore must reflect an intrusive stage that post-dated extrusive volcanism. Combining all ages for extrusive rocks, we show that they cluster around 40.2 Ma, exactly within the time span of the MECO (40.5-40.0 Ma). We estimate volumes of volcanism based on a shapefile of outcrops and average thickness of the sequences. We calculate CO2 estimates using a relation volcanism-CO2 that was earlier used for the Deccan traps (Tobin et al., 2017). Our calculations indicate that the volume of the Iranian middle Eocene volcanic rocks (estimated at 37000 km3) is sufficient to explain the CO2 rise during the MECO. We conclude that continental arc flare-up in the Neotethys subduction zone is a plausible candidate for causing the MECO.

  6. Thermochronologic Evidence for Late Eocene Andean Mountain Building at 30°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossada, Ana C.; Giambiagi, Laura; Hoke, Gregory D.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Creixell, Christian; Murillo, Ismael; Mardonez, Diego; Velásquez, Ricardo; Suriano, Julieta

    2017-11-01

    The Andes between 28° and 30°S represent a transition between the Puna-Altiplano Plateau and the Frontal/Principal Cordillera fold-and-thrust belts to the south. While significant early Cenozoic deformation documented in the Andean Plateau, deciphering the early episodes of deformation during Andean mountain building in the transition area is largely unstudied. Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology from a vertical and a horizontal transect reveal the exhumation history of the High Andes at 30°S, an area at the heart of this major transition. Interpretation of the age-elevation profile, combined with inverse thermal modeling, indicates that the onset of rapid cooling was underway by 35 Ma, followed by a significant decrease in cooling rate at 30-25 Ma. AFT thermal models also reveal a second episode of rapid cooling in the early Miocene ( 18 Ma) related to rock exhumation to its present position. Low exhumation between the rapid cooling events allowed for the development of a partial annealing zone. We interpret the observed Eocene rapid exhumation as the product of a previously unrecognized compressive event in this part of the Andes that reflects a southern extension of Eocene orogenesis recognized in the Puna/Altiplano. Renewed early-Miocene exhumation indicates that the late Cenozoic compressional stresses responsible for the main phase of uplift of the South Central Andes also impacted the core of the range in this transitional sector. The major episode of Eocene exhumation suggests the creation of significant topographic relief in the High Andes earlier than previously thought.

  7. Frequency, magnitude and character of hyperthermal events at the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, V.; Littler, K.; Polling, M.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) was preceded by a series of short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals. Here we present high-resolution benthic stable carbon and oxygen isotope records from ODP Sites 1262 and 1263 (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic) between ~ 54 and ~ 52 million years ago, tightly constraining the character, timing, and magnitude of six prominent hyperthermal events. These events, which include Eocene Thermal Maximum (ETM) 2 and 3, are studied in relation to orbital forcing and long-term trends. Our findings reveal an almost linear relationship between δ13C and δ18O for all these hyperthermals, indicating that the eccentricity-paced covariance between deep-sea temperature changes and extreme perturbations in the exogenic carbon pool persisted during these events towards the onset of the EECO, in accordance with previous observations for the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and ETM2. The covariance of δ13C and δ18O during H2 and I2, which are the second pulses of the "paired" hyperthermal events ETM2-H2 and I1-I2, deviates with respect to the other events. We hypothesize that this could relate to a relatively higher contribution of an isotopically heavier source of carbon, such as peat or permafrost, and/or to climate feedbacks/local changes in circulation. Finally, the δ18O records of the two sites show a systematic offset with on average 0.2 ‰ heavier values for the shallower Site 1263, which we link to a slightly heavier isotopic composition of the intermediate water mass reaching the northeastern flank of the Walvis Ridge compared to that of the deeper northwestern water mass at Site 1262.

  8. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  9. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Powder River R and D Project, Arminto Detail, Wyoming. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The small detail area, 18 miles by 18 miles, lying near the center of the Powder River Basin, is covered entirely by sediments of the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Historically economic uranium deposits have been worked in the southeast corner of the area which includes the northern extremity of the Pumpkin Buttes district. 127 statistical uranium anomalies were generated for the study area, based on area wide statistics

  10. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  11. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  12. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  13. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  14. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  15. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  16. Mammal Dispersion linked to The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): New Insights from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozyem, H.; Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Spangenberg, J. E.; Bajpai, S.; Samant, B.; Mathur, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.5Ma) is globally related with the extinction of deep benthic foraminifera, the diversification of both plancktic foraminifera and mammals. In India, the tempo and timing of mammals dispersion, their association with the PETM or EECO (Early Eocene Climatic Optimum) and the India- Asia collision remain uncertain (Smith et al., 2006 Clementz, 2010). Three sections located in north and northwest India have been studied using sedimentology, micropaleontology, mineralogy (bulk and clay mineralogy) and geochemistry (stable isotopes, major and trace elements, organic matter). Both PETM and ETM2 (second Eocene Thermal Maximum, 53.7Ma), a short-lived warming episode that followed the PETM, are globally marked by a pronounced δ13Ccarb and org negative peak. Both isotopic excursions have been recognized in the Vastan and Tarkeswhar lignite mines (Cambay basin, Gujarat), above the main mammals bearing level. The lower shift is located above the first lignite seam (=lignite 2 of Sahni et al, 2004, 2009) and corresponds to the transition from continental to shallow marine conditions marked by benthic foraminifera and bivalves. The upper excursion appears to be linked to the ETM2 and corresponds to a second marine incursion containing bivalves, benthic (Nummulites burdigalensis) and planktic foraminifera located below the second lignite seam (lignite 1 of Sahni et al, 2004, 2009). A single but very pronounced δ13Corg peak has been detected in the Giral Lignite mine (Barmer, Rajhastan), around 6m above the vertebrates bearing level and may correspond to the PETM. This correlation is confirmed by palynological data (Tripathi et al., 2009, Sahni et al., 2004, 2009) and more particularly by an acme in the dinoflagellate Apectodinium that globally characterizes the PETM interval (Sluijs et al. 2007). Our micropaleontological data combined with stable carbone isotopes indicate the presence of both PETM and ETM2 events and constrain the

  17. New stalked and sessile cirripedes from the Eocene Mo Clay, northwest Jutland (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriol, René-Pierre; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Jakobsen, Sten Lennart

    2016-01-01

    New taxa of thoracican cirripedes are recorded from the Eocene Mo Clay of northwest Jutland, Denmark, namely Stipilepas molerensis Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a scalpelliform gooseneck barnacle, and Plesiobrachylepas jutlandica Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a brachylepadomorph sessile form. This material...... is of importance in that the former not only represents the first extinct example of the tribe Ashinkailepadini, it also is the second fossil neolepadine, while the latter adds to the diversity of the family Brachylepadidae, which previously embraced only three genera. The geological context of these taxa...

  18. An exceptionally well-preserved Eocene dolichopodid fly eye: function and evolutionary significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Gengo; Parker, Andrew R.; Siveter, David J.; Maeda, Haruyoshi; Furutani, Masumi

    2008-01-01

    The exceptionally preserved eyes of an Eocene dolichopodid fly contained in Baltic amber show remarkable detail, including features at micrometre and submicrometre levels. Based on this material, we establish that it is likely that the neural superposition compound eye existed as far back as 45 Ma. The ommatidia have an open rhabdom with a trapezoidal arrangement of seven rhabdomeres. Such a structure is uniquely characteristic of the neural superposition compound eye of present-day flies. Optical analysis reveals that the fossil eyes had a sophisticated and efficient optical system. PMID:19129103

  19. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.......) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene...

  20. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  1. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf a...... recrystallization during subsequent high-temperature ductile extension. The new Lu-Hf ages are the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the early Eocene collision between Greater India and the Eurasian plate...

  2. Climate, carbon cycling and marine ecology during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Frieling, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene are characterized by strong greenhouse climates. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global temperatures were much higher than today. The period from 60 to 50 million years ago (Ma) is marked by a gradual warming trend of ~8 ºC in the deep ocean. The interval from 56 to 50 Ma is further characterized by several transient perturbations of the carbon cycle. Essentially, these perturbations, or “hyperthermal” events mark phases of rapid (103 – 104 years) warming, associat...

  3. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  4. Rectification of invalidly published new names for plants from the late Eocene of North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaček Zlatko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valid publication of new names of fossil plant taxa published since 1 January 1996 requires a diagnosis or description in English, besides other requirements included in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 (McNeill et al. 2012. In order to validate names published from the late Eocene flora of the Staré Sedlo Formation, North Bohemia, diagnosed only in German (Knobloch et al. 1996, English translations are provided, including references to the type material and further relevant information.

  5. Fuenferrada 3, the first Eocene mammal locality in the depression of Montalbán (Teruel, Spain), with some remarks on the fauna of Olalla 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The rodent fauna of Fuenferrada contains two species of Theridomyidae and three species of Gliridae. It is compared with the Early Oligocene fauna of Olalla 4A, and with the Late Eocene fauna of Aguatón 2D. The absence of Cricetidae serves to determine its age as latest Eocene.

  6. Prolonged high relief in the northern Cordilleran orogenic front during middle and late Eocene extension based on stable isotope paleoaltimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Majie; Constenius, Kurt N.; Dettman, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The paleoelevation and size of the North America Cordilleran orogen during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene contractional and subsequent extensional tectonics remain enigmatic. We present new estimates of paleorelief of the northern Cordilleran orogenic front during the middle and late Eocene using oxygen isotope compositions of unaltered molluscan fossils and paleosol carbonates in the Kishenehn basin. Bounded by several mountains ranges to the east, the Kishenehn basin was a half graben developed during middle Eocene to early Miocene collapse of the Cordilleran orogen. These mollusk taxa include three sympatric groups with affinities to wet tropical, semi-arid subtropical, and temperate environments. Our reconstructed surface water δ18O values vary between -19.8‰ and -6.3‰ (VSMOW) during the middle and late Eocene. The large differences in paleoenvironments and surface water δ18O values suggest that the catchment of the Kishenehn basin was at variable elevation. The estimated paleorelief between the basin and the surrounding mountains, based on both Rayleigh condensation model and predictions of Eocene precipitation isotope values using an isotope-enabled global climate model, is ∼4 km, and the basin floor was <1.5 km high. This high topography and high relief paleogeography suggest that the Cordilleran orogenic front reached an elevation of at least 4 km, and the crust thickness may have reached more than 55 km before Eocene gravitational collapse. We attribute the maintenance of high Eocene topography to the combination of an inherited thick crust, thermal uplift caused by mantle upwelling, and isostatic uplift caused by removing lower lithosphere or oceanic slab.

  7. Silicate weathering machine at work: Rock magnetic data from the late Paleocene-early Eocene Cicogna section, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallanave, Edoardo; Tauxe, Lisa; Muttoni, Giovanni; Rio, Domenico

    2010-07-01

    We describe a scenario of climate forcing on sedimentation recorded in the late Paleocene-early Eocene Cicogna marine section from the Belluno Basin (NE Italy). Previously published magneto-biostratigraphic data revealed that the ˜81 m Cicogna section extends from Chron C25r to Chron C23r spanning the NP7/NP8-NP12 nannofossil zones (˜52.2-56.6 Ma). Using previously published rock magnetic data, augmented by data from this study, we describe and thoroughly discuss a pronounced increase of hematite (relative to maghemite or magnetite) between ˜54.9 and 54.6 Ma immediately above the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, followed by a second, long-term increasing trend from ˜54 Ma up to ˜52.2 Ma in the early Eocene. This hematite is essentially of detrital origin, insofar as it is associated with a strong shallow bias of paleomagnetic inclinations, and is interpreted to have formed on land by the weathering of Fe-bearing silicates and other primary minerals. We speculate that the warm and humid climate typical of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ˜54.9 Ma) as well as of the warming trend leading to the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO; ˜52-50 Ma) enhanced continental weathering of silicate rocks with the consequent production, transport, and sedimentation of detrital hematite grains. This hypothesis is confirmed by a statistical correlation between the rock magnetic properties and global climate as revealed by a standard benthic oxygen isotope record from the literature. Our temporal coupling between oxidation state of sedimentary magnetic phases and global climate is therefore consistent with the existence in the Paleocene-Eocene of the silicate weathering negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of the Earth's surface temperature.

  8. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  9. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique M L; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  10. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  11. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  12. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF A SINGULAR PENGUIN SCAPULA (AVES, SPHENISCIFORMES FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

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    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of xenoliths in the Eocene volcanic rocks from southwest of Jandaq

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    Samineh Rajabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene volcanic rocks from the southwest of the Jandaq (Kuh-e-Godar-e-Siah, Central-East Iran micro-continent are andesitic basalt and andesite in composition. These rocks contain xenoliths with granulitic mineralogy. Mineral assemblage of these xenoliths is plagioclase + phlogopite + corundum + sillimanite + chlorite + phengite with granublastic, poiklioblastic and foliated textures in the pick metamorphic condition. Thermometry of phlogopite in these xenoliths suggests the average temperature 782oC. The characteristics of the xenoliths are consistent with the granolitic facies metamorphism of the Al-saturated Si-undersaturated crustal sediments at the lower crust condition. Melting of these granulites forms the magma which crystallized the S-type granitoids. Differentiation and crystallization of this magma causes the S-type granite formation. Therefore, the S-type granites in the study area are probably generated from melting of the granulites parts of which brought to the surface as xenoliths by Eocene magmatism in south of the Jandaq (Kuh-e-Godar-e-Siah. S-type granites in the study area are located along the Doruneh, Chupanan and Aeirakan faults in the Aeirakan area and Jandaq ophiolite. These granites are the source of uranium, thorium and uranium ore in southwest of the Aeirakan mountain.

  14. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

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    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  15. Eocene spiculites and spongolites in southwestern Australia: Not deep, not polar, but shallow and warm

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    Gammon, Paul R.; James, Noel P.; Pisera, Andrjez

    2000-09-01

    Siliceous spongolite and spiculite are generally interpreted as deep- and/or cold-water deposits, largely because modern analogs are found mostly in cold- and/or deep-water environments. However, extensive shallow-water, biosiliceous accumulations are present in late Eocene age deposits of southern Western Australia. The attributes and paleoenvironmental setting of these accumulations frame the specific climatic and/or oceanographic constraints that allow such shallow neritic sediments to form. The generally fine grained siliciclastic-biosiliceous sediments accumulated in a nearshore, shallow-water setting, around numerous islands, and offshore from a warm-temperate, rainforest-covered upland. Sponges compose a lithistid-hexactinellid assemblage of Mesozoic Tethyan affinity, confined to deep water in the modern ocean, that migrated into neritic paleoenvironments during late Eocene time. Lithistids dominated shoreface environments and were reworked into sponge-conglomerate beaches, while hexactinellids flourished offshore in muddy subshoreface environments. These deposits also contain common soft demosponge spicules, and a rare but otherwise normal marine calcareous biota. The biosiliceous sediments grade offshore into bryozoan-rich marls and limestones. Sponges outcompeted the calcareous benthos in these inner shelf environments because of elevated amounts of land-derived nutrients that included high dissolved silica and a calm hydrodynamic setting. These deposits suggest that neither temperature nor water depth are critical factors for prolific sponge colonization. The rarity of such deposits in the rock record likely reflects the necessity for the coincidence of all of these factors, or they are misinterpreted.

  16. Analysis of systematic fracturing in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal region

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    Marko Vrabec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse systematic fractures occurring in sandstone beds in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal area. Two nearly perpendicular fracture sets were identifid: fractures F1 are generally NW-SE oriented, wellexpressed and predominately planar, whereas fractures F2 are NE-SW-striking, shorter, more irregular in shape, and terminate against the F1 set. The average orientation of both sets does not change signifiantly in a coastal transect crossing all principal structural domains of the area. We analysed fracture spacing with respect to layer thickness and determined fracture spacing index for both fracture sets. We interpret both fracture sets as tensional (Mode I joints originating in two distinct extensional episodes. Set F1 is older and formed in NE-SW directed tension which we correlate with the well-documented regional post-Dinaric orogen-perpendicular extension of presumably mid-Miocene age. Set F2 formed in NW-SE oriented tension, which is compatible with previously documented NE-SW-striking normal faults occurring in the area, but was so far not documented elsewhere. We interpret that F1 fractures predate folding and thrusting in the coastal belt. Earlier, Eocene-Oligocene Dinaric thrusting therefore did not signifiantly affect the coastal area, whereas post-F1 shortening, associated with northward indentation and underthrusting of the Adria microplate, did not commence before late Miocene.

  17. Anatomically preserved seeds of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) from the Early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Iju; Manchester, Steven R; Chen, Zhiduan

    2004-08-01

    Well-preserved seeds from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong, China are assigned to the genus Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) based on morphology and anatomy. The seeds of Nuphar wutuensis sp. nov. are ellipsoidal to ovoid, 4-5 mm long with a clearly visible raphe ridge, and a truncate apex capped by a circular operculum ca. 1 mm in diameter bearing a central micropylar protrusion. These features, along with the testa composed of a uniseriate outer layer of equiaxial pentagonal to hexagonal surface cells and a middle layer 4-6 cells thick composed of thick-walled, periclinally elongate sclereids, correspond to the morphology and anatomy of extant Nuphar and distinguish this fossil species from all other extant and extinct genera of Nymphaeales. These seeds provide the oldest record for the genus in Asia and are supplemented by a similar well-preserved specimen from the Paleocene of North Dakota, USA. These data, together with the prior recognition of Brasenia (Cabombaceae) in the middle Eocene, indicate that the families Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae had differentiated by the early Tertiary.

  18. Early Eocene Molluscan biostratigraphy, Mount Pinos-Lockwood Valley area, northern Ventura County, southern California

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    Squires, R.L.; Wilson, M.

    1987-05-01

    A 600-m thick unnamed marine, predominantly transition-zone siltstone unit along the south flank of the Mount Pinos uplift, in the northern Lockwood Valley area, previously has been suggested to be early Eocene (Capay Stage) in age at its base. This present study shows the entire unit to be this age. Unconformably overlying the pre-Tertiary granite basement is 30 m of unfossiliferous muddy siltstone that grades upward into 50 m of very fine sandstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of medium to coarse sandstone. Gradationally above the sandstone is 100 m of muddy siltstone with less rarely fossiliferous lenses of conglomeratic sandstone. Macrofossil collections made at 10 localities in these lower 180 m yielded a sparse fauna of subtropical shallow-marine gastropods and bivalves, as well as rare specimens of discocyclinid foraminifera. from 180 to 500 m above the base of the section is unfossiliferous siltstone with local occurrences of lower shoreface, alternating laminated and bioturbated very fine sandstone. The uppermost 100 m of the section is siltstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of fine to medium sandstone. Collections made at five localities yielded subtropical shallow-marine mollusks. Evidence of a West Coast provincial molluscan Capay Stage (early Eocene) age for all the fossiliferous beds of the siltstone unit is the presence of Turritella andersoni, a species diagnostic of this stage. Commonly associated mollusks are Cryptoconus cooperi, Cylichnina tantilla, Ectinochilus (Macilentos) macilentus, and Turritella buwaldana. Unconformably overlying the unit is the Oligocene-lower Miocene nonmarine Plush Ranch Formation.

  19. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

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    Jens Lorenz Franzen

    Full Text Available The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany, is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  20. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Stein, R.; Matthiessen, J.; Lourens, L.J.; Pedentchouk, N.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Clemens, S.; Cronin, T.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Martinez, N.C.; McInroy, D.; Moore, T.C.; O'Regan, M.; Onodera, J.; Palike, H.; Rea, B.; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D.C.; St John, K.E.K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M. E.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ???55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ???18??C to over 23??C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10??C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Paleoelevation reconstruction of the Paleocene-Eocene Gonjo basin, SE-central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoyun; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Hoke, Gregory D.; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Weitao; Li, Zhanfei; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The topography evolution of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau provides a constraint for evaluating various geodynamic models of plateau formation. We reconstruct the Paleocene to Eocene paleoelevation of the Cenozoic Gonjo basin in the Qiangtang terrane, using oxygen and carbon stable isotopic results from pedogenic carbonates of the lower Ranmugou Formation. Lithofacies associations indicate that the lower Ranmugou Formation was deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial floodplain environments. U-Pb dating of volcanics within the middle Ranmugou Formation constrains the deposition of the lower Ranmugou Formation as prior to 43.2 Ma. Paleoelevations are calculated using both a thermodynamic model and an empirical relationship. The empirical relationship of elevation-δ18O is determined from a series of modern water samples. Calculated paleoelevations indicate that the Gonjo basin attained a minimum average elevation of 2100-2500 m in the early Eocene. Together with recent paleoaltimetry studies in the region, it can be concluded that the crust of southeastern Tibetan Plateau was already thickened by that time. The calculation is based on the section in northern Gonjo basin, where δ18O values of paleosol nodules appear to be unaltered, but we cannot rule out the possibility that δ18O values of the pedogenic carbonates had been partially reset. Our preliminary results favor tectonic models compatible with pre-Miocene uplift of the SE-central Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Paleocene/Eocene boundary changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation: A Southern Hemisphere record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovan, Steven A.; Rea, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 215 provides an expanded section across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, the most complete mid-latitude sequence from a Southern Hemisphere location in the Indo-Pacific area. The events of this transition occurred during a span of about 1.2 m.y. Oxygen isotope values derived from benthic foraminiferal calcite decrease by about 1.0‰, a decrease most likely related to warming of deep ocean waters. Turnovers of benthic foraminifera accompany δ18O changes and culminate in the predominant extinction event at the end of the Paleocene Epoch. Carbon isotope ratios also shift dramatically toward lighter values near the end of the Paleocene, beginning about 0.45 m.y. after oxygen isotope values start to change. The intensity of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation as recorded by grain sizes of eolian particles shows a large and rapid reduction beginning another 0.45 m.y. later. A significant reduction of zonal wind strength at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, until now observed only at Northern Hemisphere locations, appears to have been a global phenomenon related to decreased latitudinal thermal gradients occasioned by more effective poleward heat transport via the deep ocean.

  3. STRATIGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE EOCENE ALBIDONA FORMATION IN THE TYPE LOCALITY (CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    LUCA BARUFFINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  4. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  5. Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.

    2017-04-01

    The role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „modern" North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the Early Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (Nielsen, T., and Shannon, P. M., 2005, Neogene stratigraphy and the sedimentary and oceanographic development of the NW European Atlantic margin: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 22, no. 9, p. 977-1005. Hohbein, M. W., Sexton, P. F., and Cartwright, J. A., 2012, Onset of North Atlantic Deep Water production coincident with inception of the Cenozoic global cooling trend: Geology, v. 40, no. 3, p. 255-258.

  6. Is South Korea’s Green Job Policy Sustainable?

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    Yeon-Mi Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s green job policy was implemented in February 2008 as a part of low-carbon green growth policy, but has been discontinued at the present. The country’s actual energy and environmental consumption has continuously increased, and South Korean society has grown increasingly distant from sustainable development. The study constructs a theoretical framework centering on sustainable development and analyzes the process and contents of South Korea’s green job policy. We suggest four findings: First, in terms of ideology, the nation’s green job policy was based on green growth. Implemented as a strategy typical of developing countries, South Korea’s green growth was pursued as weak ecological modernization, relatively stressing economic growth and excluding citizens’ participation. Second, in terms of governance, the nation’s green job policy was led by the central government, thus nearly completely destroying existing legal and institutional infrastructures related to sustainable development. Third, South Korea’s green job policy was defined on the basis of a growth orientation and concentrated on the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project and the NPP project, both of which betrayed considerable problems from the perspective of sustainable development. Fourth, green jobs were created in traditional environmental protection and pollution reduction and therefore limited.

  7. Climatic changes in the Antarctic Eocene: - palaeontological, mineralogical and geochemical fossil proxies from bryozoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Urszula

    2017-04-01

    The earliest Antarctic Cenozoic (late early Eocene) bryozoan fossil records, recognized in the La Meseta Fm. on Seymour Island (Antarctic Peninsula) are connected with the major K/T phase of the cheilostome evolution, clear preponderance of cerioporoidean cyclostomes along with abundant occurrence of microporoideans, umbonulomorphs and lepraliomorphs. The presence of the loose, small zooecia of the cheilostome bryozoans in the lowermost part of this formation, systematically includes the buguloids and catenicelloideans such as e.g. Beanidae, Catenicellidae, Savignyellidae and Calwelliidae families, which in the present day are widely distributed in the tropical-warm latitudes mostly in the shallow-marine settings (Hara 2015). Undoubtedly, the occurrence of over 90% of the warm-loving multilamellar cyclostomes with the relatively slow growing rate is connected with a short-term episode in the lower part of the La Meseta Formation (Telm1), during their long in situ evolution. The recently recognized biota in the middle part of the La Meseta Formation (Telm4 and Telm5) on the NE side of the Seymour Island, reveal a presence of the microporoideans of the Micropora as well as free-living lunulitiforms belonging to the Lunulites and Otionellina genera, which developed disc-shaped colonies (Hara et al. 2015, in review). They are dominated in the Telm5, along with the new umbonulomorph of the family Brydonellidae Uharella seymourensis, found as an epilithozoic, encrusting bryozoan occurring in a loose residuum of the siliciclastic sediments. Environmentally, Recent, free-living lunulitids are known to occur in warm, shallow-shelf conditions, at temperatures of 10-29˚C, on coarse, sandy to muddy bottom with low to moderate deposition in fairly high velocity current regime and they are overwhelmingly associated with sand fauna environments. The dominance of the lunulitiform colonies in the Telm4-5 may suggests the shallow-water setting in this middle part of the formation

  8. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Gas and Oil (50470120), (2) Lower Claiborne Expanded Fault Zone Gas (50470121), (3) Lower Claiborne Slope and Basin Floor Gas (50470122), (4) Lower Claiborne Cane River (50470123), (5) Upper Claiborne Stable Shelf Gas and Oil (50470124), (6) Upper Claiborne Expanded Fault Zone Gas (50470125), and (7) Upper Claiborne Slope and Basin Floor Gas (50470126). Total estimated mean undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources in the seven assessment units combined are 52 million barrels of oil, 19.145 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.205 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. A recurring theme that emerged from the evaluation of the seven Claiborne AUs is that the great bulk of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources comprise non-associated gas and condensate contained in deep (mostly >12,000 feet), overpressured, structurally complex outer shelf or slope and basin floor reservoirs. The continuing development of these downdip objectives is expected to be the primary focus of exploration activity for the onshore Middle Eocene Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  9. Convective nature of the planimetric instability in meandering river dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2006-02-01

    The convective nature of the linear instability of meandering river dynamics is analytically demonstrated and the corresponding Green's function is derived. The wave packet due to impulsive disturbance migrates along a river either downstream or upstream, depending on the subresonant or superresonant conditions. The influence of the parameters that govern the meandering process is shown and the role of the fluid dynamic detail used to describe the morphodynamic problem is discussed. A numerical simulation of the river planimetry is also developed.

  10. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  11. A green roof grant program for Washington DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) began its green roof demonstration project with $300,000 in funding provided by the DC Water and Sewer Authority. This paper reviewed the history of the project, its goals and early findings. The main objective was to demonstrate the technical, policy and economic feasibility of installing green roofs on commercial buildings in Washington DC and to promote green roofs as a means to manage storm water and improve water quality through the reduction of excessive runoff. The CBF has issued grants for the installation of 7 green roofs varying in size, design, location, and use. The projects included both new and existing structures designed to improve storm-water management in an urban area with significant pollution stress on the adjacent rivers. This paper provided technical, cost, and performance evaluations of each roof. A public outreach segment provided information to decision-makers to encourage more widespread replication of green roof technology throughout the metropolitan area. Much of the District of Columbia is served by a combined sewer system that becomes overloaded and discharges raw sewage into adjacent rivers during even moderately heavy rains. An average of 75 overflow events each year result in 1.5 billion gallons discharged into the Anacostia River. The installation of green roofs on buildings in the combined sewer area would retain storm water during these heavy rains and reduce the amount of overflow discharges. Apartments, as well as commercial and government buildings with mostly flat roofs are the most likely candidates for green roofs. The demonstration roofs are intended to become models, which all building owners could use as a guide for future plans for construction or re-construction to expand green roof coverage in Washington DC. It was emphasized that although such large-scale replication will take time and financial investments, it is achievable given enough political will and commercial awareness of

  12. Classification of Tropical River Using Chemometrics Technique: Case Study in Pahang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    River classification is very important to know the river characteristic in study areas, where this database can help to understand the behaviour of the river. This article discusses about river classification using Chemometrics techniques in mainstream of Pahang River. Based on river survey, GIS and Remote Sensing database, the chemometric analysis techniques have been used to identify the cluster on the Pahang River using Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA). Calibration and validation process using Discriminant Analysis (DA) has been used to confirm the HACA result. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study to see the strong coefficient where the Pahang River has been classed. The results indicated the main of Pahang River has been classed to three main clusters as upstream, middle stream and downstream. Base on DA analysis, the calibration and validation model shows 100 % convinced. While the PCA indicates there are three variables that have a significant correlation, domination slope with R 2 0.796, L/D ratio with R 2 -0868 and sinuosity with R 2 0.557. Map of the river classification with moving class also was produced. Where the green colour considered in valley erosion zone, yellow in a low terrace of land near the channels and red colour class in flood plain and valley deposition zone. From this result, the basic information can be produced to understand the characteristics of the main Pahang River. This result is important to local authorities to make decisions according to the cluster or guidelines for future study in Pahang River, Malaysia specifically and for Tropical River generally. The research findings are important to local authorities by providing basic data as a guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River, and Tropical River in general. (author)

  13. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, H.A.; Lauretano, V.; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, J.C.; Lourens, L.J.; Gingerich, P.D.; Bowen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can

  14. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions

  15. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorph...

  16. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records

  17. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents estimates of the monetary value of the impact of eutrophication (algae) on commercial agriculture in two different catchments in South Africa. A production function approach is applied to estimate the monetary value of the impact of filamentous green algae on commercial agriculture in the Dwars River, ...

  18. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Greening America's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  20. The Eocene Arctic Azolla phenomenon: species composition, temporal range and geographic extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14; and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle

  1. Deep-sea Benthic Foraminifera in the SE Atlantic across Eocene Hyperthermal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.

    2016-12-01

    Short-term episodes of global warming (hyperthermal events) were superimposed on the warming trend into the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO). The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 56 Ma) was the most extreme, followed by Eocene Thermal Maximum-2 and -3 (ETM2: 1.8 myr, ETM3: 3.1 myr post-PETM). Hyperthermals are characterized by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs, emission of isotopically light carbon in the ocean-atmosphere), negative oxygen isotope excursions (global warming) and carbonate dissolution (ocean acidification). Sensitivity of biota to environmental changes due to carbon emissions can be evaluated by studying their response to hyperthermals of different magnitude. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal records across PETM, ETM2 and -3 are available for Site 1262 (3600 m) and 1263 (1500m) on SE Atlantic Walvis Ridge. Benthic foraminifera (carbonate and agglutinated) are absent in the carbonate-free PETM clay-layer (Site 1262: 65 kyr; Site1263: 10 kyr). Deep-sea benthic foraminifera suffered extinction and diversity loss at the start of the PETM, as they did globally, with diversity recovering only partially. Stable isotope records show a larger PETM-CIE and amount of warming at Site 1263 than global average (McCarren et al., 2008), and warming was more pronounced at Site 1263 than at 1262 during ETM2 (Jennions et al., 2015) and ETM3 (Roehl et al., 2005). During ETM2 and -3, carbonate dissolution affected the sites, both remaining between CCD and lysocline. Assemblages were more severely affected (larger drop in benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, BFAR) at the shallower site, opposite to expected if caused mainly by carbonate corrosivity. The large decrease in BFAR indicates a decline in food arrival at the sea floor, more pronounced at the shallower site, as supported by changes in relative and absolute abundance of species, and more pronounced at ETM2 than at ETM3. Greater warming at intermediate depths could have been caused by ocean

  2. The Rajang Unconformity: Major provenance change between the Eocene and Miocene sequences in NW Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Hennig, J.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The offshore Sarawak Basin NW of North Sarawak is a major hydrocarbon province in SE Asia. A very thick sedimentary sequence of Oligocene to ?Early Miocene age, named Cycle 1, is an important hydrocarbon source and reservoir. Despite numerous wells the stratigraphy and tectonic history is not very well understood. The Nyalau Formation of onshore North Sarawak is the supposed equivalent of the offshore Cycle 1 sequence. The Nyalau Formation is a thick sedimentary sequence of mainly tidal to deltaic deposits. The formation is dominated by well-bedded sandstone-mudstone alternations and thicker sandstones with abundant bioturbation. The sandstones are predominantly arenaceous. Various lithic fragments and feldspar indicate multiple sources and fresh input from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Interbedded thin limestone beds and marls yielded Early Miocene foraminifera for the upper part of the succession. Zircons separated from the sandstones yielded mainly Cretaceous and Triassic ages. The Triassic is the dominant age population. The Nyalau Formation conformably overlies the Buan Shale and the Tatau Formation, and in places unconformably overlies the Belaga Formation. The Belaga Formation is part of the Rajang Group that represents remnants of a large submarine fan deposited in the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in Central Sarawak. In contrast to the Nyalau Formation, the majority of zircons from the Rajang Group have Cretaceous ages. This marks an important change in provenance at the major unconformity separating the Belaga and Nyalau Formations. This unconformity was previously interpreted as the result of an orogeny in the Late Eocene. However, there is no evidence for a subduction or collision event at this time in Sarawak. We interpret it to mark plate reorganisation in the Middle Eocene and name it the Rajang Unconformity. Borneo is the principal source of Cretaceous zircons which were derived from the Schwaner Mountains and West Sarawak. The dominant Triassic zircon

  3. Climate change likely to favor shift toward warmer climate states of the Pliocene and Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K. D.; Williams, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    As the world warms due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations, the climate system is moving toward a state without precedent in the historical record. Various past climate states have been proposed as potential analogues or model systems for the coming decades, including the early to middle Holocene, the last interglacial, the middle Pliocene, and the early Eocene. However, until now, such comparisons have been qualitative. To compare these time periods to the projected climate states for the 21st and 22nd centuries, we conduct a climate similarity analysis using the standardized Euclidean distance metric (SED) and seasonal means of surface air temperature and precipitation. We make this future-to-past comparison using 30-year mean climatologies, for every decade between 2020 and 2280 AD (27 total comparisons). The list of past earth system states includes the historical period (1940-1970 AD), a pre-industrial control (ca. 1850), the middle Holocene (ca. 6 ka), the last glacial maximum (ca. 21 ka), the last interglacial (ca. 125 ka), the middle Pliocene (ca. 3 Ma), and the early Eocene (ca. 50-55 Ma). To reduce uncertainties resulting from choice of earth system model, analyses are based on simulations from three earth system models (HadCM, CCSM, NASA/GISS Model-E), using in part experiments from PMIP2, PMIP3/CMIP5, EoMIP, and PlioMIP. Results are presented for two representative concentration pathways (RCP's 4.5, 8.5). By 2050 AD, the most common past climate analogue is sourced from the Pliocene for RCP 8.5, while by 2190 AD, the Eocene becomes the source of the most common past climate analogue. For RCP 4.5, in which radiative forcings stabilize this century, the Pliocene becomes the most important past climate analogue by 2100 AD. Low latitude climates are the first to most closely resemble these past earth warm periods. The mid-latitudes then follow this pattern by the end of the 22nd century. Although no past state of the earth system is a perfect analogue

  4. Palynological Response to Middle Eocene Climate Variability in the North Atlantic Ocean: IODP Expedition 342, Newfoundland Ridge, Offshore Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Proxy records from Eocene hyperthermals provide evidence for rates and magnitudes of environmental changes associated with these events, as well as their impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) occurred ~40 Million years ago (Ma) and lasted ~500,000 years, and previous research has documented changes in marine and terrestrial biotas during and after this event. Cores collected in sediment drifts on Newfoundland Ridge off the coast of eastern Canada during IODP Expedition 342 recovered expanded sections of the middle Eocene, with sedimentation rates of 1-2 cm/kyr. We present results from pollen, palynofacies, and dinocyst analyses from Sites 1408 (41.438'N, 49.786'W, 3022 mwd), 1409 (41.296'N, 49.233'W, 3501 mwd), and 1410 (41.328'N, 49.170'W, 3387 mwd), spanning an interval that includes the MECO. Palynological assemblages are well preserved throughout the middle Eocene at Sites 1408 and 1410, whereas carbonate-rich samples from Site 1409 were completely barren of palynomorphs. Substantial variability in dinocyst species composition and diversity, pollen assemblages, and organic palynofacies were observed within the MECO event. Fluctuations in concentrations of opaque organic matter, insect fragments, and pollen and spores from terrestrial vegetation reflect changes in terrigenous influx, intensity of the hydrologic cycle, and source vegetation. Dinocyst assemblage shifts are correlated with changes in productivity, nutrient supply, and salinity. Integration of palynological data with other proxies will provide further insights into correlations between increased terrigenous input and eutrophication, leads and lags between terrestrial and marine responses to climate fluctuations, and environmental stability during the Middle Eocene.

  5. Eocene tectonic compression in Northern Zealandia: Magneto-biostratigraphic constraints from the sedimentary records of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallanave, E.; Agnini, C.; Pascher, K. M.; Maurizot, P.; Bachtadse, V.; Hollis, C. J.; Dickens, G. R.; Collot, J.; Sevin, B.; Strogen, D.; Monesi, E.

    2017-12-01

    Published seismic profiles acquired from the Tasman Sea and northern Zealandia area (southwest Pacific) point to a widespread Eocene convergent deformation of oceanic and continental crust, with reverse faults and uplift (Tectonic Event of the Cenozoic in the Tasman Area; TECTA). The TECTA is interpreted as the precursor of the Tonga-Kermadec subduction initiation. Grande Terre is the main island of the New Caledonia archipelago and the largest emergent portion of northern Norfolk Ridge (part of northern Zealandia). Eocene sedimentary records exposed in Grande Terre contain a transition from pelagic micrite to terrigenous-rich calciturbidites, marking a shift from passive margin to convergent tectonic regime. This could represent the local expression of the convergence inception observed on a regional scale. We conducted an integrated magneto-biostratigraphic study, based on calcareous nannofossil and radiolaria, of two early-middle Eocene records cropping out near Noumea (southwest Grande Terre) and Koumac (northwest Grande Terre). The natural remanent magnetization of the sediments is complicated by multiple vector components, likely related to the late Eocene obduction, but a characteristic remanent magnetization has been successfully isolated. Overall the record spans from magnetic polarity Chron C23n to C18n, i.e. from 51 to 39 Ma. In this robust magnetic polarity-based chronological frame, the pelagic micrite to terrigenous-rich calciturbidites occurred near the top of Chron C21n and is dated 46 Ma. Furthermore, the magnetic mineral assemblage within part of the calciturbidites consists of hematite associated with maghemite. This association indicates emergent land as source of the terrigenous, suggesting a considerable uplift. Because 94% of the Zealandia continent is submerged, ocean drilling is needed to gauge the full extent and timing of Eocene compressive deformation revealed by the seismic profiles acquired in the Tasman area. This is a primary aim of

  6. Nannoplankton malformation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and its paleoecological and paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Self-Trail, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by a transient group of nannoplankton, belonging to the genus Discoaster. Our investigation of expanded shelf sections provides unprecedented detail of the morphology and phylogeny of the transient Discoasterduring the PETM and their relationship with environmental change. We observe a much larger range of morphological variation than previously documented suggesting that the taxa belonged to a plexus of highly gradational morphotypes rather than individual species. We propose that the plexus represents malformed ecophenotypes of a single species that migrated to a deep photic zone refuge during the height of PETM warming and eutrophication. Anomalously, high rates of organic matter remineralization characterized these depths during the event and led to lower saturation levels, which caused malformation. The proposed mechanism explains the co-occurrence of malformed Discoaster with pristine species that grew in the upper photic zone; moreover, it illuminates why malformation is a rare phenomenon in the paleontological record.

  7. Chromium-Isotope and iridium-Abundance Measurements for Late Eocene Impact-Derived Spherule Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Shukolyukov, A.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Lugmair, G. W.; Hanova, J.

    2004-05-01

    The late Eocene (approx. 35 Ma) was a time of multiple large body impacts superimposed within an interval of dust accretion. At least two spherule layers are preserved in deep sea sediments: North American microtektites and the slightly older cpx spherules. The two largest impact structures in the Cenozoic, the 45 km Chesapeake Bay structure and the 100 km Popigai structure, are indicated as the respective spherule sources. Enhanced 3He concentrations extending across a 3 m.y. duration in upper Eocene sediments from the Massignano quarry in Italy indicate accretion of dust over this time interval. To characterize one of the impactors we have analyzed splits from the 125-250 micron cpx spherules from ODP 709C, and two fractions from the Massignano layer. Splits of each sample were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental activation analysis (INAA) including Ir, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Co. Additional splits were analyzed for their Cr-isotopic composition, using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Significant concentrations of Ir were found in all samples, with the highest levels in the Massignano coarse sample and the lowest in the 709C sample. In all cases, element/Ir ratios are much higher than in chondritic meteorites; this may reflect elemental fractionation due to preferential concentration of Cr in spinel growing in the impact fireball. The Cr-isotopic compositions of the 709C and Massignano coarse samples are both non-terrestrial with a positive epsilon 53, indicating a 53Cr/52Cr ratio higher than in terrestrial materials. Microprobe surveys showed that the Massignano samples had significant fine grained oxide grains (mixed with the spherules in the coarse sample) that were not Ni- or Cr-rich, including Ti-rich spinels (likely terrestrial contaminants). In contrast, the ODP 709C sample is a pure extract of generally well-preserved cpx spherules composed of clinopyroxene in a glass matrix. Both the Massignano coarse and the 709C cpx samples have

  8. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...... legislation. The fossils are preserved in clay ironstone concretions and almost two-thirds are isolated skulls preserved three-dimensionally. Bird fossils of this age and degree of preservation are rare in an international context. The fossils indicate a very diverse assemblage consisting of both marine...... and terrestrial forms. These include at least one pelagornithid or 'pseudo-toothed bird'; two or three taxa with charadriiform affinities (shorebirds and allies); a massive, narrow-beaked psittaciform (parrots and allies); a large rallid (rail) and one lithornithid (extinct, volant palaeognaths). The Lillebaelt...

  9. Taphonomy and abundance of birds from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyke, Gareth; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The pattern, pace and extent of the evolutionary radiation of modern birds (Neornithes) by the end-Cretaceous (65 Ma) has long been debated. Well-dated, taphonomically understood and phylogenetically constrained fossil birds from both sides of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary are required...... to quantify the shape of this radiation, but have largely been lacking. Here we report on a large collection of fossil birds from the Lower Eocene of Denmark (ca. 54 Ma) that includes three-dimensionally preserved, articulated specimens from carbonate concretions as well as skeletal imprints and feathers....... These birds are from a marine diatomite sequence (the Fur Formation), a low-energy deep-water preservational environment unique to the Cretaceous and Paleogene avian fossil record. We present taphonomic and palaeoecological information gleaned from these birds that in combination with phylogenetic data have...

  10. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    with a constant rate of strain were conducted on Søvind Marl in the Danish Continuous Loading Oedometer Apparatus, which enables test water to be applied at 200 kPa, and measures the horizontal stresses via pressure gauges placed in a stiff oedometer ring. The horizontal and vertical stresses were measured from......The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests...... in situ stresses to various stress levels to estimate continuous K0 development in this highly overconsolidated clay. The normally consolidated earth pressure at rest was found for two different sample ages of Søvind Marl to be between 0.42 and 0.68. Results indicated the overconsolidated K0 reached...

  11. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2014-11-20

    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5 Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia.

  12. Dinocyst taphonomy, impact craters, cyst ghosts, and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.

    2012-01-01

    Dinocysts recovered from sediments related to the Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia and the earliest Eocene suboxic environment in Maryland show strange and intriguing details of preservation. Features such as curled processes, opaque debris, breakage, microborings and cyst ghosts, among others, invite speculation about catastrophic depositional processes, rapid burial and biological and chemical decay. Selected specimens from seven cores taken in the coastal plain of Virginia and Maryland show abnormal preservation features in various combinations that merit illustration, description, discussion and further study. Although the depositional environments described are extreme, many of the features discussed are known from, or could be found in, other environments. These environments will show both similarities to and differences from the extreme environments here.

  13. Eocene lantern fruits from Gondwanan Patagonia and the early origins of Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Carvalho, Mónica R; Gandolfo, María A; Cúneo, N Rubén

    2017-01-06

    The nightshade family Solanaceae holds exceptional economic and cultural importance. The early diversification of Solanaceae is thought to have occurred in South America during its separation from Gondwana, but the family's sparse fossil record provides few insights. We report 52.2-million-year-old lantern fruits from terminal-Gondwanan Patagonia, featuring highly inflated, five-lobed calyces, as a newly identified species of the derived, diverse New World genus Physalis (e.g., groundcherries and tomatillos). The fossils are considerably older than corresponding molecular divergence dates and demonstrate an ancient history for the inflated calyx syndrome. The derived position of these early Eocene fossils shows that Solanaceae were well diversified long before final Gondwanan breakup. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Preconsolidation of Søvind Marl - a highly fissured Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the preconsolidation stresses is a key tool in geotechnical engineering used to evaluate and estimate the behavior of soils. However, it has been proven difficult to accurately estimate the preconsolidation in highly fissured overconsolidated clays, due to the effect of the fissu......Determination of the preconsolidation stresses is a key tool in geotechnical engineering used to evaluate and estimate the behavior of soils. However, it has been proven difficult to accurately estimate the preconsolidation in highly fissured overconsolidated clays, due to the effect...... of the fissured structure of the clay. This article presents oedometer tests performed on Søvind Marl, a plastic Eocene clay, with a high presence of fissures and slickensides. Four incremental loading oedometer tests and four continuous loading oedometer tests were performed in order to determine...

  15. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  16. Xenoliths in Eocene lavas from Central Tibet record carbonated metasomatism of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussin, Fanny; Cordier, Carole; Boulvais, Philippe; Guillot, Stéphane; Roperch, Pierrick; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Cenozoic post-collisional volcanism of the Tibetan Plateau, emplaced on an accreted continental margin under compression, could bring important information regarding the edification of the Plateau. In this study, we combined petrography, whole rock geochemistry, stable isotopes and in situ mineral analysis to decipher the genesis of Eocene-Oligocene magmatic rocks from the Nangqian basin (35-38 Ma, [Spurlin et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2016]), located at the hinge between Central Tibet and the Eastern Indo-Asia Collision Zone. Our dataset includes potassic trachyandesites; amphibole-bearing potassic trachytes; and rare ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O ≥ 4) mafic syenites. All samples have high REE abundances (La = 100 - 500 x primitive mantle). Fractionation of heavy REE (Gd/YbN > 3) indicates melting in the garnet stability field, and relative depletion in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta) indicates a selective enrichment of the source by metasomatic fluids. This metasomatism event is also evidenced by the occurrence of re-equilibrated mantle xenocrysts of phlogopite (Mg# = 88 - 90 and Cr2O3 content = 0.9 - 1.82 wt%) in mafic syenites. Potassic trachyandesites have specific composition, with negative Zr-Hf anomaly and low Hf/Sm (0.2 - 0.4). Indeed, they include xenocrystic aggregates, composed of magmatic clinopyroxene, apatite and subordinate biotite and feldspar, with interstitial calcite and dolomite. δ18OV -SMOW (9.2 - 11.0 ) and δ13CV -PDB (-6.1 - -4.0 ) of these rocks indicate the presence of primary, mantle-derived carbonates. In situ analysis of the major and trace element compositions of the carbonates, clinopyroxenes and apatites further suggest that these aggregates represent cumulates of a carbonate-bearing magma. These xenoliths thus show that the lithospheric mantle was also metasomatized by CO2-rich fluids. Cenozoic carbonatites in China have been identified in Maoniuping in Western Sichuan (31.7 Ma), Lixian in the Western Qinlin (22-23 Ma), and

  17. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability—a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming—drove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes. PMID:18936486

  18. A Transient Rise in Tropical Sea Surface Temperature During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, James C.; Wara, Michael W.; Bohaty, Steven; Delaney, Margaret L.; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Brill, Amanda; Bralower, Timothy J.; Premoli-Silva, Isabella

    2003-11-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a rapid rise in greenhouse gas levels. If so, warming should have occurred at all latitudes, although amplified toward the poles. Existing records reveal an increase in high-latitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) (8° to 10°C) and in bottom water temperatures (4° to 5°C). To date, however, the character of the tropical SST response during this event remains unconstrained. Here we address this deficiency by using paired oxygen isotope and minor element (magnesium/calcium) ratios of planktonic foraminifera from a tropical Pacific core to estimate changes in SST. Using mixed-layer foraminifera, we found that the combined proxies imply a 4° to 5°C rise in Pacific SST during the PETM. These results would necessitate a rise in atmospheric pCO2 to levels three to four times as high as those estimated for the late Paleocene.

  19. Palaeoenvironment of Eocene prodelta in Spitsbergen recorded by the trace fossil Phycosiphon incertum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichnological, sedimentological and geochemical analyses were conducted on the Eocene Frysjaodden Formation in order to interpret palaeoenvironment prodelta sediments in the Central Basin of Spitsbergen. Phycosiphon incertum is the exclusive ichnotaxon showing differences in size, distribution, abundance and density, and relation to laminated/bioturbated intervals. Large P. incertum mainly occur dispersed, isolated and randomly distributed throughout the weakly laminated/non-laminated intervals. Small P. incertum occur occasionally in patches of several burrows within laminated intervals or as densely packed burrows in thin horizons in laminated intervals or constituting fully bioturbated intervals that are several centimetres thick. Ichnological changes are mainly controlled by oxygenation, although the availability of benthic food cannot be discarded. Changes in oxygenation and rate of sedimentation can be correlated with the registered variations in the Bouma sequence of the distal turbiditic beds within prodeltal shelf sediments.

  20. Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene plate boundaries in the southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Dietmar Müller, R.; Whittaker, Joanne; Flament, Nicolas; Seton, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The late Cretaceous to mid Eocene history of the southwest and southernmost Pacific has been subject to starkly contrasting interpretations, ranging from relative tectonic quiescence with the Lord Howe Rise (LHR) being part of the Pacific plate to a dynamic subduction setting. In the first scenario the Tasman Sea would have formed as a consequence of divergence between the Pacific and Australian plates, whereas in the second scenario it would have formed as a marginal basin associated with subduction. The first scenario is supported by a number of arguments, including a lack of evidence for deformation and tectonic activity in New Zealand during this period and a geodynamic modelling inference, namely that the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain can be better reproduced if the LHR is part of the Pacific plate. The second scenario is supported by regional plate kinematic models reconciling a variety of observations including back-arc basin formation and destruction through time and the history of arc-continent collisions. The primary problem with the first scenario is the use of a plate circuit that leaves relative motion between East and West Antarctica unconstrained, leading to an improbable history of periodic compression and extension. The main problem with the alternative scenario is a lack of sampled late Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks east of the LHR. We analysed available geological and geophysical data to constrain the locations of and movements along the plate boundaries in the southwest and southern Pacific from the late Cretaceous to mid Eocene, and assessed how Pacific plate motion is best quantified during this period. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that a plate boundary separated the Pacific plate from the LHR. The distribution of lower mantle slab material that is imaged by seismic tomography beneath New Zealand is best explained if subduction occurred to the east of the LHR during the entire late Cretaceous to mid Eocene period. Rocks

  1. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  2. New Carcharhiniform Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Early to Middle Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its wealth of fossil remains. This island provides one of the richest fossiliferous Paleogene sequences in the world. Chondrichthyans seemingly dominate this Eocene marine fauna and offer a rare insight into high-latitude faunas during the Palaeogene. So far, only a few isolated teeth of carcharhinid sharks have been reported from Seymour Island. Bulk sampling in the well-exposed La Meseta and Submeseta formations yielded new and abundant chondrichthyan material, including numerous teeth of carcharhinid and triakid sharks. Here, we present a reevaluation of the previously described carcharhinid remains and a description of new taxa: Meridiogaleus cristatus, gen. et sp. nov., Kallodentis rythistemma, gen. et sp. nov., Abdounia richteri, sp. nov., and Abdounia mesetae, sp. nov. The carcharhiniforms Mustelus sp. and Galeorhinus sp. are reported based on rare material, whereas teeth previously assigned to Scoliodon represent a nomen dubium. PMID:29551850

  3. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  4. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene successions, east Beni Suef area, eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Shaban G.; Salama, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    Three Eocene stratigraphic successions east of the Beni Suef area are described and measured. These successions are made up of four rock units that are from base to top: Qarara (upper Lutetian), El Fashn (Bartonian), Beni Suef, and Maadi (Priabonian) formations. A detailed facies and sequence analysis unravels the stratigraphic framework and constructs a depositional model for the Middle-Upper Eocene succession. Ten microfacies types were grouped into four facies associations on a homoclinal ramp that compose the Upper Lutetian-Priabonian succession exposed in the east Beni Suef area. The depositional environment varied from a shallow to deep ramp setting. Four third-order depositional sequences were identified in the studied sections. The sequence boundaries are paleosoil horizons that can be traced throughout the entire outcrop area. Missing biozones are also evidence of the sequence boundaries. The history of these sequences mirrors the eustatic sea-level changes and the local tectonics in the region. Each sequence comprises facies associations that make up lowstand and/or transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lowstand systems tract (LST) deposits are mainly sandstone facies and in Sequences 3 and 4 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The transgressive systems tract (TST) of Sequence 1 is dominated by nummulitic facies at Gabal Diya. The shale, mudstone and wackestone facies with planktic foraminifera and echinoids dominate the TST of Sequences 2 and 3 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The highstand systems tract (HST) of the studied sections is characterized by benthic foraminifera and bryozoan wackestone and packstone facies.

  5. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  6. Estimates of Cenozoic Forearc Subduction off Southwestern Mexico: Constraints on Eocene- Miocene Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. D.; Moran-Zenteno, D. J.; Martiny, B. M.; Gonzalez-Torres, E.

    2007-05-01

    Traditional Cenozoic reconstructions of southern Mexico that place the Chortis block (Honduras and northern Nicaragua) adjacent southwestern Mexico using the Motagua Fault Zone violate plate tectonic principles, and are inconsistent with the presence of undeformed upper Cretaceous - Recent sediments in the Gulf of Tehuantepec that straddle the westward projection of the Motagua Fault Zone, the inferred northern boundary of the Chortis block. Rotating the Chortis block about a rotation pole near Santiago (Chile) places it to the southwest of its present position at 45 Ma with the Farallon Plate lying off southwestern Mexico. Examination of the geological record of southwestern Mexico (102-96°W) records several synchronous events in the upper Oligocene- lower Miocene (29-19 Ma): (1) an hiatus in arc magmatism; (2) removal of a wide (~210 km) upper Eocene-lower Oligocene forearc; (3) exhumation of 13-20 km of upper Eocene-lower Oligocene arc along the present day coast; and (4) breakup of the Farallon Plate. We suggest that the magmatic hiatus was caused by subduction of the forearc, which replaced the mantle wedge by relatively cool crust and has since been deeply subducted. Potential causes for subduction of the forearc include collision of an oceanic plateau with the trench, and a change in plate kinematics synchronous with breakup of the Farallon Plate and initiation of the Guadalupe-Nazca spreading ridge. Following removal of the forearc, arc magmatism resumed in two segments offset by the Veracruz-Oaxaca Line: (i) the 19 Ma to Present E-W Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; and (ii) the 22-10 Ma WNW part of the Central American Volcanic Arc. Estimates of the dip of the Benioff zone based on Miocene arc/forearc widths indicate that it changed from 11 to 39 degrees (west to east) across the Veracruz-Oaxaca Line, which is interpreted as a transform fault with a ~100 km dextral offset.

  7. Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Mark; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R

    2006-08-10

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global warming 55 million years ago, superimposed on an already warm world. This warming is associated with a severe shoaling of the ocean calcite compensation depth and a >2.5 per mil negative carbon isotope excursion in marine and soil carbonates. Together these observations indicate a massive release of 13C-depleted carbon and greenhouse-gas-induced warming. Recently, sediments were recovered from the central Arctic Ocean, providing the first opportunity to evaluate the environmental response at the North Pole at this time. Here we present stable hydrogen and carbon isotope measurements of terrestrial-plant- and aquatic-derived n-alkanes that record changes in hydrology, including surface water salinity and precipitation, and the global carbon cycle. Hydrogen isotope records are interpreted as documenting decreased rainout during moisture transport from lower latitudes and increased moisture delivery to the Arctic at the onset of the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, consistent with predictions of poleward storm track migrations during global warming. The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about -4.5 to -6 per mil) is substantially larger than those of marine carbonates. Previously, this offset was explained by the physiological response of plants to increases in surface humidity. But this mechanism is not an effective explanation in this wet Arctic setting, leading us to hypothesize that the true magnitude of the excursion--and associated carbon input--was greater than originally surmised. Greater carbon release and strong hydrological cycle feedbacks may help explain the maintenance of this unprecedented warmth.

  8. Geochemistry of East Antarctic Margin Sediments Spanning the Eocene Oligocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, J. J.; Passchier, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Eocene Oligocene Transition (EOT) 34 million years ago (Ma), marked the global climate change from greenhouse to icehouse, and the full establishment of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). The initiation of the EAIS during the EOT is believed to have been a step-wise transition; however, data resolution is low and merits the need for further study. The purpose of this study is to expand upon existing knowledge of EAIS dynamics spanning the EOT by creating a higher resolution geochemical record of cores taken from continental shelf sites 1166 in Prydz Bay and U1360 from the Wilkes Land margin. We used Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-OES/ ICP-MS) to determine the bulk chemical composition of samples. Results were used to calculate the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, and trace elemental variation down core. CIA values for the early Oligocene in Site U1360 indicate an arid colder environment less likely to be chemically weathered. In contrast, Hole 1166A shows values similar to average shales that increase up core and abruptly decrease at the overlying Neogene diamict, suggesting a warmer more humid environment at Prydz Bay during the late Eocene. Al2O3/TiO2 ratios were used to evaluate mud provenance changes at each site. At site 1166 redox sensitive elements (Cr, Ni, and V) show similar down core distributions to one another. The changes in elemental intensities are likely being controlled by factors such as sediment provenance, changes in redox conditions and surficial weathering. We expect the outcomes of this study to allow us to interpret regional depositional environments at a higher resolution, as well as to shed light on the EAIS's step-wise initiation.

  9. Taxonomic description of in situ bee pollen from the middle Eocene of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, FriĐgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Engel, Michael S.; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records. Typically, a single or two pollen types are found on each fossil bee specimen, the maximum number of distinct pollen types on a single individual is five. Only five of the 23 pollen types obtained are angiosperms of unknown affinity, the remainder cover a broad taxonomic range of angiosperm trees and include members of several major clades: monocots (1 pollen type), fabids (7), malvids (4), asterids (5) and other core eudicots (1). Seven types each can be assigned to individual genera or infrafamilial clades. Since bees visit only flowers in the relative vicinity of their habitat, the recovered pollen provides a unique insight into the autochthonous palaeo-flora. The coexistence of taxa such as Decodon, Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron and other Tilioideae, Mastixoideae, Olax, Pouteria and Nyssa confirms current views that diverse, thermophilic forests thrived at the Messel and Eckfeld localities, probably under a warm subtropical, fully humid climate. Our study calls for increased attention to pollen found in situ on pollen-harvesting insects such as bees, which can provide new insights on insect-pollinated plants and complement even detailed palaeo-palynological knowledge obtained mostly from pollen of wind-pollinated plants in the dispersed pollen record of sediments. In the case of Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron, Olax and Pouteria the pollen collected by the middle Eocene

  10. Green Marketing amp Consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalalkamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is a progressive issue that most of its dimensions are unknown or intangible for consumers. In this review some of its aspects are surveyed considering its impact on consumers as a fundamental segment in economics. Also consumer behavior is defined and analyzed through its awareness of green marketing issue which causes purchasing decision.

  11. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  12. The Greening Dutchman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marlen Gabriele; Hockerts, Kai

    2011-01-01

    of ‘green flagging’ as a groundbreaking corporate sustainability innovation strategy. This paper describes how Philips uses this approach in its Green Flagship Program (GFP). Philips' GFP is particularly interesting since it sets specific targets across all its business units, thus driving the integration...... and limitations of these findings for theory and research on sustainability innovation strategies....

  13. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  14. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  15. Coordinate green growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Green economic growth needs a shared sense of direction if it is to lead to a more sustainable future under climate change. Studies on green innovation and societal transformation show that uncoordinated initiatives are unlikely to be an effective way “to get the ball rolling and to ‘learn

  16. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects of ...... of green default rules.....

  17. 10 Paths to Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  18. The Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  19. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  20. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  1. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  2. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  3. Green technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runderkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan is striving for leadership in the field of green Technologies. Solar cells and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are the best examples of successful Taiwanese green technologies. Electronic vehicles and smart grids are giving new impetus to the Taiwanese export of high-quality technology. [nl

  4. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . There is allusion to the disappearance of the river in Van. Parva of the Mahabharat, and also in the Siddhant Shiromani. Great Betrayal. The Aravali continued to rise. The newly formed Yamuna was forced to migrate progressively eastward.

  5. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity......, investing in the rebuilding of fish stocks and a coordinated regulation of marine activities that interact with fisheries. Incentive-based regulation of fisheries that counterbalances services of the ecosystems is an important instrument to achieve green growth....

  6. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  7. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  8. Ganges River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  10. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  11. Harmonic oscillator Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Yu.; Khrebtukov, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Green's function for the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions plays an important role in the theory of atomic collisions. One representation of low-energy ion-atom collisions involves harmonic oscillator potentials. A closed-form expression for the harmonic oscillator Green's function, needed to exploit this representation, is derived. This expression is similar to the expression for the Coulomb Green's function obtained by Hostler and Pratt. Calculations of electron distributions for a model system of ion-atom collisions are reported to illustrate the theory.

  12. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  13. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  14. A new avian fauna from the early-middle Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    A number of hitherto undescribed fossil bird remains have been recovered from the Lillebælt Clay Formation of central Denmark, which is early-middle Eocene in age (~50 to 43 mya). The core of the material consists of fossils acquired through the Danish ‘Danekræ' fossil treasure trove legislation....... Almost two-thirds of the fossils are isolated skulls preserved three-dimensionally in clay ironstone concretions; bird fossils of this age and degree of preservation are extremely rare in an international context. A preliminary investigation has revealed the presence of at least one odontopterygid......, a member of the extinct 'pseudo-toothed birds' and the first representative of this group known from Denmark. Other taxa present include remains of Lithornithidae and a new taxon possessing a massive, psittacid-like beak. The Lillebælt Clay Formation birds are temporally placed just after the Early Eocene...

  15. Green walls : an environmental alternative for the city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Ardila, V.; Giraldo Restrepo, M.C.; Echeverri Montoya, L.F.; Cano Sepulveda, O.E.; Restrepo Acosta, A.C. [Univ. Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Faculty of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    The City of Medellin in Colombia is faced with environmental problems such as air pollution, noise pollution, flooding and urban heat island (UHI) effect. Since many of these problems can be linked to the construction industry, new strategies are needed to lessen the environmental impact of buildings. This paper proposed the use of green walls for the facade of buildings. Similar to green roofs, green walls offer cleaner air and cooler cities. They absorb noise, reduce energy consumption, and result in less untreated storm water running into rivers and streams, and offer more natural habitat for native plants and animals, thus supporting greater biodiversity. A prefabricated piece of green wall was designed for use on building envelopes, interior partitions, facades and landscape enclosures. The green wall can be self-supported, self-irrigated and self-fertilized by an integrated conduit system. Unlike other pre-existing elements, the vegetation in the green wall is integrated within the wall construction instead of being adhered to it. The proposed prefabricated design allows for individual replacement of the vegetation components in the event that a plant dies. The versatile system can be used in any type of building. Testing of some prototypes revealed that the green walls are very efficient in acoustic absorption, and useful in areas exposed to lots of noise. It was concluded that this construction method has the potential to generate well-being and balance between urban dwellers and their environment. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  16. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... after running through the Thai-Burmese border. In 2003, a cascade of up to 13 dams were approved by the Chinese government, however, as of yet no dams have been built due to a prolonged controversy between Chinese government officials, Chinese and international environmental NGOs, the media, social...

  17. The Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North Alpine Foreland Basin and subsequent closure of a Paratethys gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Beniest, A.; Ciurej, A.; Gaździcka, E.; Grothe, A.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Langereis, C. G.; Krijgsman, W.

    2018-03-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), a major palaeoenvironmental change took place in the Paratethys Sea of central Eurasia. Restricted connectivity and increased stratification resulted in wide-spread deposition of organic-rich sediments which nowadays make up important hydrocarbon source rocks. The North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) was a major gateway of the Paratethys Sea to the open ocean during the Eocene, but the age of closure of this gateway is still uncertain. The Ammer section in southern Germany documents the shallowing of this connection and subsequent disappearance of marine environments in the NAFB, as reflected in its sedimentary succession of turbidites to marls (Deutenhausen to Tonmergel beds), via coastal sediments (Baustein beds) to continental conglomerates (Weißach beds). Here, we apply organic geochemistry and date the lithological transitions in the Ammer section using integrated stratigraphy, including magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Nannoplankton and dinocyst results can be reconciled when dinoflagellate species Wetzeliella symmetrica is of late Eocene age. Our magnetostratigraphy then records C13r-C13n-C12r and allows calculation of sediment accumulation rates and estimation of ages of lithological transitions. We show that the shallowing from turbiditic slope deposits (Deutenhausen beds) to shelf sediments (Tonmergel beds) coincides with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at 33.9 Ma. The transition to continental sediments is dated at ca. 33.15 Ma, significantly older than suggested by previous studies. We conclude that the transition from marine to continental sediments drastically reduced the marine connection through the western part of the NAFB and influenced the oxygen conditions of the Paratethys Sea.

  18. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Spongeliomorpha isp., Dreginozoum beckumensis, Bichordites isp., Chondrites isp., Atollites zitteli? and ?Rhizocorallium isp. The preservation of the trace fossils is strongly related to ear...

  19. Probable aestivation burrows from the Eocene/Oligocene transition in south-eastern France and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, Christian; Olivero, Davide; Chebance, Marie

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Enigmatic biogenic structures are reported from the Palaeogene of south-eastern France in the Castellane-Blieux area (Alpes de Haute-Provence French Department). They occur at the Eocene/Oligocene transition at the top of the Marnes Bleues Formation, which corresponds to a clearly defined regressive sequence, where thick marls are overlain by lacustrine limestones or sandstones. The marls have abundant shallow marine fauna and the upper part of the Formation correspond...

  20. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  1. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  2. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  3. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  4. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  5. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  6. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  7. The Green Revolution Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  8. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  9. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...... that entrepreneurial governance such as green city branding has important and uneven political consequences for the social and economic fabric of our cities....

  10. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green......Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...

  11. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major

  12. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  13. Towards a green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trotter, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available a number of explicit and aligned green economic strategies, policies, and programmes; ? UNEP1 identifies, South Africa, Germany and China as having forward thinking policy showing a conscious effort to drive decoupling- with some evidence... review of unintended behavioural responses, counter incentives, and legal conflicts or obstacles in the context of a Green Economic transition, followed by appropriate reform; ? CSIR 2012 Slide 15 Enabling Funding and Investment Frameworks ? A review...

  14. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Introduction: The New Urban Imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1. Greening from the Inside: Stories...

  15. The sustainability of green funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    This paper analyses the performance of the Dutch "Green Funds Scheme". This scheme is a policy instrument to advance green projects. The scheme relies on tax compensation for private investors who save or invest in green institutions below market returns. The green institutions select and monitor

  16. Astronomically paced changes in deep-water circulation in the western North Atlantic during the middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Lohmann, Gerrit; Sexton, Philip; Zachos, James; Pälike, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) currently redistributes heat and salt between Earth's ocean basins, and plays a vital role in the ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite its crucial role in today's climate system, vigorous debate remains as to when deep-water formation in the North Atlantic started. Here, we present datasets from carbonate-rich middle Eocene sediments from the Newfoundland Ridge, revealing a unique archive of paleoceanographic change from the progressively cooling climate of the middle Eocene. Well-defined lithologic alternations between calcareous ooze and clay-rich intervals occur at the ∼41-kyr beat of axial obliquity. Hence, we identify obliquity as the driver of middle Eocene (43.5-46 Ma) Northern Component Water (NCW, the predecessor of modern NADW) variability. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C suggest that obliquity minima correspond to cold, nutrient-depleted, western North Atlantic deep waters. We thus link stronger NCW formation with obliquity minima. In contrast, during obliquity maxima, Deep Western Boundary Currents were weaker and warmer, while abyssal nutrients were more abundant. These aspects reflect a more sluggish NCW formation. This obliquity-paced paleoceanographic regime is in excellent agreement with results from an Earth system model, in which obliquity minima configurations enhance NCW formation.

  17. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  18. New fossils of the oldest North American euprimate Teilhardina brandti (Omomyidae) from the paleocene-eocene thermal maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth D; Chester, Stephen G B; Dunn, Rachel H; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I

    2011-10-01

    More than 25 new specimens of Teilhardina brandti, one of the oldest known euprimates, are reported from earliest Eocene strata of the southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. The new fossils include the first upper dentitions, a dentary showing the lower dental formula for the first time, and the first postcrania ascribed to T. brandti (tarsals and terminal phalanges). The elongated navicular and long talar neck suggest that T. brandti was an active arboreal quadruped, and the terminal phalanges constitute the oldest evidence for nails in Euprimates. Phylogenetic analysis incorporating the new data indicates that T. brandti is more derived than T. belgica but less so than T. americana. The hypothesis that Teilhardina originated in Asia (T. asiatica) and dispersed westward to Europe (T. belgica) and then to North America (T. brandti and T. magnoliana) during the earliest Eocene Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum is most consistent with available evidence, including the relative age of fossil samples and their stage of evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Earliest Mysticete from the Late Eocene of Peru Sheds New Light on the Origin of Baleen Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Martínez-Cáceres, Manuel; Bianucci, Giovanni; Di Celma, Claudio; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Steurbaut, Etienne; Urbina, Mario; de Muizon, Christian

    2017-05-22

    Although combined molecular and morphological analyses point to a late middle Eocene (38-39 million years ago) origin for the clade Neoceti (Odontoceti, echolocating toothed whales plus Mysticeti, baleen whales, and relatives), the oldest known mysticete fossil dates from the latest Eocene (about 34 million years ago) of Antarctica [1, 2]. Considering that the latter is not the most stemward mysticete in recent phylogenies and that Oligocene toothed mysticetes display a broad morphological disparity most likely corresponding to contrasted ecological niches, the origin of mysticetes from a basilosaurid ancestor and its drivers are currently poorly understood [1, 3-8]. Based on an articulated cetacean skeleton from the early late Eocene (Priabonian, around 36.4 million years ago) of the Pisco Basin, Peru, we describe a new archaic tooth-bearing mysticete, Mystacodon selenensis gen. et sp. nov. Being the geologically oldest neocete (crown group cetacean) and the earliest mysticete to branch off described so far, the new taxon is interpreted as morphologically intermediate between basilosaurids and later toothed mysticetes, providing thus crucial information about the anatomy of the skull, forelimb, and innominate at these critical initial stages of mysticete evolution. Major changes in the morphology of the oral apparatus (including tooth wear) and flipper compared to basilosaurids suggest that suction and possibly benthic feeding represented key, early ecological traits accompanying the emergence of modern filter-feeding baleen whales' ancestors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dedert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21

  1. Sensitivity of the Eocene climate to CO2 and orbital variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keery, John S.; Holden, Philip B.; Edwards, Neil R.

    2018-02-01

    The early Eocene, from about 56 Ma, with high atmospheric CO2 levels, offers an analogue for the response of the Earth's climate system to anthropogenic fossil fuel burning. In this study, we present an ensemble of 50 Earth system model runs with an early Eocene palaeogeography and variation in the forcing values of atmospheric CO2 and the Earth's orbital parameters. Relationships between simple summary metrics of model outputs and the forcing parameters are identified by linear modelling, providing estimates of the relative magnitudes of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and each of the orbital parameters on important climatic features, including tropical-polar temperature difference, ocean-land temperature contrast, Asian, African and South (S.) American monsoon rains, and climate sensitivity. Our results indicate that although CO2 exerts a dominant control on most of the climatic features examined in this study, the orbital parameters also strongly influence important components of the ocean-atmosphere system in a greenhouse Earth. In our ensemble, atmospheric CO2 spans the range 280-3000 ppm, and this variation accounts for over 90 % of the effects on mean air temperature, southern winter high-latitude ocean-land temperature contrast and northern winter tropical-polar temperature difference. However, the variation of precession accounts for over 80 % of the influence of the forcing parameters on the Asian and African monsoon rainfall, and obliquity variation accounts for over 65 % of the effects on winter ocean-land temperature contrast in high northern latitudes and northern summer tropical-polar temperature difference. Our results indicate a bimodal climate sensitivity, with values of 4.36 and 2.54 °C, dependent on low or high states of atmospheric CO2 concentration, respectively, with a threshold at approximately 1000 ppm in this model, and due to a saturated vegetation-albedo feedback. Our method gives a quantitative ranking of the influence of each of the

  2. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Eocene Rock Strata, Offshore Indus, southwest Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Natasha; Rehman, Khaista; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khokher, Jamil; Hajana, M. Iqbal; Hanif, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, seismic data from two wells (Pak G2-1 and Indus Marine-1C) and age diagnostic larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) within drill cuttings has been used for the first time to identify depositional sequences within the carbonates in the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan. The Offshore Indus is tectonically categorized as a passive continental margin where carbonates occur as shelf carbonates in the near offshore and on volcanic seamounts in deeper waters. Seismic data analysis has indicated the presence of minor faults and carbonate buildups above the igneous basement in the south. Patterns of the seismic reflections enabled definition of three seismic facies units identified as: Unit 1 basement, represented by chaotic, moderate amplitude reflection configuration; while parallel bedding and the drape of overlying strata is typical character of Unit 2, carbonate mound facies. The younger Miocene channels represent Unit 3. The diagnosis of Alveolina vredenburgi/cucumiformis biozone confirmed the Ilerdian (55-52 Ma) stage constituting a second order cycle of deposition for the Eocene carbonates (identified as Unit 2). The carbonate succession has been mainly attributed to an early highstand system tract (HST). The environmental conditions remained favorable leading to the development of keep-up carbonates similar to pinnacle buildups as a result of aggradation during late transgressive system tract and an early HST. The carbonate sequence in the south (Pak G2-1) is thicker and fossiliferous representing inner to middle shelf depths based on fauna compared to the Indus Marine-1C in the north, which is devoid of fossils. Three biozones (SBZ 5, SBZ 6 and SBZ 8) were identified based on the occurrence of LBF. The base of the SBZ 5 zone marks the larger foraminifera turnover and the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary. The LBF encountered in this study coincides with earlier findings for the P-E boundary. Our findings indicate that the entire Ilerdian stage ranges from 55

  3. Sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale climate variability in Middle Eocene deep-marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchman, J. I.; Pickering, K. T.; Robinson, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sub-Milankovitch millennial scale climate variability appears ubiquitous throughout the Quaternary and Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental records (e.g. McManus et al., 1999) yet the driving mechanism remains elusive. Possible mechanisms are generally linked to Quaternary-specific oceanic and cryospheric conditions (e.g. Maslin et al., 2001). An alternative external control, such as solar forcing, however, remains a compelling alternative hypothesis (e.g. Bond et al., 2001). This would imply that millennial-scale cycles are an intrinsic part of the Earth’s climatic system and not restricted to any specific period of time. Determining which of these hypotheses is correct impacts on our understanding of the climate system and its role as a driver of cyclic sedimentation during both icehouse and greenhouse climates. Here we show that Middle Eocene, laminated deep-marine sediments deposited in the Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, contain 1,565-year (469 mm) cycles modulated by a 7,141-year (2157 mm) period. Climatic oscillations of 1,565-years recorded by element/Al ratios, are interpreted as representing climatically driven variation in sediment supply (terrigenous run-off) to the Ainsa basin. Climatic oscillations with this period are comparable to Quaternary Bond (~1,500-year), Dansgaard-Oeschger (~1,470-year) and Heinrich (~7,200-year) climatic events. Recognition of similar millennial-scale oscillations in the greenhouse climate of the Middle Eocene would appear inconsistent with an origin dependent upon Quaternary-specific conditions. Our observations lend support for pervasive millennial-scale climatic variability present throughout geologic time likely driven by an external forcing mechanism such as solar forcing. References Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I., Bonani, G. 2001. Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene. Science, 294, 2130-2136 Maslin, M

  4. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located in Teller County in central Colorado, at approximate latitude 38°54'N and longitude 105°13'. The lithologies of the Florissant Formation consist of coarse-grained arkosic and volcanoclastic sandstones and conglomerates, finer shale, and tuffaceus mudstone and siltstone. It is divided into six units, mostly of lacustrine and fluvial origin with volcanic sediments interfingering and topping the strata. Volcanic units have been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal method, giving an absolute age of ca. 34 Ma for the upper fossiliferous sedimentary unit. This pinpoints the formation of the Florissant sediments at the end of the Eocene, providing fruitful insight into the changing palaeoecosystem of the region at the dawn of the Oligocene. The formation is very well known for its rich fossil insect fauna and well preserved plant macrofossils found in the shale units, and the silicified tree stumps occurring in the lower mudstone unit. The sample used for this study originates from the upper shale unit, the fifth unit from the base of the formation. Previous studies on the plant macrofossils, mesofossils and the palynoflora have shown that during the late Eocene the surroundings of Florissant palaeo-lake were covered by diverse mixed broad-leaved evergreen/deciduous and needle-leafed forests. Until now pollen from the Florissant Formation has mostly been described according to conventional morphological nomenclature, using light microscopy (LM) only. In this study the same individual pollen grains are investigated using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by means of single grain technique. This provides best exploitable results concerning a more detailed resolution regarding taxonomy and more accurate identifications. The main goal of this study is to compile a well resolved taxonomic species list based on the palynoflora, to clarify the generic and species diversity of selected families (e

  5. Paleocene-Eocene Paleoclimatic Event Records in the Chicxulub Crater (Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    Chicxulub crater was formed by an asteroid impact on the Yucatan carbonate platform about 65.5 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary. After crater formation, carbonate deposition gradually covered the structure, preserving a largely undisturbed sedimentary record for the Paleogene. As part of the studies, drilling programs with continuous core recovery have been conducted over the past years. The cores preserve a record of post-impact processes, life recovery in target area, platform evolution and emergence, sea-level changes and the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic conditions in the region. To contribute to the knowledge of the Paleocene-Eocene warming and changes in oceanic hydrography, we carried out x-ray fluorescence and stable oxygen and carbon isotope studies of the carbonate sections on top of the impact breccias sampled in the Santa Elena and Yaxcopoil-1 boreholes. The Santa Elena borehole is located 110 km radial distance from crater center, outside the crater rim. Yaxcopoil-1 borehole is located 62 km away from crater center in the terrace zone inside the crater rim. The Cenozoic sequence is about 332 m and 796 m thick in the Santa Elena and Yaxcopoil-1 boreholes. The stable isotope records are correlated to data on marine sediment cores from the ocean drilling projects for the Paleocene and Eocene, which permit inferences on the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic reconstruction as well as additional stratigraphic constraints for the sections. The positive bulk carbon isotope (δ13C) values in the basal Paleocene sediments reflect a return or enhancement of ocean productivity following plankton extinctions following the K/Pg impact. The Paleocene represents a time of global warmth temperatures with low vertical and latitudinal gradients in the oceans, likely resulting from elevated CO2 levels. δ13C values in the Santa Elena borehole show increases between 3 and 4 % by the late Paleocene that decrease to levels prevailing before the K

  6. Chicxulub Impact, Yucatan Carbonate Platform, Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary and Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chicxulub formed 66 Ma ago by an asteroid impact on the Yucatan carbonate platform, southern Gulf of Mexico. Impact produced a 200 km diameter crater, platform fracturing, deformation and ejecta emplacement. Carbonate sedimentation restarted and crater was covered by up to 1 km of sediments. Drilling programs have sampled the Paleogene sediments, which record the changing sedimentation processes in the impact basin and platform. Here, results of a study of the Paleocene-Eocene sediments cored in the Santa Elena borehole are used to characterize the K/Pg and PETM. The borehole reached a depth of 504 m and was continuously cored, sampling the post-impact sediments and impact breccias, with contact at 332 m. For this study, we analyzed the section from ~230 to ~340 m, corresponding to the upper breccias and Paleocene-Eocene sediments. The lithological column, constructed from macroscopic and thin-section petrographic analyses, is composed of limestones and dolomitized limestones with several thin clay layers. Breccias are melt and basement clast rich, described as a suevitic unit. Section is further investigated using paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, X-ray fluorescence geochemical and stable isotope analyses. Magnetic polarities define a sequence of reverse to normal, which correlate to the geomagnetic polarity time scale from chrons 29r to 26r. The d13 C values in the first 20 m interval range from 1.2 to 3.5 %0 and d18 O values range from -1.4 to -4.8 %0. Isotope values show variation trends that correlate with the marine carbon and oxygen isotope patterns for the K-Pg boundary and early Paleocene. Positive carbon isotopes suggest relatively high productivity, with apparent recovery following the K-Pg extinction event. Geochemical data define characteristic trends, with Si decreasing gradually from high values in the suevites, low contents in Paleocene sediments with intervals of higher variability and then increased values likely marking the PETM. Variation trends are

  7. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage record of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (Cicogna section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnini, Claudia; Spofforth, David J. A.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Rio, Domenico; Pälike, Heiko; Backman, Jan; Muttoni, Giovanni; Dallanave, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along the Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common timescale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Sphenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  8. Mechanistic modelling of Middle Eocene atmospheric carbon dioxide using fossil plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Michaela; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Wilde, Volker; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Various proxies (such as pedogenic carbonates, boron isotopes or phytoplankton) and geochemical models were applied in order to reconstruct palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, partially providing conflicting results. Another promising proxy is the frequency of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gaseous exchange). In this project, fossil plant material from the Messel Pit (Hesse, Germany) is used to reconstruct atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the Middle Eocene by analyzing stomatal density. We applied the novel mechanistic-theoretical approach of Konrad et al. (2008) which provides a quantitative derivation of the stomatal density response (number of stomata per leaf area) to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model couples 1) C3-photosynthesis, 2) the process of diffusion and 3) an optimisation principle providing maximum photosynthesis (via carbon dioxide uptake) and minimum water loss (via stomatal transpiration). These three sub-models also include data of the palaeoenvironment (temperature, water availability, wind velocity, atmospheric humidity, precipitation) and anatomy of leaf and stoma (depth, length and width of stomatal porus, thickness of assimilation tissue, leaf length). In order to calculate curves of stomatal density as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, various biochemical parameters have to be borrowed from extant representatives. The necessary palaeoclimate data are reconstructed from the whole Messel flora using Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) and the Coexistence Approach (CA). In order to obtain a significant result, we selected three species from which a large number of well-preserved leaves is available (at least 20 leaves per species). Palaeoclimate calculations for the Middle Eocene Messel Pit indicate a warm and humid climate with mean annual temperature of approximately 22°C, up to 2540 mm mean annual precipitation and the absence of extended periods of drought. Mean relative air

  9. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  10. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  11. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative effective~~ess of secondary school principals in selected sctiools in Cross River State. In pursuance of this study, two hypothesis were formulated. Two sets of questionnaires, Principal's Self-Evaluation. Questionnaire ...

  12. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    towns of the Harappan culture (4600 to 4100 years Before Pres en t. - BP) and ashrams ofrishis (sages) lay on the banks of this life-line of the Vedic time. Where has that great river gone? It is today represented by the disproportionately wide and astonishingly water-less, sand-filled channels ofGhaggar in Haryana and ...

  13. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  14. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative .... ranked significantly ahead of men as democratic leaders ... effectiveness and leadership styles of secondary school principals In Cross River. State. METHODOLOGY. Research Area: The study was conducte'd in c ~ m.

  15. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  16. Workshop proceedings: "We are the Olifants" - Key stakeholder workshop for the Upper Olifants River study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2013-03-31

    Full Text Available some of the management tools that have been developed as part of the Upper Olifants River Study: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model and ways to help municipalities move towards Green Drop status. Session C covered river and wetland... ............................................................................................................................................ 10 B1: Informing management: Introducing the SWAT Model ...................................................... 10 B2: Informing management: Improving municipalities’ Green Drop scores ............................ 13 Session C...

  17. Salinity of the Early and Middle Eocene Arctic Ocean From Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Fish Bone Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Moore, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the Arctic was largely isolated from the world ocean during the early and middle Eocene, with exchange limited to shallow, and possibly intermittent, connections to the North Atlantic and Tethys (via the Turgay Strait). Relative isolation, combined with an intensification of the hydrologic cycle under an Eocene greenhouse climate, is suspected to have led to the development of a low- salinity surface water layer in the Arctic that could have affected deep and intermediate convection in the North Atlantic. Sediment cores recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by the IODP 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) allow for the first assessment of the salinity of the Arctic Ocean during the early and middle Eocene. Stable isotope analysis performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from ~30 samples between the ages of ~55 and ~44 myr yielded δ18O values between -6.84‰ and -2.96‰ VPDB, with a mean value of -4.89‰. From the δ18O values we calculate that the Arctic Ocean was probably brackish during most of the early and middle Eocene, with an average salinity of 19 to 24‰. Negative excursions in the δ18O record (<-6‰) indicate three events during which the salinity of the Arctic surface waters was severely lowered: the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Azolla event at ~49 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ~46 Ma. During the PETM, low salinities developed under conditions of increased regional precipitation and runoff associated with extreme high latitude warmth and possible tectonic uplift in the North Atlantic. During the other two low-salinity events, sea level was lowered by ~20-30 m, implying a possible severing of Arctic connections to the world ocean. The most positive δ18O value (-2.96‰) occurs at ~45 Ma, the age of the youngest dropstone discovered in the ACEX sediments, and may therefore correspond to a climatic cooling rather than a high salinity event.

  18. Liquidambar maomingensis sp. nov. (Altingiaceae) from the late Eocene of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Natalia P; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Song, Yunsheng; Volkova, Lyudmila D; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    • Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data has changed our view on the evolution and systematics of plant taxa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of several molecular markers, fruit anatomy, and pollen morphology, the genera Altingia and Semiliquidambar were formally transferred to the genus Liquidambar. The new species of Liquidambar from the Eocene of South China significantly extends our knowledge of the variability of the morphological characters of this genus in the geological past. Fossil leaves in conjunction with data on the associated reproductive structures allow us to make inferences about patterns in the evolutionary history of Liquidambar.• Fossil leaves and associated reproductive structures preserved as impressions were described and compared with the corresponding organs of extant and fossil relatives. The morphological variation of numerous leaves was examined by stereomicroscopy.• Liquidambar maomingensis sp. nov. is characterized by polymorphic leaves including both palmately lobed and unlobed leaves. This study presents the first observations of such dimorphism in the fossil record of Liquidambar leaves. Two distinct leaf groups are interpreted as sun and shade leaves.• The fossil leaves and associated infructescences from Maoming probably belong to the same plant. The occurrence of fossil leaves similar to those of extant species previously considered within Semiliquidambar and Liquidambar with the associated infructescences close to those of Altingia provide paleobotanical evidence that justifies combining the genera Liquidambar, Altingia, and Semiliquidambar into the single genus Liquidambar as recently proposed based on molecular markers. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Sedimentology and paleoecology of an Eocene Oligocene alluvial lacustrine arid system, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Centeno-García, Elena; Arenas-Abad, Concepción; Fernández, Luis Pedro

    2006-10-01

    A depositional model of the Eocene-Oligocene Coatzingo Formation in Tepexi de Rodríguez (Puebla, Mexico) is proposed, based on facies analysis of one of the best-preserved sections, the Axamilpa Section. The sedimentary evolution is interpreted as the retrogradation of an alluvial system, followed by the progressive expansion of an alkaline lake system, with deltaic, palustrine, and evaporitic environments. The analysis suggests a change towards more arid conditions with time. Fossils from this region, such as fossil tracks of artiodactyls, aquatic birds and cat-like mammals, suggest that these animals traversed the area, ostracods populated the lake waters, and plants grew on incipient soils and riparian environments many times throughout the history of the basin. The inferred habitat for some fossil plants coincides with the sedimentological interpretation of an arid to semiarid climate for that epoch. This combined sedimentological-paleontological study of the Axamilpa Section provides an environmental context in which fossils can be placed and brings into attention important biotic episodes, like bird and camelid migrations or the origin of endemic but extinct plants in this area.

  20. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  1. Eustatic control on synchronous stratigraphic development: cretaceous and eocene coastal basins along an active margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jeffrey A.; Yeo, Ross K.; Warme, John E.

    1984-07-01

    Field studies document an apparent eustatic control on facies patterns along a tectonically active margin. In the San Diego Embayment and northern Baja California, progradational-retrogradational shoreline sequences characterize Late Cretaceous and Eocene forearc stratigraphy. Extensive benthonic foraminifera and nannoplankton data provide control on the age and distribution of facies changes along these depositionally compact, bathymetrically steep-gradient margins. The complete stratigraphic package is arranged into three scales and patterns of depositional sequences. Timing and geometry of the two largest sequences provide relative sea-level curves that correlate exceptionally well with worldwide sea-level curves. The major depositional cycle is asymmetric, hundreds of meters thick, characterized by a thin basal retrogradational sequence overlain by a thick progradational sequence; each cycle correlates to a coastal-onlap "supercycle". Smaller scale stratigraphic rhythms, controlled by global "cycles" and "paracycles", compose depositional cycles. Local depostional pulses overprint these two larger order sequences of sedimentation. Coeval cycles and depositional rhythms in isolated coastal basins from Oregon to Baja California further indicate a primary eustatic control on sedimentation. Field-based facies analysis thus supports the use of the "Vail curve" or other coastal-onlap and global sea-level curves as a predictive tool in basin analysis.

  2. Late Eocene siliceous sponge fauna of southern Australia: reconstruction based on loose spicules record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowiak, Magdalena

    2015-02-09

    An abundant and diversified assemblage of siliceous loose sponge spicules has been identified in the Late Eocene deposits cropping out along the southern coasts of Australia. Based on the comparison of the obtained spicules with those of living sponges, representatives of at least 43 species within 33 genera, 26 families, and 9 orders of "soft" Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha have been identified in the assemblage. Within the studied sediments, the spicules representing demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Hadromerida, and Astrophorida were the most diverse. The rest of the five demosponge orders (Halichondrida, Agelasida, Haplosclerida, Spirophorida, and Chondrosida) are represented by single families. Also, a single family Plakinidae within the class Homoscleromorpha that includes two genera was present. The diversity of spicules is similar in all studied samples and areas, even distant geographically, and there are only minor differences between the sections. That indicates a homogenous character of this rich siliceous sponge assemblage. Most of the studied sponge spicules have Recent equivalents among present-day siliceous spicules. However, the fossil ones are bigger which is most likely due to different environmental conditions. Among the recognized sponge species, at least eleven (Agelas cf. axifera, Agelas cf. wiedenmayeri, Penares sclerobesa, Histodermella australis, Trikentrion flabelliforme, Cliona cf. mucronata, Tethya cf. omanensis, Terpios sp., Placinolopha cf. sarai, Dotona pulchella, and Sigmosceptrella quadrilobata) are noted for the first time in the fossil record.

  3. Enrichment of dissolved silica in the deep equatorial Pacific during the Eocene-Oligocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontorbe, Guillaume; Frings, Patrick J.; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.

    2017-08-01

    Silicon isotope ratios (expressed as δ30Si) in marine microfossils can provide insights into silica cycling over geologic time. Here we used δ30Si of sponge spicules and radiolarian tests from the Paleogene Equatorial Transect (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199) spanning the Eocene and Oligocene ( 50-23 Ma) to reconstruct dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations in deep waters and to examine upper ocean δ30Si. The δ30Si values range from -3.16 to +0.18‰ and from -0.07 to +1.42‰ for the sponge and radiolarian records, respectively. Both records show a transition toward lower δ30Si values around 37 Ma. The shift in radiolarian δ30Si is interpreted as a consequence of changes in the δ30Si of source DSi to the region. The decrease in sponge δ30Si is interpreted as a transition from low DSi concentrations to higher DSi concentrations, most likely related to the shift toward a solely Southern Ocean source of deep water in the Pacific during the Paleogene that has been suggested by results from paleoceanographic tracers such as neodymium and carbon isotopes. Sponge δ30Si provides relatively direct information about the nutrient content of deep water and is a useful complement to other tracers of deep water circulation in the oceans of the past.

  4. Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins preserved in a Middle Eocene blood-engorged mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, Dale E.; Goreva, Yulia S.; Siljeström, Sandra M.; Rose, Tim; Harbach, Ralph E.

    2013-01-01

    Although hematophagy is found in ∼14,000 species of extant insects, the fossil record of blood-feeding insects is extremely poor and largely confined to specimens identified as hematophagic based on their taxonomic affinities with extant hematophagic insects; direct evidence of hematophagy is limited to four insect fossils in which trypanosomes and the malarial protozoan Plasmodium have been found. Here, we describe a blood-engorged mosquito from the Middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation in Montana. This unique specimen provided the opportunity to ask whether or not hemoglobin, or biomolecules derived from hemoglobin, were preserved in the fossilized blood meal. The abdomen of the fossil mosquito was shown to contain very high levels of iron, and mass spectrometry data provided a convincing identification of porphyrin molecules derived from the oxygen-carrying heme moiety of hemoglobin. These data confirm the existence of taphonomic conditions conducive to the preservation of biomolecules through deep time and support previous reports of the existence of heme-derived porphyrins in terrestrial fossils. PMID:24127577

  5. Sea-level and salinity fluctuations during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum in Arctic Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ian C.; Charles, Adam J.; Marshall, John E. A.; Pälike, Heiko; Roberts, Andrew P.; Wilson, Paul A.; Jarvis, Edward; Thorne, Robert; Morris, Emily; Moremon, Rebecca; Pearce, Richard B.; Akbari, Shir

    2011-02-01

    Palaeoenvironmental manifestations of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM; ~ 56 Ma) are relatively well documented in low- to mid-latitude settings and at high southern latitudes, but no documented high northern latitude sites record the entire hyperthermal event. We present high-resolution multi-proxy records from a PETM succession on Spitsbergen in the high Arctic (palaeolatitude ~ 75 °N). By comparing our results with those from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site 302-4A, we document regional palaeoenvironmental variations in the expression of the PETM, with evidence for major differences in basin-margin vegetation and water column oxygen depletion. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical data demonstrate a pre-PETM sea level rise in Spitsbergen before the - 4‰ δ 13C TOC excursion, which culminated in maximum flooding during the peak of the event. The appearance of the dinoflagellate cyst Apectodinium before the onset of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) corroborates that environmental change in the Arctic had begun prior to the CIE. Sedimentological and palynological evidence indicate that elevated terrestrial runoff resulted in water column stratification, providing further evidence for an intensification of the hydrological cycle during the PETM.

  6. What caused the long duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    Paleorecords show that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was associated with a large carbon isotope excursion and global warming >5 K. Surprisingly, the records indicate little if any decline in, for instance, stable carbon isotope values after 50 kyr. Similar durations of the PETM main phase can be inferred from oxygen isotope records (indicating temperature) and surface ocean carbonate chemistry proxies. The inferred main phase duration of > 50 kyr is also independent of the age model applied. One age model is based on orbital cycle stratigraphy, the other on extraterrestrial 3He concentrations. Despite differences in the age models, they agree that the duration of the PETM main phase lasted for at least 50 kyr, a duration that is also consistent with observations from the most expanded terrestrial sequences. Conventional carbon-cycle/climate models forced with an initial carbon input pulse over ~10 kyr fail to reproduce the long duration of the PETM without invoking additional, slow carbon release over more than 50~kyr (so-called bleeding). However, a potential carbon source for the bleeding, as well as its release mechanism have hitherto remained elusive. In this presentation, I will suggest a plausible mechanism for the long duration of the PETM based on first-principle calculations. If the mechanism is also applicable to the near future, the magnitude and duration of future warming could substantially exceed current projections.

  7. Deep-sea redox across the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pälike, Cecily; Delaney, Margaret L.; Zachos, James C.

    2014-04-01

    amounts of 13C-depleted carbon were released to the oceans and atmosphere during a period of abrupt global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) (˜55 Ma). Investigations of qualitative sedimentologic and paleontologic redox proxies such as bioturbation and benthic assemblages from pelagic and hemipelagic sections suggest transient reductions in bottom water oxygen during this interval, possibly on a global scale. Here, we present bulk sediment manganese (Mn) and uranium (U) enrichment factors (EF) in Atlantic and Pacific deep-sea cores to constrain relative paleoredox changes across the PETM. Mn EF range from 1 to 9 in Atlantic sites, 1 to 35 in Southern Ocean sites, and are at crustal averages (EF = 1) in Pacific sites. U EF range from 1 to 5 in Atlantic sites, 1 to 90 in Southern Ocean sites, and are at crustal averages in Pacific sites. Our results indicate suboxic conditions prior to, during, and in the recovery from the PETM at intermediate depth sites in the Atlantic and Southern Ocean while the Pacific sites remained relatively oxygenated. The difference in oxygenation between the Atlantic and Pacific sites leads us to suggest the source for isotopically light carbon release during the PETM was in the Atlantic.

  8. Environmental changes during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in Spitsbergen as reflected by benthic foraminifera

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    Jenö Nagy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with environmental changes during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM and its background conditions in Spitsbergen through analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (FA in a section drilled in the Paleogene Central Basin. The impact of this extreme global warming occurs here in prodelta shelf mudstones composing the lower part of the Gilsonryggen Member (Frysjaodden Formation. The start of the PETM perturbation is marked by a faunal turnover, in which the medium-diversity circumpolar Reticulophragmium assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity Trochammina fauna. During the hyperthermal period, benthic foraminiferal diversity decreased severely, while the dominance of small-sized taxa with epifaunal morphology strongly increased. This low-diversity fauna occurs in sediments with a reduced thorium/uranium ratio (proxy for oxygenation and kaolinite enrichment (proxy for high humidity. The faunal changes were thus caused by the combined effects of hypoxic and hyposaline conditions in a stratified water column, due to extreme warming with its accompanying intensified hydrologic cycle. The PETM acme coincides with the maximum flooding surface (MFS of the Gilsonryggen depositional sequence, composed of the Gilsonryggen Member and the overlying Battfjellet and Aspelintoppen formations. The transgressive phase of the sequence was initiated by local tectonics, while the eustatic sea-level rise of the PETM was superimposed on this transgression.To access the supplementary material for this article, please see supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  9. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  10. Characterization of organics consistent with β-chitin preserved in the Late Eocene cuttlefish Mississaepia mississippiensis.

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    Patricia G Weaver

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preservation of original organic components in fossils across geological time is controversial, but the potential such molecules have for elucidating evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships is invaluable. Chitin is one such molecule. Ancient chitin has been recovered from both terrestrial and marine arthropods, but prior to this study had not been recovered from fossil marine mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Organics consistent with β-chitin are recovered in cuttlebones of Mississaepia mississippiensis from the Late Eocene (34.36 million years ago marine clays of Hinds County, Mississippi, USA. These organics were determined and characterized through comparisons with extant taxa using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (Hyperprobe, Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Immunohistochemistry (IHC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents the first evidence for organics consistent with chitin from an ancient marine mollusk and discusses how these organics have been degraded over time. As mechanisms for their preservation, we propose that the inorganic/organic lamination of the cuttlebone, combined with a suboxic depositional environment with available free Fe(2+ ions, inhibited microbial or enzymatic degradation.

  11. Productivity feedback did not terminate the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM

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    A. Torfstein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM occurred approximately 55 million years ago, and is one of the most dramatic abrupt global warming events in the geological record. This warming was triggered by the sudden release of thousands of gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere and is widely perceived to be the best analogue for current anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the mechanism of recovery from this event remains controversial. A massive increase in the intensity of the marine biological pump ("productivity feedback" has been suggested to cause a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent carbon sequestration in the ocean. A re-evaluation of the "productivity feedback hypothesis", based on biogenic barium mass accumulation rates (Ba-MARs for a site in the Southern Ocean, finds that any increase in export production lagged the initial carbon release by at least ~70 000 years. This implies that export production did not facilitate rapid removal of excess carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, the most likely mechanism for carbon removal appears to be silicate weathering, which occurred at much slower rates than previously assumed.

  12. Palaeocommunities, diversity and sea-level change from middle Eocene shell beds of the Paris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The middle Eocene, a time of global transition from greenhouse to icehouse climate, was approached through high-resolution stratigraphy at a few classic localities of the Paris Basin. Quantitative data on the distribution of molluscan species abundance, collected at 12 different shell beds representative of the middle Lutetian and the lower Bartonian, formed the basis for a palaeoecological study. The succession can be subdivided into a hierarchy of depositional sequences, interpreted as the product of relative sea-level change. Abundance distributions are better correlated with 5th-order depositional sequences than geographic locality, suggesting that sea-level played an important role in the distribution of palaeocommunities. Rarefied diversities were measured and compared with analogous data from modern tropical and warm-temperate intertidal and subtidal communities. The palaeoecological analysis shows that sea-level variation is responsible for a major change in the upper part of the middle Lutetian, leading from high-diversity subtidal to low-diversity intertidal and shallow subtidal palaeocommunities. The study did not confirm that the stage-level drop in species richness documented in this basin is related to the global climatic deterioration. Instead, the global climatic signal might be obscured in the Paris Basin by facies control.

  13. Ecological and evolutionary response of Tethyan planktonic foraminifera to the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (Alano di Piave section, NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, V.; Agnini, C.; Fornaciari, E.; Giusberti, L.; Rio, D.; Spofforth, D. J. A.; Pälike, H.

    2009-04-01

    The transient (ca. 500 kyr) climatic warming event at ca. 40 Ma, known as Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO), significantly interrupted the overall cooling trend of the Middle Eocene. Originally documented in several deep sea sites at the Southern Ocean (Bohaty and Zachos, 2003), now it appears to be recorded worldwide by pronounced changes of the ^13C and ^18O values and coeval oscillations in global CCD (Tripati et al, 2005). Information on the planktonic foraminiferal response to this event is so far lacking. Here we present a detailed planktonic foraminiferal analysis of the MECO interval from a marginal basin of the central-western Tethys (Alano di Piave section, northeastern Italy). The expanded and continuous Alano section provides an excellent record of this event and offers an unique opportunity to better understand the role of climate upon calcareous plankton evolution. The initiation of the MECO occurs within magnetochron C18r at ca. 40.5 Ma with minimum ^18O and ^13C values achieved at the base of C18n.2n ca. 40.13 Ma, which are interpreted to represent peak warming conditions. Two sapropel-like, organic-rich intervals coincide with the major change in ^13C record at Alano (Agnini et al., 2007a; Spofforth et al., 2008). The MECO event correlates the E12 (P13) and lower E3 (P14) planktonic foraminiferal zones. The high-resolution quantitative planktonic foraminiferal analysis performed on both >38 m and >63 m fraction reveals pronounced and complex changes indicating a strong environmental perturbation that parallels the variations of the stable isotope curves. These changes are primarily represented by the marked increase in abundance of the eutrophic subbotinids and of the small, low-oxygen tolerant Streptochilus, Chiloguembelina and Pseudohastigerina, by the consistent and significant entrance of the eutrophic opportunist triserial Jenkynsina and of Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana, typical species of high-productivity, upwelling areas. The

  14. Lithospheric convective removal related post-collisional middle Eocene magmatism along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (NE Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can

    2017-04-01

    Obliteration of the Mesozoic Neo-Tethyan Ocean and succeeding collision of the micro plates along the northern part of Turkey lead the development of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ). The suturing and collision stages terminate with the amalgamation of the three different crustal blocks (Pontides, Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex and Anatolide-Tauride Block) in the Paleocene-Early Eocene period. After the collisional stage; a new phase of extension and magmatism concomitantly developed at the both sides and as well as along the IAESZ during the Middle Eocene period. However, the origin, mechanism and driving force of the post-collisional magmatism is still enigmatic. To understand and better constrain the syn-to post collisional evolutionary stages, we have carried out volcano-stratigraphy and geochemistry based study on the middle Eocene magmatic associations along a transect ( 100 km) from Pontides to the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) at the NE part of the Turkey. Middle Eocene magmatic activity in the region has been represented by calc-alkaline, alkaline, shoshonitic volcanic and granitic rocks together with scarce gabbroic intrusions. We particularly focused on middle Eocene volcano-sedimentary successions (MEVSS) to constrain the tectono-magmatic evolution of the abovementioned transect. The volcano-sedimentary succsessions are coevally developed and cover the crustal blocks (Pontides and CACC) and the IAESZ with a region wide unconformity. We have differentiated three lava series (V1-V2-V3) and their sub-groups (V1a-V1b; V2a-V2b) in MEVSS. Generally, all lava series have middle-K to shoshonitic composition with distinct subduction characteristics. V1 series is marked by presence of hydrous phenocrysts such as amphibole+biotite. V1a sub-group constitute the first volcanic product and characterized by the high Mg# (42-69); alkaline basaltic andesite, and hawaiites. V1b sub-group is represented by calc-alkaline, low Mg# (24

  15. Early-middle Eocene transition in calcareous nannofossil assemblages at IODP Site U1410 (Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, NW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Carlotta; Agnini, Claudia; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2017-04-01

    The early-middle Eocene interval documents the shift from the warmest greenhouse conditions occurred during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 52-50 Ma) to the beginning of the cooling phase which led to the Oligocene icehouse regime. This important transition is well expressed as a reversal in the global oxygen and carbonate isotope trends (Zachos et al., 2001). Moreover, this interval was a time of remarkable transformation in the marine biosphere. Communities of calcareous nannoplankton, marine calcifying algae at the base of the oceans food chain, experienced transient and permanent profound changes. Calcareous nannofossil are regarded as remarkable tools both in biostratigraphy and paleoecology, with several taxa that show different responses to changes in physical parameters of surface waters. Here, we aim to document calcareous nannoplankton assemblage changes across the early-middle Eocene transition, in order to upset the biostratigraphic framework and to increase comprehension of how phytoplankton communities responded to paleoenvironmental changes at that time. The sedimentary successions recovered at IODP Site U1410 (Exp. 342; 41˚ 19.6987'N; 49˚ 10.1995'W, Norris et al., 2012) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (NW Atlantic) offer an expanded record of the early-middle Eocene interval that is marked by an increase in accumulation rate related to sedimentation of clay-rich nannofossil oozes. Quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages was conducted, encompassing calcareous nannofossil Zones NP12 -NP15 or CNE4-CNE10 (Martini, 1971; Agnini et al., 2014). The study interval records the appearance and proliferation of Noelaerhabdaceae family (i.e, Reticulofenestra/Dictyococcites group), which can be considered one of the most significant shifts in the assemblage structure of the Paleogene. This change was probably favored by modifications in surface water chemistry. The middle Eocene clay-rich sediments contain well preserved

  16. Tectonic growth of a Cretaceous-Eocene accretionary orogen formed at the southern margin of the Caribbean Plate: integrated geological insights from northernmost Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Weber, M. B.; Bayona, G.; Jaramillo, C.; Montes, C.; Ojeda, G.; Duque, J. F.; Salazar, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    Geological characteristics from the Cretaceous to Eocene metamorphic and igneous basement rocks from the Guajira and the NW corner of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta massifs in the northern Colombian Caribbean region, and the stratigraphy of adjacent basins, reveal different stages of growth of a segmented Late Cretaceous to Eocene accretionary orogen formed by interaction between the NW margin of South America and the Caribbean plate. Extensive intercalations of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks in the Santa Marta region, chemical composition of spinels and pyroxenes from serpentinized mantle tectonites and gabbros, as well as whole rock geochemistry from basaltic dykes from the Guajira massifs, record the evolution of a Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc in a succesion of Mariana- and Chile-type subduction styles. Geological and positive gravity signatures suggest that this arc was accreted and tectonically underplated to the continental margin of South America, creating a Maastrichian-Paleocene syn-orogenic basin, presently cropping out in the Cesar-Rancheria valley. After this collisional event, subduction of the Caribbean plate under South America started, as revealed by intrusion of composite stitched Late Paleocene-Eocene granitoids in the NW corner of the SNSM and Guajira massifs. These plutons show continental calc-alkaline geochemical signatures and more evolved Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than juvenile and older intra-oceanic arc magmatic rocks. This new subduction environment is linked to the convergence between North and South America at this time. Low pressure estimations and fast cooling rates between 450-250° for the Eocene granitoids in the Guajira and Santa Marta regions, indicate shallow < 7 Km depths of intrusion. Local unconformable stratigraphic relationships with Eocene-Miocene sediments at the Guajira region and overimposed post-magmatic low temperature deformation in some of these granitoids suggest an important Late Eocene unroofing and

  17. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

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    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  18. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watershed or jurisdictionfor cost-effectiveness and environmental and economic sustainability. WMOST allows users to select up to 15stormwater management practices, including traditional grey infrastructure, green infrastructure, and otherlow impact development practices. Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Conventional stormwater infrastructure, or gray infrastructure, is largely designed to move stormwater away from urban areas through pipes and conduit. Runoff from these surfaces can overwhelm sewer systems and end up contaminating local waterways. When stormwater runs off impervious streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and rooftops, it carries pollutants such as motor oil, lawn chemicals, sediments, and pet waste to streams, rivers, and lakes. Runoff flows can also cause erosion and flooding that can damage property, infrastructure, and wildlife habitat. In addition to runoff problems, impervious surfaces also prevent water from penetrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns) is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amou

  19. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

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    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  20. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....