WorldWideScience

Sample records for enzymogenes strain c3

  1. Transcriptional and Antagonistic Responses of Biocontrol Strain Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11 to the Plant Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangyang; Qian, Guoliang; Chen, Yuan; Du, Liangcheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF), which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L. enzymogenes OH11 was used to analyze the transcriptional changes in the bacteria that were induced by the oomycetes. Analysis was performed at three time points of the interaction, starting before inhibition zone formation until inhibition zone formation. A L. enzymogenes OH11 DNA microarray was constructed for the analysis. Microarray analysis indicated that a wide range of genes belonging to 14 diverse functions in L. enzymogenes were affected by P. aphanidermatum as critical antagonistic effects occurred. L. enzymogenes detected and responded to the presence of P. aphanidermatum early, but alteration of gene expression typically occurred after inhibition zone formation. The presence of P. aphanidermatum increased the twitching motility and HSAF production in L. enzymogenes. We also performed a contact interaction between L. enzymogenes and P. aphanidermatum, and found that HSAF played a critical role in the interaction. Our experiments demonstrated that L. enzymogenes displayed transcriptional and antagonistic responses to P. aphanidermatum in order to gain advantages in the competition with this oomycete. This study revealed new insights into the interactions between bacteria and oomycete.

  2. Transcriptional and Antagonistic Responses of Biocontrol Strain Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11 to the Plant Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF, which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L. enzymogenes OH11 was used to analyze the transcriptional changes in the bacteria that were induced by the oomycetes. Analysis was performed at three time points of the interaction, starting before inhibition zone formation until inhibition zone formation. A L. enzymogenes OH11 DNA microarray was constructed for the analysis. Microarray analysis indicated that a wide range of genes belonging to 14 diverse functions in L. enzymogenes were affected by P. aphanidermatum as critical antagonistic effects occurred. L. enzymogenes detected and responded to the presence of P. aphanidermatum early, but alteration of gene expression typically occurred after inhibition zone formation. The presence of P. aphanidermatum increased the twitching motility and HSAF production in L. enzymogenes. We also performed a contact interaction between L. enzymogenes and P. aphanidermatum, and found that HSAF played a critical role in the interaction. Our experiments demonstrated that L. enzymogenes displayed transcriptional and antagonistic responses to P. aphanidermatum in order to gain advantages in the competition with this oomycete. This study revealed new insights into the interactions between bacteria and oomycete.

  3. Characterisation of Lysobacter enzymogenes ( Christensen and Cook 1978) strain 3.1 T8, a powerful antagonist of fungal diseases of cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folman, L.B.; Postma, J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Isolate 3.1T8 of Lysobacter enzymogenes (Christensen and Cook 1978), originating from the rhizosphere of cucumber and shown to have the potential to control Pythium aphanidermatum, is described. The strain produces extracellular proteases and lipases and shows high levels of resistance against

  4. Characterisation of Lysobacter enzymogenes (Christensen and Cook 1978) strain 3.1T8, a powerful antagonist of fungal diseases of cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folman, L.B.; Postma, J.; Veen, van J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Isolate 3.1T8 of Lysobacter enzymogenes (Christensen and Cook 1978), originating from the rhizosphere of cucumber and shown to have the potential to control Pythium aphanidermatum, is described. The strain produces extracellular proteases and lipases and shows high levels of resistance against

  5. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber with a combined application of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 and chitosan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Stevens, L.H.; Wiegers, G.L.; Davelaar, E.; Nijhuis, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., causing root and crown rot in cucumber, was successfully managed by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8. Greenhouse experiments were performed with cucumber plants grown in rockwool blocks up to 5 weeks with a recirculated nutrient solution. Application of L.

  6. Transcriptomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in response to the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes reveals candidate fungal defense response genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Mathioni

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved a first line of defense response to pathogens called innate or basal immunity. While basal defenses in these organisms are well studied, there is almost a complete lack of understanding of such systems in fungal species, and more specifically, how they are able to detect and mount a defense response upon pathogen attack. Hence, the goal of the present study was to understand how fungi respond to biotic stress by assessing the transcriptional profile of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, when challenged with the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes. Based on microscopic observations of interactions between M. oryzae and wild-type L. enzymogenes strain C3, we selected early and intermediate stages represented by time-points of 3 and 9 hours post-inoculation, respectively, to evaluate the fungal transcriptome using RNA-seq. For comparative purposes, we also challenged the fungus with L. enzymogenes mutant strain DCA, previously demonstrated to be devoid of antifungal activity. A comparison of transcriptional data from fungal interactions with the wild-type bacterial strain C3 and the mutant strain DCA revealed 463 fungal genes that were down-regulated during attack by C3; of these genes, 100 were also found to be up-regulated during the interaction with DCA. Functional categorization of genes in this suite included those with roles in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular transport and stress response. One gene in this suite belongs to the CFEM-domain class of fungal proteins. Another CFEM class protein called PTH11 has been previously characterized, and we found that a deletion in this gene caused advanced lesion development by C3 compared to its growth on the wild-type fungus. We discuss the characterization of this suite of 100 genes with respect to their role in the fungal defense response.

  7. Production of antifungal compounds by Lysobacter enzymogenes isolate 3.1T8 under different conditions in relation to its efficacy as a biocontrol agent of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folman, L.B.; De Klein, M.J.E.M.; Postma, J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 is a potential biocontrol agent of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.). It showed in vitro antagonistic activity, hemolytic activity, and the production of a surface active compound, which decreased in media of increasing

  8. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis of lysobacter enzymogenes for enhanced chitinolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Kyoung Youl; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Two chitinase producing strains CHI2 and CHI4 were isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil. Both the strains belonged to Lysobacter enzymogenes as indicated by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Though strain CHI2 and CHI4 produced extracellular chitinase, they differ in their chitinolytic activity. CHI4 produced approximately three times the higher amounts of enzyme than that of CHI2 under specified conditions. CHI2 produced 535.67 U I{sup -1} of chitinase after 48 h incubation with a specific activity of 3.91 U mg{sup -1} of protein while strain CHI4 produced 1584.13 U I{sup -1} of chitinase with a specific activity of 10.88 U mg{sup -1} protein. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the molecular weight of chitinase enzyme was approximately 45 kDa. A faint band with a molecular weight of 55 kDa reveals the possibility for the isolates to gamma rays at their LD{sub 99} value (0.23 kGy). Totally, 11 mutants of CHI2 and CHI4 are reported to have enhanced chitinase activity. Several leaky mutant clones with decreased enzyme activity and a defective mutant (CHI2-M16) with complete loss of chitinase activity were also dentified. CHI4-M18, CHI4-M8 and CHI4-M29 showed 78.8, 41.5, and 31.9% increased chitinase activity over type CHI4.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44T and Sediminibacterium sp. C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ayarza, Joaquín M.; Figuerola, Eva Lucia Margarita; Erijman, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44T (NBRC 103935) and the strain Sedi- minibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation. Fil: Ayarza, Joaquín M.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investig...

  10. Antileishmanial activities of macrophages from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice treated with Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, M G; Nacy, C A

    1983-09-01

    C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice were infected ip with viable BCG, a macrophage-activating agent, and their peritoneal exudate macrophages exposed to Leishmania tropica amastigotes. Macrophages from BCG-infected C3H/HeN mice had both leishmanicidal activities described for lymphokine activation of C3H/HeN macrophages in vitro: increased resistance to L. tropica infection, followed by intracellular killing of the parasite. Macrophages from BCG-infected C3H/HeN mice were also activated to kill tumor cells in vitro. In contrast, macrophages from BCG-treated C3H/HeJ mice were not resistant to L. tropica infection, did not kill intracellular amastigotes over 72 hr in culture, and were not cytotoxic to tumor cells.

  11. Molecular characterization of a glucokinase with broad hexose specificity from Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bei; Liu, Haizhou; Hu, Xiaomin; Cai, Yajun; Zheng, Dasheng; Yuan, Zhiming

    2007-06-01

    Bacillus sphaericus cannot metabolize sugar since it lacks several of the enzymes necessary for glycolysis. Our results confirmed the presence of a glucokinase-encoding gene, glcK, and a phosphofructokinase-encoding gene, pfk, on the bacterial chromosome and expression of glucokinase during vegetative growth of B. sphaericus strains. However, no phosphoglucose isomerase gene (pgi) or phosphoglucose isomerase enzyme activity was detected in these strains. Furthermore, one glcK open reading frame was cloned from B. sphaericus strain C3-41 and then expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analysis revealed that this gene encoded a protein with a molecular mass of 33 kDa and that the purified recombinant glucokinase had K(m) values of 0.52 and 0.31 mM for ATP and glucose, respectively. It has been proved that this ATP-dependent glucokinase can also phosphorylate fructose and mannose, and sequence alignment of the glcK gene indicated that it belongs to the ROK protein family. It is postulated that the absence of the phosphoglucose isomerase-encoding gene pgi in B. sphaericus might be one of the reasons for the inability of this bacterium to metabolize carbohydrates. Our findings provide additional data that further elucidate the specific metabolic pathway and could be used for genetic improvement of B. sphaericus.

  12. Molecular Characterization of a Glucokinase with Broad Hexose Specificity from Bacillus sphaericus Strain C3-41▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bei; Liu, Haizhou; Hu, Xiaomin; Cai, Yajun; Zheng, Dasheng; Yuan, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus cannot metabolize sugar since it lacks several of the enzymes necessary for glycolysis. Our results confirmed the presence of a glucokinase-encoding gene, glcK, and a phosphofructokinase-encoding gene, pfk, on the bacterial chromosome and expression of glucokinase during vegetative growth of B. sphaericus strains. However, no phosphoglucose isomerase gene (pgi) or phosphoglucose isomerase enzyme activity was detected in these strains. Furthermore, one glcK open reading frame was cloned from B. sphaericus strain C3-41 and then expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analysis revealed that this gene encoded a protein with a molecular mass of 33 kDa and that the purified recombinant glucokinase had Km values of 0.52 and 0.31 mM for ATP and glucose, respectively. It has been proved that this ATP-dependent glucokinase can also phosphorylate fructose and mannose, and sequence alignment of the glcK gene indicated that it belongs to the ROK protein family. It is postulated that the absence of the phosphoglucose isomerase-encoding gene pgi in B. sphaericus might be one of the reasons for the inability of this bacterium to metabolize carbohydrates. Our findings provide additional data that further elucidate the specific metabolic pathway and could be used for genetic improvement of B. sphaericus. PMID:17400775

  13. Biosynthetic mechanism for sunscreens of the biocontrol agent Lysobacter enzymogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Lysobacter are ubiquitous environmental bacteria emerging as novel biocontrol agents and new sources of anti-infectives. So far, very little effort has been invested in the study of the biology of these Gram-negative gliding bacteria. Many Lysobacter species are characterized by their yellow-orange appearance. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified a stand-alone polyketide synthase (PKS gene cluster required for the pigment production in L. enzymogenes OH11. The yellow pigments were abolished in the "white" mutants generated by target-specific deletions of ketosynthase (KS, acyl carrier protein, or ketoreductase. Spectroscopic data suggested that the pigments belong to xanthomonadin-like aryl polyenes. Polyene-type polyketides are known to be biosynthesized by modular PKS (Type I, not by stand-alone PKS (Type II which always contain the heterodimer KS-CLF (chain-length factor as the key catalytic component. Remarkably, this aryl polyene PKS complex only contains the KS (ORF17, but not the CLF. Instead, a hypothetical protein (ORF16 is located immediately next to ORF17. ORF16-17 homologs are widespread in numerous uncharacterized microbial genomes, in which an ORF17 homolog is always accompanied by an ORF16 homolog. The deletion of ORF16 eliminated pigment production, and homology modeling suggested that ORF16 shares a structural similarity to the N-terminal half of CLF. A point-mutation of glutamine (Q166A that is the conserved active site of known CLF abolished pigment production. The "white" mutants are significantly more sensitive to UV/visible light radiation or H2O2 treatment than the wild type. These results unveil the first example of Type II PKS-synthesized polyene pigments and show that the metabolites serve as Lysobacter "sunscreens" that are important for the survival of these ubiquitous environmental organisms.

  14. LesR is a novel upstream regulator that controls downstream Clp expression to modulate antibiotic HSAF biosynthesis and cell aggregation in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiyong; Wang, Ruping; Zhao, Yangyang; Fu, Zheng Qing; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-11-14

    Heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam secondary metabolite that exhibits broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against filamentous fungal pathogens. The native yield of this chemical is low. It is also a great challenge to synthesize HSAF artificially, due to its complex structure. Understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying HSAF biosynthesis could provide genetic basis for engineering high HSAF-producing strain. The transcription factor Clp is a global regulator that controls bacterial pathogenicity and the expression of one hundred related genes in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Diffusible signal factor (DSF) chemical signaling is the only well-characterized upstream regulatory pathway that involves downstream Clp regulation in Xcc. Such a regulatory hierarchy between DSF signaling and Clp is also conserved in the Gram-negative biological control agent Lysobacter enzymogenes, where the DSF signaling system controls antifungal antibiotic HSAF biosynthesis via Clp. Here, using LLysobacter enzymogenes OH11 as a working organism, we examined a novel upstream regulator, LesR, a LuxR solo that controls Clp expression to modulate HSAF biosynthesis as well as cell aggregation. We found that the overexpression of lesR in strain OH11 almost entirely shut down HSAF production and accelerated cell aggregation. These changed phenotypes could be rescued by the introduction of plasmid-borne clp in the lesR overexpression background. Consistent with findings, we further found that overexpression of lesR led to a decrease in the Clp level. These results collectively have shown that LesR could exert its function, i.e., HSAF biosynthesis, via downstream Clp. These findings were subsequently validated by a comparative transcriptome analysis, where the regulatory action of LesR was found to largely overlap with that of Clp. Therefore, in addition to the well-known DSF signaling system, the present

  15. Tuning electronic and optical properties of arsenene/C3N van der Waals heterostructure by vertical strain and external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Cheng, Ai-Qiang; Zhang, Lei; He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan

    2018-02-16

    Searching for new van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure with novel electronic and optical properties is of great interest and importance for the next generation of devices. By using first-principles calculations, we show that the electronic and optical properties of the arsenene/C3N vdW heterostructure can be effectively modulated by applying vertical strain and external electric field. Our results suggest that this heterostructure has an intrinsic type-II band alignment with an indirect bandgap of 0.16 eV, facilitating the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The bandgap in the heterostructure can be tuned from 0-0.35 eV via the strain, experiencing an indirect-to-direct bandgap transition. Moreover, the bandgap of the heterostructure varies linearly with respect to a moderate external electric field, and the semiconductor-to-metal transition can be realized in the presence of a strong electric field. The calculated band alignment and the optical absorption reveal that the arsenene/C3N heterostructure could present excellent light-harvesting performance. Our designed vdW heterostructure is expected to have great potential applications in nanoelectronic devices and photovoltaics.

  16. Tuning electronic and optical properties of arsenene/C3N van der Waals heterostructure by vertical strain and external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Cheng, Ai-Qiang; Zhang, Lei; He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan

    2018-02-01

    Searching for new van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure with novel electronic and optical properties is of great interest and importance for the next generation of devices. By using first-principles calculations, we show that the electronic and optical properties of the arsenene/C3N vdW heterostructure can be effectively modulated by applying vertical strain and external electric field. Our results suggest that this heterostructure has an intrinsic type-II band alignment with an indirect bandgap of 0.16 eV, facilitating the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. The bandgap in the heterostructure can be tuned from 0–0.35 eV via the strain, experiencing an indirect-to-direct bandgap transition. Moreover, the bandgap of the heterostructure varies linearly with respect to a moderate external electric field, and the semiconductor-to-metal transition can be realized in the presence of a strong electric field. The calculated band alignment and the optical absorption reveal that the arsenene/C3N heterostructure could present excellent light-harvesting performance. Our designed vdW heterostructure is expected to have great potential applications in nanoelectronic devices and photovoltaics.

  17. Quantitative trait loci for tibial bone strength in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Feng; Chiu, Hank; Jiao, Yan; de Rijk, Waldemar G; Li, Xinmin; Eckstein, Eugene C; Beamer, Wesley G; Gu, Weikuan

    2010-04-01

    Three-point bending technology has been widely used in the measurement of bone strength. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone strength have been identified using mouse femurs. In this study, we investigate the use of mouse tibiae in identification of QTLs that regulate bone strength. Mouse tibiae were from a F(2) population derived from C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H). Three-point bending was measured using ISO 4049, with the support width adjustable to accommodate specimen sizes outside the scope of ISO 4049. The strain rate is selectable from 0.05 to 500 mm per min. All stress strain diagrams are recorded and retrieved in digital electronic form. Genome scan was performed in The Jackson Laboratory (TJL). QTL mapping was conducted using Map Manager QTX software. Data show that (i) both elastic modulus (stiffness) and maximum loading (strength) value appear as normal distributions, suggesting that multiple genetic factors control the bone strength; (ii) 11 QTLs, accounting for 90% of variation for strength, have been detected. More than half QTLs of three-point bending are located on the same locations of bone density earlier identified from mouse femurs; (iii) a major QTL of femoral and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) was not detected for bone strength of tibiae; (iv) the QTL on chromosome 4 has extremely high LOD score of 31.8 and represents 60% of the variation of bone strength; and (v) four QTLs of stiffness (chromosomes 2, 11, 15 and 19) have been identified.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis reveals new regulatory roles of Clp signaling in secondary-metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhao, Yuxin; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Yangyang; Shen, Yan; Su, Zhenhe; Xu, Gaoge; Du, Liangcheng; Huffman, Justin M.; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a bacterial biological-control agent emerging as a new source of antibiotic metabolites, such as HSAF (Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor) and the antibacterial factor WAP-8294A2. The regulatory mechanism(s) for antibiotic-metabolite biosynthesis remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. Clp, a cAMP-receptor-like protein, is shown to function as a global regulator in modulating biocontol-associated traits in L. enzymogenes. However, the genetic basis of Clp signaling remains unclear. Here, we utilized transcriptome/microarray analysis to determine the Clp regulon in L. enzymogenes. We showed that Clp is a global regulator in gene expression, as the transcription of 775 genes belonging to 19 functional groups was differentially controlled by Clp signaling. Analysis of the Clp regulon detected previously characterized Clp-modulated functions as well as novel loci. These include novel loci involved in antibiotic-metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in L. enzymogenes. We further showed experimentally that Clp signaling played a positive role in regulating the biosynthesis of HSAF and WAP-8294A2, as well as surface motility which is a Type-IV-pilus-dependent trait. The regulation by Clp signaling of antibiotic (HSAF and WAP-8294A2) biosynthesis and surface motility was found to be independent. Importantly, we identified a factor Lat (Lysobacter acetyltransferase), a homologue of histone acetyltransferase Hpa2, which was regulated by Clp and involved in HSAF biosynthesis, but not associated with WAP-8294A2 production and surface motility. Overall, our study provided new insights into the regulatory role and molecular mechanism of Clp signaling in L. enzymogenes. PMID:25236801

  19. Transcriptomic analysis reveals new regulatory roles of Clp signaling in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhao, Yuxin; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Yangyang; Shen, Yan; Su, Zhenhe; Xu, Gaoge; Du, Liangcheng; Huffman, Justin M; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2014-11-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a bacterial biological control agent emerging as a new source of antibiotic metabolites, such as heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and the antibacterial factor WAP-8294A2. The regulatory mechanism(s) for antibiotic metabolite biosynthesis remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. Clp, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-receptor-like protein, is shown to function as a global regulator in modulating biocontrol-associated traits in L. enzymogenes. However, the genetic basis of Clp signaling remains unclear. Here, we utilized transcriptome/microarray analysis to determine the Clp regulon in L. enzymogenes. We showed that Clp is a global regulator in gene expression, as the transcription of 775 genes belonging to 19 functional groups was differentially controlled by Clp signaling. Analysis of the Clp regulon detected previously characterized Clp-modulated functions as well as novel loci. These include novel loci involved in antibiotic metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in L. enzymogenes. We further showed experimentally that Clp signaling played a positive role in regulating the biosynthesis of HSAF and WAP-8294A2, as well as surface motility which is a type-IV-pilus-dependent trait. The regulation by Clp signaling of antibiotic (HSAF and WAP-8294A2) biosynthesis and surface motility was found to be independent. Importantly, we identified a factor Lysobacter acetyltransferase (Lat), a homologue of histone acetyltransferase Hpa2, which was regulated by Clp and involved in HSAF biosynthesis, but not associated with WAP-8294A2 production and surface motility. Overall, our study provided new insights into the regulatory role and molecular mechanism of Clp signaling in L. enzymogenes.

  20. PRO-C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Fuglsang; Juul Nielsen, Mette; Nyström, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Detecting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis remains important in treatment and follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis C Infection (CHC). The aim of this study was to assess the ability of PRO-C3 to identify significant fibrosis (Ishak score ≥3) and cirrhosis (Ishak score ≥5) bot...

  1. Action of 50 R X-ray doses on the breeding function of C3H strain mice - effect of splitting the dose, action of repeated irradiations on successive generations; Action de 50 R de rayons X sur la fonction de reproduction des souris de race C3H - influence du fractionnement. Action de la repetition des irradiations au cours des generations successives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    X-rays exposure effect was studied on C3H strain mice, at the standpoint of the effects produced on breeding function. The method used with this purpose was the following: single doses 20 - 30 - 40 and 50 R/dose, fractional doses: 50 R/total dose, divided in 2 - 5 - 10 or 25 irradiations distributed in one month duration. The offsprings were irradiated at the same doses than the parents, consanguinity being maintained. Statistical treatment of results was carried out, that led at the following conclusions: 1) Couples receiving single exposure of 50 R or two exposures of 25 R at one month interval give comparable results. Fractional doses do not involve the slightest diminution of X-rays effect. 2) 30 R exposure brings about a decrease in fertility, with an increase in abortions. Fertility of 20 R irradiated couples remains below controls. 3) After ten times 5 R and twenty-five 2 R, the number of abortions is the largest. Ovarian function is particularly sensitive to X-rays; one may think that twenty-five 2 R give injuries conditioning non-viability of conception products, smaller doses should produce mutations and yield births of altered genotype individuals. (author) [French] L'action d'une exposition aux rayons X de souris de race C3H a ete etudiee du point de vue des effets produits sur la fonction reproductrice. La methode utilisee fut la suivante: doses administrees en irradiation unique: 20 - 30 - 40 et 50 R/seance, en irradiations fractionnees: 50 R au total en 2 - 5 - 10 ou 25 seances reparties en un mois. Les descendants ont ete irradies aux memes doses que leurs parents, en maintenant la consanguinite. Un traitement statistique des resultats a ete effectue dont on a pu conclure : 1) Chez les couples ayant recu une seule exposition de 50 R ou deux expositions de 25 R a intervalle d'un mois les resultats sont comparables. Le fractionnement n' entrainant aucune attenuation de l'action des rayons X. 2) Une exposition de 30 R entraine

  2. A semi-homodesmotic approach for estimating ring strain energies (RSEs) of highly substituted cyclopropanes that minimizes use of acyclic references and cancels steric interactions: RSEs for c-C3R6 that make sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lio, Ashley M; Durfey, Bridget L; Gille, Austin L; Gilbert, Thomas M

    2014-08-07

    Estimation of ring strain energies (RSEs) of substituted cyclopropanes c-C(3)H(x)R(6-x) (R = F, Cl, Me; x = 0, 2, 4) using homodesmotic reaction methods has been plagued by implausible results. Prior work suggests that this stems from poorly canceled interactions between substituents on the acyclic reference molecules. We report a semi-homodesmotic approach that minimizes use of acyclic references, focusing instead on canceling substituent interactions. The method requires employing homodesmotic group equivalent reactions only for disubstituted cyclopropanes and relies solely on absolute energy calculations for more substituted rings. This provides RSEs consistent with chemical intuition regardless of the degree of substitution. We find that RSEs increase with substitution regardless of the electronic nature of R, although the increase is more dramatic when R is electron-withdrawing. The RSEs determined are consistent with QTAIM data, which show that progressive substitution always increases critical path angles. Overall, the semi-homodesmotic approach is simpler than hyperhomodesmotic reaction methods, and gives more trustworthy results.

  3. Human complement component C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N

    1985-01-01

    The two common genetic variants of human C3, C3 S and C3 F, were purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis. The difference in electrophoretic mobility between the two variants was conserved after purification...

  4. Human complement component C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N

    1985-01-01

    , and by isoelectric focusing of the hemolytically active proteins, pI values of 5.86 and 5.81 were determined for C3 S and C3 F, respectively. Any difference in amino acid composition was too small to be detected by amino acid analysis, and the two proteins had the same molecular weight as determined by SDS-PAGE....

  5. Atomic resolution structure of a lysine-specific endoproteinase from Lysobacter enzymogenes suggests a hydroxyl group bound to the oxyanion hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Peter; Müller, Astrid; Hölke, Werner; Sobek, Harald; Rudolph, Markus G

    2014-07-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes lysyl endoproteinase (LysC) is a trypsin-type serine protease with a high pH optimum that hydrolyses all Lys-Xaa peptide bonds. The high specificity of LysC renders it useful for biotechnological purposes. The K30R variant of a related lysyl endoproteinase from Achromobacter lyticus has favourable enzymatic properties that might be transferrable to LysC. To visualize structural differences in the substrate-binding sites, the crystal structures of wild-type and the K30R variant of LysC were determined. The mutation is located at a distance of 12 Å from the catalytic triad and subtly changes the surface properties of the substrate-binding site. The high pH optimum of LysC can be attributed to electrostatic effects of an aromatic Tyr/His stack on the catalytic aspartate and is a general feature of this enzyme subfamily. LysC crystals in complex with the covalent inhibitor N(α)-p-tosyl-lysyl chloromethylketone yielded data to 1.1 and 0.9 Å resolution, resulting in unprecedented precision of the active and substrate-binding sites for this enzyme subfamily. Error estimates on bond lengths and difference electron density indicate that instead of the expected oxyanion a hydroxyl group binds to the partially solvent-exposed oxyanion hole. Protonation of the alkoxide catalytic intermediate might be a recurring feature during serine protease catalysis.

  6. The Importance of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards will soon be released under the title "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and Lead Writer was NCSS member Kathy…

  7. Delft-C3 : The student nanosatellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubarak, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    When being asked about the Delfi-C3 nanosatellite, most of our students respond with a mysterious look in their eyes. This gave us, members of the Delfi-C3 team, the reason to provide the Maxwell readers with an article informing about what the Delfi-C3 is, and how it is to work within our team. The

  8. Action of the C3b-inactivator on the cell-bound C3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S K; Fearon, D T; Levine, R P

    1979-03-01

    The action of C3bINA and beta 1H on cell-bound C3b is described in this paper. The alpha-polypeptide of C3b that binds covalently to cell surfaces is cleaved by the C3bINA and beta 1H into two fragments: one of 60,000 (C3b alpha-60) and another of 40,000 (C3b alpha-40) daltons. The beta-chain of C3b is unaffected by the C3bINA and beta 1H. The three polypeptides, C3b alpha-60, C3b alpha-40, and C3 beta, are held together as a single unit by disulfide bonds. This unit, referred to as C3b' is covalently bound to cell surfaces via the C3b alpha-60 polypeptide. The conversion of C3b to C3b' by C3bINA and beta 1H abolishes the ability of the C3b-bearing cells to adhere to human erythrocytes as well as the ability to form, on the cell surface, the B, D, and properdin-dependent amplification C3-convertase. However, the agglutinability of the cells with either anti-C3c or anti-C3d is not affected. Treatment of the C3b'-bearing cells with trypsin releases fragments of C3b' into solution, leaving a polypeptide of 32,000 daltons covalently linked to the membrane. Since the trypsinized cells are agglutinable by anti-C3d but not by anti-C3c, the 32,000 dalton polypeptide appears to correspond antigenically to C3d.

  9. Vimentin mediates uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Rohrbeck

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3 selectively inactivates RhoA/B/C GTPases by ADP-ribosylation. Based on this substrate specificity C3 is a well-established tool in cell biology. C3 is taken up by eukaryotic cells although lacking an uptake and translocation domain. Based on different approaches vimentin was identified as membranous C3-interaction partner by mass spectrometry. Vimentin in fact was partly localized at the outer surface of hippocampal HT22 cells and J744A.1 macrophages. Domain analysis identified the rod domain as binding partner of C3. Vimentin was also involved in uptake of C3 as shown by knock down of vimentin in HT22 and J774A.1 cells. The involvement of vimentin in uptake of C3 was further supported by the findings that the vimentin disruptor acrylamide blocked uptake of C3. Vimentin is not only a major organizing element of the intermediate filament network but is also involved in both binding and uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

  10. Dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Thomas D; Pickering, Matthew C; Terence Cook, H

    2013-11-01

    C3 glomerulopathy refers to those renal lesions characterized histologically by predominant C3 accumulation within the glomerulus, and pathogenetically by aberrant regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Dense deposit disease is distinguished from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy by its characteristic appearance on electron microscopy. The extent to which dense deposit disease also differs from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy in terms of clinical features, natural history, and outcomes of treatment including renal transplantation is less clear. We discuss the pathophysiology of C3 glomerulopathy, with evidence for alternative pathway dysregulation obtained from affected individuals and complement factor H (Cfh)-deficient animal models. Recent linkage studies in familial C3 glomerulopathy have shown genomic rearrangements in the Cfh-related genes, for which the novel pathophysiologic concept of Cfh deregulation has been proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kallikrein Cleaves C3 and Activates Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Sarah; Döring, Nadia; Halder, Luke D; Jo, Emeraldo A H; Kopka, Isabell; Dunker, Christine; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Luo, Shanshan; Slevogt, Hortense; Lorkowski, Stefan; Beyersdorf, Niklas; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine

    2017-12-14

    The human plasma contact system is an immune surveillance system activated by the negatively charged surfaces of bacteria and fungi and includes the kallikrein-kinin, the coagulation, and the fibrinolytic systems. Previous work shows that the contact system also activates complement, and that plasma enzymes like kallikrein, plasmin, thrombin, and FXII are involved in the activation process. Here, we show for the first time that kallikrein cleaves the central complement component C3 directly to yield active components C3b and C3a. The cleavage site within C3 is identical to that recognized by the C3 convertase. Also, kallikrein-generated C3b forms C3 convertases, which trigger the C3 amplification loop. Since kallikrein also cleaves factor B to yield Bb and Ba, kallikrein alone can trigger complement activation. Kallikrein-generated C3 convertases are inhibited by factor H; thus, the kallikrein activation pathway merges with the amplification loop of the alternative pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of the contact system locally enhances complement activation on cell surfaces. The human pathogenic microbe Candida albicans activates the contact system in normal human serum. However, C. albicans immediately recruits factor H to the surface, thereby evading the alternative and likely kallikrein-mediated complement pathways. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The interstellar chemistry of C3H and C3H2 isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Wakelam, Valentine; Roueff, Evelyne; Gratier, Pierre; Marcelino, Núria; Reyes, Dianailys Nuñez; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne

    2017-10-01

    We report the detection of linear and cyclic isomers of C3H and C3H2 towards various starless cores and review the corresponding chemical pathways involving neutral (C3Hx with x = 1,2) and ionic (C3Hx+ with x = 1,2,3) isomers. We highlight the role of the branching ratio of electronic dissociative recombination (DR) reactions of C3H2+ and C3H3+ isomers, showing that the statistical treatment of the relaxation of C3H* and C3H2* produced in these DR reactions may explain the relative c,l-C3H and c,l-C3H2 abundances. We have also introduced in the model the third isomer of C3H2 (HCCCH). The observed cyclic-to-linear C3H2 ratio varies from 110 ± 30 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 1 × 104 molecules cm-3 to 30 ± 10 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 4 × 105 molecules cm-3, a trend well reproduced with our updated model. The higher ratio for molecular clouds with low densities is determined mainly by the importance of the H + l-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 and H + t-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 isomerization reactions.

  13. C3a Enhances the Formation of Intestinal Organoids through C3aR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsumoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available C3a is important in the regulation of the immune response as well as in the development of organ inflammation and injury. Furthermore, C3a contributes to liver regeneration but its role in intestinal stem cell function has not been studied. We hypothesized that C3a is important for intestinal repair and regeneration. Intestinal organoid formation, a measure of stem cell capacity, was significantly limited in C3-deficient and C3a receptor (C3aR 1-deficient mice while C3a promoted the growth of organoids from normal mice by supporting Wnt-signaling but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Similarly, the presence of C3a in media enhanced the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in organoids formed from C3-deficient but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Using Lgr5.egfp mice we showed significant expression of C3 in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells whereas C3aR1 was expressed on the surface of various intestinal cells. C3 and C3aR1 expression was induced in intestinal crypts in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, C3aR1-deficient mice displayed ischemia/reperfusion injury comparable to control mice. These data suggest that C3a through interaction with C3aR1 enhances stem cell expansion and organoid formation and as such may have a role in intestinal regeneration.

  14. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  15. Towards engineering carboxysomes into C3 plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Maureen R.; Lin, Myat T.; Carmo-Silva, A. Elizabete; Parry, Martin A.J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Photosynthesis in C3 plants is limited by features of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, which exhibits a low turnover rate and can react with O2 instead of CO2, leading to photorespiration. In cyanobacteria, bacterial microcompartments known as carboxysomes improve the efficiency of photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 near the enzyme Rubisco. Cyanobacterial Rubisco enzymes are faster than those of C3 plants, though have lower specificity toward CO2 than the land plant enzyme. Replacement of land plant Rubisco by faster bacterial variants with lower CO2 specificity will improve photosynthesis only if a microcompartment capable of concentrating CO2 can also be installed into the chloroplast. We review current information about cyanobacterial microcompartments and carbon-concentrating mechanisms, plant transformation strategies, replacement of Rubisco in a model C3 plant with cyanobacterial Rubisco, and progress toward synthesizing a carboxysome in chloroplasts. PMID:26867858

  16. The Development of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Susan Griffin, executive director of NCSS, was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that initiated and guided the development of "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards", which will soon be released. In this interview with "Social Education", Susan explains how the…

  17. The LspC3-41I restriction-modification system is the major determinant for genetic manipulations of Lysinibacillus sphaericus C3-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pan; Ge, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Zhao, Ni; Yuan, Zhiming; Hu, Xiaomin

    2017-05-19

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L. sphaericus C3-41 genome. It was found that the cell free extracts (CFE) from this strain shown similar restriction and methylation activity on exogenous Bacillus/Escherichia coli shuttle vector pBU4 as the HaeIII, which is an isoschizomer of BspRI. The Bsph_0498 (encoding the predicted LspC3-41IR) knockout mutant Δ0498 and the complement strain RC0498 were constructed. It was found that the unmethylated pBU4 can be digested by the CFE of C3-41 and RC0498, but not by that of Δ0498. Furthermore, the exogenous plasmid pBU4 can be transformed at very high efficacy into Δ0498, low efficacy into RC0498, but no transformation into C3-41, indicating that LspC3-41I might be a major determinant for the genetic restriction barrier of strain C3-41. Besides, lspC3-41IR and lspC3-41IM genes are detected in other two strains besides C3-41 of the tested 16 L. sphaericus strains, which all belonging to serotype H5 and MLST sequence type (ST) 1. Furthermore, the three strains are not horizontal transferred, and this restriction could be overcome by in vitro methylation either by the host CFE or by commercial methytransferase M. HaeIII. The results provide an insight to further study the genetic restriction, modification and evolution of mosquitocidal L. sphaericus, also a theoretical basis and a method for the genetic manipulations of L. sphaericus. LspC3-41I is identified as the major determinant for the restriction barrier of L. sphaericus C3-41. Only three strains of the tested 16 L. sphaericus strains

  18. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. © The Author 2014

  19. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  20. Growth media affect the volatilome and antimicrobial activity against Phytophthora infestans in four Lysobacter type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazazzara, Valentina; Perazzolli, Michele; Pertot, Ilaria; Biasioli, Franco; Puopolo, Gerardo; Cappellin, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecological roles in soil microbial interactions. Lysobacter spp. are key determinants of soil suppressiveness against phytopathogens and the production of non-volatile antimicrobial metabolites has been extensively characterised. However, the chemical composition and antagonistic properties of the Lysobacter volatilome have been poorly investigated. In this work, VOC emission profiles of four Lysobacter type strains grown on a sugar-rich and a protein-rich medium were analysed using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Lysobacter antibioticus, L. capsici, L. enzymogenes and L. gummosus type strains were recognised according to their volatilome assessed using both headspace mass spectrometry methods Moreover, the chemical profiles and functional properties of the Lysobacter volatilome differed according to the growth medium, and a protein-rich substrate maximised the toxic effect of the four Lysobacter type strains against Phytophthora infestans. Antagonistic (pyrazines, pyrrole and decanal) and non-antagonistic (delta-hexalactone and ethanol) VOCs against Ph. infestans or putative plant growth stimulator compounds (acetoin and indole) were mainly emitted by Lysobacter type strains grown on protein- and sugar-rich media respectively. Thus nutrient availability under soil conditions could affect the aggressiveness of Lysobacter spp. and possibly optimise interactions of these bacterial species with the other soil inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycine decarboxylase in C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Stefanie; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2016-06-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a central role in photorespiration. GDC is localized in the mitochondria and together with serine hydroxymethyltransferase it converts two molecules of glycine to one molecule of serine, CO2 and NH3. Overexpression of GDC subunits in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana can increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway leading to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and consequently to an enhanced biomass production of the transgenic plants. Changing the spatial expression patterns of GDC subunits was an important step during the evolution of C3-C4 intermediate and likely also C4 plants. Restriction of the GDC activity to the bundle sheath cells led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel purification scheme and functions for a C3-binding protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Finkel, D; Hostetter, M K

    2000-05-09

    To isolate microbial proteins capable of binding the third component of complement (C3), we coupled the free sulfhydryl group of methylamine-inactivated C3 to a thiolSepharose matrix. This simple technique facilitated the purification of the first C3-binding protein isolated from a bacterium (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Both metastable (native) and thioester-disrupted C3 were recognized by this protein; binding of C3 was noncovalent, independent of thioester conformation, and preferential for the C3 alpha-chain. Sequencing of amino-terminal and internal peptides from the C3-binding protein disclosed a proline-rich region spanning approximately 20 amino acids and a signal peptide that had not been previously reported. The gene was isolated from a library of genomic DNA from laboratory strain CP1200 by screening with a 1200 bp PCR product amplified from degenerate oligonucleotides encoding the amino terminal sequence and the internal proline-rich sequence. The open reading frame spanned 1692 bp; all peptide sequences were identified in the translated gene product, which also contained at least three choline-binding repeats at the carboxy-terminus. The gene was conserved, and the translated protein was functionally active in pneumococcal clinical isolates of serotypes 1, 3, 4, 14, and 19F. Serum from a patient recovering from acute pneumococcal infection contained IgG antibodies specific for this protein by immunoblot. Wide conservation among clinical isolates, saturable binding of C3, and the ability to stimulate the human immune response have not previously been reported for this choline-binding protein. A similar biochemical approach should enable the identification of other C3-binding proteins in microorganisms able to elude complement-mediated host defense.

  3. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...

  4. Defining the complement biomarker profile of C3 glomerulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Nester, Carla M; Martin, Bertha

    2014-01-01

    and C3GN) as well as higher levels of complement breakdown products including C3d (PC5 levels were significantly suppressed (P... breakdown product C5a was significantly higher only in patients with C3GN (PC5b-9 was elevated in both diseases but only the difference between...

  5. Complement C3c as a Biomarker in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Experimental data indicates an important role of the innate immune system in cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF. Complement is a central effector pathway of the innate immune system. Animals lacking parts of the complement system are protected from adverse remodeling. Based on these data, we hypothesized that peripheral complement levels could be a good marker for adverse remodeling and prognosis in patients with HF. Methods and Results. Since complement activation converges on the complement factor C3, we measured serum C3c, a stable C3-conversion product, in 197 patients with stable systolic HF. Subgroups with normal and elevated C3c levels were compared. C3c levels were elevated in 17% of the cohort. Patients with elevated C3c levels exhibited a trend to better survival, slightly higher LVEF, and lower NTpro-BNP values in comparison to patients with normal C3c values. No differences were found regarding NYHA functional class. Significantly more patients with elevated C3c had preexisting diabetes. The prevalence of CAD, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation was not increased in patients with elevated C3c. Conclusion. Elevated C3c levels are associated with less adverse remodeling and improved survival in patients with stable systolic heart failure.

  6. Downregulation of complement C3 and C3aR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gupta

    Full Text Available The central component of the complement system, C3, is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease however the underlying reasons are unknown. In the present study we evaluated gene expression of C3, the cleavage product C3a/C3adesArg and its cognate receptor C3aR in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in women.Women (n = 140, 21-69 years, BMI 19.5-79 kg/m2 were evaluated for anthropometric and blood parameters, and adipose tissue gene expression.Subjects were separated into groups (n = 34-36 according to obesity: normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2, obese I (≤45 kg/m2, obese II (≤51 kg/m2, and obese III (≤80 kg/m2. Overall, while omental expression remained unchanged, subcutaneous C3 and C3aR gene expression decreased with increasing adiposity (2-way ANOVA, p<0.01, with a concomitant decrease in SC/OM ratio (p<0.001. In subcutaneous adipose, both C3 and C3aR expression correlated with apoB, and apoA1 and inversely with waist circumference and blood pressure, while C3aR also correlated with glucose (p<0.05-0.0001. While omental C3aR expression did not correlate with any factor, omental C3 correlated with waist circumference, glucose and apoB (all p<0.05. Further, while plasma C3a/C3adesArg increased and adiponectin decreased with increasing BMI, both correlated (C3a negatively and adiponectin positively with subcutaneous C3 and C3aR expression (p<0.05-0.001 or less.The obesity-induced down-regulation of complement C3 and C3aR which is specific to subcutaneous adipose tissue, coupled to the strong correlations with multiple anthropometric, plasma and adipokine variables support a potential role for complement in immunometabolism.

  7. Why Are C3-C4 Intermediate Species Rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    While C3-C4 intermediate photosynthesis is thought to represent the evolutionary bridge between C3 and C4 photosynthesis, C3-C4 intermediate species are ecologically rare in comparison to both C3 and C4 species. Here, we report results from a laboratory experiment, field observations, and model simulations that suggest a new explanation for the ecological rarity of C3-C4 intermediate species. In the laboratory experiment, we combined gas exchange and fluorescence to characterize the temperature response of photosynthesis in three closely-related species in the genus Flaveria that are representatives of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways. The leaf temperature that maximized the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation (Topt(ΦCO2)) was 24.9 ± 0.7°C in Flaveria robusta (C3), 29.8 ± 1.0°C in F. chloraefolia (C3-C4), and 35.7 ± 0.8°C in F. bidentis (C4), and was linearly related to the temperature sensitivity of the coupling between CO2 assimilation and electron transport (d(ΦCO2/ ΦPSII)/dT)). While F. chloraefolia does not simultaneously occur with F. robusta and F. bidentis in naturally-assembled communities, this C3-C4 intermediate species does occur with other C3 and C4 species. During the growing season in two of these mixed-photosynthetic-type communities, leaf temperatures for F. chloraefolia were similar to the Topt(ΦCO2) determined in the laboratory. A model of maximum potential carbon gain suggests that competitive coexistence of C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species could be dependent on a temperature regime that highlights the distinct relative advantages of the C3-C4 intermediate pathway. In combination, these results suggest that the relative temperature sensitivity of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways combined with environmental variation in temperature may help to explain why C3-C4 intermediate species are generally rare.

  8. 12 CFR 563c.3 - Qualification of public accountant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of public accountant. 563c.3... REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.3 Qualification of public accountant. (See also 17 CFR 210.2-01.) The term “qualified public accountant” means a certified public accountant or licensed...

  9. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amany Talaat Kamal

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis;. Complement 3;. Opsonic activity;. Cirrhosis. Abstract Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP [1].

  10. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy and its countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-quan WANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a series of diseases of glomeruli mediated by abnormal activation of alternative complement pathway. A series of researches have revealed in recent years that there are diversity and multiplicity of pathogenic mechanism in the pathogenesis of C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy may be different in different individuals and types of disease. Congenital genetic defects and/or acquired autoantibodies may be found in the same individual. Individualized therapy should be given to individual patient in order to target different pathogenic mechanisms. Chinese herbal medicine, Tripterygium wilfordii, shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent for C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism and countermeasures for C3 glomerulopathy have been reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.15

  11. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of atomically thin C3Si3/C and C3Ge3/C superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Pi, Xiaodong; Liu, Yong; Yang, Deren

    2018-01-01

    The nanostructuring of graphene into superlattices offers the possibility of tuning both the electronic and thermal properties of graphene. Using classical and quantum mechanical calculations, we have investigated the electronic and thermoelectric properties of the atomically thin superlattice of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) formed by the incorporation of Si (Ge) atoms into graphene. The bandgap and phonon thermal conductivity of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) are 0.54 (0.51) eV and 15.48 (12.64) W m‑1 K‑1, respectively, while the carrier mobility of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) is 1.285 × 105 (1.311 × 105) cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at 300 K. The thermoelectric figure of merit for C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) can be optimized via the tuning of carrier concentration to obtain the prominent ZT value of 1.95 (2.72).

  12. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3–C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l–1) and glacial (180 μl l–1) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3–C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3–C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3–C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3–C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3–C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

  13. Europium-Labeled Synthetic C3a Protein as a Novel Fluorescent Probe for Human Complement C3a Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas de Araujo, Aline; Wu, Chongyang; Wu, Kai-Chen; Reid, Robert C; Durek, Thomas; Lim, Junxian; Fairlie, David P

    2017-06-21

    Measuring ligand affinity for a G protein-coupled receptor is often a crucial step in drug discovery. It has been traditionally determined by binding putative new ligands in competition with native ligand labeled with a radioisotope of finite lifetime. Competing instead with a lanthanide-based fluorescent ligand is more attractive due to greater longevity, stability, and safety. Here, we have chemically synthesized the 77 residue human C3a protein and conjugated its N-terminus to europium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate to produce a novel fluorescent protein (Eu-DTPA-hC3a). Time-resolved fluorescence analysis has demonstrated that Eu-DTPA-hC3a binds selectively to its cognate G protein-coupled receptor C3aR with full agonist activity and similar potency and selectivity as native C3a in inducing calcium mobilization and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in HEK293 cells that stably expressed C3aR. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis for saturation and competitive binding gave a dissociation constant (Kd) of 8.7 ± 1.4 nM for Eu-DTPA-hC3a and binding affinities for hC3a (pKi of 8.6 ± 0.2 and Ki of 2.5 nM) and C3aR ligands TR16 (pKi of 6.8 ± 0.1 and Ki of 138 nM), BR103 (pKi of 6.7 ± 0.1 and Ki of 185 nM), BR111 (pKi of 6.3 ± 0.2 and Ki of 544 nM) and SB290157 (pKi of 6.3 ± 0.1 and Ki of 517 nM) via displacement of Eu-DTPA-hC3a from hC3aR. The macromolecular conjugate Eu-DTPA-hC3a is a novel nonradioactive probe suitable for studying ligand-C3aR interactions with potential value in accelerating drug development for human C3aR in physiology and disease.

  14. C3 glomerulopathy [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Terence Cook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a recently defined entity that encompasses a group of kidney diseases caused by abnormal control of complement activation with deposition of complement component C3 in glomeruli leading to variable glomerular inflammation. Before the recognition of the unique pathogenesis of these cases, they were variably classified according to their morphological features. C3 glomerulopathy accounts for roughly 1% of all renal biopsies. Clear definition of this entity has allowed a better understanding of its pathogenesis and clinical course and is likely to lead to the design of rational therapies over the next few years.

  15. C2 and C3 pain dermatomes in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, C E

    1991-07-01

    This report defines the C2 and C3 pain dermatomes by the distribution of: the hypalgesia clearing after surgical root decompression; the dysaesthesias produced by electrical root stimulation; and the hypalgesia produced by anaesthetic root block. The C2 pain dermatome, so defined, consists of an occipital parietal area 6-8 cm wide, ascending paramedially from the subocciput to the vertex. The C3 pain dermatome is a craniofacial area including the scalp around the ear, the pinna, the lateral cheek over the angle of the jaw, the submental region and the lateral and anterior aspects of the upper neck. These C2 and C3 pain dermatomes do not overlap and are smaller than the C2 and C3 tactile dermatomes described in the literature.

  16. Erratum to: C3 glomerulopathy and current dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Naoko; Ohashi, Ryuji; Nagata, Michio

    2017-10-20

    The article, "C3 glomerulopathy and current dilemmas", written by Naoko Ito, Ryuji Ohashi and Michio Nagata was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on November 23, 2016 without open access.

  17. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel

    2016-03-11

    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects.

  18. Density functional study of Pu2C3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Tang, Bin; Gao, Tao; Ao, Bing Yun

    2017-08-01

    The structural, magnetic, electronic, vibrational, thermodynamic and elastic properties of plutonium sesquicarbide (Pu2C3) are investigated based on density functional theory. The use of the Hubbard term to describe the 5 f electrons of plutonium is discussed according the lattice parameters and magnetism. The calculated lattice constants, magnetism and density of states agree well with the experimental data or other theoretical calculations. The Pu-C bonds of Pu2C3 have a mixture of covalent character and ionic character, while covalent character is stronger than ionic character. The phonon frequencies and the assignment of infrared-active, Raman-active and silent modes at Γ point are obtained. Furthermore, the enthalpy difference H-H298, entropy S, heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient α of Pu2C3 have been calculated and compared with the available data. Lastly, the calculated elastic properties predict that Pu2C3 is ductile metal. In addition, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Pu2C3 has been discussed. We hope that our results can provide a useful reference for further theoretical and experimental research on Pu2C3.

  19. Eculizumab for dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Smith, Richard J; Barile, Gaetano R; Zhang, Yuzhou; Heher, Eliot C; Herlitz, Leal; Stokes, M Barry; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-05-01

    The principle defect in dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis is hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, may prove beneficial. In this open-label, proof of concept efficacy and safety study, six subjects with dense deposit disease or C3 glomerulonephritis were treated with eculizumab every other week for 1 year. All had proteinuria >1 g/d and/or AKI at enrollment. Subjects underwent biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at the 1-year mark. The subjects included three patients with dense deposit disease (including one patient with recurrent dense deposit disease in allograft) and three patients with C3 glomerulonephritis (including two patients with recurrent C3 glomerulonephritis in allograft). Genetic and complement function testing revealed a mutation in CFH and MCP in one subject each, C3 nephritic factor in three subjects, and elevated levels of serum membrane attack complex in three subjects. After 12 months, two subjects showed significantly reduced serum creatinine, one subject achieved marked reduction in proteinuria, and one subject had stable laboratory parameters but histopathologic improvements. Elevated serum membrane attack complex levels normalized on therapy and paralleled improvements in creatinine and proteinuria. Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a response to eculizumab in some but not all subjects with dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. Elevation of serum membrane attack complex before treatment may predict response. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup of dense deposit disease/C3 glomerulonephritis patients in whom eculizumab therapy can be considered.

  20. Quantitative trait loci for tibial bone strength in C57BL/6J and C3H ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6J and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains. J. Bone Miner. Res. 18, 1758–1765. Li X., Srivastava A. K., Gu W., Masinde G., Mohan S. and Baylink. D. J. 2002a Opposing changes in osteocalcin levels in bone vs serum during the acquisition of peak ...

  1. [Cloning, expression and elementary characterization of phosphofructokinase from Bacillus sphaericus C3-41].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bei; Cai, Yajun; Hu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-05-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is unable to use hexose and pentoses as the sole carbon source, due to the lack of key enzymes in Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), Hexose Monophophate Pathway (HMP) and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, such as phosphofructokinase (PFK). Based on the genome sequence annotation results of B. sphaericus C3-41, the phosphofructokinase gene pfk was verified with a single copy on chromosome, the aim of this research is to analysis the EMP pathway in B. sphaericus further, and confirm the function of phosphofructokinase. The methods of southern-blot of pfk gene among different B. sphaericus strains, pfk ORF cloning from C3-41 and expressing in Escherichia coli, the corresponding sequence analysis and anlignment were used. The pfk ORF of B. sphaericus was composed of 960 bp nucleitides encoding a protein about 42 kDa, and the PFK sequence analysis showed it had the conservative amino acids-binding sites and an ATP-binding domain. The expression of pfk in recombinant E. coli strain could complement the PFK activity of a pfk mutated E. coli strain DF1020. The expressed PFK had the conventional phosphofructokinase activity, and settled the foundation for the further research of catabolism of B. sphaericus.

  2. PENELITIAN PENULARAN VIRUS TUMOR MAMMA (MTV PADA MENCIT C3H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodo Djuanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been caused by several factors, such as : Virus             :  biological factorRadiation      : physical factorCarcinogenic chemical compound : chemical factor. The study of the transmission of MTV on experimental animals and its descendants has been tried since 1963. Several strains of mice have been bred successfully, one of which is the C3H strain. This strain is known to'have a high mammary tumor incidence due to the high content of the MTV (Bittner virus in mother's milk. The transmission of MTV can be observed by foster nursing or reciprocal crossing between strains with high and low mammary tumor incidence. All females used in this experiment were force bred and observed for the appearance of a tumor until the age of one year. Some conclusions from this experiment are that: MTV was transmitted through mother's milk.Other strains (Balb/c and AJ could develop mammary tumor when infected by MTV.There is a different susceptibility between Balb/c and AJ to MTV. The transmission of MTV from parent to off spring is -called the vertical transmission. This virus has been known as Bittner virus and it can be identifed by the electrone microscope, immunodiffusion test (Ouchterlony or immunofluorescence test. The result of this experiment may be useful for studying the problem of Cancer tumor in human beings.

  3. Communications processor for C3 analysis and wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L. N.; Pless, L. D.; Rapp, R. L.

    1982-03-01

    This thesis developed the software capability to allow the investigation of c3 problems, procedures and methodologies. The resultant communications model, that while independent of a specific wargame, is currently implemented in conjunction with the McClintic Theater Model. It provides a computerized message handling system (C3 Model) which allows simulation of communication links (circuits) with user-definable delays; garble and loss rates; and multiple circuit types, addresses, and levels of command. It is designed to be used for test and evaluation of command and control problems in the areas of organizational relationships, communication networks and procedures, and combat doctrine or tactics.

  4. Immuno-Detection of C3a, a C3 Complement Activated Product in Mastitis Milk, a Potential Diagnostic Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanislass Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The sub-clinical form of mastitis is difficult to detect and causes huge economic loss to the dairy industry. It has become a threat to public health at large, thus there is a need for definite diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the novel diagnostic marker for the detection of the sub-clinical form of mastitis. Two-dimensional gel analysis of the whey protein fraction of normal and mastitis milk samples revealed the presence of proteose peptone component 3 precursor, Trypsin precursor, complement component-C3, Ig heavy chain precursors and a C-type lectin domain as differentially expressed protein during the early stage of mastitis. Of these proteins identified, complement component-C3 was tested for its diagnostic potential. Western blot analysis of the milk whey of sub-clinical mastitis cases (M+, M++ & M+++ identified the accumulation of C3a, an activated product of complement component-C3. Further, the hemolytic activity of the above milk whey samples positively correlated with the somatic cell count. As C3a is already reported as an anaphylotoxic agent, it chemo tactically attracts lymphocytes at the site of inflammation, the detection of which in the milk whey can be of diagnostic importance for sub-clinical mastitis.

  5. The versatile functions of complement C3-derived ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Anna; Sándor, Noémi; Mácsik-Valent, Bernadett; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

    2016-11-01

    The complement system is a major component of immune defense. Activation of the complement cascade by foreign substances and altered self-structures may lead to the elimination of the activating agent, and during the enzymatic cascade, several biologically active fragments are generated. Most immune regulatory effects of complement are mediated by the activation products of C3, the central component. The indispensable role of C3 in opsonic phagocytosis as well as in the regulation of humoral immune response is known for long, while the involvement of complement in T-cell biology have been revealed in the past few years. In this review, we discuss the immune modulatory functions of C3-derived fragments focusing on their role in processes which have not been summarized so far. The importance of locally synthesized complement will receive special emphasis, as several immunological processes take place in tissues, where hepatocyte-derived complement components might not be available at high concentrations. We also aim to call the attention to important differences between human and mouse systems regarding C3-mediated processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. C3 Epimerization of Glucose, via Regioselective Oxidation and Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jumde, Varsha R.; Eisink, Niek N. H. M.; Witte, Martin D.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidation can single out the secondary hydroxyl group at C3 in glucose, circumventing the more readily accessible hydroxyl at C6 and the more reactive anomeric hydroxyl. Oxidation followed by reduction results in either allose or allitol, each a rare sugar that is important in

  7. Rituximab for Treatment of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis and C3 Glomerulopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a histological pattern of injury resulting from predominantly subendothelial and mesangial deposition of immunoglobulins or complement factors with subsequent inflammation and proliferation particularly of the glomerular basement membrane. Recent classification of MPGN is based on pathogenesis dividing MPGN into immunoglobulin-associated MPGN and complement-mediated C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and dense deposit disease (DDD). Current guidelines suggest treatment with steroids, cytotoxic agents with or without plasmapheresis only for subjects with progressive disease, that is, nephrotic range proteinuria and decline of renal function. Rituximab, a chimeric B-cell depleting anti-CD20 antibody, has emerged in the last decade as a treatment option for patients with primary glomerular diseases such as minimal change disease, focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis, or idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, data on the use of rituximab in MPGN, C3GN, and DDD are limited to case reports and retrospective case series. Patients with immunoglobulin-associated and idiopathic MPGN who were treated with rituximab showed partial and complete responses in the majorities of cases. However, rituximab was not effective in few cases of C3GN and DDD. Despite promising results in immunoglobulin-associated and idiopathic MPGN, current evidence on this treatment remains weak, and controlled and prospective data are urgently needed. PMID:28573137

  8. C3 or Garbage Can - Alternative Models of Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Buzacott

    1981-01-01

    Two alternative approaches for modeling the performance of organizations are discussed -- C^3 (command-control-communication) systems and the garbage can approach. Existing formal models using each approach are reviewed and some extensions and alternative models are proposed. The implications of the models are discussed, with particular emphasis on the impact of information technology developments on organizations.

  9. Comparison of serum C3 complement levels between young women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maimun Syukri

    2014-05-29

    May 29, 2014 ... f Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Received 13 February ... with infectious diseases. However, the association of C3 with recurrent urinary tract infec- ... Young women, even with normal function or anatomy of the urinary tract ...

  10. Association of AKR1C3 Polymorphisms with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryakioglu, N Ozan; Tunali, Nagehan Ersoy

    2016-04-16

    Polymorphisms in the genes coding for the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes may affect enzyme activities and alter the activation and detoxification rates of the carcinogens. AKR1C3 is one of the very polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation process. Here we aimed to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in AKR1C3, rs12529 (c.15C > G) and rs1937920 (12259 bp 3' of STP A > G) with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Two-hundred fifty UBC cases and 250 control subjects were genotyped using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length method. Associations of the genotypes with UBC risk and tumor characteristics were assessed using logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. The results are corrected for multiple testing. We identified strong associations between the studied AKR1C3 variants and UBC risk. The homozygous variant genotype of rs12529 was found to be inversely associated with UBC, and rs1937920 was shown to be associated with increased risk of UBC. None of the genotypes were found to be significantly associated with tumor characteristics. We provided evidence that rs12529 and rs1937920 are significant in the molecular pathogenesis of UBC. However, the results presented here should be regarded as preliminary and might represent a first step of future larger studies aiming to better elucidate the role of AKR1C3 polymorphisms in the susceptibility to bladder cancer.

  11. Theoretical characterization of the SiC3H- anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, N; Senent, M L

    2010-11-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used to predict the equilibrium structures and spectroscopic parameters of the SiC(3)H(-) anion. The total energies and physical properties are reported using CASSCF/MRCI, RCCSD(T), and RCCSD(T)-F12 approaches and extended basis sets. The search of stable geometries leads to a total of 12 isomers (4 linear and 8 cyclic), for which electronic ground states have close-shell configurations. The stability of the linear form, l-SiC(3)H(-), is prominent. For the most stable linear isomer, the B(e) equilibrium rotational constant has been calculated with RCCSD(T) and a complete basis set. Core-correlation and vibrational effects have been taken into account to predict a B(0) of 2621.68 MHz for l-SiC(3)H(-) and 2460.48 MHz for l-SiC(3)D(-). The dipole moment of l-SiC(3)H(-) was found to be 2.9707 D with CASSCF/aug-cc-pV5Z and the electron affinity to be 2.7 eV with RCCSD(T)-F12A/aug-cc-pVTZ. Anharmonic spectroscopic parameters are derived from a quadratic, cubic, and quartic RCCSD(T)-F12A force field and second order perturbation theory. CASSCF/MRCI vertical excitations supply three metastable electronic states, (1)Σ(+) (3)Σ(+) and (3)Δ. Electron affinities calculated for a series of chains type SiC(n)H and SiC(n) (n=1-5) allow us to discuss the anion formation probabilities.

  12. Visual Display Principles for C3I System Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Comprehensive guidelines are available for display design applications after the general system parameters have been specified. Some recommendations... display design (’cognitive’ functions being the most salient and critical of those remaining for the operator in advanced C3I systems). The principles...are derived from a review of the literatures on human cognition, HCI, and display design some original research, and liberal interpretation by the

  13. Spectroscopic confirmation of DES12C3a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, C.; Hopkins, A.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Blake, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Mould, J.; Uddin, S. A.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Campbell, H.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gilhool, S.; Gladney, L.; Gupta, R.; Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Colless, M.; Schmidt, B. P.; Sharp, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Davis, T. M.; O'Neill, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Kessler, R.; March, M.; Poole, G.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Sullivan, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy by the OzDES collaboration of a supernova candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Supernova Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (350-900 nm) of DES12C3a was obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with AAOmega-2dF observed by A. Hopkins. SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows this event to be a Type Ia SN at z=0.24 near maximum light.

  14. Deuterium hyperfine structure in interstellar C3HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. B.; Watson, J. K.; Feldman, P. A.; Matthews, H. E.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterium nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of the transition 1(10)-1(01) of the ring molecule cyclopropenylidene-d1 (C3HD) has been observed in emission from interstellar molecular clouds. The narrowest linewidths (approximately 7 kHz) so far observed are in the cloud L1498. The derived D coupling constants Xzz = 186.9(1.4) kHz, eta=0.063(18) agree well with correlations based on other molecules.

  15. The Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Reis, J.; Hall, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    In response to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of climate change research, the Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) was formed in 2009 by the Welsh universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Initially funded by Welsh Government, through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Countryside Council for Wales and the universities, C3W aims to bring together climate change researchers from a wide range of disciplines to explore scientific and sociological drivers, impacts and implications at local, national and international scale. The specific aims are to i) improve our fundamental understanding of the causes, nature, timing and consequences of climate change on Planet Earth's environment and on humanity, and ii) to reconfigure climate research in Wales as a recognisable centre of excellence on the world stage. In addition to improving the infrastructure for climate change research, we aim to improve communication, networking, collaborative research, and multidisciplinary data assimilation within and between the Welsh universities, and other UK and international institutions. Furthermore, C3W aims to apply its research by actively contributing towards national policy development, business development and formal and informal education activities within and beyond Wales.

  16. Abundance Profiles for C3 Hydrocarbons in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Nicholas; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard; Jolly, Antoine; Sung, Keeyoon; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    2017-10-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is of astrobiological importance. Its highly reducing composition and prebiotic chemistry make it analogous to that of the early Earth. Since the Voyager era, several complex hydrocarbons and nitriles have been detected, in some cases making Titan the only known planetary body where these gasses occur naturally. In this work, we report abundance profiles of four major C3 gasses expected to occur in Titan’s atmosphere, derived from Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data.Using the NEMESIS iterative radiative transfer module, we retrieved vertical abundance profiles for propane (C3H8) and propyne (CHCCH3), both initially detected by the Voyager IRIS instrument. Using newly available line data, we were also able to determine the first vertical abundance profiles for propene (C3H6), initially detected in 2013. We present profiles for several latitudes and times and compare to photochemical model predictions and previous observations. We also discuss our efforts to further the search for allene (CH2CCH2), an isomer of propyne. The abundances we retrieved will help to further our understanding of the chemical pathways that occur in Titan's atmosphere.

  17. The evolution and appearance of C3 duplications in fish originate an exclusive teleost c3 gene form with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Forn-Cuní

    Full Text Available The complement system acts as a first line of defense and promotes organism homeostasis by modulating the fates of diverse physiological processes. Multiple copies of component genes have been previously identified in fish, suggesting a key role for this system in aquatic organisms. Herein, we confirm the presence of three different previously reported complement c3 genes (c3.1, c3.2, c3.3 and identify five additional c3 genes (c3.4, c3.5, c3.6, c3.7, c3.8 in the zebrafish genome. Additionally, we evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the different c3 genes during ontogeny and in different tissues under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, while reconciling the phylogenetic tree with the fish species tree, we uncovered an event of c3 duplication common to all teleost fishes that gave rise to an exclusive c3 paralog (c3.7 and c3.8. These paralogs showed a distinct ability to regulate neutrophil migration in response to injury compared with the other c3 genes and may play a role in maintaining the balance between inflammatory and homeostatic processes in zebrafish.

  18. ELISA for evaluating the incorporation of plasma derived complement split-products C3b/iC3b into solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Svehag, S E; Thorlacius-Ussing, O

    2001-01-01

    An ELISA that measures plasma derived complement (C) split-products C3b/iC3b deposited on solid-phase immune complexes during C activation is described. Plates are coated with BSA, anti-BSA and plasma is added. Deposited C3b/iC3b is then detected by biotinylated anti-C3c-antibodies, avidin...

  19. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared ...

  20. Trabecular and Cortical Bone of Growing C3H Mice Is Highly Responsive to the Removal of Weightbearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    Full Text Available Genetic make-up strongly influences the skeleton's susceptibility to the loss of weight bearing with some inbred mouse strains experiencing great amounts of bone loss while others lose bone at much smaller rates. At young adulthood, female inbred C3H/HeJ (C3H mice are largely resistant to catabolic pressure induced by unloading. Here, we tested whether the depressed responsivity to unloading is inherent to the C3H genetic make-up or whether a younger age facilitates a robust skeletal response to unloading. Nine-week-old, skeletally immature, female C3H mice were subjected to 3wk of hindlimb unloading (HLU, n = 12 or served as normal baseline controls (BC, n = 10 or age-matched controls (AC, n = 12. In all mice, cortical and trabecular architecture of the femur, as well as levels of bone formation and resorption, were assessed with μCT, histomorphometry, and histology. Changes in bone marrow progenitor cell populations were determined with flow cytometry. Following 21d of unloading, HLU mice had 52% less trabecular bone in the distal femur than normal age-matched controls. Reflecting a loss of trabecular tissue compared to baseline controls, trabecular bone formation rates (BFR/BS in HLU mice were 40% lower than in age-matched controls. Surfaces undergoing osteoclastic resorption were not significantly different between groups. In the mid-diaphysis, HLU inhibited cortical bone growth leading to 14% less bone area compared to age-matched controls. Compared to AC, BFR/BS of HLU mice were 53% lower at the endo-cortical surface and 49% lower at the periosteal surface of the mid-diaphysis. The enriched osteoprogenitor cell population (OPC comprised 2% of the bone marrow stem cells in HLU mice, significantly different from 3% OPC in the AC group. These data show that bone tissue in actively growing C3H mice is lost rapidly, or fails to grow, during the removal of functional weight bearing-in contrast to the insignificant response previously

  1. MCCx C3I Control Center Interface Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the project to develop and demonstrate alternate Information Technologies and systems for new Mission Control Centers that will reduce the cost of facility development, maintenance and operational costs and will enable more efficient cost and effective operations concepts for ground support operations. The development of a emulator for the Control Center capability will enable the facilities to conduct the simulation requiring interactivity with the Control Center when it is off line or unavailable, and it will support testing of C3I interfaces for both command and telemetry data exchange messages (DEMs).

  2. Communications Processor for C(3) Analysis and Wargaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Model. Participants in this wargame included professors from the Cperations Research, Electrical Engineering and C3 curricula; systems specialists...o ) -- e 0aj4 = 0 :.-4 - C -4 .-C .-Fa v𔃺 0 Qj t..4 SA4-4. > 6) V 4..44-4--4c o )b ;- ~ 4 a tkOJ -cg Q) 0 ~~ 2JZ -aU = 05.- a)MV I. t 0 V) 0 = z 4...Group Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93V40 8. Professor J.V. Wozencraft, Code 74 Department cf Electrical Engineering Naval

  3. Interpain A, a cysteine proteinase from Prevotella intermedia, inhibits complement by degrading complement factor C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Potempa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth caused by, among other pathogens, Prevotella intermedia. Many strains of P. intermedia are resistant to killing by the human complement system, which is present at up to 70% of serum concentration in gingival crevicular fluid. Incubation of human serum with recombinant cysteine protease of P. intermedia (interpain A resulted in a drastic decrease in bactericidal activity of the serum. Furthermore, a clinical strain 59 expressing interpain A was more serum-resistant than another clinical strain 57, which did not express interpain A, as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, in the presence of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, the killing of strain 59 by human serum was enhanced. Importantly, we found that the majority of P. intermedia strains isolated from chronic and aggressive periodontitis carry and express the interpain A gene. The protective effect of interpain A against serum bactericidal activity was found to be attributable to its ability to inhibit all three complement pathways through the efficient degradation of the alpha-chain of C3 -- the major complement factor common to all three pathways. P. intermedia has been known to co-aggregate with P. gingivalis, which produce gingipains to efficiently degrade complement factors. Here, interpain A was found to have a synergistic effect with gingipains on complement degradation. In addition, interpain A was able to activate the C1 complex in serum, causing deposition of C1q on inert and bacterial surfaces, which may be important at initial stages of infection when local inflammatory reaction may be beneficial for a pathogen. Taken together, the newly characterized interpain A proteinase appears to be an important virulence factor of P. intermedia.

  4. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic bacteria disinfection by g-C3N4-AgBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Liang, Jialiang; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2017-04-01

    g-C3N4-AgBr was synthesized by depositing AgBr nanoparticles onto g-C3N4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the as-synthesized photocatalysts. The disinfection activities towards representative Gram-negative strain E. coli and Gram-positive strain S. aureus were examined under visible light irradiation. Complete inactivation of 3×10(6)CFU/mL viable cell density was reached in 60min for E. coli and 150min for S. aureus, respectively. Ag(+) released from the photocatalysts did not contribute to the photocatalytic disinfection process. Direct contact of g-C3N4-AgBr composites and bacterial cells, as well as the presence of O2 was indispensable for the cell inactivation. Photo-generated holes, surface bounded OH, and indirect generation of intracellular active species played important roles in disinfection process of g-C3N4-AgBr under visible light irradiation. The disruption of outside structure of cells as well as inner cell injury led to the inactivation. High pH condition led to increasing the cell disinfection due to the generation of surface bounded OH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experiment of vitreous liquefaction induced by C3F8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Qiuming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect and safety of vitreous liquefaction induced by C3F8 (an inert gas) injected into vitreous cavit of rabbit eyes. 24 rabbits (48 eyes) were randomly divided into four groups, named group A, group B, group C and group D, with 6 rabbits in each group. The right eye in each rabbit was taken as the experimental eye while the left as the control eye. The experimental eyes in group A were injected with 0.1mL disinfectant air; the experimental eyes in group B, group C and group D were all injected with C3F8 0.1mL, 0.2mL and 0.3mL respectively after receiving anterior chamber penetration; and the controlled eyes in all group were injected with 0.1mL balanced salt solution (BSS). During the first 7 d after injection, all the rabitts' eyes were examined by slit lamp, ophthalmoscope, intraocular pressure (IOP) and dark-adapted retina Electroretinography (ERG) each day. After that, the examination of IOG and ERP were reviewed weekly. Besides, B ultrasound should be examined to observe the situation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in the 4th and 8th weeks. The rabbits were killed in the end of the 8th week, with their specimens examined by the light microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Except group A, all the experimental eyes were produced with vitreous liquefaction. In group C and group D, in addition to the produced vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), even complete PVD, were induced in different extent. But in group B, the vitreous body was returned to the gel state at 2 weeks after gas absorption. In group C and group D, the vitreous body was not found to recover its original state at 8 weeks. In group D, there was a little increase of intraocular pressure, a mild delay of wave a and wave b after ERG in the 4th day after the gas injection. While there was no such situation in other groups. After the examination of B ultrasound in the 8th week, the complete PVD

  6. Infrared Predissociation Spectroscopy of the Hydrocarbon Cations C_3H^+, C_2H^+, and C_3H_2^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünken, Sandra; Lipparini, Filippo; Gauss, Jürgen; Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Reactive hydrocarbon cations play an important role in the astrochemistry of the interstellar medium, but spectroscopic data, needed for their identification in astronomical observations, is sparse. Here we report the first gas-phase vibrational spectra of the linear C_3H^+ (^1 Σ), the radical cation C_2H^+ (^3 Π), and the linear-/cyclic-C_3H_2^+ (^2 Π /^2A_1, resp.). Broadband spectra were recorded by Ne- and He-messenger infrared-predissociation (IR-PD) action spectroscopy in a cryogenic (4-11 K) ion trap instrument (FELion) in the 250-3500 {wn} range using a free electron laser and a MIR-OPO at the FELIX (Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments) laboratory. The band positions (determined with a precision of 1-2 wn) covering the C-H and C-C stretching as well as several bending modes are compared to high-level (CCSD(T) with large basis sets) quantum-chemical calculations with an emphasis on anharmonic effects and on the influence of the rare-gas messenger atom. The experimental and theoretical data provide a solid basis for subsequent IR high-resolution studies, with the ultimate goal to predict and measure accurate rotational spectra for a radio-astronomical search of these molecular ions in space.

  7. Synthesis of C3/C1-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mihoubi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A broad biological screening of the natural alkaloid N-methylisosalsoline (2 extracted from Hammada scoparia leaves against a panel of human and parasitic proteases revealed an interesting activity profile of 2 towards human 20S proteasome. This outcome suggests that the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline skeleton may be exploited as a template for the development of novel anticancer agents. In this article, we report the synthesis and chemical characterization of a new series of isosalsoline-type alkaloids (10–11 with variations at N2 and C3 positions with respect to the natural Compound 2, obtained by a synthetic strategy that involves the Bischler-Napieralski cyclization. The substrate for the condensation to the tetrahydroisoquinoline system, i.e., a functionalized β-arylethyl amine, was obtained through an original double reduction of nitroalkene. The synthetic strategy can be directed to the construction of highly substituted and functionalized 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.

  8. Inefficient binding of IgM immune complexes to erythrocyte C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and weak incorporation of C3b-iC3b into the complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kávai, M; Rasmussen, J M; Baatrup, G

    1988-01-01

    The binding of soluble complement-reacted IgM immune complexes (IC) to erythrocyte (E) C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and the incorporation of C3b-iC3b into solid phase IgM-IC was investigated. The optimal binding of liquid phase IgM-IC to E-CR1 was obtained with IC formed at moderate antibody excess...

  9. The secreted Candida albicans protein Pra1 disrupts host defense by broadly targeting and blocking complement C3 and C3 activation fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Dasari, Prasad; Reiher, Nadine; Hartmann, Andrea; Jacksch, Susanne; Wende, Elisabeth; Barz, Dagmar; Niemiec, Maria Joanna; Jacobsen, Ilse; Beyersdorf, Niklas; Hünig, Thomas; Klos, Andreas; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F

    2018-01-01

    Candida albicans the most frequently isolated clinical fungal pathogen can cause local as well as systemic and life-threatening infections particularly in immune-compromised individuals. A better and more detailed understanding how C. albicans evades human immune attack is therefore needed for identifying fungal immune-evasive proteins and develop new therapies. Here, we identified Pra1, the pH-regulated C. albicans antigen as a hierarchical complement inhibitor that targets C3, the central human complement component. Pra1 cleaved C3 at a unique site and further inhibited effector function of the activation fragments. The newly formed C3a-like peptide lacked the C-terminal arginine residue needed for C3a-receptor binding and activation. Moreover, Pra1 also blocked C3a-like antifungal activity as shown in survival assays, and the C3b-like molecule formed by Pra1 was degraded by the host protease Factor I. Pra1 also bound to C3a and C3b generated by human convertases and blocked their effector functions, like C3a antifungal activity shown by fungal survival, blocked C3a binding to human C3a receptor-expressing HEK cells, activation of Fura2-AM loaded cells, intracellular Ca2+ signaling, IL-8 release, C3b deposition, as well as opsonophagocytosis and killing by human neutrophils. Thus, upon infection C. albicans uses Pra1 to destroy C3 and to disrupt host complement attack. In conclusion, candida Pra1 represents the first fungal C3-cleaving protease identified and functions as a fungal master regulator of innate immunity and as a central fungal immune-escape protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. C3: A Collaborative Web Framework for NASA Earth Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughty, E.; Fattarsi, C.; Hardoyo, C.; Kluck, D.; Wang, L.; Matthews, B.; Das, K.; Srivastava, A.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a new collaboration platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing. NEX combines NASA advanced supercomputing resources, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data archives, and a collaborative communication platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. NEX is designed primarily for use by the NASA Earth science community to address scientific grand challenges. The NEX web portal component provides an on-line collaborative environment for sharing of Eearth science models, data, analysis tools and scientific results by researchers. In addition, the NEX portal also serves as a knowledge network that allows researchers to connect and collaborate based on the research they are involved in, specific geographic area of interest, field of study, etc. Features of the NEX web portal include: Member profiles, resource sharing (data sets, algorithms, models, publications), communication tools (commenting, messaging, social tagging), project tools (wikis, blogs) and more. The NEX web portal is built on the proven technologies and policies of DASHlink.arc.nasa.gov, (one of NASA's first science social media websites). The core component of the web portal is a C3 framework, which was built using Django and which is being deployed as a common framework for a number of collaborative sites throughout NASA.

  11. Immune stimulation and Hymenolepis nana cysticercoid expulsion in C3H/He and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, F; Ecca, A R; Palmas, C

    1993-12-01

    Adoptive transfer of immunity with heterologous and homologous immune serum, and drug-abbreviated immunizations were used in C3H and BALB/c mice to determine the strain-characteristic time of expulsion of H. nana cysts. Transfer of immune serum did not accelerate worm expulsion in C3H, while elimination of worms was virtually complete by day 8 in BALB/c mice. Loss of worms was also obtained when BALB/c mice were stimulated with abbreviated infections using 20 or 1000 H. nana eggs. The immunizing infection terminated immediately after the tissue phase. After similar immunizations C3H mice again appeared slow responders but were able to affect the intestinal worms population after the higher immunizing infection. The data obtained suggest that the time of worm expulsion was related to the genetically-determined ability of the mice to respond and was independent of the stimulations used for immunization. A quantitative difference in response is proposed to explain the slow responder status of C3H.

  12. Climate Change Communicators: The C3E3 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. More than 60 students participated in guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Several departments are involved in the educational program.

  13. C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs consequences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    des connaissances , la fusion des informations et des outils de gestion de la connaissance ...May 2009 C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs conséquences) Research and...consequence management. ES - 2 RTO-MP-IST-086 C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs conséquences

  14. C5 nephritic factors drive the biological phenotype of C3 glomerulopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, Maria-Chiara; Chauvet, Sophie; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Mignotet, Morgane; Petitprez, Florent; Legendre, Christophe; Cailliez, Mathilde; Deschenes, Georges; Fischbach, Michel; Karras, Alexandre; Nobili, Francois; Pietrement, Christine; Dragon-Durey, Marie-Agnes; Fakhouri, Fadi; Roumenina, Lubka T; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2017-11-01

    C3 Glomerulopathies, which include Dense Deposit Disease and C3 Glomerulonephritis, are associated with genetic and acquired dysregulation of the C3 convertase alternative pathway of complement. The potential role of the activation of the C5 convertase has not been studied extensively. Here we analyzed IgG samples from patients with C3 Glomerulopathies to identify circulating autoantibodies that stabilize the C3 alternative pathway (C3 Nephritic Factors) as well as C5 convertases (C5 Nephritic Factors), thus preventing decay of these enzyme complexes. Rare variants in alternative pathway genes were found in 28 of 120 tested patients. C3 and C5 Nephritic Factors were found in 76 of 101 (75%) and 29 of 59 (49%) of the patients, respectively. Therefore, we compared the results of the assays for the C3 and C5 nephritic factors functional activity: 29% were positive for C3 Nephritic Factors alone, 39% were positive for both C3 and C5 Nephritic Factors, and 10% were positive for C5 Nephritic Factors alone. We found that the addition of properdin-enhanced stabilization of C3 convertase in the presence of IgG doubly positive for both Nephritic Factors, while it did not modify the stabilization mediated by IgG solely positive for C3 Nephritic Factors. Both C3 and C5 Nephritic Factors correlated with C3 consumption, while only C5 Nephritic Factors correlated with sC5b9 levels. C5 Nephritic Factors-positive patients were more likely to have C3 Glomerulonephritis than Dense Deposit Disease. Thus, dysregulation of the C5 convertase contributes to C3 Glomerulopathies inter-disease differences and may have direct therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) in neuroendocrine tumors & adenocarcinomas of pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Theodore S; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Rogers, Kyle A; Brame, Lacy S; Yeh, Matthew M; Yang, Qing; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) was initially identified as an enzyme in reducing 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) to 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (3α-diol) and oxidizing 3α-diol to androsterone. It was subsequently demonstrated to possess ketosteroid reductase activity in metabolizing other steroids including estrogen and progesterone, 11-ketoprostaglandin reductase activity in metabolizing prostaglandins, and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase x (DDx) activity in metabolizing xenobiotics. AKR1C3 was demonstrated in sex hormone-dependent tissues including testis, breast, endometrium, and prostate; in sex hormone-independent tissues including kidney and urothelium. Our previous study described the expression of AKR1C3 in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma but not in small cell carcinoma. In this report, we studied the expression of AKR1C3 in normal tissue, adenocarcinomas (43 cases) and neuroendocrine (NE) tumors (40 cases) arising from the aerodigestive tract and pancreas. We demonstrated wide expression of AKR1C3 in superficially located mucosal cells, but not in NE cells. AKR1C3-positive immunoreactivity was detected in 38 cases (88.4%) of adenocarcinoma, but only in 7 cases (17.5%) of NE tumors in all cases. All NE tumors arising from the pancreas and appendix and most tumors from the colon and lung were negative. The highest ratio of positive AKR1C3 in NE tumors was found in tumors arising from the small intestine (50%). These results raise the question of AKR1C3's role in the biology of normal mucosal epithelia and tumors. In addition, AKR1C3 may be a useful adjunct marker for the exclusion of the NE phenotype in diagnostic pathology.

  16. Hydrogen storage in C3Ti complex using quantum chemical methods and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2012-06-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) complex was studied using second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) methods with different exchange and correlation functionals. Four and five H(2) molecules can be adsorbed on C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) complex respectively at all the levels of theory used. This corresponds to the gravimetric H(2) uptake capacity of 8.77 and 10.73 wt % for the former and the latter respectively. The nature of interactions between different molecules in H(2) adsorbed complexes is also studied using many-body analysis approach. In the case of C(3)Ti(4H(2)) complex, total five-body interactions is negligible whereas for C(3)Ti(+)(5H(2)) relaxation energy is negligible. All the many-body energies have significant contribution to the binding energy of a respective complex. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using different methods to confirm whether H(2) molecules remain adsorbed on C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) complex at room temperature. Adsorption Gibbs free energies show that four and five H(2) molecule adsorption on C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) at room temperature is energetically favorable and unfavorable respectively using MP2 as well as DFT methods used here. H(2) adsorption is thermodynamically favorable over a wide range of temperature on the C(3)Ti than C(3)Ti(+)complex.

  17. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Kamal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP. Aim of the work: To compare the level of ascitic fluid C3 concentration in cirrhotic patients with and without ...

  18. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(3)-1 - Capital loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital loss carryovers. 1.381(c)(3)-1 Section 1.381(c)(3)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(3)-1 Capital loss carryovers. (a...

  19. 17 CFR 270.6c-3 - Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6c-3 Section 270.6c-3 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.6c-3 Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. A separate...

  20. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3. C3 board number 8215 (not coated) appears as board_id=32, task_id=23. C3 board number 771 (coated) appears...

  1. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  2. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees, contractors...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 and comparison with those of closely related Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomin; Fan, Wei; Han, Bei; Liu, Haizhou; Zheng, Dasheng; Li, Qibin; Dong, Wei; Yan, Jianping; Gao, Meiying; Berry, Colin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-04-01

    Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming bacterium that has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of this entomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp, containing 4,786 and 186 potential protein-coding sequences, respectively. Comparison of the genome with other published sequences indicated that the B. sphaericus C3-41 chromosome is most similar to that of Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, a marine species that, like B. sphaericus, is unable to metabolize polysaccharides. The lack of key enzymes and sugar transport systems in the two bacteria appears to be the main reason for this inability, and the abundance of proteolytic enzymes and transport systems may endow these bacteria with exclusive metabolic pathways for a wide variety of organic compounds and amino acids. The genes shared between B. sphaericus C3-41 and Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, including mobile genetic elements, membrane-associated proteins, and transport systems, demonstrated that these two species are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group. Knowledge of the genome sequence of B. sphaericus C3-41 thus increases our understanding of the bacilli and may also offer prospects for future genetic improvement of this important biological control agent.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Mosquitocidal Bacterium Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 and Comparison with Those of Closely Related Bacillus Species▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomin; Fan, Wei; Han, Bei; Liu, Haizhou; Zheng, Dasheng; Li, Qibin; Dong, Wei; Yan, Jianping; Gao, Meiying; Berry, Colin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming bacterium that has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of this entomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp, containing 4,786 and 186 potential protein-coding sequences, respectively. Comparison of the genome with other published sequences indicated that the B. sphaericus C3-41 chromosome is most similar to that of Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, a marine species that, like B. sphaericus, is unable to metabolize polysaccharides. The lack of key enzymes and sugar transport systems in the two bacteria appears to be the main reason for this inability, and the abundance of proteolytic enzymes and transport systems may endow these bacteria with exclusive metabolic pathways for a wide variety of organic compounds and amino acids. The genes shared between B. sphaericus C3-41 and Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, including mobile genetic elements, membrane-associated proteins, and transport systems, demonstrated that these two species are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group. Knowledge of the genome sequence of B. sphaericus C3-41 thus increases our understanding of the bacilli and may also offer prospects for future genetic improvement of this important biological control agent. PMID:18296527

  5. Dehydrogenation and C-H Bond Insertion of Propene: La(η^2-C_3H_4) and HLa(η^3-C_3H_5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sudesh; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    Dehydrogenation and C-H bond insertion are observed in the reaction of laser-ablated La atoms with propene (C_3H_6) in a pulsed molecular beam source. Several dehydrogenated and inserted products are identified by the time-of-flight mass spectrometry. La(C_3H_4) formed from H_2 elimination and HLa(C_3H_5) formed by C-H bond insertion are characterized by pulsed-field-ionization electron and ion spectroscopy, in combination with density functional theory. Two isomers of La(C_3H_4) are identified from 1,2- and 1,3-dehydrogenation. The adiabatic ionization energies of 1,2- and 1,3-dehydrogenated isomers are measured to be 40506(5) and 40941(5) Cm-1, respectively. For the inserted product HLa(C_3H_5), La atom is bound to the allyl radical in a three-fold binding mode (η^3). It is observed that the ionization energy of the HLa(η^3-C_3H_5) insertion complex (41130(5) Cm-1) is close to that of the 1,3-dehydrogented La(η^2-C_3H_4) species.

  6. Hydroxytriazole derivatives as potent and selective aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) inhibitors discovered by bioisosteric scaffold hopping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippione, Agnese C; Giraudo, Alessandro; Bonanni, Davide; Carnovale, Irene M; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Costale, Annalisa; Zonari, Daniele; Pors, Klaus; Sadiq, Maria; Boschi, Donatella; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Lolli, Marco L

    2017-10-20

    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 isoform (AKR1C3) plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of androgens, making this enzyme an attractive target for castration-resistant prostate cancer therapy. Although AKR1C3 is a promising drug target, no AKR1C3-targeted agent has to date been approved for clinical use. Flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to potently inhibit AKR1C3 in a non-selective manner as COX off-target effects are also observed. To diminish off-target effects, we have applied a scaffold hopping strategy replacing the benzoic acid moiety of flufenamic acid with an acidic hydroxyazolecarbonylic scaffold. In particular, differently N-substituted hydroxylated triazoles were designed to simultaneously interact with both subpockets 1 and 2 in the active site of AKR1C3, larger for AKR1C3 than other AKR1Cs isoforms. Through computational design and iterative rounds of synthesis and biological evaluation, novel compounds are reported, sharing high selectivity (up to 230-fold) for AKR1C3 over 1C2 isoform and minimal COX1 and COX2 off-target inhibition. A docking study of compound 8, the most interesting compound of the series, suggested that its methoxybenzyl substitution has the ability to fit inside subpocket 2, being involved in π-π staking interaction with Trp227 (partial overlapping) and in a T-shape π-π staking with Trp86. This compound was also shown to diminish testosterone production in the AKR1C3-expressing 22RV1 prostate cancer cell line while synergistic effect was observed when 8 was administered in combination with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Wang, Tiehui; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Hansen, John D.; Li, Jun; Matlapudi, Anjun; Secombes, Christopher J.; Tort, Lluis; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the structure, function, and evolutionary origins of the C3aR in nonmammalian species. Because C3aR and C5aR are thought to have arisen from the same common ancestor, the recent characterization of a C5aR in teleost fish implied the presence of a C3aR in this animal group. In this study we report the cloning of a trout cDNA encoding a 364-aa molecule (TC3aR) that shows a high degree of sequence homology and a strong phylogenetic relationship with mammalian C3aRs. Northern blotting demonstrated that TC3aR was expressed primarily in blood leukocytes. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Abs raised against TC3aR stained to a high degree all blood B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, all granulocytes. More importantly, these Abs inhibited trout C3a-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in trout leukocytes. A fascinating structural feature of TC3aR is the lack of a significant portion of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). In all C3aR molecules characterized to date, the ECL2 is exceptionally large when compared with the same region of C5aR. However, the exact function of the extra portion of ECL2 is unknown. The lack of this segment in TC3aR suggests that the extra piece of ECL2 was not necessary for the interaction of the ancestral C3aR with its ligand. Our findings represent the first C3aR characterized in nonmammalian species and support the hypothesis that if C3aR and C5aR diverged from a common ancestor, this event occurred before the emergence of teleost fish.

  8. Common evolutionary origin of alpha 2-macroglobulin and complement components C3 and C4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Stepanik, T M; Kristensen, Torsten

    1985-01-01

    placed residues and account for 75% and 67%, respectively, of the polypeptide chains of alpha 2M and pro-C3. Published sequence data for complement component C4 show that segments of this protein match well with corresponding stretches in alpha 2M and pro-C3. It is proposed that alpha 2M, C3 and C4...... common gross structure. The quartets of basic residues in pro-C3 and pro-C4, at which cleavage takes place to produce the mature subunits of these proteins, and most of the residues forming the anaphylatoxin peptides of C3 and C4 (C3a and C4a) are absent in alpha 2M. In addition, C3 and C4 contain large...

  9. CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in C3 but not C4 plants and slows growth under nitrate in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arnold J; Asensio, Jose Salvador Rubaio; Randall, Lesley; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B; Carlisle, Eli A

    2012-02-01

    The CO2 concentration in Earth's atmosphere may double during this century. Plant responses to such an increase depend strongly on their nitrogen status, but the reasons have been uncertain. Here, we assessed shoot nitrate assimilation into amino acids via the shift in shoot CO2 and O2 fluxes when plants received nitrate instead of ammonium as a nitrogen source (deltaAQ). Shoot nitrate assimilation became negligible with increasing CO2 in a taxonomically diverse group of eight C3 plant species, was relatively insensitive to CO2 in three C4 species, and showed an intermediate sensitivity in two C3-C4 intermediate species. We then examined the influence of CO2 level and ammonium vs. nitrate nutrition on growth, assessed in terms of changes in fresh mass, of several C3 species and a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Elevated CO2 (720 micromol CO2/mol of all gases present) stimulated growth or had no effect in the five C3 species tested when they received ammonium as a nitrogen source but inhibited growth or had no effect if they received nitrate. Under nitrate, two C3 species grew faster at sub-ambient (approximately 310 micromol/mol) than elevated CO2. A CAM species grew faster at ambient than elevated or sub-ambient CO2 under either ammonium or nitrate nutrition. This study establishes that CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in a wide variety of C3 plants and that this phenomenon can have a profound effect on their growth. This indicates that shoot nitrate assimilation provides an important contribution to the nitrate assimilation of an entire C3 plant. Thus, rising CO2 and its effects on shoot nitrate assimilation may influence the distribution of C3 plant species.

  10. Surface complement C3 fragments and cellular binding of microparticles in patients with SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes. These features may be relevant for clearance of MPs in SLE pathogenesis. Attached C3 fragments (C3b, iC3b, C3d), membrane integrity and cell surface markers of MPs from 18 patients with SLE and 11 HCs were measured by adding specific antibodies, 7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD) and annexin V. MPs from all subjects were labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and allowed to bind to autologous phagocytes and erythrocytes in the presence of autologous serum, and the binding to individual cell populations was assessed by flow cytometry. The proportion of MPs bearing C3 fragments was higher in patients with SLE than in HCs (p=0.026), but the amount of opsonising C3b/iC3b molecules was lower (p=0.004). The C3b/iC3b level correlated with the concentration of circulating C3 (rs=0.53, p=0.036). Phagocytes and erythrocytes from patients and HCs bound autologous MPs, and granulocytes from patients bound 13% more MPs than those from HCs (p=0.043). The presence of erythrocytes inhibited the MP binding to granulocytes by approximately 50%. Our demonstration of altered composition of C3 fragments on MPs from patients with SLE, including decreased numbers of opsonising C3 fragments, and competitive binding of MPs to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes corroborates the hypothesis of defective clearance of apoptotic material in SLE, and indicates that differences in both MP opsonisation and binding of MPs to cells are important in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  11. Effects of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain background on complement resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hyams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunity to infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is dependent on complement. There are wide variations in sensitivity to complement between S. pneumoniae strains that could affect their ability to cause invasive infections. Although capsular serotype is one important factor causing differences in complement resistance between strains, there is also considerable other genetic variation between S. pneumoniae strains that may affect complement-mediated immunity. We have therefore investigated whether genetically distinct S. pneumoniae strains with the same capsular serotype vary in their sensitivity to complement mediated immunity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3b/iC3b deposition and neutrophil association were measured using flow cytometry assays for S. pneumoniae strains with different genetic backgrounds for each of eight capsular serotypes. For some capsular serotypes there was marked variation in C3b/iC3b deposition between different strains that was independent of capsule thickness and correlated closely to susceptibility to neutrophil association. C3b/iC3b deposition results also correlated weakly with the degree of IgG binding to each strain. However, the binding of C1q (the first component of the classical pathway correlated more closely with C3b/iC3b deposition, and large differences remained in complement sensitivity between strains with the same capsular serotype in sera in which IgG had been cleaved with IdeS. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that bacterial factors independent of the capsule and recognition by IgG have strong effects on the susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to complement, and could therefore potentially account for some of the differences in virulence between strains.

  12. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Wang, David T.; Zane, Grant M.; Wall, Judy D.; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling between carbon and sulfur metabolisms to the overall magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect, this study compared sulfur isotope fractionations by mutants of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. We tested mutant strains lacking one or two periplasmic (Hyd, Hyn-1, Hyn-2, and Hys) or cytoplasmic hydrogenases (Ech and CooL), and a mutant lacking type I tetraheme cytochrome (TpI-c3). In batch culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and its hydrogenase mutants had comparable growth kinetics and produced the same sulfur isotope effects. This is consistent with the reported redundancy of hydrogenases in D. vulgaris. However, the TpI-c3 mutant (ΔcycA) exhibited slower growth and sulfate reduction rates in batch culture, and produced more H2 and an approximately 50% larger sulfur isotope effect, compared to the wild type. The magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation in the CycA deletion strain, thus, increased due to the disrupted coupling of the carbon oxidation and sulfate reduction pathways. In continuous culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and the CycA mutant produced similar sulfur isotope effects, underscoring the influence of environmental conditions on the relative contribution of hydrogen cycling to the electron transport. The large sulfur isotope effects associated with the non-ideal stoichiometry of sulfate reduction in this study imply that simultaneous fermentation and sulfate reduction may be responsible for some of the large naturally-occurring sulfur isotope effects. Overall, mutant strains provide a powerful tool to test the effect of specific redox proteins and pathways on sulfur isotope fractionation. PMID:23805134

  13. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is more severe in Th2 responding BALB/c mice compared to Th1 responding C3H/HeN mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Johansen, H K; Song, Z

    1997-01-01

    The chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a pronounced antibody response and microcolonies surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Poor prognosis is correlated with a high antibody response to P. aeruginosa antigens. An animal...... was cleared more efficiently in C3H/HeN mice and significantly more C3H/HeN mice showed normal lung histopathology (p ... from the two strains of mice, the interferon-(IFN-) gamma levels were higher, whereas IL-4 levels were lower in C3H/HeN mice than in BALB/c mice. The implications of these findings for CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection are discussed....

  14. Deuterated C3H2 as a clue to deuterium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, M.; Combes, F.; Wootten, H. A.; Boulanger, F.; Peters, W. L., III; Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterated cyclopropenylidene ring molecule, C3HD, has been detected toward several sources in four rotational lines, at 19, 79, 104, and 107 GHz. The relative integrated intensities of the 2-sub-12 - 1-sub-01 lines of C3HD and C3H2 are found in the ratio 1:5, indicating a high deuterium fractionation ratio for cyclopropenylidene. The detection of the C-13 isotope of C3H2 at the same position allows a determination of the optical thickness (about 3) of the line. The detection of such a large enhancement in the deuterated form of C3H2 very strongly suggests that a molecular ion is the chemical precursor of the molecules. Consideration of the amount of the enhancement relative to that in other molecules suggests that the precursor ion is C3H3+.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The C3N4/ZnO composite photocatalysts were synthesized by mechanical milling combined with a calcination process. Various ratios of melamine and ZnO powders were milled by a planetary ball mill for 10 h. After heating at 540◦C for 3 h in air, melamine was converted to C3N4 but the formation of C3N4 ...

  16. Strain Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  17. Systematic Comparison of C3 and C4 Plants Based on Metabolic Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Chuanli; Guo Longyun; Li Yixue; Wang Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The C4 photosynthetic cycle supercharges photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 around ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and significantly reduces the oxygenation reaction. Therefore engineering C4 feature into C3 plants has been suggested as a feasible way to increase photosynthesis and yield of C3 plants, such as rice, wheat, and potato. To identify the possible transition from C3 to C4 plants, the systematic comparison of C3 and C4 metabolism is necessary. Results We c...

  18. Constellation C3I Crew-Ground-Experimenter-Developer Collaboration Services Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) environment will be significantly different for Constellation than for Shuttle and International Space...

  19. Clostridial C3 toxins target monocytes/macrophages and modulate their functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBarth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The C3 enzymes from Clostridium (C. botulinum (C3bot and C. limosum (C3lim are single chain protein toxins of about 25 kDa that mono-ADP-ribosylate Rho A, -B, -C in the cytosol of mammalian cells. We discovered that both C3 proteins are selectively internalized into the cytosol of monocytes and macrophages by an endocytotic mechanism, comparable to bacterial AB-type toxins, while they are not efficiently taken up into the cytosol of other cell types including epithelial cells and fibroblasts. C3-treatment results in disturbed macrophage functions such as migration and phagocytosis, suggesting a novel function of clostridial C3 toxins as virulence factors, which selectively interfere with these immune cells. Moreover, enzymatic inactive C3 protein serves as a transport system to selectively deliver pharmacologically active molecules into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages without damaging these cells. This review addresses also the generation of C3-based molecular tools for experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well the exploitation of C3 for development of novel therapeutic strategies against monocyte/macrophage-associated diseases.

  20. Pyrolysis Synthesized g-C3N4 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 was synthesized at 520°C by the pyrolysis of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and melamine. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and elemental analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 was evaluated by the photodegrading experiments of methylene blue (MB. The results indicated that g-C3N4. A photocatalytic mechanism presumed the MB photodegradation over the C3N4 photocatalyst is attributed to photogenerated electron impelled multistep reduction of O2.

  1. Two Novel C3N4 Phases: Structural, Mechanical and Electronic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We systematically studied the physical properties of a novel superhard (t-C3N4 and a novel hard (m-C3N4 C3N4 allotrope. Detailed theoretical studies of the structural properties, elastic properties, density of states, and mechanical properties of these two C3N4 phases were carried out using first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants and the hardness revealed that t-C3N4 is ultra-incompressible and superhard, with a high bulk modulus of 375 GPa and a high hardness of 80 GPa. m-C3N4 and t-C3N4 both exhibit large anisotropy with respect to Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus. Moreover, m-C3N4 is a quasi-direct-bandgap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.522 eV, and t-C3N4 is also a quasi-direct-band-gap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.210 eV, with the HSE06 functional.

  2. C3larvin toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-01-16

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD(+) (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. C3larvin Toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Lugo, Miguel R.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2015-01-01

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD+ (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. PMID:25477523

  4. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-06-17

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  5. Hydrogen isotopic differences between C3 and C4 land plant lipids: consequences of compartmentation in C4 photosynthetic chemistry and C3 photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Hocart, Charles H; Gessler, Arthur; Farquhar, Graham D

    2016-12-01

    The 2 H/1 H ratio of carbon-bound H in biolipids holds potential for probing plant lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. The biochemical mechanism underlying the isotopic differences between lipids from C3 and C4 plants is still poorly understood. GC-pyrolysis-IRMS (gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) measurement of the 2 H/1 H ratio of leaf lipids from controlled and field grown plants indicates that the biochemical isotopic fractionation (ε2 Hlipid_biochem ) differed between C3 and C4 plants in a pathway-dependent manner: ε2 HC4  > ε2 HC3 for the acetogenic pathway, ε2 HC4  C4 mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells and suppression of photorespiration in C4 M and BS cells both result in C4 M chloroplastic pyruvate - the precursor for acetogenic pathway - being more depleted in 2 H relative to pyruvate in C3 cells. In addition, compartmentation in C4 plants also results in (i) the transferable H of NADPH being enriched in 2 H in C4 M chloroplasts compared with that in C3 chloroplasts for the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway pathway and (ii) pyruvate relatively 2 H-enriched being used for the mevalonic acid pathway in the cytosol of BS cells in comparison with that in C3 cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. C3 rho-inhibitor for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tautzenberger

    Full Text Available The C3 toxins from Clostridium botulinum (C3bot and Clostridium limosum (C3lim as well as C3-derived fusion proteins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages where the C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Rho results in inhibition of Rho-signalling and characteristic morphological changes. Since the fusion toxin C2IN-C3lim was efficiently taken up into and inhibited proliferation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, its effects on RAW 264.7-derived osteoclasts were investigated. C2IN-C3lim was taken up into differentiated osteoclasts and decreased their resorption activity. In undifferentiated RAW 264.7 cells, C2IN-C3lim-treatment significantly decreased their differentiation into osteoclasts as determined by counting the multi-nucleated, TRAP-positive cells. This inhibitory effect was concentration- and time-dependent and most efficient when C2IN-C3lim was applied in the early stage of osteoclast-formation. A single-dose application of C2IN-C3lim at day 0 and its subsequent removal at day 1 reduced the number of osteoclasts in a comparable manner while C2IN-C3lim-application at later time points did not reduce the number of osteoclasts to a comparable degree. Control experiments with an enzymatically inactive C3 protein revealed that the ADP-ribosylation of Rho was essential for the observed effects. In conclusion, the results indicate that Rho-activity is crucial during the early phase of osteoclast-differentiation. Other bone cell types such as pre-osteoblastic cells were not affected by C2IN-C3lim. Due to their cell-type selective and specific mode of action, C3 proteins and C3-fusions might be valuable tools for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast formation and activity, which could lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies against osteoclast-associated diseases.

  7. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  8. Complement C3a Mobilizes Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Specifically Guides Pulp Fibroblast Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufas, Pierre; Jeanneau, Charlotte; Rombouts, Charlotte; Laurent, Patrick; About, Imad

    2016-09-01

    Complement activation is considered a major mechanism in innate immunity. Although it is mainly involved in initiating inflammation, recent data reported its involvement in other processes such as tissue regeneration. In the dental pulp, complement C5a fragment has been shown to be involved in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). This study sought to investigate the possible role of C3a, another complement fragment, in the early steps of dentin-pulp regeneration. Expression of C3a receptor (C3aR) was investigated by immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on cultured pulp fibroblasts, STRO-1-sorted DPSCs, as well as on human tooth sections in vivo. The effect of C3a on proliferation of both DPSCs and pulp fibroblasts was investigated by MTT assay. Cell migration under a C3a gradient was investigated by using microfluidic chemotaxis chambers. C3aR was expressed in vivo as well as in cultured pulp fibroblasts co-expressing fibroblast surface protein and in DPSCs co-expressing STRO-1. Addition of recombinant C3a induced a significant proliferation of both cell types. When subjected to a C3a gradient, DPSCs were mobilized but not specifically recruited, whereas pulp fibroblasts were specifically recruited following a C3a gradient. These results provide the first demonstration of C3aR expression in the dental pulp and demonstrate that C3a is involved in increasing DPSCs and fibroblast proliferation, in mobilizing DPSCs, and in specifically guiding fibroblast recruitment. This provides an additional link to the tight correlation between inflammation and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Eculizumab treatment: stochastic occurrence of C3 binding to individual PNH erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Sica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C5 blockade by eculizumab prevents complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. However, C3-bound PNH red blood cells (RBCs, arising in almost all treated patients, may undergo extravascular hemolysis reducing clinical benefits. Despite the uniform deficiency of CD55 and of CD59, there are always two distinct populations of PNH RBCs, with (C3+ and without (C3C3 binding. Methods To investigate this paradox, the phenomenon has been modeled in vitro by incubating RBCs from eculizumab untreated PNH patients with compatible sera containing eculizumab, and by assessing the C3 binding after activation of complement alternative pathway. Results When RBCs from untreated patients were exposed in vitro to activated complement in the context of C5-blockade, there was the prompt appearance of a distinct C3+ PNH RBC population whose size increased with time and also with the rate of complement activation. Eventually, all PNH RBCs become C3+ to the same extent, without differences between old and young (reticulocytes PNH RBCs. Conclusions This study indicates that the distinct (C3+ and C3− PNH RBC populations are not intrinsically different; rather, they result from a stochastic all-or-nothing phenomenon linked to the time-dependent cumulative probability of each individual PNH red cell to be exposed to levels of complement activation able to trigger C3 binding. These findings may envision novel approaches to reduce C3 opsonization and the subsequent extravascular hemolysis in PNH patients on eculizumab.

  10. Complement peptide C3a stimulates neural plasticity after experimental brain ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowska, Anna; Atkins, Alison L; Morán, Javier; Pekny, Tulen; Bulmer, Linda; Pascoe, Michaela C; Barnum, Scott R; Wetsel, Rick A; Nilsson, Jonas A; Dragunow, Mike; Pekna, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    Ischaemic stroke induces endogenous repair processes that include proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and extensive rewiring of the remaining neural connections, yet about 50% of stroke survivors live with severe long-term disability. There is an unmet need for drug therapies to improve recovery by promoting brain plasticity in the subacute to chronic phase after ischaemic stroke. We previously showed that complement-derived peptide C3a regulates neural progenitor cell migration and differentiation in vitro and that C3a receptor signalling stimulates neurogenesis in unchallenged adult mice. To determine the role of C3a-C3a receptor signalling in ischaemia-induced neural plasticity, we subjected C3a receptor-deficient mice, GFAP-C3a transgenic mice expressing biologically active C3a in the central nervous system, and their respective wild-type controls to photothrombotic stroke. We found that C3a overexpression increased, whereas C3a receptor deficiency decreased post-stroke expression of GAP43 (P plasticity, in the peri-infarct cortex. To verify the translational potential of these findings, we used a pharmacological approach. Daily intranasal treatment of wild-type mice with C3a beginning 7 days after stroke induction robustly increased synaptic density (P neural plasticity and intranasal treatment with C3a receptor agonists is an attractive approach to improve functional recovery after ischaemic brain injury. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Structural and functional characterisation of the cyanobacterial PetC3 Rieske protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Sebastian; Takeda, Kazuki; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Baymann, Frauke; Nevo, Reinat; Reich, Ziv; Rögner, Matthias; Miki, Kunio; Rexroth, Sascha

    2016-12-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 possesses three Rieske isoforms: PetC1, PetC2 and PetC3. While PetC1 and PetC2 have been identified as alternative subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex (b6f), PetC3 was localized exclusively within the plasma membrane. The spatial separation of PetC3 from the photosynthetic and respiratory protein complexes raises doubt in its involvement in bioenergetic electron transfer. Here we report a detailed structural and functional characterization of the cyanobacterial PetC3 protein family indicating that PetC3 is not a component of the b6f and the photosynthetic electron transport as implied by gene annotation. Instead PetC3 has a distinct function in cell envelope homeostasis. Especially proteomic analysis shows that deletion of petC3 in Synechocystis PCC 6803 primarily affects cell envelope proteins including many nutrient transport systems. Therefore, the observed downregulation in the photosynthetic electron transport - mainly caused by photosystem 2 inactivation - might constitute a stress adaptation. Comprehensive in silico sequence analyses revealed that PetC3 proteins are periplasmic lipoproteins tethered to the plasma membrane with a subclass consisting of soluble periplasmic proteins, i.e. their N-terminal domain is inconsistent with their integration into the b6f. For the first time, the structure of PetC3 was determined by X-ray crystallography at an atomic resolution revealing significant high similarities to non-b6f Rieske subunits in contrast to PetC1. These results suggest that PetC3 affects processes in the periplasmic compartment that only indirectly influence photosynthetic electron transport. For this reason, we suggest to rename "Photosynthetic electron transport Chain 3" (PetC3) proteins as "periplasmic Rieske proteins" (Prp). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity of Ag modified Mpg-C3N4 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuchen; Zhou, Feng; Zhan, Su; Yang, Yifan; Liu, Yujun; Tian, Yu; Huang, Naibao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, mpg-C3N4/Ag composites of surface plasmon resonance structures were fabricated to improve the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 via photo-assisted reduction method, which were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, DRS and BET. The photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and the oxygen reduction experiment under visible light. The results showed the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities were dependent on the weight ratio of Ag and the optimum photocatalytic activity of mpg-C3N4/Ag at a weight ratio of 3% is almost 3 times as high as that of mpg-C3N4. Additionally, mpg-C3N4/Ag exhibited a significantly enhanced oxygen reduction performance under visible light. The limit current density was increased about 2 times by the modification of Ag nanoparticles, compared with that of pristine mpg-C3N4. Finally, based on the first principle, the enhancement mechanism of the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities was discussed by the calculation on the band structure and density of states in the mpg-C3N4/Ag composites. The appropriate amount of Ag modification would cause the surface plasmon resonance effect, which improved the photocatalytic, photoelectrocatalytic, and oxygen reduction activities of mpg-C3N4.

  13. Steroid carbon skeletons with unusually branched C-3 alkyl side chains in sulphur-rich sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Sephton, S.; Baas, M.

    1998-01-01

    A novel series of thiophenes with C-3 alkylated steroid carbon skeletons has been identified in sediments of the Miocene Monterey Formation (California, USA) and in the Turonian Tarfaya basin (Morocco). Their carbon skeletons are unusual in the sense that the alkyl side-chains at C-3 are almost

  14. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  15. Protective Role of Complement C3 Against Cytokine-Mediated beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, Reinaldo S.; Marroqui, Laura; Grieco, Fabio A.

    2017-01-01

    silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine...

  16. Electronic and Rovibrational Quantum Chemical Analysis of C$_3$P$^-$: The Next Interstellar Anion?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    C$_3$P$^-$ is analogous to the known interstellar anion C$_3$N$^-$ with phosphorus replacing the nitrogen in a simple step down the periodic table. In this work, it is shown that C$_3$P$^-$ is likely to possess a dipole-bound excited state. It has been hypothesized and observationally supported that dipole-bound excited states are an avenue through which anions could be formed in the interstellar medium. Additionally, C$_3$P$^-$ has a valence excited state that may lead to further stabilization of this molecule, and C$_3$P$^-$ has a larger dipole moment than neutral C$_3$P ($\\sim 6$ D vs. $\\sim 4$ D). As such, C$_3$P$^-$ is probably a more detectable astromolecule than even its corresponding neutral radical. Highly-accurate quantum chemical quartic force fields are also applied to C$_3$P$^-$ and its singly $^{13}$C substituted isotopologues in order to provide structures, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants that may aid in its detection.

  17. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [TD 9539] RIN 1545-BI09 Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal... dates of applicability, see Sec. 1.280C- 4(c). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Selig, (202) 622... research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-130200-08...

  18. C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Hughes, Timothy R; Donev, Rossen M; Ruseva, Marieta M; Wu, Xiaobo; Huitinga, Inge; Baas, Frank; Neal, James W; Morgan, B Paul

    2012-01-17

    Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice that were double-knockout for Crry and either C3 or factor B did not show priming, demonstrating dependence on alternative pathway activation. Colocalization of C3b/iC3b and CR3 implicated the CR3/iC3b interaction in priming. Systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge overactivated primed microglia with florid expression of proinflammatory molecules, which were blocked by complement inhibition. Relevance for neurodegenerative disease is exemplified by human multiple sclerosis (MS) and by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. In human MS, microglial priming was evident in perilesional white matter, in close proximity to C3b/iC3b deposits. EAE was accelerated and exacerbated in Crry-deficient mice, and was dependent on C activation. In summary, C3-dependent microglial priming confers susceptibility to other challenges. Our observations are relevant to progression in MS and other neurological diseases exacerbated by acute insults.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 866.5260 Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. 866.5260 Section 866.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. C3 and haptoglobin polymorphism in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Vink-Starreveld, M. L.; Jansen, W.; Pronk, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The C3 and haptoglobin phenotype distribution was studied in 60 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. In contrast with earlier reports we did not find any significant association between dementia of the Alzheimer type and certain C3 or haptoglobin phenotypes

  1. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    70

    separation efficiency of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs. A possible mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of RhB on C3N4/CdS nanocomposites was also proposed. Keywords: C3N4; CdS; photocatalytic; nanocomposites. 1. Introduction. Artificial semiconductor photocatalysis offers a viable strategy for removal ...

  2. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Steroid Carbon Skeletons with Unusually Branched C-3 Alkyl Side Chains in Sulphur-Rich Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Stefan; Sephton, Sarah; Baas, Marianne; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1998-04-01

    A novel series of thiophenes with C-3 alkylated steroid carbon skeletons has been identified in sediments of the Miocene Monterey Formation (California, USA) and in the Turonian Tarfaya basin (Morocco). Their carbon skeletons are unusual in the sense that the alkyl side-chains at C-3 are almost exclusively isopentyl, 3-methylpentyl, and 2,3-dimethylbutyl moieties whilst n-alkyl (pentyl or hexyl) moieties are almost absent. Although they occur as thiophenes, the number of carbon atoms in the C-3 alkyl side chain and their carbon isotopic compositions point towards an origin from carbohydrates for the C-3 alkyl side chain. However, the branched structures of the C-3 alkyl side chains points to a different biosynthetic pathway, possibly starting from the addition of isopentylpyrophosphate to sterols.

  4. C3 polymorphism in a Danish cystic fibrosis population and its possible association with antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, P O; Høiby, N; Morling, N

    1978-01-01

    The C3 types of human serum are reported for a material of 113 Danish cystic fibrosis patients, age 0-30 years. The frequency of the C3F gene was 0.2832 which was significantly higher (p less than 0.0005) than the frequency found in a control group of 224 healthy babies (C3F = 0.1585). It also...... differed significantly (p less than 0.01) from the C3F gene frequency of 0.1780 found in 177 blood donors, age 20-24 years. A significant association between any of the C3 phenotypes and the most serious infection in cystic fibrosis, chronic mucoid P. aeruginosa infection, or the antibody response against...

  5. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D and C3-epimers in pregnancy and infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier Mydtskov, Nanne; Lykkedegn, Sine; Fruekilde, Palle Back Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    of the C3-epimer fraction in paired mother-child samples. METHOD: S-25(OH)D and s-C3-epimer were estimated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in 290 mother-infant pairs from the population-based Odense Child Cohort. Longitudinal analyses were feasible in two subcohorts; B) early and late pregnancy......BACKGROUND: Analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) may be complicated by the less active or in-active vitamin D metabolite C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (C3-epimer). We aimed to explore the relationship between s-C3-epimer and s-25(OH)D and other determinants and describe the longitudinal course...

  6. Identification of C3 acceptors responsible for complement activation in Crithidia fasciculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guether, M.L.T.; Travassos, L.R.; Schenkman, S.

    1988-11-01

    Crithidia fasciculata, an insect trypanosomatid is readily lysed by normal human serum at concentrations as low as 3%. Lysis occurs in the presence of Mg+2-EGTA and is antibody independent, indicating that the alternative pathway of complement activation is involved. Analysis of (131I)C3 deposition on C. fasciculata cells using C8-deficient serum, revealed that about 4 x 10(5) C3 molecules bound to each cell. Most of the C3 was bound to cells as C3b, part of it forming high molecular weight complexes, which could be dissociated by methylamine treatment at alkaline pH. To characterize the C3 acceptors on C. fasciculata, surface-iodinated cells were incubated with C8D or heat-inactivated serum, extracted and immunoprecipitated with anti-C3 or anti-arabinogalactan antisera. Analysis of the immunoprecipitated material on SDS gels showed high-molecular weight components, which disappeared after methylamine treatment, giving rise to a component of 200 kDa molecular size. This 200-kDa component corresponded to a purified arabinogalactan complex, which was immunoprecipitated from labeled cell extracts, without incubation with C8D, using anti-arabinogalactan antibodies. These results suggest that the arabinogalactan glycoconjugate is a C3 acceptor in C. fasciculata during complement activation. Purified arabinogalactan complexes were able to inactivate C3 in vitro. Solubilization in KOH to cleave the peptide moiety rendered it unable to inactivate C3. Apparently, the aggregated state of the purified arabinogalactan component at the cell surface is important for C3 deposition and activation.

  7. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  8. Difference in C3-C4 metabolism underlies tradeoff between growth rate and biomass yield in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanfen; Beck, David A C; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2016-07-19

    Two variants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 demonstrated a trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield. In addition, growth rate and biomass yield were also affected by supplementation of growth medium with different amounts of cobalt. The metabolism changes relating to these growth phenomena as well as the trade-off were investigated in this study. (13)C metabolic flux analysis was used to generate a detailed central carbon metabolic flux map with both absolute and normalized flux values. The major differences between the two variants occurred at the formate node as well as within C3-C4 inter-conversion pathways. Higher relative fluxes through formyltetrahydrofolate ligase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malic enzyme led to higher biomass yield, while higher relative fluxes through pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase led to higher growth rate. These results were then tested by phenotypic studies on three mutants (null pyk, null pck mutant and null dme mutant) in both variants, which agreed with the model prediction. In this study, (13)C metabolic flux analysis for two strain variants of M. extorquens AM1 successfully identified metabolic pathways contributing to the trade-off between cell growth and biomass yield. Phenotypic analysis of mutants deficient in corresponding genes supported the conclusion that C3-C4 inter-conversion strategies were the major response to the trade-off.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis and heterologous expression of surface layer protein SlpC of Bacillus sphaericus C3-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomin; Li, Jia; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-05-01

    The surface layer protein encoding genes from five mosquito-pathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolates were amplified and sequenced. Negative staining of the S-layer protein extracted from the cell wall of wild-type B. sphaericus C3-41 was prepared. It showed a flat-sheet crystal lattice structure. Two genes encoding the entire and N-terminally truncated S-layer protein (slpC and DeltaslpC respectively), were ligated into plasmid pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE revealed that about 130 KD and 110 KD proteins could be expressed in the cytoplasm of recombinant E. coli BL21(pET28a/slpC) and E. coli BL21(pET28a/DeltaslpC) respectively. Furthermore, an intracellular sheet-like or fingerprint-shape structure was investigated in two recombinant strains, which expressed SlpC and DeltaSlpC protein respectively, by ultrathin microscopy study, but bioassay results suggested that the S-layer protein of wild B. sphaericus C3-41 and recombinant E. coli BL21 (pET28a/slpC) have no direct toxicity against mosquito larvae. These results should provide information for further understanding of the function of S-layer protein of pathogenic B. sphaericus.

  10. Boron-Catalyzed C3-Polymerization of ω-2-Methyl Allylarsonium Ylide and Its C3/C1 Copolymers with Dimethylsulfoxonium Methylide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2016-03-01

    A novel arsonium ylide, ω-2-methylallylarsonium ylide, was synthesized and used as monomer for polyhomologation with triethyborane as initiator. It was found that the terminal methyl group leads to C3 polymerization. Furthermore, the copolyhomologation of arsonium ylide with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide is reported for the first time. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. C4 photosynthesis in C3 rice: a theoretical analysis of biochemical and anatomical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyue; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Engineering C4 photosynthesis into rice has been considered a promising strategy to increase photosynthesis and yield. A question that remains to be answered is whether expressing a C4 metabolic cycle into a C3 leaf structure and without removing the C3 background metabolism improves photosynthetic efficiency. To explore this question, we developed a 3D reaction diffusion model of bundle-sheath and connected mesophyll cells in a C3 rice leaf. Our results show that integrating a C4 metabolic pathway into rice leaves with a C3 metabolism and mesophyll structure may lead to an improved photosynthesis under current ambient CO2 concentration. We analysed a number of physiological factors that influence the CO2 uptake rate, which include the chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular air space, bundle-sheath cell wall thickness, bundle-sheath chloroplast envelope permeability, Rubisco concentration and the energy partitioning between C3 and C4 cycles. Among these, partitioning of energy between C3 and C4 photosynthesis and the partitioning of Rubisco between mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells are decisive factors controlling photosynthetic efficiency in an engineered C3 -C4 leaf. The implications of the results for the sequence of C4 evolution are also discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. C5 inhibition prevents renal failure in a mouse model of lethal C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Lesher; Gullipalli, Damodar; Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Sato, Sayaka; Zhou, Lin; Miwa, Takashi; Tung, Kenneth S; Song, Wen-Chao

    2017-06-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a potentially life-threatening disease of the kidney caused by dysregulated alternative pathway complement activation. The specific complement mediator(s) responsible for kidney injury in C3 glomerulopathy are yet to be defined and no specific therapy is currently available. We previously developed a mouse model of lethal C3 glomerulopathy with factor H and properdin gene double mutations. Therefore, we used this model to examine the role of C5 and C5a receptor (C5aR) in the pathogenesis of the disease. Disease severity in these factor H/properdin double-mutant mice was found to be correlated with plasma C5 levels, and prophylactic anti-C5 mAb therapy was effective in preventing lethal C3 glomerulopathy. When given to these double-mutant mice that had already developed active disease with severe proteinuria, anti-C5 mAb treatment also prevented death in half of the mice. Deficiency of C5aR significantly reduced disease severity, suggesting that C5aR-mediated inflammation contributed to C3 glomerulopathy. Thus, C5 and C5aR have a critical role in C3 glomerulopathy. Hence, early intervention targeting these pathways may be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with C3 glomerulopathy. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CR2+ marginal zone B cell production of pathogenic natural antibodies is C3 independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Keith M; Pope, Michael R; Hoffman, Sara M; Fleming, Sherry D

    2011-02-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced damage requires complement receptor 2 (CR2) for generation of the appropriate natural Ab repertoire. Pathogenic Abs recognize neoantigens on the ischemic tissue, activate complement, and induce intestinal damage. Because C3 cleavage products act as ligands for CR2, we hypothesized that CR2(hi) marginal zone B cells (MZBs) require C3 for generation of the pathogenic Abs. To explore the ability of splenic CR2(+) B cells to generate the damaging Ab repertoire, we adoptively transferred either MZBs or follicular B cells (FOBs) from C57BL/6 or Cr2(-/-) mice into Rag-1(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of wild type CR2(hi) MZBs but not CR2(lo) FOBs induced significant damage, C3 deposition, and inflammation in response to IR. In contrast, similarly treated Rag-1(-/-) mice reconstituted with either Cr2(-/-) MZB/B1 B cells (B1Bs) or FOBs lacked significant intestinal damage and displayed limited complement activation. To determine whether C3 cleavage products are critical in CR2-dependent Ab production, we evaluated the ability of the natural Ab repertoire of C3(-/-) mice to induce damage in response to IR. Infusion of C3(-/-) serum into Cr2(-/-) mice restored IR-induced tissue damage. Furthermore, Rag-1(-/-) mice sustained significant damage after infusion of Abs from C3(-/-) but not Cr2(-/-) mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of MZBs from C3(-/-) mice into Rag-1(-/-) mice resulted in significant tissue damage and inflammation. These data indicate that CR2 expression on MZBs is sufficient to induce the appropriate Abs required for IR-induced tissue damage and that C3 is not critical for generation of the pathogenic Abs.

  14. Rituximab fails where eculizumab restores renal function in C3nef-related DDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset-Rouvière, Caroline; Cailliez, Mathilde; Garaix, Florentine; Bruno, Daniele; Laurent, Daniel; Tsimaratos, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD), a C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), is a rare disease with unfavorable progression towards end-stage kidney disease. The pathogenesis of DDD is due to cytotoxic effects related to acquired or genetic dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway, which is at times accompanied by the production of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF), an auto-antibody directed against the alternative C3 convertase. Available treatments include plasma exchange, CD20-targeted antibodies, and a terminal complement blockade via the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab. We report here the case of an 8-year-old child with C3NeF and refractory DDD who presented with a nephritic syndrome. She tested positive for C3NeF activity; C3 was undetectable. Genetic analyses of the alternative complement pathway were normal. Methylprednisolone pulses and mycophenolate mofetil treatment resulted in complete recovery of renal function and a reduction in proteinuria. Corticosteroids were tapered and then withdrawn. Four months after corticosteroid discontinuation, hematuria and proteinuria recurred, and a renal biopsy confirmed an active DDD with a majority of extracapillary crescents. Despite an increase in immunosuppressive drugs, including methylprednisolone pulses and rituximab therapy, the patient suffered acute renal failure within 3 weeks, requiring dialysis. Eculizumab treatment resulted in a quick and impressive response. Hematuria very quickly resolved, kidney function improved, and no further dialysis was required. The patient received bimonthly eculizumab injections of 600 mg, allowing for normalization of renal function and reduction of proteinuria to DDD prior to the development of glomerulosclerosis. Our data provide evidence supporting the pivotal role of complement alternative pathway abnormalities in C3G with DDD.

  15. Human skin mast cells express complement factors C3 and C5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshihiro; Hite, Michelle R; Dellinger, Anthony L; Schwartz, Lawrence B

    2013-08-15

    We examine whether complement factor C3 or C5 is synthesized by human skin-derived mast cells and whether their synthesis is regulated by cytokines. C3 and C5 mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR, and proteins by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, Western blotting, and ELISA. C3 and C5 mRNAs were each expressed, and baseline protein levels/10(6) cultured mast cells were 0.9 and 0.8 ng, respectively, and located in the cytoplasm outside of secretory granules. C3 accumulated in mast cell culture medium over time and by 3 d reached a concentration of 9.4 ± 8.0 ng/ml, whereas C5 levels were not detectable (C5 remained undetectable. Importantly, treatment with TNF-α together with either IL-4 or IL-13 synergistically enhanced C3 (but not C5) production in culture medium by 9.8- or 7.1-fold, respectively. This synergy was blocked by attenuating the TNF-α pathway with neutralizing anti-TNF-α Ab, soluble TNFR, or an inhibitor of NF-κB, or by attenuating the IL-4/13 pathway with Jak family or Erk antagonists. Inhibitors of PI3K, Jnk, and p38 MAPK did not affect this synergy. Thus, human mast cells can produce and secrete C3, whereas β-tryptase can act on C3 to generate C3a and C3b, raising the likelihood that mast cells engage complement to modulate immunity and inflammation in vivo.

  16. Systematic comparison of C3 and C4 plants based on metabolic network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanli; Guo, Longyun; Li, Yixue; Wang, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic cycle supercharges photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 around ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and significantly reduces the oxygenation reaction. Therefore engineering C4 feature into C3 plants has been suggested as a feasible way to increase photosynthesis and yield of C3 plants, such as rice, wheat, and potato. To identify the possible transition from C3 to C4 plants, the systematic comparison of C3 and C4 metabolism is necessary. We compared C3 and C4 metabolic networks using the improved constraint-based models for Arabidopsis and maize. By graph theory, we found the C3 network exhibit more dense topology structure than C4. The simulation of enzyme knockouts demonstrated that both C3 and C4 networks are very robust, especially when optimizing CO2 fixation. Moreover, C4 plant has better robustness no matter the objective function is biomass synthesis or CO2 fixation. In addition, all the essential reactions in C3 network are also essential for C4, while there are some other reactions specifically essential for C4, which validated that the basic metabolism of C4 plant is similar to C3, but C4 is more complex. We also identified more correlated reaction sets in C4, and demonstrated C4 plants have better modularity with complex mechanism coordinates the reactions and pathways than that of C3 plants. We also found the increase of both biomass production and CO2 fixation with light intensity and CO2 concentration in C4 is faster than that in C3, which reflected more efficient use of light and CO2 in C4 plant. Finally, we explored the contribution of different C4 subtypes to biomass production by setting specific constraints. All results are consistent with the actual situation, which indicate that Flux Balance Analysis is a powerful method to study plant metabolism at systems level. We demonstrated that in contrast to C3, C4 plants have less dense topology, higher robustness, better modularity, and higher CO2 and radiation use efficiency

  17. Complement component C3aR constitutes a novel regulator for chick eye morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Bierly, Jeffrey; Haynes, Tracy; Reis, Edimara S; Han, Zeyu; Gutierrez, Christian; McKinney, Zachary; Tzekou, Apostolia; Lambris, John D; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2017-08-01

    Complement components have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including neurogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, differentiation, cancer, and more recently early development and regeneration. Following our initial observations indicating that C3a/C3aR signaling induces chick retina regeneration, we analyzed its role in chick eye morphogenesis. During eye development, the optic vesicle (OV) invaginates to generate a bilayer optic cup (OC) that gives rise to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina. We show by immunofluorescence staining that C3 and the receptor for C3a (the cleaved and active form of C3), C3aR, are present in chick embryos during eye morphogenesis in the OV and OC. Interestingly, C3aR is mainly localized in the nuclear compartment at the OC stage. Loss of function studies at the OV stage using morpholinos or a blocking antibody targeting the C3aR (anti-C3aR Ab), causes eye defects such as microphthalmia and defects in the ventral portion of the eye that result in coloboma. Such defects were not observed when C3aR was disrupted at the OC stage. Histological analysis demonstrated that microphthalmic eyes were unable to generate a normal optic stalk or a closed OC. The dorsal/ventral patterning defects were accompanied by an expansion of the ventral markers Pax2, cVax and retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme raldh-3 (aldh1a3) domains, an absence of the dorsal expression of Tbx5 and raldh-1 (aldh1a1) and a re-specification of the ventral RPE to neuroepithelium. In addition, the eyes showed overall decreased expression of Gli1 and a change in distribution of nuclear β-catenin, suggesting that Shh and Wnt pathways have been affected. Finally, we observed prominent cell death along with a decrease in proliferating cells, indicating that both processes contribute to the microphthalmic phenotype. Together our results show that C3aR is necessary for the proper morphogenesis of the OC. This is the first report implicating C3aR in

  18. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change. © 2012

  19. High-temperature stability of alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3)

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Nina J.; Eklund, Per; Lu, Jun; Spencer, Charles B.; Hultman, Lars; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2011-01-01

    Cold-pressed alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3) powders were annealed up to 1750 degrees C to test first-principles predictions of alpha-beta phase-stability reversal at 1600 degrees C. Up to 1600 degrees C, the alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3) samples were stable with no indications of any alpha-beta transformation, as shown by the strong characteristic X-ray diffraction peaks of alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3) and the zigzag stacking observed by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that, in this experimental situation, ...

  20. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jae Kim; Ki Beom Kim; Ki Yong Ann

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured u...

  1. Catalase activity during C3-CAM transition in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, E; Miszalski, Z; Slesak, I; Ratajczak, R

    1999-12-01

    Treatment with 0.4 mol dm(-3) NaCl caused a C3-CAM shift in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. leaves. In parallel to the CAM induction the activity of CAT was significantly decreased. In C3 and in CAM plants CAT activity showed daily fluctuations, with the maximum at the end of the light period. The oscillations of CAT were more pronounced in CAM than in C3 plants. In M. crystallinum CAT activity seems to respond more to CAM induction than to salinity.

  2. De novo Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of C3, C3-C4, and C4 Species of Tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lauterbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available C4 photosynthesis is a carbon-concentrating mechanism that evolved independently more than 60 times in a wide range of angiosperm lineages. Among other alterations, the evolution of C4 from ancestral C3 photosynthesis requires changes in the expression of a vast number of genes. Differential gene expression analyses between closely related C3 and C4 species have significantly increased our understanding of C4 functioning and evolution. In Chenopodiaceae, a family that is rich in C4 origins and photosynthetic types, the anatomy, physiology and phylogeny of C4, C2, and C3 species of Salsoleae has been studied in great detail, which facilitated the choice of six samples of five representative species with different photosynthetic types for transcriptome comparisons. mRNA from assimilating organs of each species was sequenced in triplicates, and sequence reads were de novo assembled. These novel genetic resources were then analyzed to provide a better understanding of differential gene expression between C3, C2 and C4 species. All three analyzed C4 species belong to the NADP-ME type as most genes encoding core enzymes of this C4 cycle are highly expressed. The abundance of photorespiratory transcripts is decreased compared to the C3 and C2 species. Like in other C4 lineages of Caryophyllales, our results suggest that PEPC1 is the C4-specific isoform in Salsoleae. Two recently identified transporters from the PHT4 protein family may not only be related to the C4 syndrome, but also active in C2 photosynthesis in Salsoleae. In the two populations of the C2 species S. divaricata transcript abundance of several C4 genes are slightly increased, however, a C4 cycle is not detectable in the carbon isotope values. Most of the core enzymes of photorespiration are highly increased in the C2 species compared to both C3 and C4 species, confirming a successful establishment of the C2 photosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a function of PEP-CK in C2 photosynthesis

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3a - Exhibit A-formula for determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. 240.15c3-3a Section 240.15c3-3a... Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-3a Exhibit A—formula for determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. Credits Debits 1. Free credit balances and other credit...

  4. Heterogeneity of the clinical manifestations and pathology features in C3 glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-quan WANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a kind of glomerular diseases mediated by abnormal activation of alternative complement pathway. As diversity and multiplicity of pathogenic mechanism, heterogeneity exists in the clinical manifestation and pathological features of C3 glomerulopathy. The clinical manifestation of the disease may be shown as abnormality in urine, hypertension, hematuria, nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome, renal insufficiency, etc. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferation, crescent formation, focal segmental necrosis, diffuse hyperplasia and exudative lesions, etc may be found in renal biopsies. Also, the prognosis of C3 glomerulopathy is not uniform. The clinical manifestations and pathological features of C3 glomerulopathy were reviewed in the present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.15

  5. Characterization of TauC3 antibody and demonstration of its potential to block tau propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha B Nicholls

    Full Text Available The spread of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT pathology through the human brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD, which is thought to be caused by the propagation of "seeding" competent soluble misfolded tau. "TauC3", a C-terminally truncated form of tau that is generated by caspase-3 cleavage at D421, has previously been observed in NFTs and has been implicated in tau toxicity. Here we show that TauC3 is found in the seeding competent high molecular weight (HMW protein fraction of human AD brain. Using a specific TauC3 antibody, we were able to substantially block the HMW tau seeding activity of human AD brain extracts in an in vitro tau seeding FRET assay. We propose that TauC3 could contribute to the templated tau misfolding that leads to NFT spread in AD brains.

  6. Inhibition of complement components C3 and C4 by cadralazine and its active metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M; Hanson, A; Englund, G; Dahlbäck, B

    1991-01-01

    The effect of cadralazine and its active metabolite CGP 22639 on the covalent binding reaction of C4 and C3 has been studied. Trypsin-Sepharose was used to activate radio-labelled C3 and C4 and binding of the radio-labelled protein to the trypsin-Sepharose was measured. Cadralazine inhibited 50% of the binding of C3 and C4 at concentrations of 19 mmol/l and 15 mmol/l, respectively. Its active metabolite was more potent and inhibited 50% of the C3 and C4 binding at concentrations of 8 and 3.5 mmol/l, respectively. These concentrations are much higher than those found in plasma during therapy. This is consistent with the clinical observation that in patients with normal kidney function cadralazine is not an inducer of SLE.

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  8. Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Photoactive VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated...

  9. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the...

  10. Studies towards C-3 functionalization of β-lactams using substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies towards C-3 functionalization of β-lactams using substituted allylsilanes ... Thin layer chromatography ... Column chromatography was performed with silica gel (Acme. Synthetic ..... assigned based on X-ray crystallographic data, hinted.

  11. Identification of gp350 as the viral glycoprotein mediating attachment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the EBV/C3d receptor of B cells: sequence homology of gp350 and C3 complement fragment C3d.

    OpenAIRE

    Nemerow, G.R.; Mold, C; Schwend, V K; Tollefson, V; Cooper, N. R.

    1987-01-01

    The major Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) envelope glycoprotein, gp350, was purified from the B95-8 cell line and analyzed for its ability to mediate virus attachment to the isolated EBV/C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes. Purified gp350 and EBV, but not cytomegalovirus, exhibited dose-dependent binding to purified CR2 in dot blot immunoassays. Binding was inhibited by certain monoclonal antibodies to CR2 and to gp350. Liposomes bearing incorporated gp350 bound to CR2-positive B-cell lines bu...

  12. Polypeptide Composition of Envelope Membranes Isolated from Chloroplasts of C_3, C_4, and CAM Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G., Foster; Gerald E, Edwards; Department of Botany, Washington State University:(Present)United States Department of Agriculture, Appalachian Soil and Water Conservation Research Laboratory; Department of Botany, Washington State University

    1983-01-01

    Chloroplast envelopes were isolated from chloroplasts purified from Spinacea oleracea L. (C_3), Panicum miliaceum L. (NAD-malic enzyme-type C_4), Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (NADP-malic enzyme-type C_4). Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier (constitutive CAM), and from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (inducible CAM) performing either C_3 photosynthesis or Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). For each species, methods were developed to isolate chloroplast envelopes free of thylakoid ...

  13. Lentil (Lens culinaris) lipid transfer protein Len c 3: a novel legume allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, J; Finkina, E I; Balandin, S V; Santos Magadán, S; Knulst, A; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Asero, R; van Ree, R; Ovchinnikova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Lentils are increasingly consumed in many parts of the world.Two allergens, Len c 1 and 2, have been reported previously. Recently, peanut and green bean lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as the first two members of an important group of allergens that might be associated with severe food allergies. To investigate lentil LTP as a potential new allergen. Efficacy of LTP extraction was monitored at different acidic pH values, using immunoblotting with cross-reactive anti-peach LTP antiserum. Natural LTP was purified from lentil extract and expressed as recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli. Sera from 10 lentil-allergic and/or -sensitized patients (Spain: 6, Italy: 1 and the Netherlands: 3) were used to further characterize lentil LTP. Natural lentil LTP, purified from the homogenized germinated seeds and optimally extracted at pH 3, was identified and designated as allergen Len c 3. By CAP, 9/10 sera showed specific IgE to Len c 3. Recombinant (r) Len c 3 was successfully purified. The natural (n) Len c 3 CAP was completely inhibited by rLen c 3/rPru p 3. IgE binding to lentil pH 3 extract blot was completely inhibited by rLen c 3. The availability of immunochemically active nLen/rLen c 3 as a novel legume allergen facilitates further development and implementation of a third (next to peanut and green bean) legume LTP in component-resolved diagnosis strategies and contributes to evaluate the clinical importance of legume LTPs. Preferential extraction of Len c 3 (pH 3) will affect the production of sensitive extract-based diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3) through comparative case analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public rerlease; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains material for the course, Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3). The first part of the thesis describes selected principles and concepts of C3 related to communication management, interoperability, command structure and standardization. The Crisis Action System is described emphasizing the roles and functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. A discussion of...

  15. Ni-Mo-S nanoparticles modified graphitic C3N4 for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Jin, Zhiliang; Hu, Hongyan; Bi, Yingpu; Lu, Gongxuan

    2018-01-01

    Noble metal-free Ni-Mo-S nanoparticles modified graphitic C3N4 for efficient hydrogen evolution was successfully synthesized by means of a simple hydrothermal ion exchange process. This composite photocatalyst exhibits about 14 times higher photocatalytic activity of hydrogen production than that of the pure g-C3N4. Fluorescence analysis and electrochemical characterization confirmed that molybdenum sulfide and nickel sulfide as catalyst significantly enhanced the transfer of electrons on g-C3N4 and resulted in the excellent synergistic effect in photocatalytic properties. The promoted charge separation was measured by means of the EIS, photocurrent and transient fluorescence. A series of studies shown that the NixMo1-xS2 nanoparticles modified on the surface of graphitic C3N4 provided the more active sites and improved the efficiency of photo-generated charge separation with several characterizations such as SEM, XRD, XPS, element mapping, UV-vis DRS, Transient photocurrent and BET etc. and the results of which were in good agreement with each other. The composite photocatalyst g-C3N4/NixMo1-xS2 has a greater specific surface area and pore volume compared to pure g-C3N4, which is more favorable for the adsorption of dye molecules, leading to enhance the composite photocatalytic activity consequently. The excited-electron recombination process were greatly modulated with the introduce Ni-Mo-S nanoparticles on the surface of g-C3N4 and the photostability was enhanced as well. In addition, a possible reaction mechanism over eosin Y-sensitized g-C3N4/NixMo1-xS2 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation was proposed.

  16. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 3. C3 and C4 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis was made on samples of all known C3 and C4 chondrites in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. Considerable variation was noted in the occurrence of magnetic minerals, comparable to the variation observed earlier in the C2 chondrites. Magnetite was found as the only major magnetic phase in samples of only three C3 chondrites (2-4 wt.%) and the Karoonda C4 chondrite (7.7 wt.%). The magnetite content of these three C3 chondrites is only about one-third that observed in the C1 and C2 chondrites which were found to contain magnetite as the only magnetic phase. Five C3 chondrites were observed to undergo chemical change during heating, producing magnetite: this behavior is characteristic of troilite oxidation. Upper limits on initial magnetite content of about 1-9% were established for these meteorites. Samples of the remaining five C3 chondrites and the Coolidge C4 chondrite were found to contain both magnetite and metallic iron. In two samples, iron containing ???2% Ni was observed, while in the other four, the iron contained 6-8 wt.% Ni. In addition to containing both magnetite and iron metal, three of these samples reacted during heating to form additional magnetite. Variations in the magnetic mineralogy and, hence by inference bulk mineralogy, of C3 and C4 chondrites indicate a more complex genesis than is evident from whole-rock elemental abundance patterns. ?? 1976.

  17. Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) 1C3 inhibitors: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M

    2017-12-01

    AKR1C3 is a drug target in hormonal and hormonal independent malignancies and acts as a major peripheral 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield the potent androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and as a prostaglandin (PG) F synthase to produce proliferative ligands for the PG FP receptor. AKR1C3 inhibitors may have distinct advantages over existing therapeutics for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Area covered: This article reviews the patent literature on AKR1C3 inhibitors using SciFinder which identified inhibitors in the following chemical classes: N-phenylsulfonyl-indoles, N-(benzimidazoylylcarbonyl)- N-(indoylylcarbonyl)- and N-(pyridinepyrrolyl)- piperidines, N-benzimidazoles and N-benzindoles, repurposed nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (indole acetic acids, N-phenylanthranilates and aryl propionic acids), isoquinolines, and nitrogen and sulfur substituted estrenes. The article evaluates inhibitor AKR potency, specificity, efficacy in cell-based and xenograft models and clinical utility. The advantage of bifunctional compounds that either competitively inhibit AKR1C3 and block its androgen receptor (AR) coactivator function or act as AKR1C3 inhibitors and direct acting AR antagonists are discussed. Expert opinion: A large number of potent and selective inhibitors of AKR1C3 have been described however, preclinical optimization, is required before their benefit in human disease can be assessed.

  18. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Ben Maiz, Hédi

    2011-02-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits (MPGNC3) is an uncommon condition characterized by overt glomerular C3 deposits in the absence of immunoglobulins and intramembranous dense deposits. Here the authors describe the clinical and morphological features of primary MPGNC3 in a 13-year-old boy and critically review the previously published cases. The patient presented with nephrotic syndrome and microscopic hematuria. Blood tests revealed very low circulating C3 levels. The renal biopsy exhibited subendothelial, subepithelial, and mesangial deposits, with C3 but not immunoglobulins seen on immunofluorescence. This case and the review of the literature indicate that the serum complement profile with decreased levels of C3 and normal levels of classical pathway components together with glomerular deposits containing exclusively complement C3 is highly suggestive of alternative pathway activation. The diagnosis of acquired and/or genetic complement abnormalities in some cases supports that complement dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of MPGNC3. Such data show great promise to provide new therapy strategies based on modulation of the complement system activity.

  19. Phenology and productivity of C3 and C4 grasslands in Hawaii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pau

    Full Text Available Grasslands account for a large proportion of global terrestrial productivity and play a critical role in carbon and water cycling. Within grasslands, photosynthetic pathway is an important functional trait yielding different rates of productivity along environmental gradients. Recently, C3-C4 sorting along spatial environmental gradients has been reassessed by controlling for confounding traits in phylogenetically structured comparisons. C3 and C4 grasses should sort along temporal environmental gradients as well, resulting in differing phenologies and growing season lengths. Here we use 10 years of satellite data (NDVI to examine the phenology and greenness (as a proxy for productivity of C3 and C4 grass habitats, which reflect differences in both environment and plant physiology. We perform phylogenetically structured comparisons based on 3,595 digitized herbarium collections of 152 grass species across the Hawaiian Islands. Our results show that the clade identity of grasses captures differences in their habitats better than photosynthetic pathway. Growing season length (GSL and associated productivity (GSP were not significantly different when considering photosynthetic type alone, but were indeed different when considering photosynthetic type nested within clade. The relationship between GSL and GSP differed most strongly between C3 clade habitats, and not between C3-C4 habitats. Our results suggest that accounting for the interaction between phylogeny and photosynthetic pathway can help improve predictions of productivity, as commonly used C3-C4 classifications are very broad and appear to mask important diversity in grassland ecosystem functions.

  20. Serum properdin consumption as a biomarker of C5 convertase dysregulation in C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvillo, F; Bravo García-Morato, M; Nozal, P; Garrido, S; Tortajada, A; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S; López-Trascasa, M

    2016-04-01

    Properdin (P) stabilizes the alternative pathway (AP) convertases, being the only known positive regulator of the complement system. In addition, P is a pattern recognition molecule able to initiate directly the AP on non-self surfaces. Although P deficiencies have long been known to be associated with Neisseria infections and P is often found deposited at sites of AP activation and tissue injury, the potential role of P in the pathogenesis of complement dysregulation-associated disorders has not been studied extensively. Serum P levels were measured in 49 patients with histological and clinical evidence of C3 glomerulopathy (C3G). Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF), an autoantibody that stabilizes the AP C3 convertase. The presence of this autoantibody results in a significant reduction in circulating C3 (P C5 levels (P C5 (P C5 (r = 0·806, P C5 convertase dysregulation. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Uso de C3F8 no descolamento da membrana de Descemet pós-facectomia C3F8 use in Descemet detachment after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão da Rocha Lucena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O descolamento da membrana de Descemet é complicação rara, mas devastadora após facectomia. Algumas alternativas têm sido usadas para reposição da Descemet: bolha de ar, sutura com transfixação da córnea, viscoelástico associado com bolha de ar e gás SF6 ou C3F8. O transplante de córnea é o último recurso utilizado. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados anatômicos e funcionais, do descolamento iatrogênico da membrana de Descemet, com uso de C3F8 (16% na câmara anterior em seis olhos pós-facectomia. MÉTODOS: Após colocação de 0,5 ml do gás em câmara anterior avaliou-se localização justa-estromal da membrana de Descemet em lâmpada de fenda. Os olhos com deslocamento superior/central eram orientados a ficar em decúbito elevado por dois dias e no caso do deslocamento inferior solicitamos decúbito dorsal com leve supraversão. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 71,3 ± 9,3 anos, sendo quatro do sexo feminino e dois do sexo masculino. Todos os olhos tiveram sucesso com a colocação do C3F8, havendo aumento da pressão intra-ocular em um caso. O edema corneano regrediu a partir do segundo dia com resolução completa até o quarto dia. A acuidade visual melhorou em todos os casos logo após regressão do edema, sendo reavaliada quarenta e cinco dias depois. CONCLUSÃO: A introdução unicamente do gás C3F8 não expansivo para colar a membrana de Descemet é citado pela primeira vez na literatura brasileira. O restabelecimento da acuidade visual é rápida, o método é seguro, efetivo e de fácil execução, sendo realizado sob anestesia tópica.INTRODUCTION: Descemet's membrane detachment is a rare but serious complication following cataract surgery. Extensive detachments that affect the visual axis may result in poor vision and require penetrating corneal grafts. Some alternatives have been used to reattach Descemet's membrane: air bubble, transcorneal sutures and intracameral viscoelastic gel plus SF6 or C3F

  2. Elevated expression of C3G protein in the peri-infarct myocardium of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Li, Gang; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The integrin β1 subunit and its downstream molecules such as integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are indispensable to the inhibition of postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. As a component of the integrin pathway, C3G (Crk SH3-domain-binding guanine nucleotide exchange factor) protein may also participate in postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Experimental myocardial infarction (MI) and sham-operation (sham) models were set up in Sprague-Dawley rats. C3G protein expression in the myocardium in the sham group and in the non-infarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones in the MI group was examined by Western blot. The C3G protein expression in the myocardium was 0.22±0.06, n=8 in the post-sham 24-hour group; 0.29±0.10, n=8 in the post-MI 24-hour group; 0.22±0.07, n=8 in the post-sham 12-week group; and 0.56±0.14, n=8 in the post-MI 12-week group. The C3G protein expression in the myocardium in the post-MI 12-week group was significantly elevated compared to that in the post-sham 12-week group (p=0.0002), in the post-sham 24-hour group (p=0.0002), and in the post-MI 24-hour group (p=0.0006). C3G protein expression exhibits in the myocardium of rats. Furthermore, C3G protein expression is significantly elevated in the non-infarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones. The elevated C3G protein expression could participate in postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure.

  3. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  4. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  5. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  6. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  7. The C3H/HeJ mouse and DEBR rat models for alopecia areata: review of preclinical drug screening approaches and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Silva, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Kevin J.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strain and the Dundee Experimental Bald Rat (DEBR) strain spontaneously develop adult onset alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated disease directed against actively growing hair follicles. The low frequency of AA and the inability to predict the stage of AA as it evolves in the naturally occuring C3H/HeJ model of AA can be converted into a highly predictable system by grafting full thickness skin from AA affected mice to normal haired mice of the same strain. The rat DEBR model develops spontaneous AA at a higher frequency than in the mouse model but they are more expensive to use in drug studies due to their larger size. Regardless of the shortcomings of either model, these rodent models can be used succesfully to screen novel or approved drugs for efficacy to treat human AA. Since the pathogenesis of AA follows the canonical lymphocytic co-stimulatory cascade in the mouse AA model, it can be used to screen compounds potentially useful to treat a variety of cell mediated diseases. Efficacy of various agents can easily be screened by simply observing the presence, rate, and cosmetic acceptability of hair regrowth. More sophisticated assays can refine how the drugs induce hair regrowth and evaluate the underlying pathogenesis of AA. Some drugs commonly used to treat human AA patients work equally as well in both rodent models validating their usefulness as models for drug efficacy and safety for human AA. PMID:18798913

  8. Species-specific cell wall binding affinity of the S-layer proteins of mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus sphaericus C3-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hu, Xiaomin; Yan, Jianpin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2009-06-01

    The binding affinities and specificities of six truncated S-layer homology domain (SLH) polypeptides of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 with the purified cell wall sacculi have been assayed. The results indicated that the SLH polypeptide comprised of amino acids 31 to 210 was responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits to the rigid cell wall layer via a distinct type of secondary cell wall polymer and that a motif of the recombinant SLH polypeptide comprising amino acids 152 to 210 (rSLH(152-210)) was essential for the stable binding of the S-layer with the bacterial cell walls. The quantitative assays revealed that the K(D) (equilibrium dissociation constant) values of rSLH(152-210) and rSLH(31-210) with purified cell wall sacculi were 1.11 x 10(-6) M and 1.40 x 10(-6) M, respectively. The qualitative assays demonstrated that the SLH domain of strain C3-41 could bind only to the cell walls or the cells treated with 5 M guanidinium hydrochloride of both toxic and nontoxic B. sphaericus strains but not to those from other bacteria, indicating the species-specific binding of the SLH polypeptide of B. sphaericus with bacterial cell walls.

  9. "Invar"-like behavior in compressed Fe7C3 with implication for deep carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, J.; Ikuta, D.

    2014-12-01

    Iron carbide Fe7C3 has recently emerged as a leading candidate component of the inner core because it is likely the first phase to solidify from a liquid containing iron and a small amount of carbon, and previous studies suggest that it provides a good match for the density of the inner core under relevant conditions. Pressure-induced magnetic transitions have been observed in Fe7C3 (Chen et al., 2012). The pressure of the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition remains controversial and its effect on equation of state (EoS) is unclear, thus introducing uncertainties in estimating the density of Fe7C3 under inner core pressures. Here we report the lattice parameters and unit cell volume of hexagonal Fe7C3 at 300 K and up to 70 GPa, obtained through synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments used fine powder of Fe7C3 that was synthesized in the multi-anvil apparatus at the University of Michigan. The sample was embedded in neon pressure medium together with Au powder and ruby spheres as additional pressure markers. We observed significant softening at 5~8 GPa, similar to the reported "invar"-like behavior in Fe-Ni alloy (Dubrovinsky et al., 2001). For comparison, the compression curve of iron in the same loading turned out to be smooth as expected, which confirms that the abnormal behavior in Fe7C3 compression curve is due to its own property change and not an artifact. The new data allow us to establish the equation-of-state (EoS) of Fe7C3 and then estimate the density of Fe7C3 at inner core conditions. References: Chen, B., Gao, L.L., Lavina, B., Dera, P., Alp, E.E., Zhao, J.Y., Li, J., 2012. Magneto-elastic coupling in compressed Fe7C3 supports carbon in Earth's inner core. Geophys Res Lett 39. Dubrovinsky, L., Dubrovinskaia, N., Abrikosov, I.A., Vennstrom, M., Westman, F., Carlson, S., van Schilfgaarde, M., Johansson, B., 2001. Pressure-induced invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys. Phys Rev Lett 86, 4851-4854.

  10. A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic transformations and disinfection. Through reviewing the important state-of-the-art advances on this topic, it may provide new opportunities for designing and constructing highly effective g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for various applications in photocatalysis and other related fields, such as solar cell, photoelectrocatalysis, electrocatalysis, lithium battery, supercapacitor, fuel cell and separation and purification.

  11. Concomitant Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and C3 Glomerulonephritis Causing Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Davis, Jason T

    2016-02-05

    A 75-year-old male with no prior history of vasculitis or renal deficiency presented with a history of 36 hours of anterior epistaxis, one month of worsening shortness of breath, severe anemia requiring transfusion, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy with INR 4.9, and renal failure requiring hemodialysis. A peripheral blood smear revealed no evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. We performed an autoimmune workup, which revealed high levels of serum serine protease 3 antibody (C-ANCA), elevated rheumatoid factor, low serum C3, and normal levels of serum C4. We performed a renal biopsy and then performed light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on the resulting samples. This revealed that approximately half of the sampled glomeruli were globally sclerotic, consistent with severe renal disease. Among the non-sclerotic glomeruli, several demonstrated diffuse granular mesangial staining for C3, while other glomeruli had small crescents, consistent with a mixed picture of C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and crescentic glomerulonephritis. The patient responded well to treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisone, with a resolution of his acute issues, significant improvement in kidney function, and was eventually weaned from routine hemodialysis. In summary, this is a unique case of a patient presenting with features of both granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and C3GN.

  12. Complement therapeutics in inflammatory diseases: promising drug candidates for C3-targeted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  14. Imidazole modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Structural characterization and versatile energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Liu, Qianqian; Chai, Yuanyuan; Ren, Jia; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Novel imidazole modified g-C3N4 were firstly synthesized via a facile one-pot thermo-induced co-condensation method. Characterization results showed that imidazole modification can improve the visible light harvesting, interfacial charge transfer and separation of g-C3N4, without destroying its pristine framework structure. The as-obtained imidazole modified g-C3N4 showed remarkably enhanced and rather stable photocatalytic performance in H2 evolution, photo-degradation of water contaminants and selective photo-oxidation of benzyl alcohol, demonstrating its all-round applications as a versatile photocatalyst. The weight ratio between imidazole and urea was well tuned and the optimal photocatalytic activity was obtained, which shows CNU-I50 sample (50 mg imidazole in 15 g urea) possesses the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 2150 μmol g-1 h-1, superior to most of the previous reported g-C3N4 materials. These results suggest that those imidazole modified g-C3N4 materials are potential photocatalyst when applied to solar energy conversion, water purification and selective photosynthesis reactions.

  15. Enhancing C3 photosynthesis: an outlook on feasible interventions for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitender; Pandey, Prachi; James, Donald; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Kaul, Tanushri; Tripathy, Baishnab C; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-12-01

    Despite the declarations and collective measures taken to eradicate hunger at World Food Summits, food security remains one of the biggest issues that we are faced with. The current scenario could worsen due to the alarming increase in world population, further compounded by adverse climatic conditions, such as increase in atmospheric temperature, unforeseen droughts and decreasing soil moisture, which will decrease crop yield even further. Furthermore, the projected increase in yields of C3 crops as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is much less than anticipated. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase crop productivity beyond existing yield potentials to address the challenge of food security. One of the domains of plant biology that promises hope in overcoming this problem is study of C3 photosynthesis. In this review, we have examined the potential bottlenecks of C3 photosynthesis and the strategies undertaken to overcome them. The targets considered for possible intervention include RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle enzymes, CO2 and carbohydrate transport, and light reactions among many others. In addition, other areas which promise scope for improvement of C3 photosynthesis, such as mining natural genetic variations, mathematical modelling for identifying new targets, installing efficient carbon fixation and carbon concentrating mechanisms have been touched upon. Briefly, this review intends to shed light on the recent advances in enhancing C3 photosynthesis for crop improvement. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris Mutants Lacking Periplasmic Hydrogenases or the Type I Tetraheme Cytochrome c3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, M.; Ono, S.; Bosak, T.

    2012-12-01

    A large fraction of anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds relies on microbial sulfate reduction. Sulfur isotope fractionation by these microbes has been widely used to trace the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and carbon, but intracellular mechanisms behind the wide range of fractionations observed in nature and cultures are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of electron transport chain components on the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by culturing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3 (Tp1-c3). The mutants were grown both in batch and continuous cultures. All tested mutants grew on lactate or pyruvate as the sole carbon and energy sources, generating sulfide. Mutants lacking cytoplasmic and periplasmic hydrogenases exhibited similar growth physiologies and sulfur isotope fractionations to their parent strains. On the other hand, a mutant lacking Tp1-c3 (ΔcycA) fractionated the 34S/32S ratio more than the wild type, evolving H2 in the headspace and exhibiting a lower specific respiration rate. In the presence of high concentrations of pyruvate, the growth of ΔcycA relied largely on fermentation rather than sulfate reduction, even when sulfate was abundant, producing the largest sulfur isotope effect observed in this study. Differences between sulfur isotope fractionation by ΔcycA and the wild type highlight the effect of electron transfer chains on the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation. Because Tp1-c3 is known to exclusively shuttle electrons from periplasmic hydrogenases to transmembrane complexes, electron transfers in the absence of Tp1-c3 should bypass the periplasmic hydrogen cycling, and the loss of reducing equivalents in the form of H2 can impair the flow of electrons from organic acids to sulfur, increasing isotope fractionation. Larger fractionation by ΔcycA can inform interpretations of sulfur isotope data at an environmental scale as well

  17. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2009-02-26

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  18. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N content. Cu-g-C3N4/AC also affected the adsorption of hydrogen chloride and acetylene, as well as inhibited the coke deposition during acetylene hydrochlorination.

  19. In-Vivo Gene Signatures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C3HeB/FeJ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Uma Shankar; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), development of new therapeutics and vaccines against it has proven difficult. This is at least in part due to the use of less than optimal models of in-vivo Mtb infection, which has precluded a study of the physiology of the pathogen in niches where it actually persists. C3HeB/FeJ (Kramnik) mice develop human-like lesions when experimentally infected with Mtb and thus make available, a faithful and highly tractable system to study the physiology of the pathogen in-vivo. We compared the transcriptomics of Mtb and various mutants in the DosR (DevR) regulon derived from Kramnik mouse granulomas to those cultured in-vitro. We recently showed that mutant ΔdosS is attenuated in C3HeB/FeJ mice. Aerosol exposure of mice with the mutant mycobacteria resulted in a substantially different and a relatively weaker transcriptional response (Mtb:ΔdosR; ‘Lipid Metabolism’ in Mtb:ΔdosT; ‘Virulence, Detoxification, Adaptation’ in both Mtb:ΔdosR and Mtb:ΔdosT; and ‘PE/PPE’ family in all mutant strains compare to wild-type Mtb H37Rv, suggesting that the inability to induce DosR functions to different levels can modulate the interaction of the pathogen with the host. The Mtb genes expressed during growth in C3HeB/FeJ mice appear to reflect adaptation to differential nutrient utilization for survival in mouse lungs. The genes such as glnB, Rv0744c, Rv3281, sdhD/B, mce4A, dctA etc. downregulated in mutant ΔdosS indicate their requirement for bacterial growth and flow of carbon/energy source from host cells. We conclude that genes expressed in Mtb during in-vivo chronic phase of infection in Kramnik mice mainly contribute to growth, cell wall processes, lipid metabolism, and virulence. PMID:26270051

  20. Intracellular position of mitochondria in mesophyll cells differs between C3and C4grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yuto; Ueno, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    In C 3 plants, part of the CO 2 fixed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts is released from mitochondria during photorespiration by decarboxylation of glycine via glycine decarboxylase (GDC), thereby reducing photosynthetic efficiency. The apparent positioning of most mitochondria in the interior (vacuole side of chloroplasts) of mesophyll cells in C 3 grasses would increase the efficiency of refixation of CO 2 released from mitochondria by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/​oxygenase (Rubisco) in chloroplasts. Therefore, in mesophyll cells of C 4 grasses, which lack both GDC and Rubisco, the mitochondria ought not to be positioned the same way as in C 3 mesophyll cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the intracellular position of mitochondria in mesophyll cells of 14 C 4 grasses of different C 4 subtypes and subfamilies (Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, and Panicoideae) and a C 3 -C 4 intermediate grass, Steinchisma hians, under an electron microscope. In C 4 mesophyll cells, most mitochondria were positioned adjacent to the cell wall, which clearly differs from the positioning in C 3 mesophyll cells. In S. hians mesophyll cells, the positioning was similar to that in C 3 cells. These results suggest that the mitochondrial positioning in C 4 mesophyll cells reflects the absence of both GDC and Rubisco in the mesophyll cells and the high activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In contrast, the relationship between the mitochondrial positioning and enzyme distribution in S. hians is complex, but the positioning may be related to the capture of respiratory CO 2 by Rubisco. Our study provides new possible insight into the physiological role of mitochondrial positioning in photosynthetic cells.

  1. Evidence for Transaldolase Activity in the Isolated Heart Supplied with [U-13C3]Glycerol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eunsook S.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of glycerol metabolism in the heart have largely emphasized its role in triglyceride synthesis. However, glycerol may also be oxidized in the citric acid cycle, and glycogen synthesis from glycerol has been reported in the nonmammalian myocardium. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycerol may be metabolized to glycogen in mammalian heart. Isolated rat hearts were supplied with a mixture of substrates including glucose, lactate, pyruvate, octanoate, [U-13C3]glycerol, and 2H2O to probe various metabolic pathways including glycerol oxidation, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and carbon sources of stored glycogen. NMR analysis confirmed that glycogen production from the level of the citric acid cycle did not occur and that the glycerol contribution to oxidation in the citric acid cycle was negligible in the presence of alternative substrates. Quite unexpectedly, 13C from [U-13C3]glycerol appeared in glycogen in carbon positions 4–6 of glucosyl units but none in positions 1–3. The extent of [4,5,6-13C3]glucosyl unit enrichment in glycogen was enhanced by insulin but decreased by H2O2. Given that triose phosphate isomerase is generally assumed to fully equilibrate carbon tracers in the triose pool, the marked 13C asymmetry in glycogen can only be attributed to conversion of [U-13C3]glycerol to [U-13C3]dihydroxyacetone phosphate and [U-13C3]glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate followed by rearrangements in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway involving transaldolase that places this 13C-enriched 3-carbon unit only in the bottom half of hexose phosphate molecules contributing to glycogen. PMID:23235149

  2. Evidence for transaldolase activity in the isolated heart supplied with [U-13C3]glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Studies of glycerol metabolism in the heart have largely emphasized its role in triglyceride synthesis. However, glycerol may also be oxidized in the citric acid cycle, and glycogen synthesis from glycerol has been reported in the nonmammalian myocardium. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycerol may be metabolized to glycogen in mammalian heart. Isolated rat hearts were supplied with a mixture of substrates including glucose, lactate, pyruvate, octanoate, [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol, and (2)H(2)O to probe various metabolic pathways including glycerol oxidation, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and carbon sources of stored glycogen. NMR analysis confirmed that glycogen production from the level of the citric acid cycle did not occur and that the glycerol contribution to oxidation in the citric acid cycle was negligible in the presence of alternative substrates. Quite unexpectedly, (13)C from [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol appeared in glycogen in carbon positions 4-6 of glucosyl units but none in positions 1-3. The extent of [4,5,6-(13)C(3)]glucosyl unit enrichment in glycogen was enhanced by insulin but decreased by H(2)O(2). Given that triose phosphate isomerase is generally assumed to fully equilibrate carbon tracers in the triose pool, the marked (13)C asymmetry in glycogen can only be attributed to conversion of [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol to [U-(13)C(3)]dihydroxyacetone phosphate and [U-(13)C(3)]glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate followed by rearrangements in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway involving transaldolase that places this (13)C-enriched 3-carbon unit only in the bottom half of hexose phosphate molecules contributing to glycogen.

  3. Identification of C3b-Binding Small-Molecule Complement Inhibitors Using Cheminformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Brandon L; Skaff, D Andrew; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hanning, Anders; Walker, John K; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2017-05-01

    The complement system is an elegantly regulated biochemical cascade formed by the collective molecular recognition properties and proteolytic activities of more than two dozen membrane-bound or serum proteins. Complement plays diverse roles in human physiology, such as acting as a sentry against invading microorganisms, priming of the adaptive immune response, and removal of immune complexes. However, dysregulation of complement can serve as a trigger for a wide range of human diseases, which include autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. Despite several potential advantages of modulating complement with small-molecule inhibitors, small-molecule drugs are highly underrepresented in the current complement-directed therapeutics pipeline. In this study, we have employed a cheminformatics drug discovery approach based on the extensive structural and functional knowledge available for the central proteolytic fragment of the cascade, C3b. Using parallel in silico screening methodologies, we identified 45 small molecules that putatively bind C3b near ligand-guided functional hot spots. Surface plasmon resonance experiments resulted in the validation of seven dose-dependent C3b-binding compounds. Competition-based biochemical assays demonstrated the ability of several C3b-binding compounds to interfere with binding of the original C3b ligand that guided their discovery. In vitro assays of complement function identified a single complement inhibitory compound, termed cmp-5, and mechanistic studies of the cmp-5 inhibitory mode revealed it acts at the level of C5 activation. This study has led to the identification of a promising new class of C3b-binding small-molecule complement inhibitors and, to our knowledge, provides the first demonstration of cheminformatics-based, complement-directed drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for NOx removal: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    NOx liberated into atmosphere from automobile exhausts and fossil fuel combustion, comprise the major air pollutants. They are responsible for serious environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone accumulation, haze and photochemical smog. Besides they contribute to the deterioration of human health by causing decrease of the lung function and respiratory problems. The application of photocatalytic methods in order to mitigate the presence of NOx in the atmosphere is preferable as they are environmentally friendly, mild and low cost. Therefore, in this review, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and graphene based composites towards NOx removal was discussed. NOx oxidation to non volatile nitrates on the surface of graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts has attracted much interest during the last years due to their structures with unique features such as large specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability and enhanced visible light utilization. The formation of 2D-2D intimate heterojunctions between graphene or g-C3N4 and other components ensures the enhanced charge transfer, lifetime of electron/hole pairs and thus photocatalytic activity. The increased visible light harvesting also contributes to their usefulness as effective photocatalytic materials. In the present work, the advantages of these novel photocatalysts and the differences/similarities between them were exhaustively highlighted. The role of graphene as catalyst promoter, electron reservoir, support and photosensitizer in its photocatalytic composites was emphasized. The effect of g-C3N4 doping and copolymerization with metals/semiconductors on its photocatalytic activity towards NOx oxidation was thoroughly discussed. Besides, the preparation methods, photocatalytic efficiencies, type of irradiation, utilization of appropriate cocatalysts, and reaction mechanisms during the photocatalytic NOx removal by graphene and g-C3N4 composies, were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the vast

  5. Management of C2 fractures using Iso-C(3D) guidance: a single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Keric, Naureen; Giese, Alf

    2012-10-01

    About 20 % of cervical fractures involve the C2 vertebra. Many surgical techniques have been proposed according to the type of fracture. However, morbidity and mortality of these procedures is often high, which can be attributed to the old age and significant co-morbidities of the affected population and the complex anatomy of C2. To target the latter, several authors have applied iso-C(3D) guidance for most of the common techniques. We here present our experience using a fixed protocol and iso-C(3D) guidance in all cases of traumatic C2 fractures. Sixteen patients were operated upon between April 2011 and April 2012 using Iso-C(3D) guidance, following a fixed routine protocol. The screw position was verified by CT-scanning. Intraoperative and clinical parameters were evaluated. Six patients received anterior lag-screw fixation of odontoid fractures. Two underwent isolated posterior lag-screw fixation of hangman's fracture. C1 and/or C3 lateral mass, and/or C2 isthmic screws were placed in eight patients. No screw had to be revised, 3 minor breachings of the cortical bone of 3D) guided drilling could be applied for anterior and posterior procedures, leaving only two variables. This led to rapid acceptance of the technique among OR-staff and surgeons, who felt comfortable with iso-C(3D) guidance after only five cases. Iso-C(3D) guidance is a safe and straightforward technique for anterior and posterior screw placement in the upper cervical spine.

  6. Automated video analysis system reveals distinct diurnal behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamah-Biassi, E B; Stepien, I; Hudson, R L; Dubocovich, M L

    2013-04-15

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in Activity-Like Behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), Exploration-Like Behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), Ingestion-Like Behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and Resting-Like Behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal distribution analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 h magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A quantum model for bending vibrations and thermodynamic properties of C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. F.; Pearson, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to clarify the thermodynamic properties of C3 by further developing the limit to the partition function suggested by Strauss and Thiele (1967). A quantum solution for the energy levels of a quadratically perturbed square well potential is presented and the consistency of this limit with observed energy levels is established. In the process a more complete physical picture of the bending C3 molecules emerges. The values of entropy deduced from various measurements of graphite pressure are compared with this limit, and the thermodynamic properties predicted for the limiting case are evaluated.

  8. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Zhao; Mingyuan Zhu; Bin Dai

    2016-01-01

    A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N...

  9. C3 and C4 photosynthesis models: an overview from the perspective of crop modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, X; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three decades ago Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry published a biochemical model for C3 photosynthetic rates (the FvCB model). The model predicts net photosynthesis (A) as the minimum of the Rubisco-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Ac) and the electron transport-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Aj). Given its simplicity and the growing availability of the required enzyme kinetic constants, the FvCB model has been used for a wide range of studies, from analysing underlying C3 leaf bi...

  10. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  11. Surface complement C3 fragments and cellular binding of microparticles in patients with SLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes. These fea......Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes...

  12. Photocatalytic C??H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g??C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C??H activation and oxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds and phenols.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Verma, S., R.B. Nasir Baig, M. Nadagouda , and R. Varma. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 4(4): 2333-2336, (2016).

  13. Protective role of complement C3 against cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, R. S.; Marroqui, L.; Grieco, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. The complement system, a major component of the immune system, has been recently shown to also act...... in metabolic organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas. In the present study we identified complement C3 as an important hub of a cytokine-modified complement network in human islets and characterized the role of C3 in β-cell survival....

  14. Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease associated with HLA-C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeongsook

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to observe human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a large population, in order to investigate the roles of HLA in leukemogenesis. Furthermore, we examined the HLA association according to morphological, cytogenetic, immunological, and clinical classifications. We performed HLA genotyping, bone marrow studies, cytogenetic analyses, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. A clinical outcome database was constructed, and the HLA frequency, gene frequency, relative risk (RR), linkage disequilibrium, and the 2-locus and 3-locus haplotype frequency using the Mattiuz formula were calculated. For the healthy controls, Korean HLA data published by Park and co-workers were used. AML was found to be associated with HLA-C3 (RR = 1.46; p classification, acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) was associated with HLA-C3 (47.2 vs. 74.1%; RR = 3.13; p = 0.005), in cytogenetic classification, del(9), which is frequently observed in AML-M4, was also associated with HLA-C3 (47.2 vs. 100%; RR = 13.43; p = 0.024), and in clinical classification, incomplete remission was associated with HLA-C3 as well (47.2 vs. 63.2%; RR = 1.92; p = 0.002). No correlations between AML and immunological classifications were observed. Moreover, and in terms of 2-locus haplotypes, AML was found to be associated with HLA-C3/B62 (HLA-C3 gene frequency 0.3415; HLA-B62 gene frequency 0.1361; linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 6.0%; p classification, incomplete remission (linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 13.6%; p = 0.013) and relapse (linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 71.0%; p = 0.044) were associated with HLA-C3/B62, whereas no association was observed for FAB, cytogenetic and immunological classifications. No association was observed for the 3-locus haplotype. The HLA-C3 antigen and the 2-locus haplotype are associated with AML. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The bifurcation and peakons for the special C(3,2,2) equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C(3, 2, 2) equation; peakons; bell-shaped solitary waves; periodic cusp waves. PACS Nos 05.45.Yv; 02.30.Jr; 02.30.Oz. 1. Introduction. Solitons and integrable systems play important roles in nonlinear waves, dynamical sys- tems and analytical mechanics. During the past decades, increasing attention has been.

  16. Formation of Mg2C3 phase in N220 nanocarbon containing low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a non-conventional microstructurewith sequicarbide (Mg 2 C 3 ) formation in N220 nanocarboncontaining low carbon magnesia carbon composition having magnesium metal powder as antioxidant. 5 wt% graphitecontaining MgO-C refractory with and without 1 wt% N220 nanocarbon is studied and 2 ...

  17. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of ...

  18. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of.

  19. Extension of a biochemical model for the generalized stoichiometry of electron transport limited C3 photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Oijen, van M.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The widely used steady-state model of Farquhar et al. (Planta 149: 78-90, 1980) for C-3 photosynthesis was developed on the basis of linear whole-chain (non-cyclic) electron transport. In this model, calculation of the RuBP-regeneration limited CO2-assimilation rate depends on whether it is

  20. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  1. Polymorphism of serum proteins (C3, BF, HP and TF) of six populations in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J E; Sarmiento, P; Briceno, I; Papiha, S S

    1989-01-01

    Five hundred and eighty-five serum samples from six populations in Colombia (Baranoa, Choco, Uitoto Indians, Subachoque, Pasto and Urban Bogotan) were investigated for four genetic markers. For the HP, C3 and BF systems but not for TF there is a wide range of gene frequency variation and these differences are compared with those in the few previous studies.

  2. Classification of DES16C3dmp as a SLSN-I by VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Prajs, S.; D'Andrea, C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Lidman, C.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES16C3dmp as a type I super-luminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-950nm) were obtained using the X-SHOOTER instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C3AB-1IXXA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -SDCIV > --EEEEE> ATOM 1855 CA A...> A 1IXXA NWIEAESKTCLG ...> GGG EEE> ATOM 739 CA ASN A 93 37.060 20.565 6.952 1.00 ...entryIDChain>1C3AB SKTTD--NQWLS ...>E -- EEEE> ATOM 1923 CA SER B 301 12.630 48.414 -0.498

  4. Synthesis of C3-symmetric tri(alkylamino) guests and their interaction with cyclodextrins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednaříková, T.; Tošner, Z.; Horský, Jiří; Jindřich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-2 (2015), s. 141-152 ISSN 0923-0750 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclodextrin * supramolecular interactions * C3-symmetric guests Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.253, year: 2015

  5. Synthesis of 2-substituted tryptophans via a C3- to C2-alkyl migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-substituted indoles with dehydroalanine (Dha derivatives under Lewis acid-mediated conditions has been investigated. The formation of 2-substituted tryptophans is proposed to occur through a selective alkylative dearomatization–cyclization followed by C3- to C2-alkyl migration and rearomatization.

  6. C3 and C4 photosynthesis models: an overview from the perspective of crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three decades ago Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry published a biochemical model for C3 photosynthetic rates (the FvCB model). The model predicts net photosynthesis (A) as the minimum of the Rubisco-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Ac) and the electron transport-limited rate of CO2

  7. Selective oxidation of alcohols using photoactive VO@g-C3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated activity of the catalyst could be attributed to photoactive graphitic carbon nitrides surface.

  8. Formation of Mg2C3 phase in N220 nanocarbon containing low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-18

    Aug 18, 2017 ... In this report, nail-type sequicarbide (Mg2C3) appeared in magnesia carbon refractory. Besides that, with reference to the literature, crystalized graphite can be obtained from mag- nesium carbide at relatively low temprature, which reflects in our hot strength and corrosion resistance study. 2. Materials and ...

  9. Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic amines using MnO2@g-C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An efficient and direct oxidation of aromatic amines to aromatic azo-compounds has been achieved using a MnO2@g-C3N4 catalyst under visible light as a source of...

  10. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  12. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  13. C3Conflict a Simulation Environment for Studying Teamwork in Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Platon leader goes to E5. Structured Log Files SQL Database Figure 13. The log process in C3Conflict. At the conclusion of a session, the log...Diary 10:56 Platon leader goes to E5. Structured Log Files SQL Database Santa Anna IT Research Institute www.C2LearningLabs.com Behavioral indicators

  14. Serum Complement C3 and C4 Levels in Relation to Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to measure serum complement C3 and C4 concentrations in patients of lupus nephritis to see if these simple measurements would give useful information to the clinician managing such patients.Method: A total of 52 samples were obtained from SLE patients, 17 suffering from ...

  15. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective and sustainable method has beendeveloped for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues.The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C−H activation andoxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the correspondingcarbonyl compounds and phenols...

  16. C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Hughes, Timothy R.; Donev, Rossen M.; Ruseva, Marieta M.; Wu, Xiaobo; Huitinga, Inge; Baas, Frank; Neal, James W.; Morgan, B. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZER C-3 BASED ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIXES AND CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On the example of fine-grained concrete with addition of superplasticizer C-3 and constituents of its factions of different molecular weight the influence of molecular weight and dosage of additions on the mobility of concrete mixture and the hardening of concrete is studied.

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AD0C-3GJFK [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AD0C-3GJFK 1AD0 3GJF C K QTVLTQSPSSLSVSVGDRVTITCRASSS----VTYIHWY...tryChain> 3GJF K 3GJFK TGTSRDVGGY...56 SER CA 347 3GJF K 3GJFK...>3GJF K 3GJFK PVKAG--VETTK 3GJF K 3GJFK QVTHE--GNTVE

  19. Submicroscopic analysis of the genetic distrophy of visual cells in C3H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASANSKY, A; DE ROBERTIS, E

    1960-07-01

    The morphogenesis of the visual cells in the retina of DBA normal mice and in C3H mice having a genetic distrophy has been studied with the electron microscope. The stages of development previously described (3) have been confirmed. Two basal centrioles have been observed and an asymmetrical process of invagination of the surface membrane is recognized as the main source of the rod sacs in the outer segment. In the C3H mice the differentiation of the photoreceptors starts and reaches a certain stage but very early some alterations in the morphogenesis are observed. In the outer segment there appears a disorganized growth of membranous material that may invade the inner segment with disappearance of the normal connecting cilium. In the inner segment there is an increase of vesicular material and in the number of dense particles. In later stages the entire inner segment is filled with dense particles and the mitochondria degenerate. The synaptic junction with the bipolar cell, which reaches a certain degree of development, also shows early signs of degeneration. The observations reported have confirmed and extended the concept that the hereditary visual alterations of C3H mice are not the result of a primary arrested development but of a secondary alteration of the differentiating photoreceptor. In C3H mice the entire process of morphogenesis is disordered and leads to final involution and death. These findings are correlated with recent biochemical findings and are discussed with relation to the genetic mechanisms that may control normal morphogenesis.

  20. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of gC 3N4 hybridized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highly effective g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS photocatalysts were synthesized via a successive calcination andhydrothermal process. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electronmicroscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic ...

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  2. C3F gene mutation is involved in the susceptibility to pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Meddeb, Sawsen; Kaabia, Ons; Jalloul, Mohamed; Sakouhi, Mohamed; Jrzad, Besma Bel Hadj; Felah, Raja

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional polymorphism of exon 3 of the gene of complement component C3 (rs 2230199) to identify the potential involvement of the mutated gene C3F in the genesis of pre-eclampsia. It is a comparative case-control study conducted in the university center of maternity and neonatology of Monastir with collaboration of high institute of biotechnology (Tunisia) on a period of 2 years. Two hundred and fifty patients and 96 newborns divided into pre-eclampsia group (150 parturients with pre-eclampsia and 48 newborns) and control group (100 parturients with normal pregnancy and their 48 infants) are taken. Each patient and control were sampled for the phenotypic study and the molecular analysis. The ARMS-PCR (amplification refractory mutation system) was the standard procedure in our study. A simple observation let to distinguish three cases of genotypes: SS, FF and SF. In the control group, 56% of parturients had the genotype SS, 38%, the genotype SF and 6%, FF genotype. In the pre-eclamptic population, SS, SF, and FF genotypes were determined, respectively, 40, 45.30 and 14.60% of the patients. There is a sharp increase in the frequency of the FF genotype in pre-eclamptic patients compared to controls (14.60 vs. 6%). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01). The frequencies of C3S and alleles C3F determined in controls (respectively, 74 and 26%) were different from those identified in pre-eclamptic patients (respectively, 62.60 and 37.30%). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.005). The C3S and C3F allele frequencies determined in control newborns (respectively, 83.33 and 16.66%) were slightly different from those identified in newborn issued from pre-eclamptic patients (respectively, 80.2 and 19.79%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.67). The gene polymorphism of complement component C3 was significantly associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia. These results should be

  3. 3C3R modified PBL pediatric teaching of Chinese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan "why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying". All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ≥4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (pPBL teaching plan for Chinese students.

  4. TNF/S C3/D CONDUCT: A simulation model of the Army's command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, T. V.; Marx, E.

    1981-11-01

    A computer model (CONDUCT) has been developed that simulates corps and subordinate command, control, communications, and intelligence C3I functions with particular emphasis on the integration of the new generation of intelligence, surveillance, and target-acquisition systems within the developing 1982 and 1986 force structure. CONDUCT is an event-by-event simulation model written in GPSS-V (General Purpose Simulation System), representing the combat and combat support command/staff elements and communications nodes/nets for the operations and intelligence functions within a type corps. Maneuver and engineer units are represented to platoon level, artillery units to battery level, and target-acquisition and Combat Electronics Warfare Intelligence (CEWI) units to sensor team level. Major command posts and operations centers are subdivided into their primary functional areas. Also given are results from the initial 16 hr combat simulation.

  5. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-3 - Special rules for use of Government depositaries under chapter 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules for use of Government depositaries under chapter 33. 40.6302(c)-3 Section 40.6302(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-3 Special rules for use of Government...

  6. 17 CFR 240.19c-3 - Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-3 Section 240.19c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Members § 240.19c-3 Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as follows: (a) No rule, stated policy or practice of...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 - Customer protection-reserves and custody of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and custody of securities. 240.15c3-3 Section 240.15c3-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Markets § 240.15c3-3 Customer protection—reserves and custody of securities. (a) Definitions. For the...) Notwithstanding paragraph (k)(2)(i) of this section, a broker or dealer that retains custody of securities that...

  8. C 3-symmetric opioid scaffolds are pH-responsive DNA condensation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Natasha; Molphy, Zara; Coughlan, Alan; Cafolla, Attilio; McKee, Vickie; Gathergood, Nicholas; Kellett, Andrew

    2017-01-25

    Herein we report the synthesis of tripodal C 3 -symmetric opioid scaffolds as high-affinity condensation agents of duplex DNA. Condensation was achieved on both supercoiled and canonical B-DNA structures and identified by agarose electrophoresis, viscosity, turbidity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Structurally, the requirement of a tris-opioid scaffold for condensation is demonstrated as both di- (C 2 -symmetric) and mono-substituted (C 1 -symmetric) mesitylene-linked opioid derivatives poorly coordinate dsDNA. Condensation, observed by toroidal and globule AFM aggregation, arises from surface-binding ionic interactions between protonated, cationic, tertiary amine groups on the opioid skeleton and the phosphate nucleic acid backbone. Indeed, by converting the 6-hydroxyl group of C 3 -morphine ( MC3: ) to methoxy substituents in C 3 -heterocodeine ( HC3: ) and C 3 -oripavine ( OC3: ) molecules, dsDNA compaction is retained thus negating the possibility of phosphate-hydroxyl surface-binding. Tripodal opioid condensation was identified as pH dependent and strongly influenced by ionic strength with further evidence of cationic amine-phosphate backbone coordination arising from thermal melting analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy, with compaction also witnessed on synthetic dsDNA co-polymers poly[d(A-T) 2 ] and poly[d(G-C) 2 ]. On-chip microfluidic analysis of DNA condensed by C 3 -agents provided concentration-dependent protection (inhibition) to site-selective excision by type II restriction enzymes: BamHI, HindIII, SalI and EcoRI, but not to the endonuclease DNase I. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Initial events during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in C3 species of Flaveria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Tammy L; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Friesen, Patrick C; Stinson, Corey R; Stata, Matt; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Rahman, Beshar A; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Sage, Rowan F

    2013-11-01

    The evolution of C4 photosynthesis in many taxa involves the establishment of a two-celled photorespiratory CO2 pump, termed C2 photosynthesis. How C3 species evolved C2 metabolism is critical to understanding the initial phases of C4 plant evolution. To evaluate early events in C4 evolution, we compared leaf anatomy, ultrastructure, and gas-exchange responses of closely related C3 and C2 species of Flaveria, a model genus for C4 evolution. We hypothesized that Flaveria pringlei and Flaveria robusta, two C3 species that are most closely related to the C2 Flaveria species, would show rudimentary characteristics of C2 physiology. Compared with less-related C3 species, bundle sheath (BS) cells of F. pringlei and F. robusta had more mitochondria and chloroplasts, larger mitochondria, and proportionally more of these organelles located along the inner cell periphery. These patterns were similar, although generally less in magnitude, than those observed in the C2 species Flaveria angustifolia and Flaveria sonorensis. In F. pringlei and F. robusta, the CO2 compensation point of photosynthesis was slightly lower than in the less-related C3 species, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. This could occur because of enhanced refixation of photorespired CO2 by the centripetally positioned organelles in the BS cells. If the phylogenetic positions of F. pringlei and F. robusta reflect ancestral states, these results support a hypothesis that increased numbers of centripetally located organelles initiated a metabolic scavenging of photorespired CO2 within the BS. This could have facilitated the formation of a glycine shuttle between mesophyll and BS cells that characterizes C2 photosynthesis.

  10. Mesophyll Chloroplast Investment in C3, C4 and C2 Species of the Genus Flaveria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Hoffmann, Natalie; Covshoff, Sarah; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Sage, Rowan F

    2016-05-01

    The mesophyll (M) cells of C4 plants contain fewer chloroplasts than observed in related C3 plants; however, it is uncertain where along the evolutionary transition from C3 to C4 that the reduction in M chloroplast number occurs. Using 18 species in the genus Flaveria, which contains C3, C4 and a range of C3-C4 intermediate species, we examined changes in chloroplast number and size per M cell, and positioning of chloroplasts relative to the M cell periphery. Chloroplast number and coverage of the M cell periphery declined in proportion to increasing strength of C4 metabolism in Flaveria, while chloroplast size increased with increasing C4 cycle strength. These changes increase cytosolic exposure to the cell periphery which could enhance diffusion of inorganic carbon to phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a cytosolic enzyme. Analysis of the transcriptome from juvenile leaves of nine Flaveria species showed that the transcript abundance of four genes involved in plastid biogenesis-FtsZ1, FtsZ2, DRP5B and PARC6-was negatively correlated with variation in C4 cycle strength and positively correlated with M chloroplast number per planar cell area. Chloroplast size was negatively correlated with abundance of FtsZ1, FtsZ2 and PARC6 transcripts. These results indicate that natural selection targeted the proteins of the contractile ring assembly to effect the reduction in chloroplast numbers in the M cells of C4 Flaveria species. If so, efforts to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 plants might evaluate whether inducing transcriptome changes similar to those observed in Flaveria could reduce M chloroplast numbers, and thus introduce a trait that appears essential for efficient C4 function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Complement C3 Is the Strongest Predictor of Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ursini

    Full Text Available To evaluate the correlation between inflammatory measures and whole-body insulin sensitivity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA patients.For the present study, 40 nondiabetic PsA patients were recruited. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI, insulinogenic index (IGI and oral disposition index (ODI were calculated from dynamic values of glucose and insulin obtained during OGTT.In our study population, mean ISI was 3.5 ± 2.5, median IGI was 1.2 (0.7-1.8, mean ODI 4.5 ± 4.5. In univariate correlation analysis, ISI correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure (sBP (R = -0.52, p = 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (dBP (R = -0.45, p = 0.004 and complement C3 (R = -0.43, p = 0.006 and ODI correlated inversely with sBP (R = -0.38, p = 0.02, dBP (R = -0.35, p = 0.03 and complement C3 (R = -0.37, p = 0.02. No significant correlations were found between analyzed variables and IGI. In a stepwise multiple regression, only complement C3 entered in the regression equation and accounted for approximately 50% of the variance of ISI. Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve we identified the best cut-off for complement C3 of 1.32 g/L that yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 96% for classification of insulin resistant patients.In conclusion, our data suggest that serum complement C3 could represent a useful marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity in PsA patients.

  12. Conformational states of a bacterial α2-macroglobulin resemble those of human complement C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Neves

    Full Text Available α(2 macroglobulins (α(2Ms are broad-spectrum protease inhibitors that play essential roles in the innate immune system of eukaryotic species. These large, multi-domain proteins are characterized by a broad-spectrum bait region and an internal thioester, which, upon cleavage, becomes covalently associated to the target protease, allowing its entrapment by a large conformational modification. Notably, α(2Ms are part of a larger protein superfamily that includes proteins of the complement system, such as C3, a multi-domain macromolecule which is also characterized by an internal thioester-carrying domain and whose activation represents the pivotal step in the complement cascade. Recently, α(2M/C3-like genes were identified in a large number of bacterial genomes, and the Escherichia coli α(2M homolog (ECAM was shown to be activated by proteases. In this work, we have structurally characterized ECAM by electron microscopy and small angle scattering (SAXS techniques. ECAM is an elongated, flexible molecule with overall similarities to C3 in its inactive form; activation by methylamine, chymotrypsin, or elastase induces a conformational modification reminiscent of the one undergone by the transformation of C3 into its active form, C3b. In addition, the proposed C-terminus of ECAM displays high flexibility and different conformations, and could be the recognition site for partner macromolecules. This work sheds light on a potential bacterial defense mechanism that mimics structural rearrangements essential for activation of the complement cascade in eukaryotes, and represents a possible novel target for the development of antibacterials.

  13. [Expression and clinical significance of AHSG and complement C3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiong; Wu, Wen; Chen, Longjiang; Ma, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Hangcheng; Yang, Renbao; Hu, Liwei

    2014-07-22

    To analyze serum proteins from pancreatic carcinoma patients, pancreatic benign tumor patients, chronic pancreatitis patients and normal controls to discover potential and specific biomarkers. Serum samples were collected from 40 pancreatic carcinoma patients, 10 pancreatic benign tumor patients, 10 chronic pancreatitis patients and 40 cancer-free controls from May 2009 to April 2011. The samples were compared with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and differentially expressed proteins were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Then, two up-regulated proteins were further validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from transcriptional and proteinic aspects. We identified 12 differently expressed proteins in pancreatic carcinoma group compared with normal control group, including complement component C3, hemopexin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein H, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein E, transthyretin, serum amyloid P-component, vitronectin, prothrombin and isoform 2 of Ig mu chain C region. High level of C3 and AHSG were detected in cancerous tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemisty. Western blot revealed that gray ratios of C3 and AHSG were 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.26 ± 0.02 respectively. The Immunohistochemical results showed that positive rate of C3 and AHSG were 72.5% and 82.5% in cancerous group versus 32.5% and 25% respectively in normal control. C3 and AHSG may become pancreatic carcinoma-related biomarkers.

  14. Evaluation of Enzymatic Deinking of Non-impact Ink Laser-Printed Paper Using Crude Enzyme from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Tong, Woei Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah; Arai, Takamitsu; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    Application of microbial enzymes for paper deinking is getting tremendous attention due to the rapidly increasing of waste paper every year. This study reports the deinking efficiency of laser-printed paper by the lignocellulolytic enzyme from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL strain compared to other enzyme sources as well as commercial available enzymes. High enzymatic deinking efficiency of approximately 82 % on laser-printed paper was obtained by pulp treatment with crude enzyme from P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL. However, this crude enzyme was found to reduce the paper strength properties of the pulp based on the results of tensile, tear and burst indices, most probably due to the cellulose degradation. This was further proven by the low viscosity of paper pulp obtained after enzymatic treatment and increasing of sugar production during the treatment. Balancing to this detrimental effect on paper pulp, high deinking efficiency was achieved within a short period of time, in which the enzymatic treatment was conducted for 30 min that enabled contribution to higher brightness index obtained, thus promoting savings of time and energy consumption, therefore environmental sustainability. Extensive research should be conducted to understand the nature and mechanism of enzymatic deinking process by the crude enzyme from P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL in order to improve paper strength properties.

  15. Analysis of Complement C3 Gene Reveals Susceptibility to Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inkeri Lokki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a common vascular disease of pregnancy with genetic predisposition. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3. Three cohorts of Finnish patients and controls were recruited for a genetic case-control study. Participants were genotyped using Sequenom genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Initially, we studied 259 Finnish patients with severe PE and 426 controls from the Southern Finland PE and the Finnish population-based PE cohorts. We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. Fourteen SNPs from C3 were also genotyped by a Sequenom panel in 960 patients with severe PE and 705 controls, including already sequenced individuals. Three of the 43 SNPs observed within C3 were associated with severe PE: rs2287845 (p = 0.038, OR = 1.158, rs366510 (p = 0.039, OR = 1.158, and rs2287848 (p = 0.041, OR = 1.155. We also discovered 16 SNP haplotypes with extreme linkage disequilibrium in the middle of the gene with a protective (p = 0.044, OR = 0.628 or a predisposing (p = 0.011, OR = 2.110 effect to severe PE depending on the allele combination. Genetic variants associated with PE are located in key domains of C3 and could thereby influence the function of C3. This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women.

  16. Molecular beam studies of the photolysis of allene and the secondary photodissociation of the C3Hx fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. M.; Anex, Deon S.; Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1991-11-01

    Angle resolved time of flight (TOF) measurements of the fragments produced when allene is photolyzed at 193 nm are described. The two primary processes that have been identified from these measurements are the H+C3H3 and the H2+C3H2 channels. The quantum yields for these first steps are 0.89 and 0.11, respectively. Subsequent photolysis of the C3H3 radical produces H2+C3H, C3H2+H, and C2H2+CH, while the C3H2 produces C3+H2, C2H+CH, and C2H2+C. The translational energy distributions for each one of these steps have been derived using the forward convolution technique. These energy distributions reveal the exit barriers and other constraints on the potential energy surfaces that lead to the above stated products.

  17. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  18. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains.

  19. C3-Luc Cells Are an Excellent Model for Evaluation of Cellular Immunity following HPV16L1 Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Li

    Full Text Available C3 and TC-1 are the two model cell lines most commonly used in studies of vaccines and drugs against human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Because C3 cells contain both the HPV16 E and L genes, but TC-1 cells contain only the HPV16 E genes, C3 cells are usually used as the model cell line in studies targeting the HPV16 L protein. However, expression of the L1 protein is difficult to detect in C3 cells using common methods. In our study, Short tandem repeat analysis (STR was used to demonstrate that C3 cells are indeed derived from mice, PCR results show that HPV16 L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected in C3 genomic DNA, and RT-PCR results demonstrated that L1 transcription had occurred in C3 cells. However, the expression of C3 protein was not found in the results of western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Growth and proliferation of C3 were inhibited by mice spleen lymphocytes that had been immunized with a vaccine against HPV16L1. The luciferase gene was integrated into C3 cells, and it was confirmed that addition of the exogenous gene had no effect on C3 cells by comparing cell growth and tumor formation with untransformed cells. Cells stably expressing luciferase (C3-luc were screened and subcutaneously injected into the mice. Tumors became established and were observed using a Spectrum Pre-clinical in Vivo Imaging System. Tumor size of mice in the different groups at various time points was calculated by counting photons. The sensitivity of the animals to the vaccine was quantified by statistical comparison. Ten or 30 days following injection of the C3-luc cells, tumor size differed significantly between the PBS and vaccine groups, indicating that C3 cells were susceptible to vaccination even after tumors were formed in vivo.

  20. Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir, E-mail: wsol@faf.cuni.cz

    2014-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2′-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. - Highlights: • Metabolism of anthracyclines by AKR1C3 was studied at enzyme and cellular levels. • Anthracycline resistance mediated by AKR1C3 was demonstrated in cancer cells. • Induction of AKR1C3

  1. Demographic aspects in cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape (C3-C7): a skeletal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, David; Masharawi, Youssef; Salame, Khalil; Slon, Viviane; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the skeletal remains of individuals of known sex, age, and ethnic origin. The vertebral bodies of levels C3-C7 were measured and analyzed. Whereas many studies were performed on the size and shape of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spines, few have focused on the cervical vertebral bodies. Thus, there is insufficient data in the literature on the anatomy of the cervical spine, especially based on large study populations. To establish a large database on cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape and analyze their association with demographic parameters. The population studied was composed of 277 individuals, adult males and females of African American (AA) and European American (EA) origin. The skeletal remains are housed at the Hamman-Todd Osteological collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH). A 3-D digitizer was used to measure the size and shape of the C3-C7 vertebral bodies. Descriptive statistics were carried out for all measurements. t Test and one-way analysis of variance were performed to assess differences in vertebral bodies' size and shape between different demographical groups (by age, sex, and ethnicity). The vertebral bodies and foramina are significantly wider, more elongated, and higher in males compared to females. AA females and males manifest significantly greater vertebral bodies (width and length) in the upper and midcervical region (vertebrae C3-C5) than EA females and males. Nevertheless, the heights of the C3 and C4 vertebral bodies are significantly smaller among the AA population, regardless of sex. The vertebral foramina's width does not differ significantly between the two ethnic groups, independent of sex, whereas they tend to be elongated in the EA group (significant for C3, C5, C7). For most vertebrae, no significant differences were found in the superior facets' length between AA and EA males and females. Cervical vertebral bodies become wider and more

  2. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; et al.

    2017-02-24

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C$_3$F$_8$ located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than 1 event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg-day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-41}$ cm$^2$ for a 30-GeV$\\thinspace$c$^{-2}$ WIMP, more than one order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  3. Recommended protocol for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Hayashi, Kumiko; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Muramatsu, Dai; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Tanaka, Noriho; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

    2012-04-11

    The present protocol has been developed for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay (CTA), following the prevalidation study coordinated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and reported in this issue (Tanaka et al. [16]). Based upon the experience gained from this effort and as suggested by the Validation Management Team (VMT), some acceptance and assessment criteria have been refined compared to those used during the prevalidation study. The present protocol thus describes cell culture maintenance, the dose-range finding (DRF) experiment and the transformation assay, including cytotoxicity and morphological transformation evaluation. Use of this protocol and of the associated photo catalogue included in this issue (Sasaki et al. [17]) is recommended for the future conduct of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, David M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, Madhusmita; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, Francoise; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafreniere, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, Pitam; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the rst observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with signicant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  5. NPOESS C3S Expandability: SafetyNetTM and McMurdo Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Paciaroni, J.; Pela, F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather & environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Dod's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The command & telemetry portion of NPOESS is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding & state-of-health monitoring of the NPP & NPOESS satellites, and delivery of Stored Mission Data (SMD) to each US Weather Central Interface Data Processor (IDP) for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health and status & data communications with external systems and between NPOESS segments. Two crucial elements of NPOESS C3S expandability are SafetyNetTM and communications improvements to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. SafetyNetTM is a key feature of NPOESS and a vital element of the C3S and Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems patented data collection architecture. The centerpiece of SafetyNetTM is the system of

  6. NPOESS C3S Expandability: SafetyNet(TM) and McMurdo Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The command and telemetry portion of NPOESS is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of Stored Mission Data (SMD) to each U.S. Weather Central Interface Data Processor (IDP) for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health and status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. Two crucial elements of NPOESS C3S expandability are SafetyNet(TM) and communications improvements to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. ‘SafetyNet(TM)’ is a key feature of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), vital element of the C3S

  7. C3H2 : A wide-band-gap semiconductor with strong optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Cuamba, Armindo S.; Geng, Lei; Hao, Lei; Qi, Yu-Min; Ting, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict a new type of partially hydrogenated graphene system, C3H2 , which turns out to be a semiconductor with a band gap of 3.56 eV. The bands are rather flat at the band edges and thus lead to a large density of states, which further results in strong optical absorption between the valence band and the conduction band. Particularly, it shows strong optical absorption at about 4.5 eV for the light polarized along the lines connecting the nearest unhydrogenated carbon atoms. Thus, the predicted C3H2 system may have potential applications for a polarizer as well as other high-efficiency optical devices in the near ultraviolet region.

  8. Increase in hypotonic stress-induced endocytic activity in macrophages via ClC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yutao; Ding, Yu; Ming, Bingxia; Du, Wenjiao; Kong, Xiaoling; Tian, Li; Zheng, Fang; Fang, Min; Tan, Zheng; Gong, Feili

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular hypotonic stress can affect cellular function. Whether and how hypotonicity affects immune cell function remains to be elucidated. Macrophages are immune cells that play key roles in adaptive and innate in immune reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of hypotonic stress in the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Hypotonic stress increased endocytic activity in BMDMs, but there was no significant change in the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHC class II molecules, nor in the secretion of TNF-α or IL-10 by BMDMs. Furthermore, the enhanced endocytic activity of BMDMs triggered by hypotonic stress was significantly inhibited by chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) siRNA. Our findings suggest that hypotonic stress can induce endocytosis in BMDMs and that ClC-3 plays a central role in the endocytic process.

  9. Hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 photocathode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinzhou; Zhang, Jingtao; Wang, Biao; Li, Qiuguo; Chu, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production is a promising way for solving energy and environment problems. Earth-abundant Cu2O is a potential light absorber for PEC hydrogen production. In this article, hierarchical porous Cu2O foams are prepared by thermal oxidation of the electrochemically deposited Cu foams. PEC performances of the Cu2O foams are systematically studied and discussed. Benefiting from their higher light harvesting and more efficient charge separation, the Cu2O foams demonstrate significantly enhanced photocurrents and photostability compared to their film counterparts. Moreover, by integrating g-C3N4, hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 composites are prepared with further improved photocurrent and photostability, appearing to be potential photocathodes for solar PEC hydrogen production. This study may provide a new and useful insight for the development of Cu2O-based photocathodes for PEC hydrogen production.

  10. beta-Scission of C-3 (beta-carbon) alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, H A; Mortimer, A; Easton, C J

    2000-01-01

    radicals, confirming that this is a major process. Methanal causes cell toxicity and DNA damage and is an animal carcinogen and a genotoxic agent in human cells. Thus, the formation and subsequent reaction of alkoxyl radicals formed at the C-3 position on aliphatic amino acid side chains on peptides...... and proteins can give rise to both backbone fragmentation and the release of further reactive species which can cause cell toxicity and mutagenicity....

  11. Optimal timing for type C3 thoracic fractures with posterior surgical approach: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiping; Zhao, Qinpeng; He, Baorong; Liu, Jijun; Hao, Dingjun; Guo, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Type C3 thoracic fracture is a severe spinal injury, but one that is clinically rare, and there are few reports pertaining to the treatment of this type of fracture. No consensus has been achieved on the proper timing of spine fracture fixation; therefore, we focused on evaluating the surgical effects using a posterior approach and determining the influence of surgical timing on surgical outcomes. This was a retrospective cohort study of 36 cases of type C3 thoracic fracture in patients admitted to the hospital from April 2005 to October 2012, and who were divided into two groups according to the timing of surgery: early fixation (72 h). Surgical outcomes were analyzed based on surgery duration, intraoperative blood loss, intensive care unit and hospital stay, mortality rate, and complications. There were 13 patients in the early fixation group and 23 patients in the late fixation group. Patients were treated with posterior decompression, intervertebral titanium mesh support, pedicle screw fixation, and fusion. All fractures involved a single segment: T7/T8 (8 patients), T9/T10 (11 patients), and T11/T12 (17 patients). All injuries were classified as American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade A. Patients underwent periodic follow-up over a period of 12-30 months (average, 22.5 months). One patient developed ascending myelitis and died of respiratory failure 1 month after early fixation, and two patients died of pulmonary infection after late fixation procedures. Other patients achieved bone fusion without improvement in ASIA grade. No statistically significant difference in parameters was observed between groups. Though type C3 thoracic fracture is one of the most severe spinal injuries, complete reduction and recovery of spinal stability can be achieved using a posterior approach. As clinical outcomes in this study were similar between early and late fixation procedures, early surgical intervention may not be helpful for improving neurologic recovery in type

  12. High temperature properties of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besterci, M.; Slesar, M.; Miskovicova, M.; Pelikan, K.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important properties of dispersion strengthened materials is their strength stability at high temperatures. The strength and plasticity of the material Al + 5 vol. pct Al4C3, tested in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C, are analyzed. On the basis of the experiments the functions for the temperature dependence of the strength and plasticity are described, the deformation process is evaluated, and the fracture mechanisms are quantified. 17 references.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Value of Information on Situational Awareness using C3TRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for...RESPONSIBLE PERSON John T Richardson a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code...simulation and human performance model known as Command, Control, and Communications – Techniques for Reliable Assessment of Concept Execution (C3TRACE

  14. C-3 Substituted Lawsonemonoximates of Holmium(III): Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Jagtap; S G Joshi; Litake, G. M.; Ghole, V. S.; Kulkarni, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    A series of five new metal complexes of Ho(III) with C-3 substituted derivatives of lawsonemonexime (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenediene-1-oxime) were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by melting point, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The antimicrobial activity of the compounds were determined by disk diffusion method and broth micro-dilution techniques using Mueller Hinton medium against the following organisms: S. aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumon...

  15. Structural insight into the recognition of complement C3 activation products by integrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is the major effector of innate immunity. It is the body’s first defense against pathogens recognizing and tagging them for subsequent elimination. Complement is a germline-encoded system of more than 50 circulating and membrane-bound proteins that recognize molecular patterns...... associated with microbes and apoptotic or necrotic cells. Complement not only protects against pathogens but also maintains body homeostasis. Activation of complement leads to cleavage of the complement proteins C4, C3 and C5, and their fragments have effector functions through binding to pathogen surfaces...... and their clearance by dendritic cells is mediated by αMβ2. The central molecule in my project, αMβ2 integrin, recognizes many diverse ligands including iC3b, but the molecular basis for such recognition was lacking. During my PhD I have obtained a major breakthrough in the dissection of iC3b interaction with αMβ2. I...

  16. Dark Matter Limits From a 2L C3F8 Filled Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alan Edward [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search forWeakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I lled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I lled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target uids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6+0:3

  17. Expert systems for C3I. Volume 1. A user's introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, J. A.; Hockett, S. M.; Prelle, M. J.; Tallant, A. M.; Triant, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    There has been a tremendous burgeoning of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) over the last few years. Investments of commercial and government sponsors reflect a widespread belief that AI is now ready for practical applications. The area of AI currently receiving the greatest attention and investment is expert system technology. Most major high tech corporations have begun to develop expert systems, and many software houses specializing in expert system tools and applications have recently appeared. The defense community is one of the heaviest investors in expert system technology, and within this community one of the application areas receiving greatest attention is C3I. Many ESD programs are now beginning to ask whether expert system applications for C3I are ready for incorporation into ESD-developed systems, and, if so, what are the potential benefits and risks of doing so. This report was prepared to help ESD and MITRE personnel working on acquisition programs to address these issues and to gain a better understanding of what expert systems are all about. The primary intention of this report is to investigate what expert systems are and the advances that are being made in expert system technology for C3I applications. The report begins with a brief tutorial on expert systems, emphasizing how they differ from conventional software systems and what they are best at doing.

  18. C3 Hydrocarbon Abundance in Titan's Atmosphere with Cassini Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Nicholas; Nixon, Conor; Achterberg, Richard; Jolly, Antoine; Sung, Keeyoon; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    Titan, the largest moon of the Saturn system, has an astrobiologically important atmosphere. The anoxic nature and high N2 abundance make it a strong analog to the early Earth. The secondary species, CH4, is easily photodissociated, and reactions between its dissociated products give rise to highly complex hydrocarbons and nitriles. The Voyager flyby and 14 year Cassini campaign allowed for the intense study of several of these molecules, enabling scientists to increase our understanding of the chemical pathways present above Titan. In this work, we report abundance profiles of four major C3 gasses expected to occur in Titan’s atmosphere, derived from Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data, allowing us to fill the gaps in the photochemical zoo that is Titan’s atmosphere.Using the NEMESIS iterative radiative transfer module, we retrieved vertical abundance profiles for propane (C3H8) and propyne (CHCCH3) both initially detected by the Voyager IRIS instrument. Using newly available line data, we were also able to determine the first vertical abundance profiles for propene (C3H6), initially detected in 2013. We present profiles for several latitudes and times and compare to photochemical model predictions and previous observations. We also discuss our ongoing search for allene (CH2CCH2), an isomer of propyne, which has yet to be definitively detected. The abundances we determined will help to further our understanding of the chemical pathways that occur in Titan's atmosphere.

  19. The Gore Excluder AAA endoprosthesis with C3 delivery system: results in high-volume centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcer, Z

    2014-02-01

    The use of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has increased dramatically, chiefly because of its low perioperative morbidity compared with open surgery. Challenges to the success of EVAR remain, however, with the most important being features of the patient's infrarenal aortic neck anatomy that make optimal placement of the endoprosthesis difficult. These features include a short, wide, severely angulated, or reverse-tapered neck and the presence of calcifications or thrombus. Suboptimal endograft positioning may necessitate use of aortic cuffs, thereby increasing the time and cost of an EVAR procedure, or increase the likelihood of graft migration, which can lead to endoleaks and additional interventions. Efforts to improve outcomes of EVAR and expand its application in patients with challenging aortic neck anatomy have focused on the development of endografts and delivery systems with innovative designs. The low-permeability Gore Excluder AAA endoprosthesis with C3 delivery system, which became available in Europe and the United States in 2010, represents one such design. The C3 system allows the proximal end of the endoprosthesis to be reconstrained after insertion so that the device can, if necessary, be rotated or moved cranially or caudally. Repositioning may facilitate contralateral gate cannulation and placement of the endograft closer to the lowest renal artery (without covering its orifice), thereby possibly decreasing the risk of inadequate sealing and consequent graft migration and endoleaks. Early clinical studies of the Gore Excluder AAA endoprosthesis with C3 delivery system have yielded promising results.

  20. Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and flow cytometry (FCM. The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxide dismutase (POD and catalase (CAT enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3.

  1. STM-electroluminescence from clustered C3N4 nanodomains synthesized via green chemistry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E P; Costa, B B A; Chaves, C R; de Paula, A M; Cury, L A; Malachias, A; Safar, G A M

    2018-01-01

    A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on clustered C3N4 nanoparticles (nanoflakes) is conducted on green-chemistry synthesized samples obtained from chitosan through high power sonication. Morphological aspects and the electronic characteristics are investigated. The observed bandgap of the nanoflakes reveals the presence of different phases in the material. Combining STM morphology, STS spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results one finds that the most abundant phase is graphitic C3N4. A high density of defects is inferred from the XRD measurements. Additionally, STM-electroluminescence (STMEL) is detected in C3N4 nanoflakes deposited on a gold substrate. The tunneling current creates photons that are three times more energetic than the tunneling electrons of the STM sample. We ponder about the two most probable models to explain the observed photon emission energy: either a nonlinear optical phenomenon or a localized state emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 2nd international workshop on graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Since 2009 graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts have attracted a lot of attention in scientific and engineering communities because of their applications in photocatalysis. Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysis was the main theme of the 2nd International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP2) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on March 24-27, 2017. The IWGCP2 workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University and Kent State University, and was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University, Beijing Perfectlight, ThermoFisher, LumaSense Technologies, Anhui Kemi, Zhenjiang Silver Jewelry, Instytut Fotonowy (Poland) and others. More than 240 colleagues from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, and presented 6 plenary lectures, 12 keynote lectures, 14 invited lectures, 5 oral lectures and 113 posters. A tradition of this meeting is the poster competition, which resulted in selecting 10 best posters.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry, sources and sinks of carbon suboxide, C3O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keßel, Stephan; Cabrera-Perez, David; Horowitz, Abraham; Veres, Patrick R.; Sander, Rolf; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Tucceri, Maria; Crowley, John N.; Pozzer, Andrea; Stönner, Christof; Vereecken, Luc; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Carbon suboxide, O = C = C = C = O, has been detected in ambient air samples and has the potential to be a noxious pollutant and oxidant precursor; however, its lifetime and fate in the atmosphere are largely unknown. In this work, we collect an extensive set of studies on the atmospheric chemistry of C3O2. Rate coefficients for the reactions of C3O2 with OH radicals and ozone were determined as kOH = (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K (independent of pressure between ˜ 25 and 1000 mbar) and kO3 Henry's law solubility and hydrolysis rate constant) were also investigated, enabling its photodissociation lifetime and hydrolysis rates, respectively, to be assessed. The role of C3O2 in the atmosphere was examined using in situ measurements, an analysis of the atmospheric sources and sinks and simulation with the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. The results indicate sub-pptv levels at the Earth's surface, up to about 10 pptv in regions with relatively strong sources, e.g. influenced by biomass burning, and a mean lifetime of ˜ 3.2 days. These predictions carry considerable uncertainty, as more measurement data are needed to determine ambient concentrations and constrain the source strengths.

  4. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  5. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  6. Combination of neurofilament heavy chain and complement c3 as CSF biomarkers for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Jeban; An, Jiyan; Shaw, Christopher E; Shaw, Gerry; Lacomis, David; Bowser, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease with an average survival of 3 years from symptom onset. Rapid and conclusive early diagnosis is essential if interventions with disease-modifying therapies are to be successful. Cytoskeletal modification and inflammation are known to occur during the pathogenesis of ALS. We measured levels of cytoskeletal proteins and inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS, disease controls and healthy subjects. We determined threshold values for each protein that provided the optimal sensitivity and specificity for ALS within a training set, as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Interestingly, the optimal assay was a ratio of the levels for phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain and complement C3 (pNFH/C3). We next applied this assay to a separate test set of CSF samples to verify our results. Overall, the predictive pNFH/C3 ratio identified ALS with 87.3% sensitivity and 94.6% specificity in a total of 71 ALS subjects, 52 disease control subjects and 40 healthy subjects. In addition, the level of CSF pNFH correlated with survival of ALS patients. We also detected increased pNFH in the plasma of ALS patients and observed a correlation between CSF and plasma pNFH levels within the same subjects. These findings support large-scale prospective biomarker studies to determine the clinical utility of diagnostic and prognostic signatures in ALS. PMID:21418221

  7. Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis of adenocarcinoma mammae in C3H mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaningsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a strategy for developing cancer therapy. In vitro study found that andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata has anticancer activity by an apoptotic mechanism in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to prove the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract administered orally on apoptosis of mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice. METHODS This study was of post test randomized control group design. Twenty four C3H mice with transplanted mammary adenocarcinomas were divided into four groups. To three groups Andrographis paniculata extract was administered orally for 14 days, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/day, respectively, whereas to the control group no Andrographis paniculata extract was administered. On day 15 the mice were terminated. The mammary adenocarcinomas were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. The values of the apoptotic index were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using Anova and Pearson’s correlation test. RESULTS The mean apoptotic index values differed significantly among the experimental groups (p=0.001. The highest value was found in the group receiving Andrographis paniculata extract 15 mg/day, while the lowest was in the control group, the values being significantly correlated (r=0.974. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis in C3H mice with mammary adenocarcinoma

  8. IgE Reactivity of Recombinant Pac c 3 from the Asian Needle Ant (Pachycondyla chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Son, Mina; Lyu, Dongpyo; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Stings from the Asian needle ant are an important cause of anaphylaxis in East Asia. A 23-kDa protein homologous to antigen 5 is the major allergen produced by these ants. In this study, we aimed to produce a recombinant antigen 5 allergen, Pac c 3. Recombinant Pac c 3 allergen from the Asian needle ant was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni affinity chromatography. IgE reactivity was demonstrated by ELISA and immunoblotting. The recombinant protein was recognized in 5 of 6 (83.3%) serum samples from patients with demonstrated anaphylaxis to ants. IgE reactivity to an antigen 5 allergen from Asian needle ant venom sac extract was specifically inhibited by the recombinant protein. It was also able to inhibit IgE binding to the vespid allergen Ves v 5 by ImmunoCAP analysis, indicating the presence of cross-reactivity. A recombinant Pac c 3, cross-reactive with Ves v 5, from the Asian needle ant was successfully produced in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. This protein could be useful for the development of component-resolved diagnostics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Competing carboxylases: circadian and metabolic regulation of Rubisco in C3 and CAM Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B N; Griffiths, H

    2012-07-01

    The temporal co-ordination of ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activities by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. in C(3) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) modes was investigated under conventional light-dark (LD) and continuous light (LL) conditions. When C(3) , net CO(2) assimilation rate increased during each subjective night under LL with maximum carboxylation unrelated to Rubisco activation state. The CAM circadian rhythm of CO(2) uptake was more pronounced, with CO(2) assimilation rate maximal towards the end of each subjective night. In vivo and in vitro techniques were integrated to map carboxylase enzyme regulation to the framework provided by CAM LL gas exchange activity. Rubisco was activated in vitro throughout each subjective dark period and consistently deactivated at each subjective dawn, similar to that observed at true dawn in constitutive CAM species. Instantaneous carbon isotope discrimination showed in vivo carboxylase co-dominance during the CAM subjective night, initially by Rubisco and latterly C(4) (PEPc), despite both enzymes seemingly activated in vitro. The circadian rhythm in titratable acidity accumulation was progressively damped over successive subjective nights, but maintenance of PEPc carboxylation capacity ensures that CAM plants do not become progressively more 'C(3) -like' with time under LL. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Interaction of rigid C3N- with He: Potential energy surface, bound states, and rotational spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Moreno, Miguel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    A two-dimensional rigid rotor model of the potential energy surface is developed for the collision of C3N- with He. Ab initio calculations are performed at the coupled cluster level with single and double excitations and using a perturbative treatment of triple excitations. An augmented correlation consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set complemented with a set of mid-bond functions is chosen for these calculations. The global T-shaped minimum (De = 62.114 cm-1) is found at the intermolecular distance R = 6.42 a0. A secondary minimum (De = 41.384 cm-1) is obtained for the linear configuration C3N--He and for R = 9.83 a0. Calculations of the rovibrational bound states are carried out by using a discrete variable representation method based on Sturmian functions. The first theoretical prediction of the absorption spectra for the He-C3N- complex in the microwave region is also provided.

  11. Glyphosate Resistance of C3 and C4 Weeds under Rising Atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nimesha; Manalil, Sudheesh; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Seneweera, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reviews current knowledge on how changes of plant metabolism under elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can affect the development of the glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds. Among the chemical herbicides, glyphosate, which is a non-selective and post-emergence herbicide, is currently the most widely used herbicide in global agriculture. As a consequence, glyphosate resistant weeds, particularly in major field crops, are a widespread problem and are becoming a significant challenge to future global food production. Of particular interest here it is known that the biochemical processes involved in photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants are different, which may have relevance to their competitive development under changing environmental conditions. It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO2] can be different, based on (i) the plant's functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. In this respect, C3 species are likely to have a major developmental advantage under a CO2 rich atmosphere, by being able to capitalize on the overall stimulatory effect of e[CO2]. For example, many tropical weed grass species fix CO2 from the atmosphere via the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is a complex anatomical and biochemical variant of the C3 pathway. Thus, based on our current knowledge of CO2 fixing, it would appear obvious that the development of a glyphosate-resistant mechanism would be easier under an e[CO2] in C3 weeds which have a simpler photosynthetic pathway, than for C4 weeds. However, notwithstanding this logical argument, a better understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular measures by which plants develop glyphosate resistance and how e[CO2] affects these measures will be important before attempting to innovate sustainable technology to manage the glyphosate-resistant evolution of weeds under e[CO2]. Such information will be of

  12. Fourier Transform Absorption Spectroscopy of C_3 in the ν_3 Antisymmetric Stretch Mode Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Pirali, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The C_3 molecule has been detected in a variety of astrophysical objects thanks to the well-known 4050 Å (A^1Π_u-X^1Σ ^+ _g) electronic transition as well as the two IR active modes of the electronic ground state: ν_2 (˜ 63.42 cm^{-1}) and ν_3 (˜ 2040.02 cm^{-1}). Previous laboratory data in the ν_3 region, obtained using diode laser spectroscopy and the photolysis of allene to produce C_3, permitted measurement of the fundamental (0,0,1)Σ-(0,0,0)Σ as well as the hot bands: (0,1,1)Π-(0,1,0)Π; (0,2,1)Σ-(0,2,0)Σ; (0,2,1)Δ-(0,2,0)Δ and provided insights on the anharmonicity of the (0,nν_2,1) vibrational pattern. We have recorded the absorption spectrum of C_3 in the 1800-2100 cm^{-1} region (at a resolution of 0.003 cm^{-1}) using the Bruker IFS 125 Fourier Transform spectrometer at the AILES beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL. C_3 was produced in a DC discharge of methane heavily diluted in helium. The rovibrational temperature of C_3 produced in our discharge is noticeably higher than in Ref. [4], which allowed us to extend measurements to higher J values. More interestingly, we assigned new hot bands involving higher quanta of the ν_2 bending states: (0,nν_2,1) with n ranging from 0 to 5. Despite the absence of Q branches for these bands, which results in a possible ambiguous J-assignment of P and R lines, the large variety of data considered in this work, in addition to our experimental data and including observations of comet spectra, allows confident assignments. L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerqvist, B. Rosen, Astrophysical Journal, 45-81 (1965); T. F. Giesen et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 551, L181-L184 (2001) K. W. Hinkle, J. J. Keady, P. F. Bernath, Science, 241, 1319-1322 (1988) K. Kawaguchi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 91, 1953-1957 (1989)

  13. The attachment of serum- and plasma-derived C3 to solid-phase immune aggregates and its relation to complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E; Jensenius, J C

    1986-01-01

    plasma at 37 degrees C. The binding of C3 components was investigated with biotinylated F(ab')2 antibodies to C3c and C3d and avidin-coupled alkaline phosphatase. The form of the incorporated C3, whether C3b-iC3b or C3dg, can be deduced from the response with these two antibodies. The maximal binding...

  14. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  15. [Trypanosoma cruzi: induction of changes in the peripheral nervous system in different strains of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, O P; Cardoni, R L; Celentano, A M; Rimoldi, M T; Sica, R E; González Cappa, S M

    1991-01-01

    This study has been designed to find an easy method to evaluate the motor unit alterations induced during experimental T. cruzi infections. Different mouse strains infected with three strains of T. cruzi were used to perform conventional needle electromyography, in one of the lower limb hamstring muscles; amplitude, duration and number of phases of single motor unit potentials were measured. The following parasite strain to mouse strain relationship was investigated, in mice inoculated intraperitoneally with bloodstream forms of T. cruzi: Tulahuen and C3H/HeN, C57Bl, Balb/c, Swiss; CA-I and C3H/HeN, Rockland, NIH; RA and C3H/HeN, Rockland. T. cruzi-induced denervating alterations were found in both C3H/HeN and C57Bl mice infected with the Tulahuen strain, as well as in C3H/HeN mice inoculated with the CA-I strain. Moreover, CA-I trypomastigotes could produce primary muscle changes in C3H/HeN and NIH mice. The technique employed in this investigation proved to be an easy and adequate way to detect changes within the motor unit during T. cruzi infection in mice.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic performances of ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets obtained by gaseous stripping with wet nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chengkong; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Guangqing; Lv, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jiaqin; Qin, Yongqiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a promising heterogeneous photocatalyst for organics pollutants degradation and water splitting. Herein, we highlight an available pathway to prepare the ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets by gaseous stripping of bulk g-C3N4 in wet nitrogen. As comparison, g-C3N4 treated in air and nitrogen atmospheres are also prepared. The obtained products are characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. Well dispersed g-C3N4 nanosheets can be obtained by this gaseous stripping process in wet nitrogen, which possess much higher specific surface area (211.2 m2 g-1) than that of bulk g-C3N4 (15.3 m2 g-1). Both RhB degradation and water splitting are applied to characterize the photocatalytic performances of the ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets. The g-C3N4 (w-N2) nanosheets can degrade 20 mg/L RhB completely within 12 min under visible light illumination, which is 5.32 times faster than that of bulk g-C3N4. Also, the g-C3N4 (w-N2) nanosheets possess the highest photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of 1113.48 μmol h-1 g-1 under visible light illumination, which is 6 times that of bulk g-C3N4. The mechanisms of enhancing the photocatalytic performance are discussed to be the higher oxidation ability of VB and higher specific surface area (211.2 m2/g) of the ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets.

  17. JPSS CGS C3S McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C.; Urbano, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) developed by NASA, will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES system and ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical data. The command & data distribution part of the JPSS Common Ground System (CGS) is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S manages the overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring timely delivery of high-quality data to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Key to C3S' data delivery system are 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon Company which will collect up to 5 times the environmental data about 4 times faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. Then these data will be rapidly forwarded to weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing/production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Station, Antarctica is a major receptor site due to its high latitude. With the NSF, C3S completed the upgrade & expansion of their existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link with 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound and 20 Mbps inbound to missions using McMurdo. C3S completed the 1st big milestone in 2008 increasjng bandwidth of 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps both ways. Raytheon's C3S also upgraded network infrastructure at McMurdo Station & Belrose Earth Station, Australia SATCOM sites. This provides routing support for several missions, plus expansion capabilities to support future missions at McMurdo. The upgrade completed in Dec 2010 to prepare for use of McMurdo Station to support new downlink capabilities, called the

  18. C 3, A Command-line Catalog Cross-match Tool for Large Astrophysical Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Mercurio, Amata; di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Molinari, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Modern Astrophysics is based on multi-wavelength data organized into large and heterogeneous catalogs. Hence, the need for efficient, reliable and scalable catalog cross-matching methods plays a crucial role in the era of the petabyte scale. Furthermore, multi-band data have often very different angular resolution, requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features, mainly in terms of region shape and resolution. In this work we present C 3 (Command-line Catalog Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogs. It is based on a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and conceived to be executed as a stand-alone command-line process or integrated within any generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, providing the maximum flexibility to the end-user, in terms of portability, parameter configuration, catalog formats, angular resolution, region shapes, coordinate units and cross-matching types. Using real data, extracted from public surveys, we discuss the cross-matching capabilities and computing time efficiency also through a direct comparison with some publicly available tools, chosen among the most used within the community, and representative of different interface paradigms. We verified that the C 3 tool has excellent capabilities to perform an efficient and reliable cross-matching between large data sets. Although the elliptical cross-match and the parametric handling of angular orientation and offset are known concepts in the astrophysical context, their availability in the presented command-line tool makes C 3 competitive in the context of public astronomical tools.

  19. Acylation stimulating protein, complement C3 and lipid metabolism in ketosis-prone diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPDM is new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis without precipitating factors in non-type 1 diabetic patients; after management, some are withdrawn from exogenous insulin, although determining factors remain unclear.Twenty KPDM patients and twelve type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM, evaluated at baseline, 12 and 24 months with/without insulin maintenance underwent a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT for 2 h.At baseline, triglyceride and C3 were higher during MMTT in KPDM vs. T1DM (p<0.0001 with no differences in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA while Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP tended to be higher. Within 12 months, 11 KPDM were withdrawn from insulin treatment (KPDM-ins, while 9 were maintained (KPDM+ins. NEFA was lower in KPDM-ins vs. KPDM+ins at baseline (p = 0.0006, 12 months (p<0.0001 and 24 months (p<0.0001 during MMTT. NEFA in KPDM-ins decreased over 30-120 minutes (p<0.05, but not in KPDM+ins. Overall, C3 was higher in KPDM-ins vs KPDM+ins at 12 months (p = 0.0081 and 24 months (p = 0.0019, while ASP was lower at baseline (p = 0.0024 and 12 months (p = 0.0281, with a decrease in ASP/C3 ratio.Notwithstanding greater adiposity in KPDM-ins, greater NEFA decreases and lower ASP levels during MMTT suggest better insulin and ASP sensitivity in these patients.

  20. [Treatment of type C3 distal femoral fractures with double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Jian; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhao, Zhan-Fu; Wang, Gang; Qin, Cong-Cong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy and feasibility of double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach in treating type C3 distal femoral fractures. From August 2008 to August 2011, 12 cases with type C3 distal femoral fractures were treated, including 5 open fractures and 7 closed fractures. Among them, there were 8 males, 4 females with an average of 40 years (ranged, 25 to 55 years). There were 7 in left side, 5 in right side. Nine cases were caused by car accident, 3 cases by falling down. The duration from injury to hospital was form 20 minutes to 5 days (mean 135 min). After tibia bone traction for 5 to 8 days, the operation were performed by double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach, and autograft of iliac bone or allograft bone grafting were given to bone defect. Knee joint function was evaluated according to Merchanetal criteria. The operation time was from 110 to 160 min, with an average of 135 min, the blood loss was from 300 ml to 500 ml,with an average of 400 ml. Post-operative wound were stage I healing. All patients were followed up from 16 to 36 months (mean 24 months). No infection, reduction loss, nonunion, deep vein thrombosis occurred. Bone healing time was for 18 to 24 weeks with an average of 21 weeks. According to the Merchanetal criteria, 4 cases got excellent results, 6 good, 1 fair and 1 poor. Double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach for type C3 distal femoral fractures is an effective way, which has advantages of obvious exposure, simple manipulation, anatomical reduction, stable fixation. However,operation indications and operating instructions should be strictly followed.

  1. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in LNCaP Cells Diverts Androgen Metabolism towards Testosterone Resulting in Resistance to the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, Michael C.; Mindnich, Rebekka; Duan, Ling; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) is the major enzyme in the prostate that reduces 4-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ4-Adione) to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand testosterone. AKR1C3 is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that develops after androgen deprivation therapy. PCa and CRPC often depend on intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and upregulation of AKR1C3 could contribute to intracellular synthesis of AR ligands and stimulation of proliferation through AR signalling. To test this hypothesis, we developed an LNCaP prostate cancer cell line overexpressing AKR1C3 (LNCaP-AKR1C3) and compared its metabolic and proliferative responses to Δ4-Adione treatment with that of the parental, AKR1C3 negative LNCaP cells. In LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells, metabolism proceeded via 5α-reduction to form 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and then (epi)androsterone-3-glucuronide. LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells made significantly higher amounts of testosterone-17β-glucuronide. When 5α-reductase was inhibited by finasteride, the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was further elevated in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. When AKR1C3 activity was inhibited with indomethacin the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was significantly decreased. Δ4-Adione treatment stimulated cell proliferation in both cell lines. Finasteride inhibited LNCaP cell proliferation, consistent with 5α-androstane-3,17-dione acting as the major metabolite that stimulates growth by binding to the mutated AR. However, LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells were resistant to the growth inhibitory properties of finasteride, consistent with the diversion of Δ4-Adione metabolism from 5α-reduced androgens to increased formation of testosterone. Indomethacin did not result in differences in Δ4-Adione induced proliferation since this treatment led to the same metabolic profile in LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. We conclude that AKR1C3 overexpression diverts androgen metabolism to testosterone

  2. Overexpression of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in LNCaP cells diverts androgen metabolism towards testosterone resulting in resistance to the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, Michael C; Mindnich, Rebekka; Duan, Ling; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-05-01

    Type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) is the major enzyme in the prostate that reduces 4-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ(4)-Adione) to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand testosterone. AKR1C3 is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that develops after androgen deprivation therapy. PCa and CRPC often depend on intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and upregulation of AKR1C3 could contribute to intracellular synthesis of AR ligands and stimulation of proliferation through AR signaling. To test this hypothesis, we developed an LNCaP prostate cancer cell line overexpressing AKR1C3 (LNCaP-AKR1C3) and compared its metabolic and proliferative responses to Δ(4)-Adione treatment with that of the parental, AKR1C3 negative LNCaP cells. In LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells, metabolism proceeded via 5α-reduction to form 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and then (epi)androsterone-3-glucuronide. LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells made significantly higher amounts of testosterone-17β-glucuronide. When 5α-reductase was inhibited by finasteride, the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was further elevated in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. When AKR1C3 activity was inhibited with indomethacin the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was significantly decreased. Δ(4)-Adione treatment stimulated cell proliferation in both cell lines. Finasteride inhibited LNCaP cell proliferation, consistent with 5α-androstane-3,17-dione acting as the major metabolite that stimulates growth by binding to the mutated AR. However, LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells were resistant to the growth inhibitory properties of finasteride, consistent with the diversion of Δ(4)-Adione metabolism from 5α-reduced androgens to increased formation of testosterone. Indomethacin did not result in differences in Δ(4)-Adione induced proliferation since this treatment led to the same metabolic profile in LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. We conclude that AKR1C3 overexpression diverts androgen metabolism to

  3. The Crystal Structure of Cobra Venom Factor, a Cofactor for C3- and C5-Convertase CVFBb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V.L.; (Madras); (UAB)

    2009-05-26

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian serum, CVF binds factor B, which is then cleaved by factor D, giving rise to the CVFBb complex that targets the same scissile bond in C3 as the authentic complement convertases C4bC2a and C3bBb. Unlike the latter, CVFBb is a stable complex and an efficient C5 convertase. We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The CVF crystal structure, an intermediate between C3b and C3c, lacks the TED domain and has the CUB domain in an identical position to that seen in C3b. The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B.

  4. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  5. Complement factors C4 and C3 are down regulated in response to short term overfeeding in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmar, Caroline; Brøns, Charlotte; Pilely, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    -days HFO by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp. Circulating C4, C3, ficolins, mannose-binding-lectin, complement activation products C3bc, terminal complement complex (TCC) and complement activation capacity were determined using turbidimetry and ELISA. HFO induced peripheral insulin resistance in LBW...... individuals only, while both groups had the same degree of hepatic insulin resistance after HFO. Viewing all individuals circulating levels of C4, C3, C3bc, TCC and complement activation capacity decreased paradoxically along the development of insulin resistance after HFO (P = 0.0015, P

  6. One-Pot Synthesis and Transmembrane Chloride Transport Properties of C3-Symmetric Benzoxazine Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arundhati; Saha, Debasis; Mukherjee, Arnab; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2016-11-18

    One-pot synthesis of a C 3 -symmetric benzoxazine-based tris-urea compound is discussed. 1 H NMR titrations indicate a stronger Cl - binding compared that of Br - and I - by the receptor. Effective Cl - transport across liposomal membranes via a Cl - /X - antiport mechanism is confirmed. Theoretical calculation suggests that a few water molecules with N-H, C═O, and the aromatic ring of the receptor create a H-bonded polar cavity where a Cl - is recognized by O-H···Cl - interactions from five bridged water molecules.

  7. General form of intramolecular nuclear spin isomers mixing in C3v -symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    2017-10-01

    Molecules with identical nuclei exist in nature in the form of nuclear spin isomers. In general, spin isomers are not the eigenstates of total molecular Hamiltonian. It also contains parts able to transform spin isomers one into another. Recently, nuclear spin isomers relaxation induced by such a quantum mixing was successfully demonstrated in experiment. That motivates the search for general intramolecular interactions able to mix spin isomers. In the work, the general forms of the possible mixing interactions are found for C3v-type of molecules using generalized Jordan-Schwinger approach to the theory of quantum angular momentum.

  8. BeC3: a Crowd-Centric Composition Testbed for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Movahedi, Zahra; Cherrier, Sylvain; Ghamri-Doudane, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; —With the emergence of IoT devices, such as smart-phones, temperature and light devices, etc., the ways of creating IoT applications has changed. IoT applications are often created and managed by a set of central points (orchestration) for different users. However, users may desire to create and manage their own applications based on their own logic in a decentralized way (choreography). Hence, in this paper, we demonstrate BeC3, a tool for creating and deploying Crowd...

  9. Modelling Workload on the Bison C3I Command Post: Phase 1 - Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    MODELLING WORKLOAD ON THE BISON C3I COMMAND POST: PHASE I - TASK ANALYSIS     Project  Manager :  Kris Huber  Array Systems Computing...rencontrer l’équipage d’un Bison de type MCP qui venait de revenir d’un déploiement en Afghanistan. L’équipage a fourni des renseignements de valeur ...12 4.1.2.1 “Workspace Design Handbook for Standardized Command Posts” – US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

  10. Total En Bloc Spondylectomy of C3: A New Surgical Technique and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulík, J; Barna, M; Vyskočil, T; Nesnídal, P; Kryl, J; Klézl, Z

    2015-01-01

    Radical resection of a vertebra is reserved only for specific tumors that invade the surrounding tissues and recur when not removed completely. The vertebra may be removed using a piecemeal technique or en bloc, using only two (in thoracolumbar spine) or more osteotomies (in cervical spine). We present our technique of en bloc resection of subaxial cervical vertebra for Ewing's sarcoma of C3, with preservation of all nerve roots and both vertebral arteries. To our knowledge, this surgical technique has not been reported in the English literature. The aim of this study is to describe the new technique of radical resection of subaxial cervical vertebra. A transoral biopsy of tumor tissue anterior to C2-C3 was performed in 8-year old boy, revealing a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was started on neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After 6 chemotherapy cycles with the VIDE regimen, the soft-tissue component completely regressed, with the only a residual deposit in C3 vertebral body. Based on further multidisciplinary meeting, an en bloc spondylectomy of C3 was recommended, preferably with preservation of nerve roots and vertebral arteries. In August 2014, prior to the planned surgery, we performed another thorough examination of the patient using plain films, CT and MRI. Neither angiography nor embolization was performed. DESCRIPTION OF SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The first stage of the operation consisted of resection of the posterior structures. We exposed the posterior elements of C2 to C4 by the mid-line incision. The C3 arch was without pathological changes. After partial resection of the C2 inferior and C4 superior articular processes we performed bilateral osteotomy in the region of the pedicle adjacent to the arch with a chisel and removed the whole of the C3 posterior arch. Subsequently we perforated the transverse foramina close to the pedicle, using fine Kerrison rongeurs. The lateral parts around vertebral arteries were left in situ. In the next step we used

  11. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  12. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  13. Zn(C 3H 3N 2) 2: a novel diamagnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świaţek-Tran, B.; Kołodziej, H. A.; Tran, V. H.

    2004-03-01

    We have prepared polycrystalline samples of Zn(C 3H 3N 2) 2 by a liquid-mix technique. Characterization of the obtained samples has been performed with the aid of elemental, thermogravimetric, infrared spectra and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. We have measured electric permittivity ( ɛ', ɛ″), ac-conductivity ( σac), magnetic susceptibility ( χ) and specific heat ( Cp). The obtained data indicate that this material is a new diamagnetic insulator. A maximum around 4.5 K is found in CpT-3, and it is suggested that in addition to the Debye lattice contribution, there exists a low-frequency mode assigned as an Einstein mode contribution to the total specific heat. As a main result of the study, we found ɛ' to be constant in a wide temperature range and to have a small value of 2.3 at room temperature. This feature in combination with other properties like crystallization, good thermal stability (up to 400°C), weak moisture sensitivity and simple synthesis makes Zn(C 3H 3N 2) 2 to be a promising candidate for good insulating material in various applications.

  14. Non-carcinogenicity of capsaicinoids in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, A; Sano, N; Uehara, H; Minami, T; Otsuka, H; Izumi, K

    1998-12-01

    The carcinogenicity of a mixture of capsaicinoids (64.5% capsaicin and 32.6% dihydrocapsaicin) was examined in B6C3F1 mice. In a 13-week toxicity study, renal toxicity was observed in 1% capsaicinoid-treated males. Next, groups of 50 mice of each sex were given 0, 0.025, 0.083 or 0.25% capsaicinoids in powdered diet for 79 weeks and killed in week 83. Food intake was reduced in mice of all capsaicinoid-treated groups, especially females, because of the pungency of capsaicinoids, and inhibition of body weight gain was apparent in females. The numbers of tumour-bearing females in the high-dose groups were significantly lower than that in the controls, and the incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms in both sexes were negatively correlated with the dose of capsaicinoids (Cochran-Armitage trend test). Renal cell adenomas developed in one mouse each of 0.025 and 0.25% capsaicinoid-treated males. The incidences of other tumours were similar in the treated and control groups. Thus, the present study indicated that a mixture of capsaicinoids is not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice.

  15. Postoperative Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Complement C3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Matsukuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS can be distinguished from typical or Shiga-like toxin-induced HUS. The clinical outcome is unfavorable; up to 50% of affected patients progress to end-stage renal failure and 25% die during the acute phase. Multiple conditions have been associated with aHUS, including infections, drugs, autoimmune conditions, transplantation, pregnancy, and metabolic conditions. aHUS in the nontransplant postsurgical period, however, is rare. An 8-month-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia developed 25 days later, and aHUS was diagnosed. Further evaluation revealed that his complement factor H (CFH level was normal and that anti-FH antibodies were not detected in his plasma. Sequencing of his CFH, complement factor I, membrane cofactor protein, complement factor B, and thrombomodulin genes was normal. His ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin-1 repeats 13 activity was also normal. However, he had a potentially causative mutation (R425C in complement component C3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that his father and aunt also had this mutation; however, they had no symptoms of aHUS. We herein report a case of aHUS that developed after cardiovascular surgery and was caused by a complement C3 mutation.

  16. Osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy at the C2-C3 articular facet joint in 11 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Penderis, J; Gonçalves, R

    2015-11-21

    In dogs, vertebral canal stenosis at C2-C3 due to articular facet joint degeneration is only sporadically identified. The authors' aims were to review the clinical presentation, MRI characteristics, treatment and outcome of dogs presenting with this condition. Eleven cases were eligible for inclusion. Neurological examination revealed tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia in all 4 limbs in 3/11, proprioceptive tetra-ataxia only in 4/11, pelvic limb proprioceptive ataxia in 2/11 and no gait abnormalities in 2/11 dogs. Cervical hyperaesthesia was present in 7/11 dogs. MRI revealed bilateral articular facet joint degeneration in 10/11 cases and unilateral degeneration in one. Surgery was performed in six cases and medical management elected in five. Long-term follow-up information was available for 11 animals. Four of the surgical cases are alive and have no neurological deficits, one was euthanased for an unrelated condition and one lost to follow-up. Of the cases managed medically, three are alive showing no neurological deficits, one is alive still displaying neurological deficits and one euthanased for an unrelated condition whilst still ataxic. This study shows that both medical and surgical management can result in good outcomes in dogs with vertebral canal stenosis resulting from articular facet joint degeneration at the level of C2-C3. British Veterinary Association.

  17. The C3PO project: a laser communication system concept for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Humières, Benoît; Esmiller, Bruno; Gouy, Yann; Steck, Emilie; Quintana, Crisanto; Faulkner, Graham; O'Brien, Dominic; Sproll, Fabian; Wagner, Paul; Hampf, Daniel; Riede, Wolfgang; Salter, Michael; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Jakonis, Darius; Piao, Xiaoyu; Karlsson, Mikael; Oberg, Olof; Petermann, Ingemar; Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Krezel, Jerzy; Debowska, Anna; Thueux, Yoann

    2017-02-01

    The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

  18. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-07-01

    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The superfamily of C3b/C4b-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P; Ogata, R T

    1987-01-01

    The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commencing...... at the amino-terminal end of each molecule. Two other complement components, C1r and C1s, have two of these repeating units in the carboxy-terminal region of their noncatalytic A chains. Three noncomplement proteins, beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I), the interleukin 2 receptor (IL 2 receptor), and the b chain...... of factor XIII, have 4, 2 and 10 of these repeating units, respectively. These proteins obviously belong to the above family, although there is no evidence that they interact with C3b and/or C4b. Human haptoglobin and rat leukocyte common antigen also contain two and three repeating units, respectively...

  20. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO -60 C 3F8 Bubble Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Arnquist, I. J.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Campion, P.; Cao, G.; Chen, C. J.; Chowdhury, U.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Crowder, G.; Dahl, C. E.; Das, M.; Fallows, S.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Girard, F.; Giroux, G.; Hall, J.; Harris, O.; Hoppe, E. W.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Leblanc, A.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mamedov, F.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, P.; Nania, T.; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Olson, S.; Ortega, A.; Plante, A.; Podviyanuk, R.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Roeder, A.; Rucinski, R.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, A.; Starinski, N.; Štekl, I.; Tardif, F.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Yan, Y.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.; PICO Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C3 F8 located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO -60 C 3F8 exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 ×10-41 cm2 for a 30 -GeV c-2 WIMP, more than 1 order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  1. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} Bubble Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ardid, M; Arnquist, I J; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Campion, P; Cao, G; Chen, C J; Chowdhury, U; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Crowder, G; Dahl, C E; Das, M; Fallows, S; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hall, J; Harris, O; Hoppe, E W; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Leblanc, A; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mamedov, F; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Nania, T; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Olson, S; Ortega, A; Plante, A; Podviyanuk, R; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Roeder, A; Rucinski, R; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Tardif, F; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Yan, Y; Zacek, V; Zhang, J

    2017-06-23

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C_{3}F_{8} located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4×10^{-41}  cm^{2} for a 30-GeV c^{-2} WIMP, more than 1 order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  2. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ardid, M; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Daley, S; Das, M; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Fines-Neuschild, M; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hai, M; Hall, J; Harris, O; Jackson, C M; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mann, E; Martin, J P; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviianiuk, R B; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Ruschman, M; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V; Zhang, J

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  3. Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Tracy; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Reis, Edimara S.; Echeverri Ruiz, Nancy P.; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Tzekou, Apostolia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Lambris, John D.; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the initiation signals for tissue regeneration in vertebrates is one of the major challenges in regenerative biology. Much of the research thus far has indicated that certain growth factors have key roles. Here we show that complement fragment C3a is sufficient to induce complete regeneration of the embryonic chick retina from stem/progenitor cells present in the eye, independent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Instead, C3a induces retina regeneration via STAT3 activation, which in turn activates the injury- and inflammation-responsive factors, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This activation sets forth regulation of Wnt2b, Six3 and Sox2, genes associated with retina stem and progenitor cells. Thus, our results establish a mechanism for retina regeneration based on injury and inflammation signals. Furthermore, our results indicate a unique function for complement anaphylatoxins that implicate these molecules in the induction and complete regeneration of the retina, opening new avenues of experimentation in the field. PMID:23942241

  4. Functional Analyses of Complement Convertases Using C3 and C5-Depleted Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okroj, Marcin; Holmquist, Emelie; King, Ben C.; Blom, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    C3 and C5 convertases are central stages of the complement cascade since they converge the different initiation pathways, augment complement activation by an amplification loop and lead to a common terminal pathway resulting in the formation of the membrane attack complex. Several complement inhibitors attenuate convertase formation and/or accelerate dissociation of convertase complexes. Functional assays used to study these processes are often performed using purified complement components, from which enzymatic complexes are reconstituted on the surface of erythrocytes or artificial matrices. This strategy enables identification of individual interactions between convertase components and putative regulators but carries an inherent risk of detecting non-physiological interactions that would not occur in a milieu of whole serum. Here we describe a novel, alternative method based on C3 or C5-depleted sera, which support activation of the complement cascade up to the desired stages of convertases. This approach allows fast and simple assessment of the influence of putative regulators on convertase formation and stability. As an example of practical utility of the assay, we performed studies on thioredoxin-1 in order to clarify the mechanism of its influence on complement convertases. PMID:23071769

  5. Functional analyses of complement convertases using C3 and C5-depleted sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Okroj

    Full Text Available C3 and C5 convertases are central stages of the complement cascade since they converge the different initiation pathways, augment complement activation by an amplification loop and lead to a common terminal pathway resulting in the formation of the membrane attack complex. Several complement inhibitors attenuate convertase formation and/or accelerate dissociation of convertase complexes. Functional assays used to study these processes are often performed using purified complement components, from which enzymatic complexes are reconstituted on the surface of erythrocytes or artificial matrices. This strategy enables identification of individual interactions between convertase components and putative regulators but carries an inherent risk of detecting non-physiological interactions that would not occur in a milieu of whole serum. Here we describe a novel, alternative method based on C3 or C5-depleted sera, which support activation of the complement cascade up to the desired stages of convertases. This approach allows fast and simple assessment of the influence of putative regulators on convertase formation and stability. As an example of practical utility of the assay, we performed studies on thioredoxin-1 in order to clarify the mechanism of its influence on complement convertases.

  6. Limitation of C3-CAM shift in the common ice plant under high irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronska, K; Romanowska, E; Miszalski, Z; Niewiadomska, E

    2013-01-15

    In the halophytic plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum salinity or drought can change the mode of photosynthesis from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). These two stress factors are linked to oxidative stress, however, the induction of CAM by oxidative stress per se is not straightforward. Treatment with high light (HL) did not lead to the induction of CAM, as documented by a low night/day difference in malate level and a low expression of the CAM-related form of phosphoenolcarboxylase (Ppc1), despite causing some oxidative damage (elevated MDA level, malondialdehyde). In contrast to the action of high salinity (0.4M NaCl), HL treatment did not activate neither the cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme nor the chloroplastic form of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH). In plastids of HL-treated plants a huge amount of starch was accumulated. This was associated with a weak stimulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic starch-degrading enzymes, in contrast to their strong up-regulation under high salinity. It is concluded that HL alone is not able to activate starch degradation necessary for CAM performance. Moreover, in the absence of salinity in C(3)M. crystallinum plants an age-dependent increase in energy dissipation from PSII was documented under high irradiance, as illustrated by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Obtained data suggest that in this halophytic species several photoprotective strategies are strictly salinity-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Carbide Ceramic Zone on Wear Resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe Surface Gradient Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangxia; Xu, Yunhua; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Lai, Yujun; Wang, Chong; Wang, Xin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we report on the influence of microstructure and mechanical properties of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 ceramic zone on wear resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite fabricated by in situ synthesis method followed by a post-heat treatment at 1100 °C for 20 h in argon atmosphere. The phase composition, microstructure, nanoindentation hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and relative wear resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation tester, and wear resistance testing instrument, respectively. The XRD results showed that (Fe,Cr)7C3 is the predominant crystalline phases in the fabricated composite. The volume fraction of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates formed has a gradient distribution from the surface to the iron matrix, and the microstructure also changes significantly. The (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone with the volume fraction of about 100% and the (Fe,Cr)7C3 dense ceramic zone with the volume fraction of about 90% were synthesized on the upper surface of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite, respectively. The average nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone of the composite were determined to be 12.711 and 256.054 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone is in the range of 2.06-4.19 MPa m1/2, and its relative wear resistance is about 56 times higher than that of the iron matrix. The (Fe,Cr)7C3 dense ceramic zone with rod-like, secondary (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates was formed at the bottom of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone. Rod-like, secondary (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates are dense and grew in the direction of the iron substrate, providing higher wear resistance to the composite. The wear mechanisms of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk and dense ceramic zones are considered to be microcutting, microcracking, and spalling pit.

  8. Hybrid proteins of Cobra Venom Factor and cobra C3: tools to identify functionally important regions in Cobra Venom Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Brian E; Wehrhahn, Daniel; Fritzinger, David C; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm

    2012-09-15

    Cobra Venom Factor (CVF) is the complement-activating protein in cobra venom. CVF is structurally and functionally highly homologous to complement component C3. CVF, like C3b, the activated form of C3, forms a bimolecular complex with Factor B in serum, called C3/C5 convertase, an enzyme which activates complement components C3 and C5. Despite the high degree of homology, the two C3/C5 convertases exhibit significant functional differences. The most important difference is that the convertase formed with CVF (CVF,Bb) is physico-chemically far more stable than the convertase formed with C3b (C3b,Bb). In addition, the CVF,Bb convertase and CVF are completely resistant to inactivation by the complement regulatory proteins Factor H and Factor I. Furthermore, the CVF,Bb enzyme shows efficient C5-cleaving activity in fluid phase. In contrast, the C3b,Bb enzyme is essentially devoid of fluid-phase C5-cleaving activity. By taking advantage of the high degree of sequence identity at both the amino acid (85%) and DNA levels (93%) between CVF and cobra C3, we created hybrid proteins of CVF and cobra C3 where sections, or only a few amino acids, of the CVF sequence were replaced with the homologous amino acid sequence of cobra C3. In a first set of experiments, we created five hybrid proteins, termed H1 through H5, where the cobra C3 substitutions collectively spanned the entire length of the CVF protein. We also created three additional hybrid proteins where only four or five amino acid residues in CVF were exchanged with the corresponding amino acid residues from cobra C3. Collectively, these hybrid proteins, representing loss-of-function mutants of CVF, allowed the identification of regions and individual amino acid residues important for the CVF-specific functions. The results include the observation that the CVF β-chain is crucially important for forming a stable convertase, whereas the CVF α-chain appears to harbor no CVF-specific functions. Furthermore, the CVF

  9. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  10. Contribution to the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction and by the decomposition of UC$_2$; Beitrag zur U$_2$C$_3$-bildung nach der synthetischen reaktion und durch zerfall von UC$_2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschinelli, A.J.A.

    1974-06-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the mechanism and of the kinetics of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction. The influences of a mechanical and a thermical pre-treatment of the samples on the reaction kinetics were investigated and discussed taking into account other information from the literature. The relative increasing of the U$_2$C$_3$ nucleation rate due to the pulverization corresponds approximately to the surface enlargement of the pulverized material. The activation energy for the synthetic reaction in powder was found to be 94 +- 7 kcal/mol. The negative influence of nitrogen, oxygen and tungsten on the U$_2$C$_3$ formation was reported. In the decomposition of UC$_2$ to U$_2$C$_3$ and graphite, the influences of the morphology of the graphite precipitate and the fast neutron irradiation on the beginning of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation were also investigated.

  11. The AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP): Methods and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sonali P.; Ruane, Alexander Clark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter a multitude of factors important to agricultural systems, including pests, diseases, weeds, extreme climate events, water resources, soil degradation, and socio-economic pressures. Changes to carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water (CTW) will be the primary drivers of change in crop growth and agricultural systems. Therefore, establishing the CTW-change sensitivity of crop yields is an urgent research need and warrants diverse methods of investigation. Crop models provide a biophysical, process-based tool to investigate crop responses across varying environmental conditions and farm management techniques, and have been applied in climate impact assessment by using a variety of methods (White et al., 2011, and references therein). However, there is a significant amount of divergence between various crop models' responses to CTW changes (Rotter et al., 2011). While the application of a site-based crop model is relatively simple, the coordination of such agricultural impact assessments on larger scales requires consistent and timely contributions from a large number of crop modelers, each time a new global climate model (GCM) scenario or downscaling technique is created. A coordinated, global effort to rapidly examine CTW sensitivity across multiple crops, crop models, and sites is needed to aid model development and enhance the assessment of climate impacts (Deser et al., 2012). To fulfill this need, the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) (Ruane et al., 2014) was initiated within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013). The submitted results from C3MP Phase 1 (February 15, 2013-December 31, 2013) are currently being analyzed. This chapter serves to present and update the C3MP protocols, discuss the initial participation and general findings, comment on needed adjustments, and describe continued and future development. AgMIP aims to improve

  12. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of N-Doped ZnO/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xi-Rui; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-09-06

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 composites have been successfully prepared via a facile and cost-effective sol-gel method. The nanocomposites were systematically characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS. The results indicated that compared with the pure N-doped ZnO, the absorption edge of binary N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 shifted to a lower energy with increasing the visible-light absorption and improving the charge separation efficiency, which would enhance its photocatalytic activity. Compared with the pure g-C3N4, ZnO, N-doped ZnO and the composite ZnO/g-C3N4, the as-prepared N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 exhibits a greatly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 possesses a high stability. Finally, a proposed mechanism for N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 is also discussed. The improved photocatalysis can be attributed to the synergistic effect between N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4, including the energy band structure and enhanced charge separation efficiency.

  13. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of N-Doped ZnO/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xi-Rui; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-09-01

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 composites have been successfully prepared via a facile and cost-effective sol-gel method. The nanocomposites were systematically characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS. The results indicated that compared with the pure N-doped ZnO, the absorption edge of binary N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 shifted to a lower energy with increasing the visible-light absorption and improving the charge separation efficiency, which would enhance its photocatalytic activity. Compared with the pure g-C3N4, ZnO, N-doped ZnO and the composite ZnO/g-C3N4, the as-prepared N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 exhibits a greatly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 possesses a high stability. Finally, a proposed mechanism for N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 is also discussed. The improved photocatalysis can be attributed to the synergistic effect between N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4, including the energy band structure and enhanced charge separation efficiency.

  14. Human T cell derived, cell-bound complement iC3b is integrally involved in T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Katalin; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Sándor, Noémi; Tóth, Eszter Angéla; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna

    2012-03-30

    Although the complement system is thought to be mainly involved in innate immunity and in the humoral arm of adaptive responses, evidence implicating that complement impacts T cell responses are accumulating recently. The role of the various activation products of the major complement component C3 were mainly studied so far in animal systems, and investigations regarding the effect of different C3-fragments on human T cells are sparse. Here we show that anti-CD3 activated human T lymphocytes derived from the blood and tonsil of healthy individuals produce C3, and the major cleavage fragment that appears on the T cell surface is iC3b. Based on studies carried out in allogenic system we demonstrate that the T cell membrane bound iC3b binds to the CR3 and probably to CR4 receptors expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and this interaction leads to significantly enhanced T-cell proliferation. Since neither C3aR and nor C3a binding could be detected on the membrane of anti-CD3 activated T cells, our findings indicate that in humans – in contrast to mice – the C3a peptide is most probably not involved directly in the T cell activation process.

  15. Q and A about the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczog, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The "College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History" will soon be released. The C3 Framework was developed to serve two audiences: for states to upgrade their state social studies standards, and for…

  16. Analysis of C3 suggests three periods of positive selection events and different evolutionary patterns between fish and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The third complement component (C3 is a central protein of the complement system conserved from fish to mammals. It also showed distinct characteristics in different animal groups. Striking features of the fish complement system were unveiled, including prominent levels of extrahepatic expression and isotypic diversity of the complement components. The evidences of the involvement of complement system in the enhancement of B and T cell responses found in mammals indicated that the complement system also serves as a bridge between the innate and adaptive responses. For the reasons mentioned above, it is interesting to explore the evolutionary process of C3 genes and to investigate whether the huge differences between aquatic and terrestrial environments affected the C3 evolution between fish and mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis revealed that these two groups of animals had experienced different evolution patterns. The mammalian C3 genes were under purifying selection pressure while the positive selection pressure was detected in fish C3 genes. Three periods of positive selection events of C3 genes were also detected. Two happened on the ancestral lineages to all vertebrates and mammals, respectively, one happened on early period of fish evolutionary history. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three periods of positive selection events had happened on C3 genes during history and the fish and mammals C3 genes experience different evolutionary patterns for their distinct living environments.

  17. Magnetic Fe@g-C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically separable Fe@g-C3N4 eliminates the use of high pressure hydrogenation and the reaction can be accomplished using vi...

  18. Cooperation between MASP-1 and MASP-2 in the generation of C3 convertase through the MBL pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Kristensen, Mette; Thiel, Steffen; Sjöholm, A

    2007-01-01

    -phase C3 activation product) on a mannan-coated surface at high concentration of human serum (17%). At these conditions, mannan-binding lectin (MBL) promoted the activation of C3 through the combined action of MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 without appreciable involvement...

  19. 75 FR 43099 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... (AD) for GE CT7-9C and -9C3 turboprop engines with certain serial number (S/ N) gas generator turbine...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7409-1 - Action to enjoin flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution of statements), any political campaign by a section 501(c)(3) organization on behalf of (or in... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action to enjoin flagrant political... political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations. (a) Letter to organization. When the Assistant...

  1. Tuning of the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4by polyoxometalates under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Feng, Xiaojia; Xiao, Liguang; Xi, Wenguang; Tan, Huaqiao; Shi, Hongfei; Wang, Yonghui; Li, Yangguang

    2017-11-28

    Carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ), as a rising star of metal-free photocatalysts, has received considerable attention. However, for practical application, the photocatalytic efficiency of g-C 3 N 4 remains to be further improved. Herein, a series of Keggin-type polyoxoanion (polyoxoanions = SiW 12 O 40 4- , PW 12 O 40 3- , PMo 12 O 40 3- ) modified g-C 3 N 4 (POM/C 3 N 4 ) composites have been successfully prepared. The results of XRD, TEM, XPS and EDAX reveal that a small amount of polyoxoanions was modified on the surface of g-C 3 N 4 with electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that these composites exhibit enhanced methyl orange (MO) degradation photocatalytic activity and water splitting H 2 production under visible light irradiation. The loading amount and the type of polyoxoanion can tune the photocatalytic performance of the composites. Among these catalysts, 5% SiW 12 O 40 4- (SiW 12 )-modified g-C 3 N 4 has the best photocatalytic performance, which is 4.4 times higher than that of pure g-C 3 N 4 for the degradation of MO. The photocatalytic mechanism reveals that polyoxoanions can act as electron traps, which can efficiently promote the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes of C 3 N 4 , thus resulting in the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the composites.

  2. Hemolytic plate assay for quantification of active human complement component C3 using methylamine-treated plasma as complement source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jessen, T E; Welinder, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    A hemolytic plate assay specific for active human complement component C3 is described. The method is well suited for tracing active C3 during preparative purification or for screening of plasma samples. The assay is based on activation of the alternative pathway of complement by unmodified rabbi...

  3. Novel β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes: facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan-Rong; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dong-Feng; Tian, Qing-Nan; Yang, Ke; Si, Yuan; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, novel β-C3N4/CuO composites with superior photocatalytic activity are successfully fabricated via a facile reflux method followed by a thermal process. The morphologies, particle size and microstructure of the synthesized β-C3N4/CuO composites largely depended upon copper chloride and the volume ratio of V water:V ethanol in the mixed precursors. The fabricated β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes exhibited obviously enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) with an  ∼3.4 and 1.9 fold increase in efficiency over that of pure g-C3N4 and commercial P25, respectively. The β-C3N4/CuO composite photocatalyst also showed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Moreover, the β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes showed almost no loss of photocatalytic activity after three recycles of the degradation of the MB. A multiple synergetic mechanism in β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes, which is featured by the highly reactive {0 0 2} facets, exposed many active sites of nanoflakes and the efficient charge separation are proposed to account for the distinguished photocatalytic activity. This work provides a facile and cost-effective strategy for designing novel β-C3N4/CuO photocatalysts for application in environmental purification.

  4. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of 316 stainless steel at FBR temperature. Effects of strain rate and strain wave form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Isamu; Kitagawa, Masaki; Ohtomo, Akira (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1983-07-01

    The effects of strain rate and strain wave form on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of 316 stainless steel at FBR temperature were studied in order to clarify the controlling factor of fatigue strength and fracture mechanism. The following major results are obtained. (1) Under symmetrical and asymmetrical straining (slow-fast and fast-slow wave) with the strain rate between 10/sup 0/%/sec to 10/sup -3/%/sec, the fatigue life decreases with a decrease of strain rate in tension going period. The fatigue life is affected only by the strain rate in tension going period, and is not affected by the strain rate in compression going period. Slow-fast wave is most damaging, but the effect of saw-tooth wave is not significant. (2) The dependence of fatigue life on the strain rate in tension going period may not be due to the creep effect but due to the dynamic strain aging effect proper to FBR temperature (500/sup 0/C to 600/sup 0/C) (3) The fracture mode changes from transgranular cracking to intergranular cracking with a decrease of strain rate in tension going period. Slow-fast wave enhances the intergranular cracking, whereas fast-slow wave enhances the transgranular cracking. (4) Thermal aging increases the fatigue life under symmetrical and asymmetrical straining, and the life reduction with the strain rate reduction in tension going period is not so significant for the thermally aged condition.

  5. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S): Open Access to a Climate Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-04-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its Climate Data Store will provide • global and regional climate data reanalyses; • multi-model seasonal forecasts; • customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; • access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. At the heart of the Service is the provision of open access to a one stop shop (the Climate Data Store) of climate data and modelling, analysing more than 20 Essential Climate Variables to build a global picture of our past, present and future climate and developing

  6. Lie superbialgebra structures on the Lie superalgebra (C3+A) and deformation of related integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, A.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2017-06-01

    Admissible structure constants related to the dual Lie superalgebras of particular Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) are found by straightforward calculations from the matrix form of super Jacobi and mixed super Jacobi identities which are obtained from adjoint representation. Then, by making use of the automorphism supergroup of the Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) , the Lie superbialgebra structures on the Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) are obtained and classified into inequivalent 31 families. We also determine all corresponding coboundary and bi-r-matrix Lie superbialgebras. The quantum deformations associated with some Lie superbialgebras (C3+A ) are obtained, together with the corresponding deformed Casimir elements. As an application of these quantum deformations, we construct a deformed integrable Hamiltonian system from the representation of the Hopf superalgebra Uλ (Cp=1 2 ,𝜖⊕A1 ,1 )(C3+A).

  7. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  8. Distinct recognition of complement iC3b by integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shutong; Wang, Jianchuan; Wang, Jia-Huai; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-03-28

    Recognition by the leukocyte integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2 of complement iC3b-opsonized targets is essential for effector functions including phagocytosis. The integrin-binding sites on iC3b remain incompletely characterized. Here, we describe negative-stain electron microscopy and biochemical studies of αXβ2 and αMβ2 in complex with iC3b. Despite high homology, the two integrins bind iC3b at multiple distinct sites. αXβ2 uses the αX αI domain to bind iC3b on its C3c moiety at one of two sites: a major site at the interface between macroglobulin (MG) 3 and MG4 domains, and a less frequently used site near the C345C domain. In contrast, αMβ2 uses its αI domain to bind iC3b at the thioester domain and simultaneously interacts through a region near the αM β-propeller and β2 βI domain with a region of the C3c moiety near the C345C domain. Remarkably, there is no overlap between the primary binding site of αXβ2 and the binding site of αMβ2 on iC3b. Distinctive binding sites on iC3b by integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2 may be biologically beneficial for leukocytes to more efficiently capture opsonized pathogens and to avoid subversion by pathogen factors.

  9. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ching Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4 deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany. The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS, and photoluminescence (PL analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation.

  10. Addition of C3d-P28 adjuvant to a rabies DNA vaccine encoding the G5 linear epitope enhances the humoral immune response and confers protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Pompa-Mera, Ericka N; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro

    2017-11-27

    Rabies DNA vaccines based on full-length glycoprotein (G) induce virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) responses and protect against the virus challenge. Although conformational epitopes of G are the main target of VNAs, some studies have shown that a polypeptide linear epitope G5 is also able to induce VNAs. However, a G5 DNA vaccine has not been explored. While multiple doses of DNA vaccines are required in order to confer a protective immune response, this could be overcome by the inclusion of C3d-P28, a molecular adjuvant is know to improve the antibody response in several anti-viral vaccine models. To induce and enhance the immune response against rabies in mice, we evaluated two DNA vaccines based on the linear epitope G5 of Rabies Virus (RABV) glycoprotein (pVaxG5 vaccine) and another vaccine consisting of G5 fused to the molecular adjuvant C3d-P28 (pVaxF1 vaccine). VNA responses were measured in mice immunized with both vaccines. The VNA levels from the group immunized with pVaxG5 decreased gradually, while those from the group vaccinated with pVaxF1 remained high throughout the experimental study. After challenge with 22 LD50 of the Challenge Virus Strain (CVS), the survival rate of mice immunized with pVaxG5 and pVaxF1 was increased by 27% and 50% respectively, in comparison to the PBS group. Furthermore, the in vitro proliferation of anti-rabies specific spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from mice immunized with pVaxF1 was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that the linear G5 epitope is a potential candidate vaccine. Furthermore, the addition of a C3d-P28 adjuvant contributed to enhanced protection, the sustained production of VNAs, and a specific T-cell proliferative response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon and oxygen isotope working standards from C3 and C4 photosynthates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2006-09-01

    A preparation of organic working standards for the online measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in biological material is presented. The organic working standards are simple and inexpensive C3 and C4 carbohydrates (sugars or cellulose) from distinct geographic origin, including white sugar, toilet and XEROX papers from Switzerland, maize from Ivory Coast, cane sugar from Brazil, papyrus from Egypt, and the core of the stem of a Cyperus papyrus plant from Kenya. These photosynthetic products were compared with International Atomic Energy standards CH-3 and CH-6 and other calibration materials. The presented working standards cover a 15% range of 13C/12C ratios and 9% for 18O/16O, with a precision10.

  12. Toward the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide O: An Enantioselective Synthesis of C3-C8 Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Minho; Lee, Duckhyung [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The methyl ester 4, a C3-C8 fragment of am-phidinolide O (1), was prepared enantioselectively via 11 steps in 14% overall yields. The diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 5 via the corresponding (E)-enolate intermediate was used as a key step in order to implement the C4 and C5 chiral centers. Retrosynthetic analysis was described in Figure 1. Amphi-dinolide O (1) might be assembled from two intermediates 2 and 3 via esterification and ring closing metathesis as key steps. Intermediate 4, a precursor to 3 as well as the target molecule in this paper, involves the γ,δ-unsaturated ester moiety along with α,β-chiral substituents with anti-stereochemical relationship.

  13. The hydrocarbon ring C3H2 is ubiquitous in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of a strong microwave (1.6 cm-wavelength) spectral line, the carrier of which is common and widespread throughout the Galaxy is reported. A survey of a large number of sources shows that the line appears in emission in cold dust clouds, in absorption in the direction of the Galactic center, and exhibits complex profiles toward H II regions. Toward Cas A and distant H II regions, intervening 'spiral arm' clouds produce absorption. For almost all cases, the absorption features show a striking 1:1 radial velocity correspondence with those seen, e.g., in H2CO spectra of the same objects. The data indicate that the line arises between low-lying energy states of a rather polar molecule. Recent work by Thaddeus, Vrtilek, and Gottlieb (1985) incorporating the present data, shows that the line in question is the 1(10)-1(01) transition of the small hydrocarbon ring C3H2.

  14. Physical and mechanical properties of highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Hu, Yoshio Sakka, Toshiyuki Nishimura, Shuqi Guo, Salvatore Grasso and Hidehiko Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic was fabricated by slip casting in a strong magnetic field followed by spark plasma sintering. Its Lotgering orientation factor was determined on the textured top and side surfaces as f(00l ~1.0 and f(hk0=0.36, respectively. This ceramic showed layered microstructure at the scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. The as-prepared ceramic had excellent anisotropic physical properties. Along the c-axis direction, it showed higher hardness, bending strength, and fracture toughness of 7.0 GPa, 881 MPa and 14.1 MPa m1/2, respectively, whereas higher values of electrical conductivity (0.81×106 Ω−1 m−1, thermal conductivity (21.20 W m−1 K−1 and Young's modulus (365 GPa were obtained along the a- or b-axis direction.

  15. Physical and mechanical properties of highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunfeng; Sakka, Yoshio; Nishimura, Toshiyuki; Guo, Shuqi; Grasso, Salvatore; Tanaka, Hidehiko

    2011-08-01

    Highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic was fabricated by slip casting in a strong magnetic field followed by spark plasma sintering. Its Lotgering orientation factor was determined on the textured top and side surfaces as f(00l) ∼1.0 and f(hk0)=0.36, respectively. This ceramic showed layered microstructure at the scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. The as-prepared ceramic had excellent anisotropic physical properties. Along the c-axis direction, it showed higher hardness, bending strength, and fracture toughness of 7.0 GPa, 881 MPa and 14.1 MPa m(1/2), respectively, whereas higher values of electrical conductivity (0.81×10(6) Ω(-1) m(-1)), thermal conductivity (21.20 W m(-1) K(-1)) and Young's modulus (365 GPa) were obtained along the a- or b-axis direction.

  16. Apolipoprotein C3 polymorphisms, cognitive function and diabetes in Caribbean origin Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren E Smith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired glucose metabolism are linked to cognitive decline, and all three conditions may decrease lifespan. Associations between apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 gene polymorphisms and impaired lipid and glucose metabolism are well-established, but potential connections between APOC3 polymorphisms, cognitive decline and diabetes deserve further attention.We examined whether APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs m482 (rs2854117 and 3u386 (rs5128 were related to cognitive measures, whether the associations between cognitive differences and genotype were related to metabolic differences, and how diabetes status affected these associations. Study subjects were Hispanics of Caribbean origin (n = 991, aged 45-74 living in the Boston metropolitan area.Cognitive and metabolic measures differed substantially by type II diabetes status. In multivariate regression models, APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited lower executive function (P = 0.009, Stroop color naming score (P = 0.014 and Stroop color-word score (P = 0.022 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher glucose (P = 0.032 and total cholesterol (P = 0.028 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 3u386 GC/GG subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (P = 0.004, total cholesterol (P = 0.003 and glucose (P = 0.016 compared to CC subjects.In summary, we identified significant associations between APOC3 polymorphisms, impaired cognition and metabolic dysregulation in Caribbean Hispanics with diabetes. Further research investigating these relationships in other populations is warranted.

  17. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hypoxic Fraction of C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yi, Chun Ja; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on hypoxic cell fraction and metabolic status in fibrosarcoma (FSa II) of C3H mouse. Materials and Methods : Fibrosarcoma (Fsa II), 6mm in diameter, growing in the right hind leg muscle of C3H mouse was used for estimation of hypoxic cell fraction using comparison of TCD{sub 50}. Radiation was given one hour after administration of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without priming dose of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) given 24 hours earlier. Radiation was also given under air breathing condition or clamp hypoxia without GBE as controls. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy was performed before and one hour after administration of GBE with or without priming dose of GBE. Results : TCD{sub 50/120's} were 81.7(77.7-86.0) Gy when irradiated under clamped hypoxia, 69.6 (66.8-72.5) Gy under air breathing condition,67.5(64.1-71.1) Gy with a single dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) given one hour before irradiation, and 62.2(59.1-65.5) Gy with two doses of GBE given at 25 hours and one hour before irradiation. The hypoxic cell fractions, estimated from TCD50/120's were 1.6% under air breathing condition, 7.2% after single dose of GBE, and 2.7% after two doses of GBE. Metabolic status of tumor, probably by increasing the blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of tumor.

  18. Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopesh Kumar, V R; Madhguiri, Venkatesh S; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Gundamaneni, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a clinical case report with a review of relevant literature. To describe a case of Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in a middle-aged female patient and to discuss management strategies. Spondyloptosis of the cervical spine is relatively rare and is caused by trauma, destruction of the vertebral bodies by tumors, or tuberculosis. Such gross vertebral displacement is usually associated with significant neurological deficits. Larsen syndrome is characterized by multiple joint displacements and can, very rarely, be associated with nontraumatic spondyloptosis of the cervical vertebra. A single case report of C1-C2 joint laxity causing atlantoaxial dislocation in a patient with Larsen syndrome is available in literature. No reports of any patient (with Larsen syndrome or nonsyndromic) who had both cervical spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation are available in literature. A 36-year-old female presented with chronic neck pain, bilateral hand deformity, and mild spasticity involving all 4 limbs. Cervical radiograph, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance image revealed C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation. A combined ventral decompression of subaxial spine and instrumentation from C2 to C5, followed by posterior C1-C2 distraction arthroplasty and lateral mass stabilization of the subaxial spine up to C6, was done. The cervical deformity was corrected, and the patient remains symptom free. Patients with spondyloptosis of the cervical spine can rarely present with chronic neck pain and minimal neurological deficits. An additional pathology, such as atlantoaxial dislocation, can add to the complexity. Circumferential stabilization and fusion would be required in such cases to achieve a good outcome. Larsen syndrome is a rare cause of nontraumatic cervical displacements.

  19. The binding mode of side chain- and C3-modified epothilones to tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, Máté; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Pfeiffer, Bernhard; Kuzniewski, Christian N; Felser, Andrea; Widmer, Toni; Gertsch, Jürg; Pera, Benet; Díaz, José Fernando; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2010-06-07

    The tubulin-binding mode of C3- and C15-modified analogues of epothilone A (Epo A) was determined by NMR spectroscopy and computational methods and compared with the existing structural models of tubulin-bound natural Epo A. Only minor differences were observed in the conformation of the macrocycle between Epo A and the C3-modified analogues investigated. In particular, 3-deoxy- (compound 2) and 3-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-Epo A (3) were found to adopt similar conformations in the tubulin-binding cleft as Epo A, thus indicating that the 3-OH group is not essential for epothilones to assume their bioactive conformation. None of the available models of the tubulin-epothilone complex is able to fully recapitulate the differences in tubulin-polymerizing activity and microtubule-binding affinity between C20-modified epothilones 6 (C20-propyl), 7 (C20-butyl), and 8 (C20-hydroxypropyl). Based on the results of transferred NOE experiments in the presence of tubulin, the isomeric C15 quinoline-based Epo B analogues 4 and 5 show very similar orientations of the side chain, irrespective of the position of the nitrogen atom in the quinoline ring. The quinoline side chain stacks on the imidazole moiety of beta-His227 with equal efficiency in both cases, thus suggesting that the aromatic side chain moiety in epothilones contributes to tubulin binding through strong van der Waals interactions with the protein rather than hydrogen bonding involving the heteroaromatic nitrogen atom. These conclusions are in line with existing tubulin polymerization and microtubule-binding data for 4, 5, and Epo B.

  20. Significant accumulation of C(4)-specific pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in a C(3) plant, rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukayama, H; Tsuchida, H; Agarie, S; Nomura, M; Onodera, H; Ono, K; Lee, B H; Hirose, S; Toki, S; Ku, M S; Makino, A; Matsuoka, M; Miyao, M

    2001-11-01

    The C(4)-Pdk gene encoding the C(4) enzyme pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) of maize (Zea mays cv Golden Cross Bantam) was introduced into the C(3) plant, rice (Oryza sativa cv Kitaake). When the intact maize C(4)-Pdk gene, containing its own promoter and terminator sequences and exon/intron structure, was introduced, the PPDK activity in the leaves of some transgenic lines was greatly increased, in one line reaching 40-fold over that of wild-type plants. In a homozygous line, the PPDK protein accounted for 35% of total leaf-soluble protein or 16% of total leaf nitrogen. In contrast, introduction of a chimeric gene containing the full-length cDNA of the maize PPDK fused to the maize C(4)-Pdk promoter or the rice Cab promoter only increased PPDK activity and protein level slightly. These observations suggest that the intron(s) or the terminator sequence of the maize gene, or a combination of both, is necessary for high-level expression. In maize and transgenic rice plants carrying the intact maize gene, the level of transcript in the leaves per copy of the maize C(4)-Pdk gene was comparable, and the maize gene was expressed in a similar organ-specific manner. These results suggest that the maize C(4)-Pdk gene behaves in a quantitatively and qualitatively similar way in maize and transgenic rice plants. The activity of the maize PPDK protein expressed in rice leaves was light/dark regulated as it is in maize. This is the first reported evidence for the presence of an endogenous PPDK regulatory protein in a C(3) plant.

  1. Recombinant Human Hepatitis B Vaccine Initiating Alopecia Areata: Testing the Hypothesis Using the C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Zhang, Weidong; Sundberg, Beth A.; Edwards, Kathryn; King, Lloyd E.; Davis, Robert L.; Black, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Untoward effects of human vaccines suggest that recombinant hepatitis B vaccine may induce alopecia areata (AA) in some patients. Similar untoward immunological effects may also account for AA-like diseases in domestic species. In this study the C3H/HeJ spontaneous adult onset AA mouse model was used to test the role, if any, of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine on the initiation or activation of AA. Initial experiments demonstrated no effect on induction of AA in young adult female C3H/HeJ mice (p =0.5689). By contrast, older females, those at the age when AA first begins to appear in this strain, had a significant increase (p = 0.0264) in the time of onset of AA suggesting that the vaccine may initiate disease in mice predisposed to AA. However, larger vaccine trials, which included diphtheria and tetanus toxoids as additional controls, did not support these initial result findings and suggest that AA associated with vaccination may be within the normal background levels of the given population. PMID:19175564

  2. LegC3, an Effector Protein from Legionella pneumophila, Inhibits Homotypic Yeast Vacuole Fusion In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Terry L.; Kraft, Shannon M.; Reaves, Barbara J.; Mima, Joji; O’Brien, Kevin M.; Starai, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes an extensive remodeling of host membrane trafficking pathways, both in the construction of a replication-competent vacuole comprised of ER-derived vesicles and plasma membrane components, and in the inhibition of normal phagosome:endosome/lysosome fusion pathways. Here, we identify the LegC3 secreted effector protein from L. pneumophila as able to inhibit a SNARE- and Rab GTPase-dependent membrane fusion pathway in vitro, the homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles (lysosomes). This vacuole fusion inhibition appeared to be specific, as similar secreted coiled-coiled domain containing proteins from L. pneumophila, LegC7/YlfA and LegC2/YlfB, did not inhibit vacuole fusion. The LegC3-mediated fusion inhibition was reversible by a yeast cytosolic extract, as well as by a purified soluble SNARE, Vam7p. LegC3 blocked the formation of trans-SNARE complexes during vacuole fusion, although we did not detect a direct interaction of LegC3 with the vacuolar SNARE protein complexes required for fusion. Additionally, LegC3 was incapable of inhibiting a defined synthetic model of vacuolar SNARE-driven membrane fusion, further suggesting that LegC3 does not directly inhibit the activity of vacuolar SNAREs, HOPS complex, or Sec17p/18p during membrane fusion. LegC3 is likely utilized by Legionella to modulate eukaryotic membrane fusion events during pathogenesis. PMID:23437241

  3. One-step synthesis of graphitic-C 3 N 4 /ZnS composites for enhanced supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2017-11-24

    A series of graphitic-C3N4/ZnS (g-C3N4/ZnS) supercapacitor electrode materials have been prepared via a one-step calcination process of zinc acetate/thiourea with different mass ratios under nitrogen atmosphere. The optimized g-C3N4/ZnS composite shows a highest specific capacitance of 497.7 F/g at 1 A/g and good cycling stability with capacitance retention of 80.4% at 5 A/g after 1000 cycles. Moreover, g-C3N4/ZnS composites display an improved supercapacitor performance in terms of specific capacitance compared to the pure g-C3N4 and ZnS. In addition, our designed symmetric supercapacitor device based on g-C3N4/ZnS composite electrodes can exhibit an energy density of 10.4 Wh/kg at a power density of 187.3 W/kg. As a result, g-C3N4/ZnS composites are expected to be a prospective material for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications.

  4. One step synthesis of P-doped g-C3N4 with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Zhu, Honglei; Yao, Wenqing; Chen, Kai; Chen, Daimei

    2018-02-01

    In our work, P doped Graphitic nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared by the simple copolymerization of melamine and melamine phosphate. The melamine phosphate ester polymer is a complex of an s-triazine and phosphoric acid polymer, thus it will be favourable for P atom to incorporate into the Csbnd N network of g-C3N4. The doped P atoms may produce the delocalized lone electron and form the Lewis acid sites. The obtained P-doped g-C3N4 showed the higher photocatalytic activity in photodegradation of MB and 2,4-Dichlorophenol than g-C3N4. The optimum photocatatlytic activity of P-C3N4 with the weight ration of melamine phosphate and melamine at 0.06 is 2 times as higher as the pure g-C3N4 in MB photodegradation, and 1.5 times higher in 2,4-Dichlorophenol photodegradation. The enhancement of photodegradation efficiency is due to the delocalization effect of lone electron, promoting the separation of photogenerated charges, and the larger band gap of P doped g-C3N4.

  5. Facile synthesis of graphitic C3N4 nanoporous-tube with high enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiru; Gao, Jianping; Mei, Shunkang; Wu, Yongli; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xiangang; Yang, Jiangbing; Hao, Chaoyue; Yan, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to synthesize a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanoporous-tube by using SiO2 nanoparticles as pore formers. The structure of the g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was characterized by the SEM and TEM images. Taking photodegradation of RhB as an example, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was investigated. It can photodegrade 90% RhB in 40 min under visible-light irradiation and obtain a k value of 0.04491 min‑1, which is 8.16 times that of bulk g-C3N4, 3.09 times that of tubular g-C3N4 and 1.48 times that of tubular g-C3N4-SiO2. The significant enhancement in photocatalytic efficiency is due to the edge effect of the pores and the special structure of the tubes. In addition, the possible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also proposed based on the trapping experiment of active species, which indicated that the superoxide radicals ({{{{O}}}2}\\bullet -) and the holes (h +) were the main reactive species in this photocatalyst. This work may open up a new idea of innovation in g-C3N4 structure and inspire its follow-up study.

  6. Classification of C3 and C4 Vegetation Types Using MODIS and ETM+ Blended High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Knowledge of the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation at a high spatial resolution over local or regional scales helps us to understand their ecological functions and climate dependencies. In this study, we classified C3 and C4 vegetation at a high resolution for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. First, we generated a high spatial and temporal land surface reflectance dataset by blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data. The blended data exhibited a high correlation (R2 = 0.88 with the satellite derived ETM+ data. The time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data were then generated using the blended high spatio-temporal resolution data to capture the phenological differences between the C3 and C4 vegetation. The time-series NDVI revealed that the C3 vegetation turns green earlier in spring than the C4 vegetation, and senesces later in autumn than the C4 vegetation. C4 vegetation has a higher NDVI value than the C3 vegetation during summer time. Based on the distinguished characteristics, the time-series NDVI was used to extract the C3 and C4 classification features. Five features were selected from the 18 classification features according to the ground investigation data, and subsequently used for the C3 and C4 classification. The overall accuracy of the C3 and C4 vegetation classification was 85.75% with a kappa of 0.725 in our study area.

  7. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 promotes neurogenesis and improves cognitive function after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Zachary B; Pieper, Andrew A; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established. Here, a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats was followed by twice daily injection of P7C3-A20 or vehicle for 7days. P7C3-A20-treated rats performed significantly better than vehicle-treated controls in sensorimotor cylinder and grid-walk tasks, and in a chronic test of spatial learning and memory. These behavioral improvements with P7C3-A20 treatment were correlated with significantly decreased cortical and hippocampal atrophy, and associated with increased neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus subgranular zone. Furthermore, cerebral ischemia significantly reduced NAD in the cortex but P7C3-A20 treatment restored NAD to sham levels. Thus, P7C3-A20 treatment mitigates neurodegeneration and augments repair in the brain after focal ischemia, which translates into chronic behavioral improvement. This suggests a new therapeutic approach of using P7C3 compounds to safely augment NAD and thereby promote two independent processes critical to protecting the brain from ischemic stroke: mature neuron survival and postnatal neurogenesis throughout the post-ischemic brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Complement component C3a plays a critical role in endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjiao; Zou, Qiang; Ding, Xiaodan; Shi, Dongyan; Zhu, Xingxing; Hu, Weiguo; Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-28

    The complement system is becoming increasingly recognized as a key participant in many neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. Complement-deficient animals exhibit reduced neuroinflammation. In the present study, we administered intracerebroventricularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic local infection of the brain and investigated the role of key complement component C3 in brain vasculature endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. The degree of neutrophil infiltration was determined by esterase staining. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were measured using intravital microscopy. Cerebral endothelial activation was evaluated using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Neutrophil infiltration into the brain cortex and hippocampus was significantly reduced in C3(-/-) mice and C3aR(-/-) mice but not in C6(-/-) mice. We detected markedly attenuated leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the brain microvasculature of C3(-/-) mice. Accordingly, in response to LPS administration, the brain microvasculature in these mice had decreased expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Depletion of C3 from the circulation also caused reduction in VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and leukocyte recruitment, suggesting that C3 in the circulation contributed to brain endothelial activation. Furthermore, C3(-/-) mice exhibited decreased leukocyte recruitment into the brain upon tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation. C3a activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induced the upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in murine primary cerebral endothelial cells in vitro. Our study provides the first evidence that C3a plays a critical role in cerebral endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation in the brain.

  9. Effects of climate and water balance across grasslands of varying C3 and C4 grass cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Munson, Seth M.; Thoma, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change in grassland ecosystems may lead to divergent shifts in the abundance and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Many studies relate mean climate conditions over relatively long time periods to plant cover, but there is still much uncertainty about how the balance of C3and C4 species will be affected by climate at a finer temporal scale than season (individual events to months). We monitored cover at five grassland sites with co-dominant C3 and C4 grass species or only dominant C3 grass species for 6 yr in national parks across the Colorado Plateau region to assess the influence of specific months of climate and water balance on changes in grass cover. C4 grass cover increased and decreased to a larger degree than C3 grass cover with extremely dry and wet consecutive years, but this response varied by ecological site. Climate and water balance explained 10–49% of the inter-annual variability of cover of C3 and C4 grasses at all sites. High precipitation in the spring and in previous year monsoon storms influenced changes in cover of C4 grasses, with measures of water balance in the same months explaining additional variability. C3 grasses in grasslands where they were dominant were influenced primarily by longer periods of climate, while C3 grasses in grasslands where they were co-dominant with C4 grasses were influenced little by climate anomalies at either short or long periods of time. Our results suggest that future changes in spring and summer climate and water balance are likely to affect cover of both C3 and C4 grasses, but cover of C4 grasses may be affected more strongly, and the degree of change will depend on soils and topography where they are growing and the timing of the growing season.

  10. Oxidized g-C3N4/polyaniline nanofiber composite for the selective removal of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Barakat, M A; Alseroury, F A

    2017-10-09

    Nanomaterials with selective adsorption properties are in demand for environmental applications. Herein, acid etching and oxidative decomposition of melon units of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was performed to obtain the oxidized graphitic carbon nitride (Ox-g-C3N4) nanosheets. Ox- g-C3N4 nanosheets were further decorated on the polyaniline nanofiber (Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF). Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF was well characterized and further applied for a selective removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) form aqueous solution. The zeta potential analysis indicate that the surface of Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF was positively charged which could be beneficial to bind anionic Cr(VI) ions electrostatically. In addition, nitrogen and oxygen containing functional groups exist on the Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF were mainly responsible for adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution. Moreover, the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions was also dependent on solution pH, reaction temperature and initial concentration of Cr(VI) ions. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF for Cr(VI), calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 178.57 mg/g at pH = 2 and 30 °C. The activation energy (Ea = -20.66 kJ/mol) and the enthalpy change (ΔH° = -22.055 kJ/mol) validate the role of physical forces in adsorption of Cr(VI). These results demonstrate that Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF can be used as a potential adsorbent for environmental remediation applications.

  11. Classification of C3 and C4 Vegetation Types Using MODIS and ETM+ Blended High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong Liu; Yanchen Bo; Jian Zhang; Yaqian He

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Knowledge of the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation at a high spatial resolution over local or regional scales helps us to understand their ecological functions and climate dependencies. In this study, we classified C3 and C4 vegetation at a high resolution for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. First, we generated a high spatial and temporal land surface reflectance dataset by b...

  12. Graphitic C3N4 Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Layers: A Visible Light Activated Efficient Antimicrobial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a facile procedure to graft a thin graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) layer on aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNT) by one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. This provides a platform to enhance the visible-light response of TiO2 nanotubes for antimicrobial applications. The formed g- C3N4/TiNT binary nanocomposite exhibits excellent bactericidal efficiency against E. coli as a visiblelight activated antibacterial coating.

  13. Denaturation and unfolding of human anaphylatoxin C3a: an unusually low covalent stability of its native disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Yoa; Lin, Curtis C-J; Salamanca, Silvia; Pangburn, Michael K; Wetsel, Rick A

    2008-12-15

    The complement C3a anaphylatoxin is a major molecular mediator of innate immunity. It is a potent activator of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and causes smooth muscle contraction. Structurally, C3a is a relatively small protein (77 amino acids) comprising a N-terminal domain connected by 3 native disulfide bonds and a helical C-terminal segment. The structural stability of C3a has been investigated here using three different methods: Disulfide scrambling; Differential CD spectroscopy; and Reductive unfolding. Two uncommon features regarding the stability of C3a and the structure of denatured C3a have been observed in this study. (a) There is an unusual disconnection between the conformational stability of C3a and the covalent stability of its three native disulfide bonds that is not seen with other disulfide proteins. As measured by both methods of disulfide scrambling and differential CD spectroscopy, the native C3a exhibits a global conformational stability that is comparable to numerous proteins with similar size and disulfide content, all with mid-point denaturation of [GdmCl](1/2) at 3.4-5M. These proteins include hirudin, tick anticoagulant protein and leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor. However, the native disulfide bonds of C3a is 150-1000 fold less stable than those proteins as evaluated by the method of reductive unfolding. The 3 native disulfide bonds of C3a can be collectively and quantitatively reduced with as low as 1mM of dithiothreitol within 5 min. The fragility of the native disulfide bonds of C3a has not yet been observed with other native disulfide proteins. (b) Using the method of disulfide scrambling, denatured C3a was shown to consist of diverse isomers adopting varied extent of unfolding. Among them, the most extensively unfolded isomer of denatured C3a is found to assume beads-form disulfide pattern, comprising Cys(36)-Cys(49) and two disulfide bonds formed by two pair of consecutive cysteines, Cys(22)-Cys(23) and Cys(56)-Cys(57), a

  14. Tunable far-IR laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled carbon clusters - The nu-2 bending vibration of C3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuttenmaer, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Pugliano, N.; Heath, J. R.; Cooksy, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Seven rovibrational transitions of the (01/1/0)-(00/0/0) fundamental bending band of C3 have been measured with high precision with the use of a tunable far-infrared laser spectrometer. The C3 molecules were produced by laser vaporization of a graphite rod and cooled in a supersonic expansion. The astrophysically important nu-2 fundamental frequency is determined to be 63.416529(40)/cm. These measurements provide the basis for studies of C3 in the interstellar medium with far-infrared astronomy.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: H2, D2, and HD c3Πu;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Shemansky, D. E.; Yoshii, J.; Liu, M. J.; Johnson, P. V.; Malone, C. P.; Khakoo, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The c3{Pi}u state of the hydrogen molecule has the triplet-state excitation cross-section, and plays an important role in the heating of the upper thermospheres of outer planets by electron excitation. Precise energies of the H2, D2, and HD c3{Pi}u-(v,N) levels are calculated from highly accurate ab initio potential energy curves that include relativistic, radiative, and empirical non-adiabatic corrections. The emission yields are determined from predissociation rates and refined radiative transition probabilities. The excitation function and excitation cross-section of the c3{Pi}u state are extracted from previous theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The emission cross-section is determined from the calculated emission yield and the extracted excitation cross-section. The kinetic energy (Ek) distributions of H atoms produced via the predissociation of the c3{Pi}u state, the c3{Pi}u--b3{Sigma}u+ dissociative emission by the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole, and the c3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ cascade dissociative emission by the electric dipole are obtained. The predissociation of the c3{Pi}u+ and c3{Pi}u- states both produce H(1s) atoms with an average Ek of ~4.1eV/atom, while the c3{Pi}u--b3{Sigma}u+ dissociative emissions by the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole give an average Ek of ~1.0 and ~0.8eV/atom, respectively. The c3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ cascade and dissociative emission gives an average Ek of ~1.3 eV/atom. On average, each H2 excited to the c3{Pi}u state in an H2-dominated atmosphere deposits ~7.1eV into the atmosphere while each H2 directly excited to the a3{Sigma}g+ and d3{Pi}u states contribute ~2.3 and ~3.3eV, respectively, to the atmosphere. The spectral distribution of the calculated continuum emission arising from the X1{Sigma}g+-c3{Pi}u excitation is significantly different from that of direct a3{Sigma}g+ or d3{Pi}u excitations. (5 data files).

  16. Differential C3NET reveals disease networks of direct physical interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowetz Florian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes might have different gene interactions in different cell conditions, which might be mapped into different networks. Differential analysis of gene networks allows spotting condition-specific interactions that, for instance, form disease networks if the conditions are a disease, such as cancer, and normal. This could potentially allow developing better and subtly targeted drugs to cure cancer. Differential network analysis with direct physical gene interactions needs to be explored in this endeavour. Results C3NET is a recently introduced information theory based gene network inference algorithm that infers direct physical gene interactions from expression data, which was shown to give consistently higher inference performances over various networks than its competitors. In this paper, we present, DC3net, an approach to employ C3NET in inferring disease networks. We apply DC3net on a synthetic and real prostate cancer datasets, which show promising results. With loose cutoffs, we predicted 18583 interactions from tumor and normal samples in total. Although there are no reference interactions databases for the specific conditions of our samples in the literature, we found verifications for 54 of our predicted direct physical interactions from only four of the biological interaction databases. As an example, we predicted that RAD50 with TRF2 have prostate cancer specific interaction that turned out to be having validation from the literature. It is known that RAD50 complex associates with TRF2 in the S phase of cell cycle, which suggests that this predicted interaction may promote telomere maintenance in tumor cells in order to allow tumor cells to divide indefinitely. Our enrichment analysis suggests that the identified tumor specific gene interactions may be potentially important in driving the growth in prostate cancer. Additionally, we found that the highest connected subnetwork of our predicted tumor specific network

  17. Extreme weather conditions reduce the CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Wolfgang; Lehnert, Lukas; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Grünhage, Ludger; Luterbacher, Jürg; Erbs, Martin; Yuan, Naiming; Bendix, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of global climate change. The rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may stimulate plant photosynthesis and, thus, cause a net sink effect in the global carbon cycle. As a consequence of an enhanced photosynthesis, an increase in the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants (termed CO2 fertilization) is widely assumed. This process is associated with a reduced stomatal conductance of leaves as the carbon demand of photosynthesis is met earlier. This causes a higher water-use efficiency and, hence, may reduce water stress in plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations ([eCO2]). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CO2 fertilization effect under a future climate including more frequent weather extremes are controversial. To test the CO2 fertilization effect for Central European grasslands, a data set comprising 16 years of biomass samples and environmental variables such as local weather and soil conditions was analysed by means of a novel approach. The data set was recorded on a "Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment" (FACE) experimental site which allows to quantify the CO2 fertilization effect under naturally occurring climate variations. The results indicate that the CO2 fertilization effect on the aboveground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. Such intermediate regimes were defined by the mean +/- 1 standard deviation of the long-term average in the respective variable three months before harvest. The observed CO2 fertilization effect was reduced or vanished under drier, wetter and hotter conditions when the respective variable exceeded the bounds of the intermediate regimes. Comparable conditions, characterized by a higher frequency of more extreme weather conditions, are predicted for the future by climate projections. Consequently, biogeochemical models may overestimate the future NPP sink

  18. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of combustion-synthesized CeO2/C3N4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiao-qin; Ma, Ya-Li; Huang, Gui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method using urea as fuel for the first time. The effects of the molar ratio of urea to cerium chloride on the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 shows small size and large surface exposure area. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue demonstrates that the synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity might be related to the favorable morphology and structure, and the effective charge separation between C3N4 and CeO2 in the photocatalytic process.

  19. Magnetic Fe@g‑C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically...

  20. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Jaehyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Hyeongun; Kwon, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyunpyo; Lee, Sangwon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells...

  1. Potential of Transition Metal Atoms Embedded in Buckled Monolayer g-C3N4 as Single-Atom Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shu-Long

    2017-10-27

    We use first-principles calculations to systematically explore the potential of transition metal atoms (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au) embedded in buckled monolayer g-C3N4 as single-atom catalysts. We show that clustering of Sc and Ti on g-C3N4 is thermodynamically impeded and that V, Cr, Mn, and Cu are much less susceptible to clustering than the other TM atoms under investigation. Strong bonding of the transition metal atoms in the cavities of g-C3N4 and high diffusion barriers together are responsible for single-atom fixation. Analysis of the CO oxidation process indicates that embedding of Cr and Mn in g-C3N4 gives rise to promising single-atom catalysts at low temperature.

  2. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as \\'minicircles\\'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any \\'empty\\' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  3. C3: A Command-line Catalogue Cross-matching tool for modern astrophysical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Mercurio, Amata; di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Molinari, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    In the current data-driven science era, it is needed that data analysis techniques has to quickly evolve to face with data whose dimensions has increased up to the Petabyte scale. In particular, being modern astrophysics based on multi-wavelength data organized into large catalogues, it is crucial that the astronomical catalog cross-matching methods, strongly dependant from the catalogues size, must ensure efficiency, reliability and scalability. Furthermore, multi-band data are archived and reduced in different ways, so that the resulting catalogues may differ each other in formats, resolution, data structure, etc, thus requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features. We present C 3 (Command-line Catalogue Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogues from modern surveys. Conceived as a stand-alone command-line process or a module within generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, it provides the maximum flexibility, in terms of portability, configuration, coordinates and cross-matching types, ensuring high performance capabilities by using a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and a sky partitioning algorithm.

  4. Combining genetic and evolutionary engineering to establish C4 metabolism in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Heckmann, David; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    To feed a world population projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, the productivity of major crops must be increased by at least 50%. One potential route to boost the productivity of cereals is to equip them genetically with the 'supercharged' C4 type of photosynthesis; however, the necessary genetic modifications are not sufficiently understood for the corresponding genetic engineering programme. In this opinion paper, we discuss a strategy to solve this problem by developing a new paradigm for plant breeding. We propose combining the bioengineering of well-understood traits with subsequent evolutionary engineering, i.e. mutagenesis and artificial selection. An existing mathematical model of C3-C4 evolution is used to choose the most promising path towards this goal. Based on biomathematical simulations, we engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express the central carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco only in bundle sheath cells (Ru-BSC plants), the localization characteristic for C4 plants. This modification will initially be deleterious, forcing the Ru-BSC plants into a fitness valley from where previously inaccessible adaptive steps towards C4 photosynthesis become accessible through fitness-enhancing mutations. Mutagenized Ru-BSC plants are then screened for improved photosynthesis, and are expected to respond to imposed artificial selection pressures by evolving towards C4 anatomy and biochemistry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Is the Coupling of C3V Internal Rotation and Normal Vibrations a Tractable Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John; Groner, Peter; Daly, Adam M.

    2016-06-01

    The solution of a C3V internal rotation problem for the torsional manifold of an isolated vibrational state such as the ground state is well established. However, once an interacting small amplitude vibrational state is involved the path to a solution becomes far less clear and there is little guidance in the literature on how to proceed. The fundamental challenge is that the torsional problem and the internal axis system are unique to each torsional manifold of a specific vibrational state. In an asymmetric top molecule vibrational angular momentum can be rotated away, but this sort of rotation changes the angle between the internal rotation axis and the principle axis when there is an internal rotor. This means that there is an angle between the internal axis systems of each torsional manifold of a vibrational state. The net result is that the coupling between the two states must account for the difference in internal axis angle and will have some significant consequences to the selection rules and interactions. Two cases will be discussed, methanol and ethyl cyanide.

  6. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress - A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC 8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative effects in sodium (Na

  7. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress – A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M.; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC 8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative effects in sodium (Na

  8. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellasio, C.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-depende...

  9. Lignification in transgenics deficient in 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)or the associated hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Clint Chapple; Ramesh B. Nair; Armin Wagner; Fang Chen; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Richard A Dixon; Heather D. Coleman; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in angiosperms massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units. Alfalfa stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type (WT) levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by...

  10. Comparison of oxidation behaviors of Cr7C3 at 1173 K and 1273 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Zhifu; Chang, Li; Zheng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Cr7C3 has properties of high strength, low density, good chemical stability, and resistance against corrosion and oxidation at high temperature. With these excellent properties, Cr7C3 is considered especially suitable as a high temperature material. However, little attention has been paid to the oxidation behavior of Cr7C3. In this work, the oxidation behavior of Cr7C3 at 1173 K and 1273 K, with seven durations from 10 h to 70 h, was investigated. After testing, oxide morphology and phase composition were observed, and identified by SEM and XRD respectively. The results indicate that the anti-oxidation levels of Cr7C3 at the oxidation times of 1173 K and 1273 K both belong to the total anti-oxidation grade; the oxidation rate constant and oxidation rate of Cr7C3 at 1273 K show improvement over those at 1173 K by about one order of magnitude and more than two-fold respectively. The result also indicates that Cr2O3 does not peel off from the surface of Cr7C3 at 1173 K however, at 1273 K it does peel off. Furthermore, the calculation result indicates that the critical compressive stress value for Cr2O3 peeling from the surface of Cr7C3 lies between 1.14 GPa and 1.27 GPa.

  11. Reibergrama para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorta-Contreras Alberto Juan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagrama de las razones de Reiber o reibergrama cobra cada día mayores usos para la caracterización de la síntesis intratecal de proteínas. El reibergrama fue definido para las clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas pero luego ha sido utilizado para evaluar otras proteínas basado en la teoría de la difusión molecular/velocidad de flujo del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR. MÉTODO: El C3c, producto de la degradación del factor del complemento C3 y con una masa molecular de 145 KDa, se acerca a las características moleculares de la IgG para las leyes de la difusión de Fick. Se asume las constantes de la IgG en la fórmula de Reiber para evaluar la síntesis intratecal de C3c así como su correspondiente reibergrama. Se estudiaron 27 pacientes y 27 controles a los que se les dosificó albúmina y C3c en suero y LCR por inmunodifusión radial. RESULTADOS: Con el reibergrama propuesto para el C3c se evaluaron estos pacientes. Se comprueba la validez de este reibergrama para distintas condiciones de barrera con o sin síntesis intratecal de C3c. CONCLUSION: El reibergrama y su fórmula correspondiente propuesto para la C3c puede ser usado para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c.

  12. Starch Accumulation in the Bundle Sheaths of C3 Plants: A Possible Pre-Condition for C4 Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    C4 plants have evolved >60 times from their C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis requires a set of closely co-ordinated anatomical and biochemical characteristics. However, it is now recognized that the evolution of C4 plants requires fewer changes than had ever been considered, because of the genetic, biochemical and anatomical pre-conditions of C3 ancestors that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis. Therefore, the pre-conditions in C3 plants are now being actively investigated to clarify the evolutionary trajectory from C3 to C4 plants and to engineer C4 traits efficiently into C3 crops. In the present mini review, the anatomical characteristics of C3 and C4 plants are briefly reviewed and the importance of the bundle sheath for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is described. For example, while the bundle sheath of C3 rice plants accumulates large amounts of starch in the developing leaf blade and at the lamina joint of the mature leaf, the starch sheath function is also observed during leaf development in starch accumulator grasses regardless of photosynthetic type. The starch sheath function of C3 plants is therefore also implicated as a possible pre-condition for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The phylogenetic relationships between the types of storage carbohydrates and of photosynthesis need to be clarified in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Modified Thermal Time Model Quantifying Germination Response to Temperature for C3 and C4 Species in Temperate Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-based germination models are widely used to predict germination rate and germination timing of plants. However, comparison of model parameters between large numbers of species is rare. In this study, seeds of 27 species including 12 C4 and 15 C3 species were germinated at a range of constant temperatures from 5 °C to 40 °C. We used a modified thermal time model to calculate germination parameters at suboptimal temperatures. Generally, the optimal germination temperature was higher for C4 species than for C3 species. The thermal time constant for the 50% germination percentile was significantly higher for C3 than C4 species. The thermal time constant of perennials was significantly higher than that of annuals. However, differences in base temperatures were not significant between C3 and C4, or annuals and perennial species. The relationship between germination rate and seed mass depended on plant functional type and temperature, while the base temperature and thermal time constant of C3 and C4 species exhibited no significant relationship with seed mass. The results illustrate differences in germination characteristics between C3 and C4 species. Seed mass does not affect germination parameters, plant life cycle matters, however.

  14. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng; Guo, Xiangke; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C3N4 was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO2, Al2O3 and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C3N4-Si) templated by SiO2 nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C3N4 (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al2O3-templated g-C3N4-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp3sbnd Csbnd Csbnd and sbnd NHx) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  15. Facile Electrospinning Synthesis of Carbonized Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/g-C3 N4 Hybrid Films for Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Tian, Yang; Wang, Yanbin; Jan, Abdul Khaliq; Chen, Yutong

    2017-01-05

    The film-forming ability and conductivity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) are still unsatisfying, despite much progress having been made in g-C3 N4 -related photocatalysts. New methods for synthesizing g-C3 N4 films coupled with excellent conductive materials are of significance. Herein, a facile method for synthesizing novel carbonized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/g-C3 N4 (CPVP /g-C3 N4 ) films have been developed through an electrospinning technique. Nanocarbons are generated by in situ carbonization of PVP in the films, which could enhance the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the films due to its good conductivity. The coverage of the CPVP /g-C3 N4 film is good and the films exhibit excellent PEC performance. Furthermore, the thickness of the films can be adjusted by varying the electrospinning time and substantially controlling the PEC performance, of which the photocurrent densities under visible-light irradiation are 3.55, 4.92, and 6.64 μA cm(-2) with spinning times of 40, 70, and 120 min, respectively. The photocurrent does not decrease until testing at 4000 s and the coverage is still good after the tests, which indicates the good stability of the films. The excellent PEC performance of the films and facile preparation method enables promising applications in energy and environmental remediation areas. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Complement component C3 and butyrylcholinesterase activity are associated with neurodegeneration and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Aeinehband

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genome-wide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh, a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL, a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with MS (n = 48 and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18. C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with ≥9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone.

  17. Atomically Thin B doped g-C3N4 Nanosheets: High-Temperature Ferromagnetism and calculated Half-Metallicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daqiang; Liu, Yonggang; Liu, Peitao; Si, Mingsu; Xue, Desheng

    2016-10-20

    Since the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3), which can be seen as C-doped graphitic-C3N4 (g-C3N4), was reported to display ferromagnetic ground state and intrinsic half-metallicity (Du et al., PRL,108,197207,2012), it has attracted numerous research interest to tune the electronic structure and magnetic properties of g-C3N4 due to their potential applications in spintronic devices. In this paper, we reported the experimentally achieving of high temperature ferromagnetism in metal-free ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets by introducing of B atoms. Further, first-principles calculation results revealed that the current flow in such a system was fully spin-polarized and the magnetic moment was mainly attributed to the p orbital of N atoms in B doped g-C3N4 monolayer, giving the theoretic evidence of the ferromagnetism and half-metallicity. Our finding provided a new perspective for B doped g-C3N4 spintronic devices in future.

  18. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  19. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on carbon isotope fractionation in C3 land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Jahren, A. Hope

    2012-11-01

    Because atmospheric carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of all land-plant carbon, workers have suggested that pCO2 level may exert control over the amount of 13C incorporated into plant tissues. However, experiments growing plants under elevated pCO2 in both chamber and field settings, as well as meta-analyses of ecological and agricultural data, have yielded a wide range of estimates for the effect of pCO2 on the net isotopic discrimination (Δδ13Cp) between plant tissue (δ13Cp) and atmospheric CO2 (δ13CCO2). Because plant stomata respond sensitively to plant water status and simultaneously alter the concentration of pCO2 inside the plant (ci) relative to outside the plant (ca), any experiment that lacks environmental control over water availability across treatments could result in additional isotopic variation sufficient to mask or cancel the direct influence of pCO2 on Δδ13Cp. We present new data from plant growth chambers featuring enhanced dynamic stabilization of moisture availability and relative humidity, in addition to providing constant light, nutrient, δ13CCO2, and pCO2 level for up to four weeks of plant growth. Within these chambers, we grew a total of 191 C3 plants (128 Raphanus sativus plants and 63 Arabidopsis thaliana) across fifteen levels of pCO2 ranging from 370 to 4200 ppm. Three types of plant tissue were harvested and analyzed for carbon isotope value: above-ground tissues, below-ground tissues, and leaf-extracted nC31-alkanes. We observed strong hyperbolic correlations (R ⩾ 0.94) between the pCO2 level and Δδ13Cp for each type of plant tissue analyzed; furthermore the linear relationships previously suggested by experiments across small (10-350 ppm) changes in pCO2 (e.g., 300-310 ppm or 350-700 ppm) closely agree with the amount of fractionation per ppm increase in pCO2 calculated from our hyperbolic relationship. In this way, our work is consistent with, and provides a unifying relationship for, previous work on carbon isotopes

  20. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-05-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species.

  1. Apolipoprotein C3 SstI polymorphism and triglyceride levels in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava LM

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A close association between Sst I polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the apolipoproteinC3 (APOC3 gene and levels of plasma triglycerides (TG had been reported by different investigators. Hypertriglyceridemia(HTG is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD in the context of Asian Indians. We conducted a study on the relationship between APOC3 SstI polymorphism (S1S1, S1S2 and S2S2 genotypes and plasma TG levels in a group of 139 male healthy volunteers from Northern India. Methods DNA samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by SstI digestion. Digested PCR products were run on 3% agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Results Rare S2 allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.313 as compared to the Caucasians (0.00–0.11. The genotypic distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. S2 allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group (N = 34 as compared to NTG group (N = 105 (p = 0.001. Multiple logistic regression revealed S1S2 individuals had age-adjusted odds ratio of 2.43 (95%CI = 0.99–6.01, p = 0.054 and S2S2 had 9.9 (95%CI = 2.66–37.29, p = 0.0006 for developing HTG in comparison to S1S1 genotype. Conclusions Our study shows a significant association between rare S2 allele and HTG in Asian Indians.

  2. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species. PMID:23599273

  3. The Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis Links C and N Fluxes in C3 Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Vincent; Martre, Pierre; Kattge, Jens; Gastal, François; Esser, Gerd; Fontaine, Sébastien; Soussana, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters in vegetation models and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content links the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Process understanding for reliably predicting photosynthetic capacity is still missing. To advance this understanding we have tested across C3 plant species the coordination hypothesis, which assumes nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic processes such that photosynthesis tends to be co-limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation and regeneration. The coordination hypothesis yields an analytical solution to predict photosynthetic capacity and calculate area-based leaf nitrogen content (Na). The resulting model linking leaf photosynthesis, stomata conductance and nitrogen investment provides testable hypotheses about the physiological regulation of these processes. Based on a dataset of 293 observations for 31 species grown under a range of environmental conditions, we confirm the coordination hypothesis: under mean environmental conditions experienced by leaves during the preceding month, RuBP carboxylation equals RuBP regeneration. We identify three key parameters for photosynthetic coordination: specific leaf area and two photosynthetic traits (k3, which modulates N investment and is the ratio of RuBP carboxylation/oxygenation capacity () to leaf photosynthetic N content (Npa); and Jfac, which modulates photosynthesis for a given k3 and is the ratio of RuBP regeneration capacity (Jmax) to). With species-specific parameter values of SLA, k3 and Jfac, our leaf photosynthesis coordination model accounts for 93% of the total variance in Na across species and environmental conditions. A calibration by plant functional type of k3 and Jfac still leads to accurate model prediction of Na, while SLA calibration is essentially required at species level. Observed variations in k3 and Jfac are partly explained by environmental and phylogenetic constraints, while SLA variation is partly explained

  4. Immunotoxic effects of cis-urocanic acid exposure in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, M Renee; Gogal, Robert M; De Fabo, Edward C; Longstreth, Janice; Holladay, Steven D

    2003-04-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation results in increased levels of intradermal cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and alters cutaneous immunity by interfering with processing and presentation of antigen by Langerhans cells. Reports on effects of systemic immunotoxicity with 30 day cUCA exposure in laboratory rodents include thymic atrophy, thymic hypocellularity and decreased T-cell-mediated immunity; however, immune effects of single exposure or 5 day cUCA administration, which may better mimic human exposures, are poorly defined. The present study initially evaluated immune effects of single, 5 day, and 4 week cUCA exposure in C57BL/6N mice. Single administration of intradermal cUCA resulted in decreased splenocyte phagocytosis that persisted for 30 days after cUCA exposure. Five day consecutive cUCA exposure decreased numbers of phenotypically mature CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) (single positive) thymocytes, increased CD4(+)CD8(+) (double positive) immature thymocytes and increased splenocyte proliferation. Prolonged cUCA exposure (4 weeks) caused profound thymic hypocellularity and splenic hypercellularity and increased splenic macrophage chemiluminescence. Because of this apparent sensitivity of C57BL/6N mice to cUCA, thymic hypocellularity was compared between C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice dosed with cUCA, and was found to be more pronounced in the C57BL/6N strain. These results are an extension of previous conclusions on immune modulation caused by cUCA in the spleen and thymus. Further, the observed variation in sensitivity between the mouse strains is consistent with known genetic susceptibility of these strains to the immunomodulatory effects of exposure to sunlight.

  5. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long winter off might lead to a strained calf or thigh muscle. Sprains are caused by injuries, such as twisting your ankle. This kind of injury is common in sports, but can also happen any time you trip or fall. What if I Get a Strain or Sprain? If you get a strain or ...

  6. Obturator internus muscle strains

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Caoimhe; Alkhayat, Abdullah; O'Neill, Pat; Eustace, Stephen; Kavanagh, Eoin

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  7. Obturator internus muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Caoimhe; Alkhayat, Abdullah; O'Neill, Pat; Eustace, Stephen; Kavanagh, Eoin

    2017-03-01

    We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  8. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  9. B lymphocytes and macrophages release cell membrane deposited C3-fragments on exosomes with T cell response-enhancing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Krisztián; Végh, Péter; Prechl, József; Kerekes, Krisztina; Kovács, János; Csikós, György; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna

    2008-04-01

    Recently exosomes have been shown to play important roles in several immune phenomena. These small vesicles contain MHC proteins along with co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, and mediate antigen presentation to T cells. In the present study we show that upon incubation with autologous serum, murine macrophages and B cells--but not T lymphocytes--fix C3-fragments covalently to the cell membrane and release them on exosomes in a time dependent fashion. While in the case of human B lymphocytes CR2 has been shown to serve as the main C3b-acceptor site, here we clearly demonstrate that cells derived from CR1/2 KO animals also have the capacity to fix C3b covalently. This finding points to a major difference between human and murine systems, and suggests the existence of additional acceptor sites on the cell membrane. Here we show that C3-fragment containing exosomes derived from OVA loaded antigen presenting cells induce a significantly elevated T cell response in the presence of suboptimal antigen stimulus. These data reveal a novel function of cell surface-deposited C3-fragments and provide further evidence for the role of exosomes secreted by antigen presenting cells. Since fixation of C3b to plasma membranes can be substantial in the presence of pathogens; moreover tumor cells are also known to activate the complement system resulting in complement-deposition, C3-carrying exosomes released by these cells may play an important immunomodulatory role in vivo, as well.

  10. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2014-11-01

    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  11. MAPK Phosphatase AP2C3 Induces Ectopic Proliferation of Epidermal Cells Leading to Stomata Development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Magyar, Zoltan; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Choopayak, Chonnanit; Boniecka, Justyna; Murray, James A. H.; Bogre, Laszlo; Meskiene, Irute

    2010-01-01

    In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C) that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells. PMID:21203456

  12. Complement C3d conjugation to anthrax protective antigen promotes a rapid, sustained, and protective antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V Kolla

    Full Text Available B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be the principle target of neutralization. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the natural adjuvant, C3d, versus alum in eliciting an anti-PA humoral response and found that C3d conjugation to PA and emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA imparted superior protection from anthrax challenge relative to PA in IFA or PA adsorbed to alum. Relative to alum-PA, immunization of mice with C3d-PA/IFA augmented both the onset and sustained production of PA-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding portion (domain 4 of PA. C3d-PA/IFA was efficacious when administered either i.p. or s.c., and in adolescent mice lacking a fully mature B cell compartment. Induction of PA-specific antibodies by C3d-PA/IFA correlated with increased efficiency of germinal center formation and plasma cell generation. Importantly, C3d-PA immunization effectively protected mice from intranasal challenge with B. anthracis spores, and was approximately 10-fold more effective than alum-PA immunization or PA/IFA based on dose challenge. These data suggest that incorporation of C3d as an adjuvant may overcome shortcomings of the currently licensed aluminum-based vaccine, and may confer protection in the early days following acute anthrax exposure.

  13. MAPK phosphatase AP2C3 induces ectopic proliferation of epidermal cells leading to stomata development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Umbrasaite

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells.

  14. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

    2009-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  15. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae infection on the antioxidant profile of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum C3/CAM intermediate plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Nosek, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2011-07-01

    Mesembryathemum crystallinum plants performing C(3) or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) appear to be highly resistant to Botrytis cinerea as well as to Pseudomonas syringae. Fungal hyphae growth was restricted to 48h post-inoculation (hpi) in both metabolic types and morphology of hyphae differed between those growing in C(3) and CAM plants. Growth of bacteria was inhibited significantly 24 hpi in both C(3) and CAM plants. B. cinerea and P. syringae infection led to an increase in the concentration of H(2)O(2) in C(3) plants 3 hpi, while a decrease in H(2)O(2) content was observed in CAM performing plants. The concentration of H(2)O(2) returned to the control level 24 and 48 hpi. Changes in H(2)O(2) content corresponded with the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), mostly 3 hpi. We noted that its activity decreased significantly in C(3) plants and increased in CAM plants in response to inoculation with both pathogens. On the contrary, changes in the activity of CAT did not correlate with H(2)O(2) level. It increased significantly after interaction of C(3) plants with B. cinerea or P. syringae, but in CAM performing plants, the activity of this enzyme was unchanged. Inoculation with B. cinerea or P. syringae led to an increase in the total SOD activity in C(3) plants while CAM plants did not exhibit changes in the total SOD activity after interaction with both pathogens. In conclusion, the pathogen-induced changes in H(2)O(2) content and in SOD, POD and CAT activities in M. crystallinum leaves, were related to the photosynthetic metabolism type of the stressed plants rather than to the lifestyle of the invading pathogen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The two sides of complement C3d: evolution of electrostatics in a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A Kieslich

    Full Text Available The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2 is a key aspect of complement immune system activation, and is a component in a link between innate and adaptive immunities. The complement immune system is an ancient mechanism for defense, and can be found in species that have been on Earth for the last 600 million years. However, the link between the complement system and adaptive immunity, which is formed through the association of the B-cell co-receptor complex, including the C3d-CR2 interaction, is a much more recent adaptation. Human C3d and CR2 have net charges of -1 and +7 respectively, and are believed to have evolved favoring the role of electrostatics in their functions. To investigate the role of electrostatics in the function and evolution of human C3d and CR2, we have applied electrostatic similarity methods to identify regions of evolutionarily conserved electrostatic potential based on 24 homologues of complement C3d and 4 homologues of CR2. We also examine the effects of structural perturbation, as introduced through molecular dynamics and mutations, on spatial distributions of electrostatic potential to identify perturbation resistant regions, generated by so-called electrostatic "hot-spots". Distributions of electrostatic similarity based on families of perturbed structures illustrate the presence of electrostatic "hot-spots" at the two functional sites of C3d, while the surface of CR2 lacks electrostatic "hot-spots" despite its excessively positive nature. We propose that the electrostatic "hot-spots" of C3d have evolved to optimize its dual-functionality (covalently attaching to pathogen surfaces and interaction with CR2, which are both necessary for the formation B-cell co-receptor complexes. Comparison of the perturbation resistance of the electrostatic character of the homologues of C3d suggests that there was an emergence of a new role of electrostatics, and a transition in the function of C3

  17. The two sides of complement C3d: evolution of electrostatics in a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslich, Chris A; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2) is a key aspect of complement immune system activation, and is a component in a link between innate and adaptive immunities. The complement immune system is an ancient mechanism for defense, and can be found in species that have been on Earth for the last 600 million years. However, the link between the complement system and adaptive immunity, which is formed through the association of the B-cell co-receptor complex, including the C3d-CR2 interaction, is a much more recent adaptation. Human C3d and CR2 have net charges of -1 and +7 respectively, and are believed to have evolved favoring the role of electrostatics in their functions. To investigate the role of electrostatics in the function and evolution of human C3d and CR2, we have applied electrostatic similarity methods to identify regions of evolutionarily conserved electrostatic potential based on 24 homologues of complement C3d and 4 homologues of CR2. We also examine the effects of structural perturbation, as introduced through molecular dynamics and mutations, on spatial distributions of electrostatic potential to identify perturbation resistant regions, generated by so-called electrostatic "hot-spots". Distributions of electrostatic similarity based on families of perturbed structures illustrate the presence of electrostatic "hot-spots" at the two functional sites of C3d, while the surface of CR2 lacks electrostatic "hot-spots" despite its excessively positive nature. We propose that the electrostatic "hot-spots" of C3d have evolved to optimize its dual-functionality (covalently attaching to pathogen surfaces and interaction with CR2), which are both necessary for the formation B-cell co-receptor complexes. Comparison of the perturbation resistance of the electrostatic character of the homologues of C3d suggests that there was an emergence of a new role of electrostatics, and a transition in the function of C3d, after the

  18. Study of complement activation, C3 and interleukin-6 levels in burn patients and their role as prognostic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of burn patients is always challenging for the clinician due to high risk of bacterial sepsis, multi-organ failure and death. Our objective was to study complement activation, C3 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in burn patients and evaluate their role as prognostic markers. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 burn patients and 60 healthy controls were included in this study. Blood was collected from patients within 24 h and at 7 th day of injury. Complement activation was determined by crossed electrophoresis and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. C3 levels were measured using a single radial immunodiffusion. IL-6 was detected by ELISA. Results: All patients showed initial complement activation. Mean C3 levels showed an inverse correlation with the severity of burn. Patients with ≥20% burns had lower C3 than the controls (P < 0.001 and those with <20% burns (P < 0.001. Patients with ≥40% burns had activated complement and low C3 in 2 nd week; they subsequently developed infection. Complement was inactive and C3 levels recovered in patients with <40% burns. The non-survivors showed significantly lower C3 than the survivors (P < 0.05 in 2 nd samples. Patients who developed infection had C3 significantly lower than those who remained free of infection (P < 0.05. All patients showed initial elevation in IL-6 levels. Patients with ≥60% burns had significantly higher IL-6 than controls (P < 0.001 and those with <60% burns (P < 0.001. Non-survivors had higher IL-6 than survivors in both samples (P < 0.001. Patients who developed infection showed significantly higher IL-6 in 2 nd samples than those without infection (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Complement activation, C3 and IL-6 levels correlated well with the severity of injury and development of infection in burn patients. These parameters can be used to predict the onset of infection, septicaemia and mortality in burn patients.

  19. The coordination of leaf photosynthesis links C and N fluxes in C3 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Vincent; Martre, Pierre; Kattge, Jens; Gastal, François; Esser, Gerd; Fontaine, Sébastien; Soussana, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters in vegetation models and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content links the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Process understanding for reliably predicting photosynthetic capacity is still missing. To advance this understanding we have tested across C(3) plant species the coordination hypothesis, which assumes nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic processes such that photosynthesis tends to be co-limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation and regeneration. The coordination hypothesis yields an analytical solution to predict photosynthetic capacity and calculate area-based leaf nitrogen content (N(a)). The resulting model linking leaf photosynthesis, stomata conductance and nitrogen investment provides testable hypotheses about the physiological regulation of these processes. Based on a dataset of 293 observations for 31 species grown under a range of environmental conditions, we confirm the coordination hypothesis: under mean environmental conditions experienced by leaves during the preceding month, RuBP carboxylation equals RuBP regeneration. We identify three key parameters for photosynthetic coordination: specific leaf area and two photosynthetic traits (k(3), which modulates N investment and is the ratio of RuBP carboxylation/oxygenation capacity (V(Cmax)) to leaf photosynthetic N content (N(pa)); and J(fac), which modulates photosynthesis for a given k(3) and is the ratio of RuBP regeneration capacity (J(max)) to V(Cmax)). With species-specific parameter values of SLA, k(3) and J(fac), our leaf photosynthesis coordination model accounts for 93% of the total variance in N(a) across species and environmental conditions. A calibration by plant functional type of k(3) and J(fac) still leads to accurate model prediction of N(a), while SLA calibration is essentially required at species level. Observed variations in k(3) and J(fac) are partly explained by environmental and phylogenetic

  20. The coordination of leaf photosynthesis links C and N fluxes in C3 plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Maire

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters in vegetation models and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content links the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Process understanding for reliably predicting photosynthetic capacity is still missing. To advance this understanding we have tested across C(3 plant species the coordination hypothesis, which assumes nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic processes such that photosynthesis tends to be co-limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP carboxylation and regeneration. The coordination hypothesis yields an analytical solution to predict photosynthetic capacity and calculate area-based leaf nitrogen content (N(a. The resulting model linking leaf photosynthesis, stomata conductance and nitrogen investment provides testable hypotheses about the physiological regulation of these processes. Based on a dataset of 293 observations for 31 species grown under a range of environmental conditions, we confirm the coordination hypothesis: under mean environmental conditions experienced by leaves during the preceding month, RuBP carboxylation equals RuBP regeneration. We identify three key parameters for photosynthetic coordination: specific leaf area and two photosynthetic traits (k(3, which modulates N investment and is the ratio of RuBP carboxylation/oxygenation capacity (V(Cmax to leaf photosynthetic N content (N(pa; and J(fac, which modulates photosynthesis for a given k(3 and is the ratio of RuBP regeneration capacity (J(max to V(Cmax. With species-specific parameter values of SLA, k(3 and J(fac, our leaf photosynthesis coordination model accounts for 93% of the total variance in N(a across species and environmental conditions. A calibration by plant functional type of k(3 and J(fac still leads to accurate model prediction of N(a, while SLA calibration is essentially required at species level. Observed variations in k(3 and J(fac are partly explained by environmental and phylogenetic constraints

  1. Role of C3 plant species on carbon dioxide and methane emissions in Mediterranean constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available C3 plant species are widely used to vegetate constructed wetlands (CW, but so far no information is available on their effect on CW CO2(eq balance in the Mediterranean climate. The aim of this research was to study carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 emissions and CO2(eq budgets of CW horizontal sub-surface flow pilot-plant beds vegetated with Arundo donax L. and Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. compared with an unvegetated bed in Sicily. The highest total plant biomass production was measured in the bed vegetated with A. donax (17.0 kg m–2, whereas P. australis produced 7.6 kg m–2. CO2 and CH4 emissions and showed significant correlation with average air temperature and solar radiation for each bed. The CO2 emission values ranged from 0.8±0.1 g m–2 d–1, for the unvegetated bed in April, to 24.9±0.6 g m–2 d–1 for the bed with P. australis in August. The average CO2 emissions of the whole monitored period were 15.5±7.2, 15.1±7.1 and 3.6±2.4 g m–2 d–1 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. The CH4 fluxes differed significantly over the monitored seasons, with the highest median value being measured during spring (0.963 g m–2 d–1. No statistical differences were found for CH4 flux among the studied beds. Cumulative estimated CH4 emissions during the study period (from April to December were 159.5, 134.1 and 114.7 g m–2 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. CO2(eq balance showed that the two vegetated beds act as CO2(eq sinks, while the unvegetated bed, as expected, acts as a CO2(eq source. Considering only the above-ground plant biomass in the CO2(eq budgets, P. australis and A. donax determined uptakes of 1.30 and 8.35 kg CO2(eq m–2 respectively.

  2. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic H2-production of g-C3N4/WS2 composite heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akple, Maxwell Selase; Low, Jingxiang; Wageh, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed. A.; Yu, Jiaguo; Zhang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    As a clean and renewable solar H2-production system to address the increasing global environmental crisis and energy demand, photocatalytic hydrogen production from water splitting using earth abundant materials has received a lot of attention. In this study, WS2-graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were prepared using WO3 and thiourea as precursors through a gas-solid reaction. Different amount of WS2 were loaded on g-C3N4 to form the heterostructures and the composite samples exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 production under visible light. The composite sample with 0.01 wt% WS2 exhibited the highest H2-production rate of 101 μmol g-1 h-1, which was even better than that of the Pt-C3N4 sample with the same loading content. The high photocatalytic activity was attributed to the formation of heterojunction between g-C3N4 and WS2 cocatalyst which allowed for effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers. This work showed the possibility for the utilization of low cost WS2 as an efficient cocatalyst to promote the photocatalytic H2 production of g-C3N4.

  3. The hybridization of Ag2CO3 rods with g-C3N4 sheets with improved photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konglin Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of graphitic carbon nitride/silver carbonate (g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 rod-like composites with different weight contents of g-C3N4 have been prepared by a facile precipitation method. The g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 rod-like composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag2CO3 toward degradation of rhodamine B (RhB and methylene blue (MB under visible-light irradiation. The photocatalytic reaction follows a pseudo-first-order reaction and the rate constants for the degradation of RhB and MB by 3.5% g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 are about 2 times and 1.7 times that of pure Ag2CO3, respectively. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the photoluminescence (PL spectra and a series of radical trapping experimental analyses. The remarkably improved photocatalytic performance should be ascribed to the heterostructure between Ag2CO3 and g-C3N4, which greatly promoted the photoinduced charge transfer and inhibited the recombination of electrons and holes.

  4. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-dependent malic enzyme, NADP-dependent malic enzyme, or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) are explicitly included. The SMA can be used to refine experimental data analysis or formulate hypothetical scenarios, and is coded in a freely available Microsoft Excel workbook. The theoretical underpinnings and general model behaviour are analysed with a range of simulations, including (i) an analysis of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 in operational conditions; (ii) manipulating photorespiration in a C3 plant; (iii) progressively upregulating a C2 shuttle in C3 photosynthesis; (iv) progressively upregulating a C4 cycle in C2 photosynthesis; and (v) manipulating processes that are hypothesized to respond to transient environmental inputs. Results quantify the functional trade-offs, such as the electron transport needed to meet ATP/NADPH demand, as well as metabolite traffic, inherent to different subtypes. The SMA refines our understanding of the stoichiometry of photosynthesis, which is of paramount importance for basic and applied research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Major alterations in transcript profiles between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis of an amphibious species Eleocharis baldwinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Taiyu; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lin, Yongjun

    2014-09-01

    Engineering C4 photosynthetic metabolism into C3 crops is regarded as a major strategy to increase crop productivity, and clarification of the evolutionary processes of C4 photosynthesis can help the better use of this strategy. Here, Eleocharis baldwinii, a species in which C4 photosynthesis can be induced from a C3-C4 state under either environmental or ABA treatments, was used to identify the major transcriptional modifications during the process from C3-C4 to C4. The transcriptomic comparison suggested that in addition to the major differences in C4 core pathway, the pathways of glycolysis, citrate acid metabolism and protein synthesis were dramatically modified during the inducement of C4 photosynthetic states. Transcripts of many transporters, including not only metabolite transporters but also ion transporters, were dramatically increased in C4 photosynthetic state. Many candidate regulatory genes with unidentified functions were differentially expressed in C3-C4 and C4 photosynthetic states. Finally, it was indicated that ABA, auxin signaling and DNA methylation play critical roles in the regulation of C4 photosynthesis. In summary, by studying the different photosynthetic states of the same species, this work provides the major transcriptional differences between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis, and many of the transcriptional differences are potentially related to C4 development and therefore are the potential targets for reverse genetics studies.

  6. You're so vein: bundle sheath physiology, phylogeny and evolution in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Howard; Weller, George; Toy, Lydia F M; Dennis, Ross J

    2013-02-01

    Bundle sheath (BS) anatomy is found in most C4 lineages, associated with low inter-veinal distances (IVD) and high BS:mesophyll ratio (BS:MC). The origins, function and selective advantages of the BS in C3 lineages are relevant for understanding the environmental, molecular and phylogenetic determinants of C4 evolution. Suggested functions for BS have included structural support, hydraulic isolation, storage for water, ions, and carbohydrates, and photorespiratory carbon metabolism; we propose a central role for cavitation repair, consistent with the BS as a control centre on regulating stem and leaf hydraulic continuity. An analysis of BS traits in the phylogenetic lineages giving rise to C4 grasses (the 'PACMAD' clade) shows an initial enhancement in BS:MC ratio in C3 lineages, although IVD is similar to the Pooideae sister group. Using a global database, a well-developed BS in the C3 PACMAD lineages was associated with higher precipitation and temperatures in the habitat of origin on an annual basis, with the C3 to C4 progression defined by the aridity index (AI). Maintaining leaf hydraulic conductance and cavitation repair are consistent with increased evaporative demand and more seasonal precipitation as drivers, first for the C3 BS, and then C4 diversification, under declining CO(2) concentrations in the Palaeogene and Neogene. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Constructing effective photocatalytic purification system with P-introduced g-C3N4 for elimination of UO22+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Jiang, Shujuan; Song, Shaoqing; Sun, Chuanzhi

    2018-02-01

    Due to the inherent defects of precursor molecular structure, the limited effect of structure in the formed g-C3N4 will weaken the extension of delocalization of π electrons between the adjacent tri-s-triazine or heptazine units of g-C3N4, which thus leads to poor visible-light absorption, low utilization efficiency of charge carrier. Herein, P-introduced g-C3N4 (PC3N4) photocatalysts were constructed by partially replacing C with tributyl phosphate as precursor, and the as-designed PC3N4 photocatalysts were used to eliminate aqueous uranyl ion by photocatalytic reduction technology under visible-light irradiation. Experimental and DFT revealed that introduction of P into g-C3N4 significantly modified its electronic structure, as reflected by the narrowed band gap, enhanced visible-light absorption as well as improved transfer capability of photogenerated charge. Therefore, photocatalytic activity of PC3N4 was much better than that of pristine g-C3N4 and conventional reducing-type photocatalysts. This study suggests an efficient strategy for construct effective visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for radioactive environmental remediation.

  8. A simple two-step purification procedure for the iC3b binding collectin conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Meibom, Thomas; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Tornoe, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Bovine conglutinin is a serum protein involved in innate immunity. It binds calcium dependently to iC3b, a product of the complement component C3 deposited on cell surfaces, immune complexes or artificial surfaces after complement activation. We here present a simple and efficient two-step...... procedure for the purification of conglutinin. In the first step, bovine serum is incubated with non-coupled chromatographic TSK beads at 37°C to allow complement activation and iC3b deposition on the beads and subsequent binding of conglutinin to iC3b. Conglutinin is then eluted from the beads by EDTA....... In the second step, conglutinin is separated from iC3b and IgM by ion-exchange chromatography. This purification procedure yielded 81 μg of conglutinin per ml of serum with a recovery of 61.2%. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the purified conglutinin had a high affinity for mannan (K(d)=2.3-3.2 n...

  9. ClC-3 Expression and Its Association with Hyperglycemia Induced HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although apoptosis plays an important role in the development of Diabetic Encephalopathy (DE, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. With respect to this, the present work aims to study the variation in chloride/proton exchanger ClC-3 expression and its association with HT22 hippocampal neuronal apoptosis under hyperglycemic condition in vitro. The cells were stimulated with added 0, 5, or 25 mM glucose or mannitol for up to 72 hours before assessing the rate of ClC-3 expression, cell viability, and apoptosis. In a consecutive experiment, cells received chloride channel blocker in addition to glucose. The rate of cellular death/apoptosis and viability was measured using Flow Cytometry and MTT assay, respectively. Changes in ClC-3 expression were assessed using immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The results revealed a significant increase in cellular apoptosis and reduction in viability, associated with increased ClC-3 expression in high glucose group. Osmolarity had no role to play. Addition of chloride channel blocker completely abolished this effect. Thus we conclude that, with its increased expression, ClC-3 plays a major role in hyperglycemia induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. To strengthen our understanding of this aforesaid association, we conducted an extensive literature search which is presented in this paper.

  10. Vaccine potential of antigen cocktails composed of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii TgPI-1, ROP2 and GRA4 proteins against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Mariano S; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Arcon, Nadia; Soto, Ariadna S; Perrone Sibilia, Matías; Aldirico, María de Los Angeles; Urrutia, Mariela; Moretta, Rosalía; Fenoy, Ignacio M; Goldman, Alejandra; Martin, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    The development of an effective and safe vaccine to prevent Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important aim due to the great clinical and economic impact of this parasitosis. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with the serine protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) confers partial protection to C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice. In order to improve the level of protection, in this work, we combined this novel antigen with ROP2 and/or GRA4 recombinant proteins (rTgPI-1+rROP2, rTgPI-1+rGRA4, rTgPI-1+rROP2+rGRA4) to explore the best combination against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H/HeN mice. All tested vaccine formulations, administered following a homologous prime-boost protocol that combines intradermal and intranasal routes, conferred partial protection as measured by the reduction of brain cyst burden following oral challenge with tissue cysts of Me49 T. gondii strain. The highest level of protection was achieved by the mixture of rTgPI-1 and rROP2 proteins with an average parasite burden reduction of 50% compared to the unvaccinated control group. The vaccine-induced protective effect was related to the elicitation of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses that included antigen-specific spleen cell proliferation, the release of Th1/Th2 cytokines, and the generation of antigen-specific antibodies in serum. Additionally, mucosal immune responses were also induced, characterized by secretion of antigen-specific IgA antibodies in intestinal lavages and specific mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that rTgPI-1+rROP2 antigens seem a promising mixture to be combined with other immunogenic proteins in a multiantigenic vaccine formulation against toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dispersion C3 coefficients for the alkali-metal atoms interacting with a graphene layer and with a carbon nanotube

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate separation dependent van der Waal dispersion ($C_3$) coefficients for the interactions of the Li, Na, K and Rb alkali atoms with a graphene layer and with a single walled carbon nanotube (CNT) using the hydrodynamic and Dirac models. The results from both the models are evaluated using accurate values of the dynamic polarizabilities of the above atoms. Accountability of these accurate values of dynamical polarizabilities of the alkali atoms in determination of the above $C_3$ coefficients are accentuated by comparing them with the coefficients evaluated using the dynamic dipole polarizabilities estimated from the single oscillator approximation which are typically employed in the earlier calculations. For practical description of the atom-surface interaction potentials the radial dependent $C_3$ coefficients are given for a wide range of separation distances between the ground states of the considered atoms and the wall surfaces and also for different values of nanotube radii. The coefficients for...

  12. Plastid transport and metabolism of C3 and C4 plants--comparative analysis and possible biotechnological exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Andreas P M; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Recent progress in genomics has provided complete or near complete genome sequences of several C(3) (e.g. Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar) and C(4) (e.g. sorghum and maize) plant species. These genome sequences enabled comparative quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of C(3) and C(4) plants, in particular of their chloroplasts. Such analyses have revealed a comprehensive picture of the distribution of C(4) pathway components between bundle sheath and mesophyll cell chloroplasts and they permitted the prediction of novel pathway components. A comprehensive understanding of the C(4) photosynthetic mechanism is required for the transfer of C(4)-like photosynthesis into C(3) crop plants, such as rice. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Studies on anatomical characters indicating C3 and C4 photosynthetic metabolism in the genus Boerhavia L. (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in dicotyledons were investigated with the four species of Boerhavia occurring in Nigeria using light microscopy. The study is not yet well reported on dicotyledons as done for monocotyledons. The features cross-examined were stomata index, stomata size, inter-stomatal distance, stomatal density, interveinal distance, intercellular air spaces, leaf thickness, mesophyll thickness, Kranz tissue, one cell distant count criterion, maximum lateral cell count criterion, vein density and vein distance. Based on these features, these species (B. erecta, B. coccinea and B. repens were grouped into C4 while B. diffusa was grouped as a C3 plant. In particular, interveinal distance less than 166µm and maximum lateral count ranging 2 to 6 will help in grouping C4 dicotyledons species while those that were greater than these values are useful in grouping C3 and plants.

  14. Regenerative Soot-IX: C3 as the dominant, stable carbon cluster in high pressure sooting discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Janjua, Sohail Ahmad; Khan, S D; Khalid, R; Aleem, A; Ahmad, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented that have been obtained while operating the graphite hollow cathode duoplasmatron ion source in dual mode under constant discharge current. This dual mode operation enabled us to obtain the mass and emission spectra simultaneously. In mass spectra C3 is the main feature but C4 and C5 are also prominent, whereas in emission spectra C2 is also there and its presence shows that it is in an excited state rather than in an ionic state. These facts provide evidence that C3 is produced due to the regeneration of a soot forming sequence and leave it in ionic state. C3 is a stable molecule and the only dominant species among the carbon clusters that survives in a regenerative sooting environment at high-pressure discharges.

  15. Synthesis of boron-doped g-C3N4 with enhanced electro-catalytic activity and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; Gao, Lina; Fan, Dongliang; Lv, Xiaomeng; Li, Yuan; Yan, Zaoxue

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we rationally designed 3D carbon nitride hierarchical architecture with an interconnected network of graphene-analogue nanosheets and doped with boron through co-condensation strategy. XPS spectra confirmed the incorporation of boron atoms in the polymeric g-C3N4, while X-ray diffraction and IR indicated the characteristic structural properties of pristine g-C3N4 and boron-doped g-C3N4 (Bx-GCN). The Bx-GCN shows promising electrocatalytic activity and stability in the reduction of p-nitrophenol according to cyclic voltammograms analysis. Additionally, the use of this metal-free, organic, semiconducting polymer as an electrocatalyst would open wide application of hybrid carbon nitride materials from both point view of economy and environment.

  16. Deposition of C3, the terminal complement complex and vitronectin in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, P; Lyon, H; Christoffersen, P

    1993-01-01

    -dependent cytotoxic mechanisms in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we investigated liver biopsy specimens from 21 patients with PBC, six patients with PSC and six controls for complement deposits by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against C3d, the terminal complement complex (TCC......) and vitronectin (S-protein). We found C3d, TCC and vitronectin deposits only in the portal tracts. C3d and TCC were present in the walls of the hepatic arteries and in the connective tissue stroma but never around the bile ducts. We found vitronectin deposits throughout the connective tissue, often independent...... of the TCC deposits. When vitronectin and TCC were co-localized, the staining patterns were inverse; that is, intense staining for TCC accompanied weak staining for vitronectin and vice versa. Occasionally complete dissociation between TCC and vitronectin staining was observed. Deposits of TCC...

  17. Origin of mutational effects at the C3 and G8 positions on hammerhead ribozyme catalysis from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Sung; York, Darrin M

    2008-06-11

    A series of ten 60 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the native and mutated full length hammerhead ribozymes in the reactant state and in an activated precursor state (G8:2'OH deprotonated) are reported. Mutant simulations include the C3U, G8A, and G8I single mutants and a C3U/G8A double mutant that exhibits an experimental rescue effect. The results provide critical details into the origin of the observed mutation effects and support a mechanism where the 2'OH of G8 acts as a general acid catalyst that is held in position through Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding between G8 and C3.

  18. Drought constraints on C4 photosynthesis: stomatal and metabolic limitations in C3 and C4 subspecies of Alloteropsis semialata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brad S; Gilbert, Matthew E; Ibrahim, Douglas G; Osborne, Colin P

    2007-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway uses water more efficiently than the C3 type, yet biogeographical analyses show a decline in C4 species relative to C3 species with decreasing rainfall. To investigate this paradox, the hypothesis that the C4 advantage over C3 photosynthesis is diminished by drought was tested, and the underlying stomatal and metabolic mechanisms of this response determined. The effects of drought and high evaporative demand on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic electron sinks in C3 and C4 subspecies of the grass Alloteropsis semialata were examined. Plant responses to climatic variation and soil drought were investigated using a common garden experiment with well-watered and natural rainfall treatments, and underlying mechanisms analysed using controlled drying pot experiments. Photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the C4 than the C3 subspecies in the garden experiment under well-watered conditions, but this advantage was completely lost during a rainless period when unwatered plants experienced severe drought. Controlled drying experiments showed that this loss was caused by a greater increase in metabolic, rather than stomatal, limitations in C4 than in the C3 leaves. Decreases in CO2 assimilation resulted in lower electron transport rates and decreased photochemical efficiency under drought conditions, rather than increased electron transport to alternative sinks. These findings suggest that the high metabolic sensitivity of photosynthesis to severe drought seen previously in several C4 grass species may be an inherent characteristic of the C4 pathway. The mechanism may explain the paradox of why C4 species decline in arid environments despite high water-use efficiency.

  19. C3 deficiency ameliorates the negative effects of irradiation of the young brain on hippocampal development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalm, Marie; Andreasson, Ulf; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pekny, Milos; Blennow, Kaj; Pekna, Marcela; Blomgren, Klas

    2016-04-12

    Radiotherapy in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors is often associated with debilitating late-appearing adverse effects, such as intellectual impairment. Areas in the brain harboring stem cells are particularly sensitive to irradiation (IR) and loss of these cells may contribute to cognitive deficits. It has been demonstrated that IR-induced inflammation negatively affects neural progenitor differentiation. In this study, we used mice lacking the third complement component (C3-/-) to investigate the role of complement in a mouse model of IR-induced injury to the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampus. C3-/- and wild type (WT) mice received a single, moderate dose of 8 Gy to the brain on postnatal day 10. The C3-/- mice displayed 55 % more microglia (Iba-1+) and a trend towards increase in proliferating cells in the GCL compared to WT mice 7 days after IR. Importantly, months after IR C3-/- mice made fewer errors than WT mice in a reversal learning test indicating better learning capacity in C3-/- mice after IR. Notably, months after IR C3-/- and WT mice had similar GCL volumes, survival of newborn cells (BrdU), microglia (Iba-1) and astrocyte (S100β) numbers in the GCL. In summary, our data show that the complement system contributes to IR-induced loss of proliferating cells and maladaptive inflammatory responses in the acute phase after IR, leading to impaired learning capacity in adulthood. Targeting the complement system is hence promising for future strategies to reduce the long-term adverse consequences of IR in the young brain.

  20. Cephalosporin-3'-Diazeniumdiolate NO Donor Prodrug PYRRO-C3D Enhances Azithromycin Susceptibility of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel A; Kelso, Michael J; Rineh, Ardeshir; Yepuri, Nageshwar R; Coles, Janice; Jackson, Claire L; Halladay, Georgia D; Walker, Woolf T; Webb, Jeremy S; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Connett, Gary J; Feelisch, Martin; Faust, Saul N; Lucas, Jane S A; Allan, Raymond N

    2017-02-01

    PYRRO-C3D is a cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donor prodrug designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of PYRRO-C3D against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) biofilms and examine the role of NO in reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. The activity of PYRRO-C3D on in vitro NTHi biofilms was assessed through CFU enumeration and confocal microscopy. NO release measurements were performed using an ISO-NO probe. NTHi biofilms grown on primary ciliated respiratory epithelia at an air-liquid interface were used to investigate the effects of PYRRO-C3D in the presence of host tissue. Label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) proteomic analyses were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins following NO treatment. PYRRO-C3D specifically released NO in the presence of NTHi, while no evidence of spontaneous NO release was observed when the compound was exposed to primary epithelial cells. NTHi lacking β-lactamase activity failed to trigger NO release. Treatment significantly increased the susceptibility of in vitro NTHi biofilms to azithromycin, causing a log fold reduction (10-fold reduction or 1-log-unit reduction) in viability (P biofilms grown on primary respiratory epithelia, where a 2-log-unit reduction was observed (P biofilms, putatively via modulation of NTHi metabolic activity. Adjunctive therapy with NO mediated through PYRRO-C3D represents a promising approach for reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Genome-wide association study for serum complement C3 and C4 levels in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement C3 and C4 play key roles in the main physiological activities of complement system, and their deficiencies or over-expression are associated with many clinical infectious or immunity diseases. A two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed for serum levels of C3 and C4. The first stage was conducted in 1,999 healthy Chinese men, and the second stage was performed in an additional 1,496 subjects. We identified two SNPs, rs3753394 in CFH gene and rs3745567 in C3 gene, that are significantly associated with serum C3 levels at a genome-wide significance level (P = 7.33 × 10(-11 and P = 1.83 × 10(-9, respectively. For C4, one large genomic region on chromosome 6p21.3 is significantly associated with serum C4 levels. Two SNPs (rs1052693 and rs11575839 were located in the MHC class I area that include HLA-A, HLA-C, and HLA-B genes. Two SNPs (rs2075799 and rs2857009 were located 5' and 3' of C4 gene. The other four SNPs, rs2071278, rs3763317, rs9276606, and rs241428, were located in the MHC class II region that includes HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB, and HLA-DQB genes. The combined P-values for those eight SNPs ranged from 3.19 × 10(-22 to 5.62 × 10(-97. HBsAg-positive subjects have significantly lower C3 and C4 protein concentrations compared with HBsAg-negative subjects (P<0.05. Our study is the first GWAS report which shows genetic components influence the levels of complement C3 and C4. Our significant findings provide novel insights of their related autoimmune, infectious diseases, and molecular mechanisms.

  2. Modeling of the GELINA neutron target using coupled electron-photon-neutron transport with the MCNP4C3 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaska, M.; Borella, A.; Lathouwers, D.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Mondelaers, W. E-mail: willy.mondelaers@cec.eu.int; Plompen, A.J.M.; Dam, H. van; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2004-10-01

    Coupled electron-photon-neutron transport calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C3 to model the GELINA neutron target. Our calculations were compared with measurements of the direct and moderated flux distributions and agreement was achieved within 20%. Further, the present simulations were compared with the resolution functions established earlier with a dedicated program and with measured data for {sup 56}Fe. Here too, the agreement is excellent. New IAEA photonuclear libraries were implemented to perform these calculations. The simulations crucially rely on the new MCNP4C3 photonuclear capabilities and are made efficient by using the variance reduction and TALLYX features.

  3. Diagnosis of a C3 segmental type of vertebral artery by magnetic resonance angiography: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Uemiya, Nahoko; Sonoda, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    We report two cases in which the vertebral artery (VA) entered the spinal canal via the intervertebral foramen at the C2-C3 disc level, an extremely rare variation regarded as a C3 segmental type of VA, that we diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography. The C2 segmental type of VA, in which the VA enters the spinal canal via the C1-C2 intervertebral space, is relatively common. It is important to identify these variations before surgery of the craniovertebral junction or interventional procedures to prevent complications.

  4. Presence of the Gpr179(nob5) allele in a C3H-derived transgenic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Jasmin; Ji, Rui; Ray, Thomas A; Selber, Fabia; Gassmann, Max; Peachey, Neal S; Gregg, Ronald G; Enzmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    To identify the mutation responsible for an abnormal electroretinogram (ERG) in a transgenic mouse line (tg21) overexpressing erythropoietin (Epo). The tg21 line was generated on a mixed (C3H; C57BL/6) background and lacked the b-wave component of the ERG. This no-b-wave (nob) ERG is seen in other mouse models with depolarizing bipolar cell (DBC) dysfunction and in patients with the complete form of congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). We determined the basis for the nob ERG phenotype and screened C3H mice for the mutation to evaluate whether this finding is important for the vision research community. ERGs were used to examine retinal function. The retinal structure of the transgenic mice was investigated using histology and immunohistochemistry. Inverse PCR was performed to identify the insertion site of the Epo transgene in the mouse genome. Affected mice were backcrossed to follow the inheritance pattern of the nob ERG phenotype. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR), Sanger sequencing, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the mutation causing the defect. Additional C3H sublines were screened for the detected mutation. Retinal histology and blood vessel structure were not disturbed, and no loss of DBCs was observed in the tg21 nob mice. The mutation causing the nob ERG phenotype is inherited independently of the tg21 transgene. The qRT PCR experiments revealed that the nob ERG phenotype reflected a mutation in Gpr179, a gene involved in DBC signal transduction. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of the Gpr179(nob5) insertional mutation in intron 1 of Gpr179. Screening for mutations in other C3H-derived lines revealed that C3H.Pde6b(+) mice carry the Gpr179 (nob5) allele whereas C3H/HeH mice do not. We identified the presence of the Gpr179(nob5) mutation causing DBC dysfunction in a C3H-derived transgenic mouse line. The nob phenotype is not related to the presence of the transgene. The Gpr179(nob5) allele can be added to the list of

  5. Functional modification of a 21-kilodalton G protein when ADP-ribosylated by exoenzyme C3 of Clostridium botulinum.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, E.J.; Gill, D M; Boquet, P; Popoff, M R

    1988-01-01

    Exoenzyme C3 from Clostridium botulinum types C and D specifically ADP-ribosylated a 21-kilodalton cellular protein, p21.bot. Guanyl nucleotides protected the substrate against denaturation, which implies that p21.bot is a G protein. When introduced into the interior of cells, purified exoenzyme C3 ADP-ribosylated intracellular p21.bot and changed its function. NIH 3T3, PC12, and other cells rapidly underwent temporary morphological alterations that were in certain respects similar to those s...

  6. A critical review on the improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants using genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Shao, Hong-Bo; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2012-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious challenges facing us today. It may be linked to the increase in atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), leading to a rise in sea level, notable shifts in ecosystems, and in the frequency and intensity of wild fires. There is a strong interest in stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other GHGs by decreasing carbon emission and/or increasing carbon sequestration. Biotic sequestration is an important and effective strategy to mitigate the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by increasing carbon sequestration and storage capacity of ecosystems using plant photosynthesis and by decreasing carbon emission using biofuel rather than fossil fuel. Improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, using transgenic engineering, potentially provides a set of available and effective tools for enhancing plant carbon sequestration. In this review, firstly different biological methods of CO2 assimilation in C3, C4 and CAM plants are introduced and three types of C4 pathways which have high photosynthetic performance and have evolved as CO2 pumps are briefly summarized. Then (i) the improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation of C3 plants by transgenic engineering using non-C4 genes, and (ii) the overexpression of individual or multiple C4 cycle photosynthetic genes (PEPC, PPDK, PCK, NADP-ME and NADP-MDH) in transgenic C3 plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, rice and Arabidopsis) are highlighted. Some transgenic C3 plants (e.g. tobacco, rice and Arabidopsis) overexpressing the FBP/SBPase, ictB and cytochrome c6 genes showed positive effects on photosynthetic efficiency and growth characteristics. However, over the last 28 years, efforts to overexpress individual, double or multiple C4 enzymes in C3 plants like tobacco, potato, rice, and Arabidopsis have produced mixed results that do not confirm or eliminate the possibility of improving photosynthesis of C3 plants by this approach. Finally, a prospect

  7. A salinity-induced C3-CAM transition increases energy conservation in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, Ewa; Karpinska, Barbara; Romanowska, Elzbieta; Slesak, Ireneusz; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2004-06-01

    A strongly increased ATP/ADP ratio was found during the nocturnal phase I in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants. Conversely, during the daytime phase III in CAM-performing plants the ATP/ADP ratio dropped to a similar level to that of C3 plants, cytochrome c oxidase activity was stimulated and mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase activity was strongly increased. The findings suggest that a salinity-induced C3-CAM transition might be an efficient energy-conserving strategy for M. crystallinum plants, in which the strong nocturnal ATP production seems to be, at least partially, independent from the coupled mitochondrial electron transport.

  8. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein Stimulates Complement C3 Expression and Secretion via Liver X Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation in Human Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilenko, Denis A.; Kudriavtsev, Igor V.; Trulioff, Andrey S.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Missyul, Boris V.; Zhakhov, Alexander V.; Ischenko, Alexander M.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.; Orlov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. C3 is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism of C3 accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is not well elucidated. We show that acetylated low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increase C3 gene expression and protein secretion by human macrophages. Modified LDL (mLDL)-mediated activation of C3 expression mainly depends on liver X receptor (LXR) and partly on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas C3 secretion is increased due to TLR4 activation by mLDL. LXR agonist TO901317 stimulates C3 gene expression in human monocyte-macrophage cells but not in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We find LXR-responsive element inside of the promoter region of the human C3 gene, which binds to LXRβ in macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. We show that C3 expression and secretion is decreased in IL-4-treated (M2) and increased in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated (M1) human macrophages as compared with resting macrophages. LXR agonist TO901317 potentiates LPS-induced C3 gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages, whereas oxLDL differently modulates LPS-mediated regulation of C3 in M1 or M2 macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with anaphylatoxin C3a results in stimulation of C3 transcription and secretion as well as increased oxLDL accumulation and augmented oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of the C3 gene. These data provide a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and suggest new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22194611

  9. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, CK

    2012-01-01

    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  10. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction. The reinforce......The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of the C3?C4 intermediate Brassica gravinae and relatives, with particular reference to cellular distribution of Rubisco

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of its CO2 compensation concentration, Brassica gravinae Ten. has been reported to be a C3?C4 intermediate. This study investigated the structural and biochemical features of photosynthetic metabolism in B. gravinae. The cellular distribution of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was also examined in B. gravinae, B. napus L. (C3), Raphanus sativus L. (C3), and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. (C3?C4) by immunogold electron microscopy to elucidate Rubisco expr...

  12. Effect of the structure distortion on the high photocatalytic performance of C60/g-C3N4 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Li, Xinru; Li, Mengmeng; Ma, Xiangchao; Yu, Lin; Dai, Ying

    2017-08-01

    C60/g-C3N4 composite was reported experimentally to be of high photocatalytic activity in degrading organics. To investigate the underlying mechanism of high photocatalytic performance, the structural and electronic properties of g-C3N4 monolayers with adsorbing and removing fullerene C60 are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. After 25 possible configurations examination, it is found that C60 prefers to stay upon the ;junction nitrogen; with the carbon atom of fullerene being nearest to monolayers. Correspondingly, a type-I band alignment appears. Our results further demonstrate that the adsorption of C60 can lead to an irreversible structure distortion for g-C3N4 from flat to wrinkle, which plays a crucial role in improving photocatalytic performance other than the separation of carriers at interface due to the formation of type-II heterojunctions as previous report. Compared to flat one, the light absorption of wrinkled structure shows augmented, the valence band maximum shifts towards lower position along with a stronger photo-oxidation capability. Interestingly, the results indicate that the energy, light absorption and band edge all have a particular relationship with wrinkle degree. The work presented here can be helpful to understand the mechanism behind the better photocatalytic performance for C60 modified g-C3N4.

  13. Cytotoxicity and transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by areca nut components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yang Yeh

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that ANE is a weak complete carcinogen. ANE is an effective tumor initiator and can induce malignant transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells in the presence of a tumor promoter. ANE may be involved in multistep chemical carcinogenesis by its malignant transformation capacity.

  14. On the origin of the constitution Alearum lusus (C. 3,43,1) and its insertion into the Codex Justinianus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the origin of C. 3,43,1, which is a Latin epitome (Alearum lusus) of an originally Greek constitution of Justinian's. The main issues discussed are when this constitution was translated, epitomized and by whom and when it was inserted in book III of the Codex. This is done by

  15. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 μmol mol−1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  16. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Jewitt, R.A.; Donovan, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource

  17. National Security Issues 1981 Symposium. Strategic Nuclear Policies, Weapons, and the C3 Connection, October 13-14, 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    receiving to our invitations. Our pleasure beat the drums for C3 (Command, Control, and went quickly to awe, and at the moment we feel Communications). Our...past week how period - some begin it sooner, some later - dur- snuffing out the life of one man (Anwar Sadat) can ing which the Soviets have the

  18. You're so vein: bundle sheath physiology, phylogeny and evolution in C3 and C4 plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GRIFFITHS, HOWARD; WELLER, GEORGE; TOY, LYDIA F. M; DENNIS, ROSS J

    2013-01-01

    ...‐veinal distances (IVD) and high BS:mesophyll ratio (BS:MC). The origins, function and selective advantages of the BS in C3 lineages are relevant for understanding the environmental, molecular and phylogenetic determinants of C4 evolution...

  19. Complement C3f serum levels may predict breast cancer risk in women with gross cystic disease of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, Aldo; Mangerini, Rosa; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Romano, Paolo; Damonte, Gianluca; Guglielmini, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; Ferri, Fabio; Ricci, Francesco; Rocco, Mattia; Boccardo, Francesco

    2013-06-24

    Gross cystic disease (GCDB) is a breast benign condition predisposing to breast cancer. Cryopreserved sera from GCDB patients, some of whom later developed a cancer (cases), were studied to identify potential risk markers. A MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis found several complement C3f fragments having a significant increased abundance in cases compared to controls. After multivariate analysis, the full-length form of C3f maintained a predictive value of breast cancer risk. Higher levels of C3f in the serum of women affected by a benign condition like GCDB thus appears to be correlated to the development of breast cancer even 20 years later. Increased complement system activation has been found in the sera of women affected by GCDB who developed a breast cancer, even twenty or more years later. C3f may predict an increased breast cancer risk in the healthy population and in women affected by predisposing conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroxylation of Benzene via C-H Activation Using Bimetallic CuAg@g-C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive bimetallic CuAg@g-C3N4 catalyst system has been designed and synthesized by impregnating copper and silver nanoparticles over the graphitic carbon nitride surface. Its application has been demonstrated in the hydroxylation of benzene under visible light.

  1. Cervical spine disc herniation at C2-C3 level: Study of a Clinical Observation and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Dominique N'Dri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical C2-C3 herniated disc is rare. It is characterized by its clinical polymorphism. Several surgical approaches have been described for the discectomy of a herniated disc. This work aims at discussing through personal observations and literature review clinical semiology and surgical treatment.

  2. Porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalysts for enhanced synergetic degradation under visible-light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Chao; Cui, Cheng-Xing; Li, Ying; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Weina

    2017-10-05

    Photocatalytic degradation by semiconductors is an ideal way to solve the environmental problem. Here, the porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalyst was synthesized by the calcination-refluxing method. The as-prepared g-C3N4 exhibits the high activity of photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation ( > 400nm) in the mixed system of Cr(VI) and organic pollutants. Especially, the photocatalytic activity of Cr(VI) reduction was increased from 9.5% to 76.5%, while that of Rhodamine B(RhB) degradation was enhanced from 15.3% to 88.9% after 60min irradiation. The porous Mn doped g-C3N4 still keeps the high degradation efficiency of mixed pollutants in the 7th running. Based on the computational modeling, the Mn doping and carboxyl modification affect the atomic arrangement and molecular orbital distribution of the g-C3N4 semiconductor, leading to the enhancement of photo-induced carrier separation. Additionally, the active oxygen species and intermediates in the photoreaction process were discovered by ESR measurement and UV-vis test. The RhB degradation in synergistic photocatalysis not only inhibits the reverse reaction of Cr(VI) reduction, but also validly supply the photogenerated electrons by the photosensitization effect. This work may be useful for rationally designing photocatalysts and providing illuminating insights into the photocatalytic mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Configuration management in nanosatellites projects : Evalaution of Delfi-C3 and consequent adaption for Delfi-n3Xt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genbrugge, M.E.A.; Teuling, R.; Kuiper, J.M.; Brouwer, G.F.; Bouwmeester, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Delfi-C3 nano-satellite was launched in April 2008 and the development of its successor, the Delfi-n3Xt, is ongoing. Both of these projects are conducted by students from the Delft University of Technology as a corporation between the Aerospace Engineering Faculty, the Faculty of Electrical

  4. Helicobacter bilis infection alters the spatial distribution of commensal bacteria in colitic C3H/HeN mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Infection with Helicobacter bilis triggers the immune reactivity to the resident intestinal bacteria that is associated with the development of mucosal inflammation in defined flora C3H mice. Whether perturbations of the commensal microbiota occur and contribute to Helicobacter-induced c...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. Biotransformation of ent-13-epi-manoyl oxides difunctionalized at C-3 and C-12 by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Granados, Andrés; Fernández, Antonia; Gutiérrez, María C; Martínez, Antonio; Quirós, Raquel; Rivas, Francisco; Arias, José M

    2004-01-01

    Biotransformation of ent-3beta,12alpha-dihydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide with Fusarium moniliforme gave the regioselective oxidation of the hydroxyl group at C-3 and the ent-7beta-hydroxylation. The action of Gliocladium roseum in the 3,12-diketoderivative originated monohydroxylations at C-1 and C-7, both by the ent-beta face, while Rhizopus nigricans produced hydroxylation at C-7 or C-18, epoxidation of the double bond, reduction of the keto group at C-3, and combined actions as biohydroxylation at C-2/epoxidation of the double bond and hydroxylation at C-7/reduction of the keto group at C-3. In the ent-3-hydroxy-12-keto epimers, G. roseum originated monohydroxylations at C-1 and C-7 and R. nigricans originated the oxidation at C-3 as a major transformation, epoxidation of double bond and hydroxylation at C-2. Finally, in the ent-3beta-hydroxy epimer R. nigricans also originated minor hydroxylations at C-1, C-6, C-7 and C-20 and F. moniliforme produced an hydroxylation at C-7 and a dihydroxylation at C-7/C-11.

  7. Preparation of g-C3N4/Ta2O5 Composites with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Vien; Van Kim, Nguyen; Nga, Nguyen Thi Viet; Trung, Nguyen Tien; Giang, Le Truong; Van Hanh, Pham; Hoang, Luc Huy; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-05-01

    g-C3N4/Ta2O5 composites have been synthesized by a facile route in which mixtures of Ta2O5 and urea are heated at various temperatures of 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C. The obtained materials (denoted as CN/TaO- T, where T is the heating temperature) were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, diffuse-reflectance ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared composites are in orthorhombic Ta2O5 phase coated by g-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of the composites was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light. Among the three materials, CN/TaO-500 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The improved photocatalytic activity of the g-C3N4/Ta2O5 composites is attributed to the presence of g-C3N4 in the materials.

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent from business trading units; (2...

  9. Synthesis of complement components C3 and factor B in human keratinocytes is differentially regulated by cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasch, M. C.; van den Bosch, N. H.; Daha, M. R.; Bos, J. D.; Asghar, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    The complement system plays an important part in host defense and inflammation. Locally synthesized complement may perform these functions at tissue and organ level. In skin the keratinocyte is the major cell type, it is known to produce two soluble complement components, C3 and factor B. In this

  10. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 mol mol-1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  11. Síntesis intratecal de C3c e inmunoglobulinas en niños con meningoencefalitis bacteriana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bárbara Padilla-Docal; Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras; Raisa Bu Coifiu-Fanego; Elena Noris-García; Hermes Fundora-Hernández; Jesus Callol-Barroso; Marlen González-Hernández

    2008-01-01

    .... El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer si el sistema de complemento puede estar involucrado en la lisis de las bacterias productoras de meningoencefalitis a través de la liberación de C3c al líquido cefalorraquídeo...

  12. Biomass allocation and C-N-P stoichiometry in C3 and C4 crops under abiotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass allocation to structural, metabolic and reproductive organs as well as their carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C-N-P) profiles and ratios (C:N, C:P, and N:P) were estimated in C3 and C4 crop plants subjected to multiple abiotic stresses (i.e., combination of temperature and water stress level...

  13. 75 FR 70096 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...-04-AD; Amendment 39-16509; AD 2010-23-20] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... result in an uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective December...

  14. Ring opening of nonactivated 2-(1-aminoalkyl) aziridines: unusual regio- and stereoselective C-2 and C-3 cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Riego, Estela

    2003-08-08

    We have studied the ring opening of nonactivated amino aziridines 1 by water under acidic conditions. Depending on the acid used, amino aziridines are cleaved at C-3 or C-2 with high regioselectivity, and total stereoselectivity, affording chiral 2,3-diaminoalkan-1-ols 3 or 1,3-diaminoalkan-2-ols 4 in high yield.

  15. Association of Complement C3 Gene Variants with Renal Transplant Outcome of Deceased Cardiac Dead Donor Kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, J.; Daha, M. R.; Leuvenink, H. G.; van Goor, H.; Hillebrands, J. L.; van Dijk, M. C.; Hepkema, B. G.; Snieder, H.; van den Born, J.; de Borst, M. H.; Bakker, S. J.; Navis, G. J.; Ploeg, R. J.; Seelen, M. A.

    Local renal complement activation by the donor kidney plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal injury inherent to kidney transplantation. Contradictory results were reported about the protective effects of the donor C3F allotype on renal allograft outcome. We investigated the influence

  16. Replication of association of the apolipoprotein A1-C3-A4 gene cluster with the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasheed, H.; Phipps-Green, A.J.; Topless, R.; Smith, M.D.; Hill, C.; Lester, S.; Rischmueller, M.; Janssen, M.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; Tausche, A.K.; Liote, F.; So, A.; Rij, A. van; Jones, G.T.; McCormick, S.P.; Harrison, A.A.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Merriman, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gout is associated with dyslipidaemia. Association of the apolipoprotein A1-C3-A4 gene cluster with gout has previously been reported in a small study. To investigate a possible causal role for this locus in gout, we tested the association of genetic variants from APOA1 (rs670) and APOC3

  17. On the formation of cyclopentadiene in the C3H5˙ + C2H2 reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.; Bodi, A.; Oomens, J.; Hemberger, P.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between the allyl radical (C3H5˙) and acetylene (C2H2) in a heated microtubular reactor has been studied at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The reaction products are sampled from the reactor and identified by their photoion mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra

  18. 26 CFR 1.504-1 - Attempts to influence legislation; certain organizations formerly described in section 501(c)(3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Attempts to influence legislation; certain organizations formerly described in section 501(c)(3) denied exemption. 1.504-1 Section 1.504-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.504-1 Attempts to influence legislation; certain organizations formerly...

  19. Microwave Spectral Taxonomy and Astronomical Searches for Vibrationally-Excited C_2S and C_3S

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Stanton, John F.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2016-06-01

    C_2S and C_3S are common interstellar species, and have relatively simple reaction chemistries. For these reasons, they frequently serve as probes of chemical evolution and physical conditions in rich astronomical sources. Because their rotational lines are often conspicuous there, detection of C_2S and C_3S in vibrationally-excited states might provide additional insight into formation pathways and excitation conditions. However, knowledge of the vibrational satellite transitions of both species is incomplete. Here, we report laboratory measurements of rotational spectra of vibrationally-excited C_2S and C_3S obtained from two microwave spectral taxonomy studies, in which CS_2 alone or in combination with a hydrocarbon precursor (acetylene or diacetylene), were produced using an electrical discharge. For C_3S, these studies, in combination with high-level quantum chemical calculations, greatly extend previous microwave measurements, while for C_2S, satellite transitions from several vibrational states have been observed for the first time. On the basis of precise laboratory rest frequencies, renewed searches for these transitions can be undertaken with confidence in publicly-available astronomical line surveys.

  20. Complement factor C5 but not C3 contributes significantly to hydrosalpinx development in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhangsheng; Conrad, Turner; Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Jianlin; Dutow, Pavel; Klos, Andreas; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-08-01

    Hydrosalpinx is a pathological hallmark of tubal infertility associated with chlamydial infection. However, the mechanisms of hydrosalpinx remain unknown. Here, we report that complement factor 5 (C5) contributes significantly to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Mice lacking C5 (C5(-/-)) failed to develop any hydrosalpinx, while ∼42% of the corresponding wild-type mice (C5(+/+)) did so following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Surprisingly, deficiency in C3 (C3(-/-)), an upstream component of the complement system, did not affect mouse susceptibility to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Interestingly, C5 activation was induced by chlamydial infection in oviducts of C3(-/-) mice, explaining why the C3(-/-) mice remained susceptible to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Similar levels of live chlamydial organisms were recovered from oviduct tissues of both C5(-/-) and C5(+/+) mice, suggesting that C5 deficiency did not affect C. muridarum ascending infection. Furthermore, C5(-/-) mice were still more resistant to hydrosalpinx induction than C5(+/+) mice, even when live C. muridarum organisms were directly delivered into the upper genital tract, both confirming the role of C5 in promoting hydrosalpinx and indicating that the C5-facilitated hydrosalpinx was not due to enhancement of ascending infection. The C5(-/-) mice displayed significantly reduced lumenal inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in oviduct tissue, suggesting that C5 may contribute to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx by enhancing inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Beating the Odds: The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Kathy; Griffin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    When the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards project began, there really was nowhere else to go but up. The project was up against great odds--a dearth of funding, a history of incivility amongst the disciplines within social studies, a knack for ending up in media battles over what should be taught in…

  2. Functional variant in complement C3 gene promoter and genetic susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy and febrile seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jamali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE represent the most frequent form of partial epilepsies and are frequently preceded by febrile seizures (FS in infancy and early childhood. Genetic associations of several complement genes including its central component C3 with disorders of the central nervous system, and the existence of C3 dysregulation in the epilepsies and in the MTLE particularly, make it the C3 gene a good candidate for human MTLE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control association study of the C3 gene was performed in a first series of 122 patients with MTLE and 196 controls. Four haplotypes (HAP1 to 4 comprising GF100472, a newly discovered dinucleotide repeat polymorphism [(CA8 to (CA15] in the C3 promoter region showed significant association after Bonferroni correction, in the subgroup of MTLE patients having a personal history of FS (MTLE-FS+. Replication analysis in independent patients and controls confirmed that the rare HAP4 haplotype comprising the minimal length allele of GF100472 [(CA8], protected against MTLE-FS+. A fifth haplotype (HAP5 with medium-size (CA11 allele of GF100472 displayed four times higher frequency in controls than in the first cohort of MTLE-FS+ and showed a protective effect against FS through a high statistical significance in an independent population of 97 pure FS. Consistently, (CA11 allele by its own protected against pure FS in a second group of 148 FS patients. Reporter gene assays showed that GF100472 significantly influenced C3 promoter activity (the higher the number of repeats, the lower the transcriptional activity. Taken together, the consistent genetic data and the functional analysis presented here indicate that a newly-identified and functional polymorphism in the promoter of the complement C3 gene might participate in the genetic susceptibility to human MTLE with a history of FS, and to pure FS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides important

  3. Chronic granulomatous pneumonia and lymphocytic responses induced by inhaled beryllium metal in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Swafford, D.S.; Hoover, M.D.; Tohulka, M.D.; Finch, G.L. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inhalation of beryllium (Be) has been associated with 2 syndromes: an acute chemical pneumonitis and a granulomatous lung disease known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of CBD using the inhalation route of exposure. A/J (H-2a haplotype) and C3H/HeJ (H-2{sup k}) Mice were exposed once for 90 min in nose-only exposure tubes to aerosols of Be metal. Six mo later, lung histopathologic responses were assessed. Further analyses defined the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in pulmonary lesions and evaluated proliferation of lymphocytes in situ and in response to Be in vitro. Responses were similar in both strains of mice. Most Be-exposed mice had minimal to mild interstitial fibrosis. The majority of lymphocytes in interstitial infiltrates and in microgranulomas were CD4+ T cells. Interstitial compact aggregates of lymphocytes contained B cells centrally and CD4+ cells peripherally. Lymphocyte labeling indices, used to assess proliferation in situ, were significantly greater within microgranulomas compared to compact lymphocytic aggregates. Lymphocyte stimulation indices in response to BeSO{sub 4} in vitro were not positive in blood, spleen, or tracheobronchial lymph node samples. Be-specific immune responses and nonspecific inflammatory responses to toxic and foreign-body properties of Be may have contributed to the histopathology in both strains of mice. The interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates, presence of microgranulomas, multinucleated foreign-body and Langhans giant cells, interstitial fibrosis, and CD4+ T-cell predominance with local proliferation are features similar to CBD in humans. The chronic lung disease induced in these mice by inhaled Be can be used to investigate the importance of variables such as dose, exposure pattern, and physicochemical form of Be in producing this disease. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 26 CFR 31.6302(c)-3 - Use of Government depositaries in connection with tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31.6302(c)-3 Section 31.6302(c)-3 Internal Revenue...) § 31.6302(c)-3 Use of Government depositaries in connection with tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax... transfer. For the requirement to deposit tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act by electronic funds...

  5. A facile hydrothermal synthesis of carbon dots modified g-C3N4 for enhanced photocatalytic H2-evolution performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Cheng, Jingjing; Yu, Huogen; Yu, Jiaguo

    2017-05-16

    Carbon dots (CDs)/g-C3N4 is a promising photocatalyst to split water for H2 production; however, the synthesis of CDs/g-C3N4 is usually rigorous and involves multiple steps, which limits its practical application. In this study, a facile hydrothermal approach was developed to prepare CDs/g-C3N4 photocatalysts using l-ascorbic acid and g-C3N4 as the precursors. Upon in situ thermal polymerization of l-ascorbic acid on the g-C3N4 surface, the carbon dots were homogeneously and solidly modified on the g-C3N4 surface. The CDs/g-C3N4 photocatalysts showed higher photocatalytic performance for H2 production than g-C3N4 under UV light irradiation using lactic acid as the sacrificial agent. The improved photocatalytic performance of CDs/g-C3N4 was mainly attributed to rapid interfacial charge transfer. After a Pt co-catalyst was loaded, the Pt-CDs/g-C3N4 catalyst formed exhibited a further improved photocatalytic performance for H2 production and could even split pure water to produce H2. Considering our present economic and facile synthetic approach for the modification of carbon dots on the surface of g-C3N4 photocatalysts, the as-prepared CDs/g-C3N4 photocatalysts will be promising for practical use in water splitting.

  6. Global analysis of ankyrin repeat domain C3HC4-type RING finger gene family in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yuan

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat (ANK C3HC4-type RING finger (RF genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families.

  7. Electrostatic roles in electron transfer from [NiFe] hydrogenase to cytochrome c3 from Desulfo