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Sample records for enzyme inhibitors anti-arrhythmic

  1. Essential fatty acids and their metabolites could function as endogenous HMG-CoA reductase and ACE enzyme inhibitors, anti-arrhythmic, anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and cardioprotective molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lowering plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, blood pressure, homocysteine, and preventing platelet aggregation using a combination of a statin, three blood pressure lowering drugs such as a thiazide, a β blocker, and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor each at half standard dose; folic acid; and aspirin-called as polypill- was estimated to reduce cardiovascular events by ~80%. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their long-chain metabolites: γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA (DGLA, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other products such as prostaglandins E1 (PGE1, prostacyclin (PGI2, PGI3, lipoxins (LXs, resolvins, protectins including neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1 prevent platelet aggregation, lower blood pressure, have anti-arrhythmic action, reduce LDL-C, ameliorate the adverse actions of homocysteine, show anti-inflammatory actions, activate telomerase, and have cytoprotective properties. Thus, EFAs and their metabolites show all the classic actions expected of the "polypill". Unlike the proposed "polypill", EFAs are endogenous molecules present in almost all tissues, have no significant or few side effects, can be taken orally for long periods of time even by pregnant women, lactating mothers, and infants, children, and adults; and have been known to reduce the incidence cardiovascular diseases including stroke. In addition, various EFAs and their long-chain metabolites not only enhance nitric oxide generation but also react with nitric oxide to yield their respective nitroalkene derivatives that produce vascular relaxation, inhibit neutrophil degranulation and superoxide formation, inhibit platelet activation, and possess PPAR-γ ligand activity and release NO, thus prevent platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Based on these evidences, I propose that a rational combination of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the co

  2. The novel late Na(+) current inhibitor, GS-6615 (eleclazine) and its anti-arrhythmic effects in rabbit isolated heart preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sridharan; Liu, Gongxin; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Guo, Donglin; Li, Cindy; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Kahlig, Kristopher M; Mollova, Nevena; Elzein, Elfatih; Zablocki, Jeff; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2016-11-01

    Enhanced late Na(+) current (late INa ) in the myocardium is pro-arrhythmic. Inhibition of this current is a promising strategy to stabilize ventricular repolarization and suppress arrhythmias. Here, we describe GS-6615, a selective inhibitor of late INa , already in clinical development for the treatment of long QT syndrome 3 (LQT3). The effects of GS-6615 to inhibit late INa , versus other ion currents to shorten the ventricular action potential duration (APD), monophasic APD (MAPD) and QT interval, and decrease to the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias was determined in rabbit cardiac preparations. To mimic the electrical phenotype of LQT3, late INa was increased using the sea anemone toxin (ATX-II). GS-6615 inhibited ATX-II enhanced late INa in ventricular myocytes (IC50  = 0.7 μM), shortened the ATX-II induced prolongation of APD, MAPD, QT interval, and decreased spatiotemporal dispersion of repolarization and ventricular arrhythmias. Inhibition by GS-6615 of ATX-II enhanced late INa was strongly correlated with shortening of myocyte APD and isolated heart MAPD (R(2)  = 0.94 and 0.98 respectively). In contrast to flecainide, GS-6615 had the minimal effects on peak INa . GS-6615 did not decrease the maximal upstroke velocity of the action potential (Vmax) nor widen QRS intervals. GS-6615 was a selective inhibitor of late INa , stabilizes the ventricular repolarization and suppresses arrhythmias in a model of LQT3. The concentrations at which the electrophysiological effects of GS-6615 were observed are comparable to plasma levels associated with QTc shortening in patients with LQT3, indicating that these effects are clinically relevant. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Anti-Arrhythmic Potential of Coriandrum sativum Seeds in Salt Induced Arrhythmic Rats

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    Nida Rehman1, Nazish Jahan1*, Khalil-ul-Rahman2, Khalid Mahmood Khan2 and Fatiqa Zafar1

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the anti-arrhythmic potential of Coriandrum sativum (seeds was evaluated in BaCl2 induced tachycardia and KCl induced bradycardia in rats. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG was recorded during the experimental period. The BaCl2 increased the heart rate from 111/min to 157/min while KCL decreased the heart rate from 112/min to 60/min in the rats of positive control groups. ECG patterns also confirmed the tachy- and brady-arrhythmia in the rats of both positive control groups. The changes in biochemical cardiac biomarkers (CK-MB, LDH, AST, and ALT were also the studied parameters. The level of cardiac biomarkers was significantly elevated in the serum of positive control rats as compared to their respective absolute controls. In case of both curative and preventive mode of treatment the elevated levels of enzymes, cardiac biomarkers were significantly reduced. Electrocardiogram (ECG pattern revealed that the studied plant possesses a very good anti-arrhythmic potential in case of curative mode of treatment. The antiarrhythmic potential through preventive mode of treatment was also encouraging, but comparatively less than the curative mode of treatment. Anti-tachycardial potential of C. sativum was comparable with standard drug while, recovery in bradycardia was relatively slow than standard drug. Gross pathology and ECG pattern of base line group confirmed the innoxious nature of C. sativum seeds. Treatment of rats with Coriandrum sativum (100 mgkg-1 BW normalized the heart rate and attenuated the cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. Anti-arrhythmic potential of the late sodium current inhibitor GS-458967 in murine Scn5a-1798insD(+/-) and human SCN5A-1795insD(+/-) iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portero, Vincent; Casini, Simona; Hoekstra, Maaike; Verkerk, Arie O.; Mengarelli, Isabella; Belardinelli, Luiz; Rajamani, Sridharan; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Remme, Carol Ann

    2017-01-01

    Aims Selective inhibition of cardiac late sodium current (I-NaL) is an emerging target in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated the electrophysiological effects of GS-458967 (GS967), a potent, selective inhibitor of I-NaL, in an overlap syndrome model of both gain and loss of

  5. Molecular basis for class Ib anti-arrhythmic inhibition of cardiac sodium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Frankel, Adam

    2011-01-01

    -Williams classification system into classes Ia-c based on their distinct effects on the electrocardiogram. How can these drugs elicit distinct effects on the cardiac action potential by binding to a common receptor? Here we use fluorinated phenylalanine derivatives to test whether the electronegative surface potential......Cardiac sodium channels are established therapeutic targets for the management of inherited and acquired arrhythmias by class I anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs). These drugs share a common target receptor bearing two highly conserved aromatic side chains, and are subdivided by the Vaughan...... the inhibition of cardiac sodium channels by clinically relevant drugs and provide information for the directed design of AADs....

  6. Omega-3 Index and Anti-Arrhythmic Potential of Omega-3 PUFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribulova, Narcis; Szeiffova Bacova, Barbara; Egan Benova, Tamara; Knezl, Vladimir; Barancik, Miroslav; Slezak, Jan

    2017-10-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are permanent subjects of interest in relation to the protection of cardiovascular health and the prevention of the incidence of both ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The purpose of this updated review is to focus on the novel cellular and molecular effects of omega-3 PUFAs, in the context of the mechanisms and factors involved in the development of cardiac arrhythmias; to provide results of the most recent studies on the omega-3 PUFA anti-arrhythmic efficacy and to discuss the lack of the benefit in relation to omega-3 PUFA status. The evidence is in the favor of omega-3 PUFA acute and long-term treatment, perhaps with mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. However, for a more objective evaluation of the anti-arrhythmic potential of omega-3 PUFAs in clinical trials, it is necessary to monitor the basal pre-interventional omega-3 status of individuals, i.e., red blood cell content, omega-3 index and free plasma levels. In the view of evidence-based medicine, it seems to be crucial to aim to establish new approaches in the prevention of cardiac arrhythmias and associated morbidity and mortality that comes with these conditions.

  7. Novel anti-arrhythmic medications in the treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklani, Pradyot; Skanes, Allan

    2012-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent condition particularly amongst the elderly, which contributes to both morbidity and mortality. The burden of disease has lead to significant increases in health care utilization and cost in recent years. Treatment of Atrial fibrillation consists of either a rate or rhythm control strategy. Rhythm control is achieved using medical management and/or catheter ablation. In spite of major strides in catheter ablation, this procedure remains a second line treatment of AF. Anti-arrhythmic medications represent the main treatment modality for the maintenance of sinus rhythm. Amiodarone has been used for decades because of its efficacy and lack of pro-arrhythmia despite numerous extracardiac side effects. Novel agents such as Dronedarone were designed to emulate Amiodarone without the extra-cardiac side effects. Unfortunately recent trials have raised concerns for the safety of this medication in certain patients. Other agents such as Vernakalant and Ranolazine are in development that promise to be more atrial selective in their action, thereby potentially avoiding pro-arrhythmia and heart failure side effects. It remains to be seen however if one or more of these agents achieves the required high efficacy and safety threshold. This review summarizes the main anti-arrhythmic clinical trials, early phase trials involving novel agents and examines the conflicting data relating to Dronedarone.

  8. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

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    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  9. Dofetilide: a class III anti-arrhythmic drug for the treatment of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Brendorp, B; Køber, L

    2000-01-01

    , median time to relapse exceeded one year. Two large clinical studies that enrolled 3028 patients have been performed in high-risk patients with severe heart failure and large myocardial infarctions. The outcomes of these studies were neutral with respect to survival and demonstrated the safety....... Therefore, dosage must be carefully adjusted to the length of QTc interval, calculated creatinine clearance and the presence of heart failure or recent infarction. In addition, treatment must be initiated in hospital with three days of continuous telemetry. Dofetilide can be co-administered with digoxin...... and beta-blockers. Other anti-arrhythmic drugs, as well as drugs that interfere with the renal elimination or the metabolism of dofetilide, must be avoided. Dofetilide is an option when persistent atrial fibrillation is a clinical problem. In the setting of severe heart failure and large myocardial...

  10. Correction: An integrated anti-arrhythmic target network of compound Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli revealed by combined machine learning and molecular pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taiyi; Lu, Ming; Du, Qunqun; Yao, Xi; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaonan; Xie, Weiwei; Li, Zheng; Ma, Yuling; Zhu, Yan

    2017-09-26

    Correction for 'An integrated anti-arrhythmic target network of a Chinese medicine compound, Wenxin Keli, revealed by combined machine learning and molecular pathway analysis' by Taiyi Wang et al., Mol. BioSyst., 2017, 13, 1018-1030.

  11. Atrial Anti-Arrhythmic Effects of Heptanol in Langendorff-Perfused Mouse Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tse

    Full Text Available Acute effects of heptanol (0.1 to 2 mM on atrial electrophysiology were explored in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. Left atrial bipolar electrogram or monophasic action potential recordings were obtained during right atrial stimulation. Regular pacing at 8 Hz elicited atrial activity in 11 out of 11 hearts without inducing atrial arrhythmias. Programmed electrical stimulation using a S1S2 protocol provoked atrial tachy-arrhythmias in 9 of 17 hearts. In the initially arrhythmic group, 2 mM heptanol exerted anti-arrhythmic effects (Fisher's exact test, P 0.05, which led to increases in ERP/latency ratio from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.2 and ERP/APD90 ratio from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.2 (P 0.05, leaving both AERP/latency ratio (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2; P > 0.05 and ERP/APD90 ratio (2.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.1 ± 0.1; P > 0.05 unaltered. Lower heptanol concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM did not alter arrhythmogenicity or the above parameters. The present findings contrast with known ventricular pro-arrhythmic effects of heptanol associated with decreased ERP/latency ratio, despite increased ERP/APD ratio observed in both the atria and ventricles.

  12. Reduction of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseifi, Semaan G; Halawa, Ahmad; Halawa, Ahmed; Bailey, Beth; Micklewright, Melinda; Roy, Thomas M; Byrd, Ryland P

    2009-12-01

    Amiodarone (AM) is a widely used anti-arrhythmic medication. Its utility is, however, limited by adverse side effects. The mechanism of amiodarone-induced toxicity (APT) in the lungs is attributed primarily to stimulation of the angiotensin enzyme system leading to lung cell apoptosis and cell death. This mechanism has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experimental animal studies. To date, however, no in vivo human studies have confirmed this mechanism for APT. This study was undertaken to determine whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) offer a protective effect against APT in humans. Demonstration of a protective effect of an ACE-I or ARB would suggest that stimulation of the angiotensin enzyme system may be a key process in APT. An 8-year retrospective analysis of all patients on AM therapy at the James H. Quillen Veterans Affairs Medical Center was undertaken. A total of 1000 patients on AM were identified. One-hundred-and-seventeen were excluded from the study. Five-hundred-and-twenty-four patients were simultaneously on an ACE-I or ARB. The remaining 359 patients were not. Pulmonary toxicity attributed to AM was identified in five and 14 patients with and without concomitant ACE-I or ARB therapy, respectively. The APT rate for the entire patient sample was 2.2%. APT occurred in 1% of patients on an ACE-I or ARB and in 3.9% of patients not taking an ACE-I or ARB. This observed difference in percentage of APT was statistically significant. The concomitant use of ACE-I or ARB in patients taking AM appears to offer a protective effect against APT. This observation suggests that the stimulation of the angiotensin enzyme system may play an important role in APT in humans.

  13. Comparison of Gating Properties and Use-Dependent Block of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 Channels by Anti-Arrhythmics Mexiletine and Lidocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wang; Jianxun Mi; Ka Lu; Yanxin Lu; KeWei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Mexiletine and lidocaine are widely used class IB anti-arrhythmic drugs that are considered to act by blocking voltage-gated open sodium currents for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias and relief of pain. To gain mechanistic insights into action of anti-arrhythmics, we characterized biophysical properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and compared their use-dependent block in response to mexiletine and lidocaine using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. While...

  14. A note on a method for determining advantageous properties of an anti-arrhythmic drug based on a mathematical model of cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Aslak; Lines, Glenn T

    2009-02-01

    Regional hyperkalemia during acute ischemia may provoke cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation. Despite intense research efforts over the last decades, the problem of finding an efficient anti-arrhythmic drug without dangerous side effects is still open. One approach to analyze the effect of anti-arrhythmic drugs is to do simulations based on mathematical models of collections of cardiomyocytes. Such simulations have recently illuminated the pro-arrhythmic capability of well-established anti-arrhythmic drugs. The purpose of the present note is to introduce a method intended for computing advantageous properties of an anti-arrhythmic drug. For a given model of a normal and an ischemic cell, we introduce a drug as a vector of non-negative real numbers whose components are multiplied by individual terms representing specific ionic currents. The drug vector is computed such that the action potentials of the resulting drugged cells are as close as possible to the action potential of a normal (not drugged) cell. Numerical simulations based on the Luo-Rudy I model and the Hund-Rudy model show that the classical shortened action potential obtained due to hyperkalemia is prolonged by using the drug computed by this method. Furthermore, for both models a 2D collection of spatially coupled ischemic cells give arrhythmogenic solutions before the drug is applied, and stable solutions after the drug is applied. It is emphasized that we do not address the possibility of realizing a drug with the properties computed in this note.

  15. An integrated anti-arrhythmic target network of a Chinese medicine compound, Wenxin Keli, revealed by combined machine learning and molecular pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taiyi; Lu, Ming; Du, Qunqun; Yao, Xi; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaonan; Xie, Weiwei; Li, Zheng; Ma, Yuling; Zhu, Yan

    2017-05-02

    Wenxin Keli (WK), a Chinese patent medicine, is known to be effective against cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. Although a number of electrophysiological findings regarding its therapeutic effect have been reported, the active components and system-level characterizations of the component-target interactions of WK have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we present the first report of a new protective effect of WK on suppressing anti-arrhythmic-agent-induced arrhythmias. In a model of isolated guinea pig hearts, rapid perfusion of quinidine altered the heart rate and prolonged the Q-T interval. Pretreatment with WK significantly prevented quinidine-induced arrhythmias. To explain the therapeutic and protective effects of WK, we constructed an integrated multi-target pharmacological mechanism prediction workflow in combination with machine learning and molecular pathway analysis. This workflow had the ability to predict and rank the probability of each compound interacting with 1715 target proteins simultaneously. The ROC value statistics showed that 97.786% of the values for target prediction were larger than 0.8. We applied this model to carry out target prediction and network analysis for the identified components of 5 herbs in WK. Using the 124 potential anti-arrhythmic components and the 30 corresponding protein targets obtained, an integrative anti-arrhythmic molecular mechanism of WK was proposed. Emerging drug/target networks suggested ion channel and intracellular calcium and autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation had critical roles in WK-mediated anti-arrhythmic activity. A validation of the proposed mechanisms was achieved by demonstrating that calaxin, one of the WK components from Gansong, dose-dependently blocked its predicted target Ca V 1.2 channel in an electrophysiological assay.

  16. Thiosemicarbazones as inhibitors of tyrosinase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mariana A; Almeida, Mariana A; Marins-Goulart, Carla; Chaves, Otávio A; Echevarria, Aurea; de Oliveira, Márcia C C

    2017-08-01

    In the search for compounds which may inhibit the development of melanomas, a series of thiosemicarbazones has been investigated as possible inhibitors of the tyrosinase enzyme. The results showed that all the thiosemicarbazones tested exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the enzyme. Thiosemicarbazones Thio-1, Thio-2, Thio-3 and Thio-4 substituted with oxygenate moieties, were better inhibitors (IC50 0.42, 0.35, 0.36 and 0.44mM, respectively) than Thio-5, Thio-6, Thio-7 and Thio-8. For the better inhibitors, molecular docking results suggested that the oxygen present in the para position of the aromatic ring is essential for the tyrosinase inhibition, due its high ability for complexation with Cu2+ ions. Inside the active protein pocket, Thio-2 - the best studied inhibitor - is able to interact with the amino acid residues His-155, Gly-170 and Val-172 via hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic force. Thio-2, containing a substituent on the aromatic ring similar to the substrate l-DOPA, showed a competitive inhibition mechanism as viewed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot. The same results were observed in the UV-Vis curves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular analysis of the Na+ channel blocking actions of the novel class I anti-arrhythmic agent RSD 921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Goldin, A L

    1999-05-01

    RSD 921 is a novel, structurally unique, class I Na+ channel blocking drug under development as a local anaesthetic agent and possibly for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. The effects of RSD 921 on wild-type heart, skeletal muscle, neuronal and non-inactivating IFMQ3 mutant neuronal Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were examined using a two-electrode voltage clamp. RSD 921 produced similarly potent tonic block of all three wild-type channel isoforms, with EC50 values between 35 and 47 microM, whereas the EC50 for block of the IFMQ3 mutant channel was 110+5.5 microM. Block of Na+ channels by RSD 921 was concentration and use-dependent, with marked frequency-dependent block of heart channels and mild frequency-dependent block of skeletal muscle, wild-type neuronal and IFMQ3 mutant channels. RSD 921 produced a minimal hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state voltage-dependence of inactivation of all three wild-type channel isoforms. Open channel block of the IFMQ3 mutant channel was best fit with a first order blocking scheme with k(on) equal to 0.11+/-0.012x10(6) M(-1) s(-1) and k(off) equal to 12.5+/-2.5 s(-1), resulting in KD of 117+/-31 microM. Recovery from open channel block occurred with a time constant of 14+/-2.7 s(-1). These results suggest that RSD 921 preferentially interacts with the open state of the Na+ channel, and that the drug may produce potent local anaesthetic or anti-arrhythmic action under conditions of shortened action potentials, such as during anoxia or ischaemia.

  18. Natural products inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa Filho

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative pathology that primarily affects the elderly population, and is estimated to account for 50-60% of dementia cases in persons over 65 years of age. The main symptoms associated with AD involve cognitive dysfunction, primarily memory loss. Other features associated with the later stages of AD include language deficits, depression, behavioural problems including agitation, mood disturbances and psychosis. One of the most promising approaches for treating this disease is to enhance the acetylcholine level in the brain using acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors. The present work reviews the literature on plants and plant-derived compounds inhibitors of enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The review refers to 309 plant extracts and 260 compounds isolated from plants, which are classified in appropriate chemical groups and model tested, and cites their activity. For this purpose 175 references were consulted.

  19. The class III anti-arrhythmic agent, amiodarone, inhibits voltage-dependent K(+) channels in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Kim, Han Sol; Kim, Hye Won; Shin, Sung Eun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Han, Eun-Taek; Hong, Seok-Ho; Firth, Amy L; Bae, Young Min; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Won Sun

    2016-07-01

    We examined the inhibitory effect of amiodarone, a class III anti-arrhythmic agent, on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells, using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. Amiodarone inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.9 ± 1.44 μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.45 ± 0.14. Amiodarone did not have a significant effect on the steady-state activation of Kv channels, but shifted the inactivation current toward a more negative potential. Application of consecutive pulses progressively augmented the amiodarone-induced Kv channel inhibition. Another class III anti-arrhythmic agent, dofetilide, did not inhibit the Kv current or change the inhibitory effect of amiodarone on Kv channels. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that amiodarone inhibits Kv currents in a concentration- and state-dependent manner.

  20. [Advances on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Feng-Hua; Ye, Jian-Qing; Chen, Zuan-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Yi

    2010-06-01

    With the continuous development in microfluidic fabrication technology, microfluidic analysis has evolved from a concept to one of research frontiers in last twenty years. The research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors based on microfluidic devices has also made great progress. Microfluidic technology improved greatly the analytical performance of the research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors by reducing the consumption of reagents, decreasing the analysis time, and developing automation. This review focuses on the development and classification of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices.

  1. Enzyme inhibitors of marine microbial origin with pharmaceutical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Chiaki

    2004-01-01

    Several enzyme inhibitors with various industrial uses were isolated from bacteria and actinomycetes living in the marine environment. These inhibitors are useful in medicine and agriculture. All the compounds, except the monoamine oxidase inhibitors, are novel, and their activities have been characterized.

  2. Comparison of Gating Properties and Use-Dependent Block of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 Channels by Anti-Arrhythmics Mexiletine and Lidocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Mexiletine and lidocaine are widely used class IB anti-arrhythmic drugs that are considered to act by blocking voltage-gated open sodium currents for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias and relief of pain. To gain mechanistic insights into action of anti-arrhythmics, we characterized biophysical properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and compared their use-dependent block in response to mexiletine and lidocaine using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. While the voltage-dependent activation of Nav1.5 or Nav1.7 was not affected by mexiletine and lidocaine, the steady-state fast and slow inactivation of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 were significantly shifted to hyperpolarized direction by either mexiletine or lidocaine in dose-dependent manner. Both mexiletine and lidocaine enhanced the slow component of closed-state inactivation, with mexiletine exerting stronger inhibition on either Nav1.5 or Nav1.7. The recovery from inactivation of Nav1.5 or Nav1.7 was significantly prolonged by mexiletine compared to lidocaine. Furthermore, mexiletine displayed a pronounced and prominent use-dependent inhibition of Nav1.5 than lidocaine, but not Nav1.7 channels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate differential responses to blockade by mexiletine and lidocaine that preferentially affect the gating of Nav1.5, as compared to Nav1.7; and mexiletine exhibits stronger use-dependent block of Nav1.5. The differential gating properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 in response to mexiletine and lidocaine may help explain the drug effectiveness and advance in new designs of safe and specific sodium channel blockers for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia or pain.

  3. Comparison of Gating Properties and Use-Dependent Block of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 Channels by Anti-Arrhythmics Mexiletine and Lidocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Mi, Jianxun; Lu, Ka; Lu, Yanxin; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Mexiletine and lidocaine are widely used class IB anti-arrhythmic drugs that are considered to act by blocking voltage-gated open sodium currents for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias and relief of pain. To gain mechanistic insights into action of anti-arrhythmics, we characterized biophysical properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells and compared their use-dependent block in response to mexiletine and lidocaine using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. While the voltage-dependent activation of Nav1.5 or Nav1.7 was not affected by mexiletine and lidocaine, the steady-state fast and slow inactivation of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 were significantly shifted to hyperpolarized direction by either mexiletine or lidocaine in dose-dependent manner. Both mexiletine and lidocaine enhanced the slow component of closed-state inactivation, with mexiletine exerting stronger inhibition on either Nav1.5 or Nav1.7. The recovery from inactivation of Nav1.5 or Nav1.7 was significantly prolonged by mexiletine compared to lidocaine. Furthermore, mexiletine displayed a pronounced and prominent use-dependent inhibition of Nav1.5 than lidocaine, but not Nav1.7 channels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate differential responses to blockade by mexiletine and lidocaine that preferentially affect the gating of Nav1.5, as compared to Nav1.7; and mexiletine exhibits stronger use-dependent block of Nav1.5. The differential gating properties of Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 in response to mexiletine and lidocaine may help explain the drug effectiveness and advance in new designs of safe and specific sodium channel blockers for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia or pain. PMID:26068619

  4. Comparative Toxicity of Three Inhibitors of The Converting Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... Three angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, enalapril, lisinopril and captopril were tested in vivo by topical ... Key words: Ephestia kuehniella, development, growth, ecdysteroids, angiotensin converting enzyme, captopril, enalapril ... High levels of ACE activity are found in the haemolymph and in ...

  5. The effect of chemical anti-inhibitors on fibrinolytic enzymes and inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Kluft, C

    1997-01-01

    proteases. We studied the influence of chemical anti-inhibitors (chloramine T, flufenamate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and methylamine) on fibrinolytic serine proteases and fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors using the physiological substrate fibrin as plasmin substrate. Low concentrations of chloramine T (0.01 mmol....../l) prevent the inhibition of plasminogen activators. Higher concentrations (1 mmol/l) reduce the inhibition of plasmin, but simultaneously quench the plasminogen activator activity. Flufenamate eliminates most fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors, but increases the activity of plasmin (apparent recovery 140......Fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors hamper the determination of the specific fibrinolytic serine protease activity. Reportedly, chemical anti-inhibitors eliminate the influence of fibrinolytic inhibitors, but it remains unclear to what extent they change the specific activity of fibrinolytic serine...

  6. Small Bowel Angioedema Secondary to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is a rare clinicopathologic entity. It frequently poses a diagnostic challenge and is often not recognized before surgical exploration. The present study illustrates that clinical awareness for this condition and adequate use of radiologic investigations can help make the correct diagnosis of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema, thus avoiding the cost and morbidity associated with unnecessary interventions. PMID:28133581

  7. Small Bowel Angioedema Secondary to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is a rare clinicopathologic entity. It frequently poses a diagnostic challenge and is often not recognized before surgical exploration. The present study illustrates that clinical awareness for this condition and adequate use of radiologic investigations can help make the correct diagnosis of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema, thus avoiding the cost and morbidity associated with unnecessary interventions.

  8. Delayed angioedema during therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are leading cause of drug-induced angioedema, with incidence of 0.1 to 0.2%. The angioedema is not of immune nature; in predisposed individuals it is caused by accumulation of vasoactive mediators due to reduced activity of angiotensinconverting enzyme. Case report. We presented a 63-year old male patient suffering from hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who had developed two episodes of angioedema during a 5-year long therapy with enalapril. The first episode happened after three, and the second after five years of the therapy. On both occasions, the patient was admitted to the hospital and tracheotomy was avoided in the last moment. Conclusion. Long-term therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors could be associated with delayed angioedema, especially in patients with inflammation of airways caused by infection or chronic irritation.

  9. A New Sucrase Enzyme Inhibitor from Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Mohamed I S; Shaheen, Usama; Bader, Ammar; Youns, Mahmoud A

    2016-05-01

    Sucrase enzyme inhibitor considered as an oral anti-diabetic therapy that delays the absorption of eaten carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks to reach normoglycemia. Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica growing in KSA, followed by in-vitro assay of sucrase enzyme inhibition activity. This investigation led to the isolation of a new remarkable sucrase enzyme inhibitor; 4'-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1) alongside with four known compounds; 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(α/β)-D-(4)C1-glucopyranose (2), Avicularin (3), Castalagin (4) and Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (5). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including ESI-MS, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC. Under the assay conditions, hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica and compounds 1-5 exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica, led to the Isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside named 4'-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, alongside to other 4 known polyphenols. The hydroalcoholic extract as well as the isolated compounds exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. Abbreviations used: ESI-MS; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, UV; ultraviolet, NMR; nuclear magnetic resonance, 1H-1H COSY; 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, NOESY; nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, and HSQC; heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. A. indica; Azadirachta indica.

  10. A metal-based inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jing Zhong

    Full Text Available A cyclometallated rhodium(III complex [Rh(ppy(2(dppz](+ (1 (where ppy=2-phenylpyridine and dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine dipyridophenazine has been prepared and identified as an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE. The complex inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based assays, and suppressed the CRL-regulated substrate degradation and NF-κB activation in human cancer cells with potency comparable to known NAE inhibitor MLN4924. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the overall binding mode of 1 within the binding pocket of the APPBP1/UBA3 heterodimer resembled that for MLN4924. Complex 1 is the first metal complex reported to suppress the NEDDylation pathway via inhibition of the NEDD8-activating enzyme.

  11. Characterization of inhibitor(s) of β-glucuronidase enzyme activity in GUS-transgenic wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Ahmed M Ali

    2011-06-26

    The uidA gene, encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS), is the most frequently used reporter gene in plants. As a reporter enzyme, GUS can be assayed both qualitatively and quantitatively. In wheat, there are numerous reports of failure in detecting GUS enzyme activity in tissues of transgenic plants, while other reports have suggested presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor(s) in wheat tissues. In the present study, we show that the β-glucuronidase enzyme activity is not only tissue-specific but also genotype-dependent. Our data demonstrate that the glucuronic acid could be the candidate inhibitor for β-glucuronidase enzyme activity in wheat leaves and roots. It should be noted that the assays to detect β-glucuronidase enzyme activity in wheat should be interpreted carefully. Based on the data of our present study, we recommend studying the chemical pathways, the unintended effects and the possible loss-of-function of any candidate transgene prior to transformation experiments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Screening for Enzyme Inhibitors by Surface Plasmon Resonance Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel strategy to identify enzyme inhibitors that interact directly with their enzyme targets. In the approach, an enzyme is immobilized on a sensor chip, and it is determined whether the immobilized enzyme is still active by incubation with model substrates and mass...... substrate and mass spectrometric analysis. If the bound compound inhibits the enzyme, the inhibitor is eluted from the enzyme and characterized by mass spectrometry. To test the strategy, it has been applied to the well-characterized interaction between trypsin and pure bovine pancreas trypsin inhibitor....... Furthermore, fractions of plant extracts were screened for binding to and inhibition of carboxypeptidase B....

  13. Enzyme inhibitors and other bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Chiaki

    2005-01-01

    Several enzyme-inhibitor-producing actinomycetes were isolated from various samples collected from the marine environment and characterized. Most of them produced novel compounds that are useful in medicine and agriculture. Actinomycete strain no. 18, which produces antibiotics against Gram-positive bacteria only in the presence of seawater, was isolated from sediment sampled from neritic sea water and characterized. The production of antibiotics was observed at seawater concentrations ranging from 60 to 110% (v/v). Thus, the production was seawater-dependent. The production of tetrodotoxin (TTX), known otherwise as puffer fish toxin, was investigated in various actinomycetes collected from the marine environment. Of 10 isolates from various sea areas, 9 produced TTX as judged by their retention times on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To our knowledge, this is the first report of actinomycetes from the marine environment that produce TTX.

  14. Fragment-Based Screening for Enzyme Inhibitors Using Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Michael I; Nienaber, Vicki; Torres, Francisco E

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides a sensitive and accurate means by which to study the thermodynamics of binding reactions. In addition, it enables label-free measurement of enzymatic reactions. The advent of extremely sensitive microcalorimeters have made it increasingly valuable as a tool for hit validation and characterization, but its use in primary screening is hampered by requiring large quantities of reagents and long measurement times. Nanocalorimeters can overcome these limitations of conventional ITC, particularly for screening libraries of 500-1000 compounds such as those encountered in fragment-based lead discovery. This chapter describes how nanocalorimetry and conventional microcalorimetry can be used to screen compound libraries for enzyme inhibitors. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Arteriosclerosis obliterans. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orea, A; Valdés, R; Niebla, L; Rivas, R; Camacho, B

    1990-01-01

    We compare the effects of two of the main angiotensin convertase enzyme inhibitors, captopril and enalapril, aiming to evaluate their effects in the arterial circulation performance, micro-circulation, and changes in regional blood flow, assuming their property of lowering the angiotensin II blood levels, a very strong peripheral vasoconstrictor. We studied 22 patients: all of them with hypertension and/or skin ulcerations, dropping out those who had venous. They were evaluated periodically, clinically and with photoelectric plethysmography of lower extremities. To interpret the traces we designed an ideogram which gathered the plethysmographic behavior before and after the treatment. Nearly 80% showed considerable improvement in pain, functional capacity and plethysmographic traces patterns. healing of the ulcerations was achieved in all case. We propose some hypothesis to explain the good effect that we have observed.

  16. Screening of marine actinobacteria for amylase enzymes inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, S; Ganesan, S; Sivakumar, K; Thangaradjou, T

    2010-06-01

    Amylase inhibitor producing actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from terrestrial environment and there is no much report found from marine environment, hence in the present study, 17 strains isolated from the rhizosphere sediments of mangroves were tested for their amylase inhibition ability. Seawater requirement test for the growth of actinobacteria found that the strains SSR-3, SSR-12 and SSR-16 requires at least 50% and SSR-6 requires at least 25% seawater for their growth. The inhibition activity of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic amylase was tested by using Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The maximum amylase activity (40mm) produced by the A. niger was taken as positive control, when the test actinobacteria strains grown in the medium they inhibited amylase activity and was evidenced by the reduction in inhibition zone (14-37 mm) similarly the amylase produced by the Bacillus subtilis was also recorded maximum (35 mm) amylase activity and was taken as positive control, and the test atinobacterial strains reduced enzyme action(12-33 mm) it varied levals. This indicates that the actinobacteria strains were controlled amylase enzyme activity in both the cases. The strain SSR-10 was highly effective and SSR-8 was less effective in inhibiting eukaryotic amylase produced by A. niger. The strain SSR-2 was effective and SSR-6 showed very less effect in inhibiting the prokaryotic amylase produced by the B subtilis.

  17. Computational optimization of AG18051 inhibitor for amyloid-beta binding alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alexandra T.; Antunes, Agostinho; Fernandes, Pedro A.; Ramos, Maria J.

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in maintaining the homeostasis. The enzyme can also mediate some diseases, including genetic diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and possibly some prostate cancers. Potent inhibitors of ABAD might facilitate a better clarification of the functions of the enzyme under normal and pathogenic conditions and might also be used for therapeutic intervention in disease conditions mediated by the enzyme. The AG18051 is the only presently available inhibitor of ABAD. It binds in the active-site cavity of the enzyme and reacts with the NAD+ cofactor to form a covalent adduct. In this work, we use computational methods to perform a rational optimization of the AG18051 inhibitor, through the introduction of chemical substitutions directed to improve the affinity of the inhibitor to the enzyme. The molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area methodology was used to predict the relative free binding energy of the different modified inhibitor-NAD-enzyme complexes. We show that it is possible to increase significantly the affinity of the inhibitor to the enzyme with small modifications, without changing the overall structure and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties of the original inhibitor.

  18. Different angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have similar clinical efficacy after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten L; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars

    2008-01-01

    What is already known about this subject: Treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor benefits many patients with cardiovascular disease. ACE inhibitors are generally assumed to be equally effective, but this has never been fully verified in clinical trials. What this study adds......: Studying the association among ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction demonstrated similarity in clinical outcome and supports a dosage-response relationship. Therefore, for long-term benefits for patients who need treatment with an ACE inhibitor, a focus of treatment at the recommended dosage is most...... important and not which ACE inhibitor is used. AIM: Therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is common after myocardial infarction (MI). Given the lack of randomized trials comparing different ACE inhibitors, the association among ACE inhibitors after MI in risk for mortality...

  19. Evolution toward small molecule inhibitor resistance affects native enzyme function and stability, generating acarbose-insensitive cyclodextrin glucanotransferase variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Ronan M.; Leemhuis, Hans; Gatjen, Linda; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Gätjen, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors play an essential role in the selective inhibition of enzymes associated with human infection and metabolic disorders. Targeted enzymes may evolve toward inhibitor resistance through selective incorporation of mutations. Acquisition of insensitivity may, however, result in

  20. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms

  1. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor derived from cottonseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six proteolytic enzymes, including alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, neutrase, papain and pepsin, were employed to hydrolyze cottonseed protein to produce the hydrolysates of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The result indicated that the cottonseed protein hydrolysate (CPH) produced by papain had ...

  2. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Heppel, Simon C; Su, Tao; Bogs, Jochen; Zu, Yuangang; An, Zhigang; Rausch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), a new (type I) DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS) and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR)), respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms), DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS) were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  3. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Han

    Full Text Available In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, a new (type I DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR, respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms, DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF LOOP RIGIDIFICATION IN ENZYME-INHIBITOR COMPLEXES: A QUANTITATIVE AND PROBABILISTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Majumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-inhibitor interactions are one of the most important protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions in biological systems. During complex formation with its cognate enzyme, many inhibitory loops undergo structural rigidification whereby molecular motion of the atoms around the otherwise flexible loop gets reduced. B-factor or temperature factor is a good indicator of such rigidification. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the extent of rigidification of loop residues in comparison to the rest of the inhibitor molecule comparing B-factor values in free inhibitor structures and in their corresponding enzyme–inhibitor complexes for serine protease inhibitors (SPI. Our study also reveals that crystal packing artefacts might also play a crucial role in determining the B-factor values of individual amino acid residues in a protein.

  5. THE CAPABILITIES OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FOCUS ON VASOPROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Nebieridze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of large-scale research that shows comprehensive abilities of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors in clinical practice were represented. The traditional usage of ACE inhibitors in patients with arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure has extended recently. The study results demonstrate the efficacy of ACE inhibitors in slowing down of disease progression related to atherosclerosis and prove the possibility of a new clinical approach. Evidences support new strategic abilities of a number of ACE inhibitors (ramipril, perindopril, which are associated with vasoprotection.

  6. Natural and Synthetic Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex; Kristensen, Helle; Leman, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes has emerged as a target for development of cancer chemotherapy. Four compounds have gained approval for clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, and several are currently in clinical trials. However, none of these compounds...

  7. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-12-02

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  8. Inhibitors of Testosterone Biosynthetic and Metabolic Activation Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Ye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B, for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3 for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and 2 (SRD5A2 in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol. This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  9. Screening of marine actinobacteria for amylase enzymes inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, S.; Ganesan, S.; K. SIVAKUMAR; Thangaradjou, T.

    2010-01-01

    Amylase inhibitor producing actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from terrestrial environment and there is no much report found from marine environment, hence in the present study, 17 strains isolated from the rhizosphere sediments of mangroves were tested for their amylase inhibition ability. Seawater requirement test for the growth of actinobacteria found that the strains SSR-3, SSR-12 and SSR-16 requires at least 50% and SSR-6 requires at least 25% seawater for their growth. The ...

  10. Design and rationale of a randomized study to compare amiodarone and Class IC anti-arrhythmic drugs in terms of atrial fibrillation treatment efficacy in patients paced for sinus node disease: the PITAGORA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulizia, Michele; Mangiameli, Salvatore; Chiarandà, Giacomo; Spadola, Vincenzo; Di Giovanni, Nicolò; Colletti, Andrea; Bulla, Vincenzo; Circo, Antonio; Pensabene, Orazio; Vasquez, Ludovico; Vaccaro, Ignazio; Grammatico, Andrea

    2006-04-01

    Many sinus node disease (SND) patients suffer from atrial fibrillation (AF). Anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) are the therapeutic mainstay for AF prophylaxis. The PITAGORA trial has a multicentre, prospective, randomized, single blind design to compare amiodarone with Class IC AADs in patients who have an AF history and are paced for SND. Starting from January 2001, 176 patients received a Medtronic AT500 pacemaker. AADs were randomly assigned with a 3 : 2 ratio between Class III and Class IC. Randomization was stratified in order to assign two patients to amiodarone and one patient to sotalol every three Class III AAD patients. After a 5-month observational period, Ramp or Burst+ ATP therapies were enabled in a randomized way, maintained for 4 months, and then crossed over. Total follow-up period is 21 months. The primary long-term objective is to show the non-inferiority of IC AADs compared with amiodarone in terms of time to first occurrence of a composite endpoint (death, atrial cardioversion, hospitalizations due to AF or heart failure, or change of AADs). Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary short-term objective is to compare Ramp vs. Burst+ efficacy in terminating atrial tachyarrhythmias treated by the device. Secondary endpoints are major clinical events, medication toxicity, symptoms, AF burden, and quality-of-life. Given the high morbidity and healthcare costs associated with AF, new therapeutic strategies are needed. The results of the PITAGORA trial may help in guiding AADs therapy and ATP programming in SND patients suffering from AF.

  11. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza V. Oliva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especificidade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos.

  12. Selective inhibitors of a PAF biosynthetic enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarui, Megumi; Shindou, Hideo; Kumagai, Kazuo; Morimoto, Ryo; Harayama, Takeshi; Hashidate, Tomomi; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Nagase, Takahide; Shimizu, Takao

    2014-07-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid mediator. In response to extracellular stimuli, PAF is rapidly biosynthesized by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAFAT). Previously, we identified two types of lyso-PAFATs: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)1, mostly expressed in the lungs where it produces PAF and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine essential for respiration, and LPCAT2, which biosynthesizes PAF and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the inflammatory cells. Under inflammatory conditions, LPCAT2, but not LPCAT1, is activated and upregulated to produce PAF. Thus, it is important to develop inhibitors specific for LPCAT2 in order to ameliorate PAF-related inflammatory diseases. Here, we report the first identification of LPCAT2-specific inhibitors, N-phenylmaleimide derivatives, selected from a 174,000-compound library using fluorescence-based high-throughput screening followed by the evaluation of the effects on LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 activities, cell viability, and cellular PAF production. Selected compounds competed with acetyl-CoA for the inhibition of LPCAT2 lyso-PAFAT activity and suppressed PAF biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with a calcium ionophore. These compounds had low inhibitory effects on LPCAT1 activity, indicating that adverse effects on respiratory functions may be avoided. The identified compounds and their derivatives will contribute to the development of novel drugs for PAF-related diseases and facilitate the analysis of LPCAT2 functions in phospholipid metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  14. Prevention of atrial fibrillation with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healey, Jeff S; Baranchuk, Adrian; Crystal, Eugene; Morillo, Carlos A; Garfinkle, Michael; Yusuf, Salim; Connolly, Stuart J

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify all randomized clinical trial data evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers for the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF...

  15. BACE1 Inhibitor Peptides: Can an Infinitely Small k cat Value Turn the Substrate of an Enzyme into Its Inhibitor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Ishiura, Shoichi; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-08

    Recently, we reported substrate-based pentapeptidic β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors with a hydroxymethylcarbonyl isostere as a substrate transition-state mimic. These inhibitors showed potent BACE1 inhibitory activity in enzyme and cell assays, with KMI-429 showing in vivo inhibition of Aβ production. We also designed and synthesized nonpeptidic and small-sized BACE1 inhibitors using "in-silico conformational structure-based design". By studying the structure-activity relationship of these inhibitors, we found that the σ-π interaction of an inhibitor with the BACE1-Arg235 side chain played a key role in the inhibition of BACE1. We speculated that a peptide capable of binding to the BACE1-Arg235 side chain via the σ-π interaction might exhibit BACE1 inhibitory activity. Hence, we designed and synthesized a series of peptides that were modified at the P2 position and found that some of these peptides exhibited a potent BACE1 inhibitory activity despite their structural similarity to the BACE1 substrate.

  16. Assessment of 105 Patients with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Induced Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; von Buchwald, Christian; Wadelius, Mia

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To asses a cohort of 105 consecutive patients with angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor induced angioedema with regard to demographics, risk factors, family history of angioedema, hospitalization, airway management, outcome, and use of diagnostic codes used for the condition. Study ...

  17. Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

    2013-01-31

    The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

  18. Trends in co-prescribing of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wan Md Adnan, Wan A H

    2011-03-01

    (i) To examine the trends in co-prescribing of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy and (ii) to examine the influence of major clinical trials (CALM, COOPERATE, VALIANT and ONTARGET) on co-prescribing.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karl Emil; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) on human AAAs remain unclear. We therefore ex...

  20. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from Olea europea and Olea lancea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Adsersen, A.; Brøgger Christensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Olea europea and Olea lancea both inhibited Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in vitro. A bioassay-directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of a strong ACE-inhibitor namely the secoiridoid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)-4E...

  1. Insights on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Inhibitors Obtained Through QSAR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Foroozesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR, and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on the major human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and a few other CYPs are detailed in this review which will provide us with an insight into the individual/common characteristics of the active sites of these enzymes and the enzyme-inhibitor interactions.

  2. [Screening, characterization and pharmaceutical and medical application of enzyme inhibitors from microbial origin with low-molecular-weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, T

    1996-07-01

    In living organisms a large number of enzymes are working in complicated networks to express various biological functions. In order to analyze such functions from various aspects, specific enzyme inhibitors are likely to become useful tools. They are also useful for the studies of reaction mechanisms and analysis of three-dimensional structures of enzymes. Moreover, they are of great value in elucidating disease processes and seem to have usefulness in treatment of various diseases. Searching for inhibitors in culture filtrate of microbes, we discovered many substances which specifically inhibit various enzymes such as endopeptidases, exopeptidases, glycosidases, lipases, an so forth. These inhibitors have low-molecular-weights and unique structures. We found significant activities of exopeptidases, alkaline phosphatases, esterases, and so forth, on surface membranes of various mammalian cells. Searching for specific inhibitors against these cell surface enzymes, we have discovered many interesting inhibitors. These inhibitors proved to bind to the cellular surface and to modify the functions of cells involved in immune responses. Thus the studies on these enzyme inhibitors may well afford important keys to understand various aspect of biological phenomena and diseases: inflammation, immune response, hypertension, hyperlipemia, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, carcinogenesis, metastasis, viral infection, autoimmune diseases, and so forth. Because of their interesting pharmacological activities, some of the inhibitors are now under clinical evaluation for their uses as medical drugs. Enzyme inhibitors seems to propose a new promising field of science.

  3. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and renal function. A review of the current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L

    1991-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are well established in the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure. Experimental studies in rats have suggested that these agents may protect renal function in chronic nephropathy by a mechanism other than simply lowering the systemic blood...... was reduced by 2 months' treatment with enalapril to less than half of the values obtained in a control group treated with metoprolol. Nonrandomised trials have suggested that ACE inhibitors may slow the deterioration of renal function, but no comparisons with other antihypertensive agents in prospective...... studies have been published to date. In chronic renal failure, ACE inhibitors may worsen anaemia and hyperkalaemia. Renovascular hypertension can be treated with ACE inhibitors, but the treatment may lead to a compromised renal function. The dosage of these drugs should be reduced in renal failure...

  4. Regulation of malic enzyme synthesis by thyroid hormone and glucagon: inhibitor and kinetic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, A G

    1978-06-01

    Synthesis of malic enzyme was rapidly and markedly stimulated by the addition of triiodothyronine to chick embryo liver cells in culture. Alpha-Amanitin, an inhibitor of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II, blocked induction. The kinetics of induction and de-induction of malic enzyme synthesis suggested that the most stable event in triiodothyronine induction had a half-life of 18 to 20 h. However, malic enzyme synthesis decayed with a half-life of 2,4 h when transcription was inhibited with alpha-amanitin. Thus a long-lived event in thyroid hormone stimulation of malic enzyme synthesis occurred prior to transcription of a specific messenger RNA (mRNA), presumably malic enzyme mRNA. Malic enzyme synthesis decayed with a half-life of about 2 h when glucagon was added to pre-induced liver cells. The similarity of decay rates after inhibition of transcription with alpha-amanitin or inhibition of malic enzyme synthesis by glucagon suggests that glucagon may inhibit the transcription or processing of a specific mRNA required for malic enzyme synthesis.

  5. Polysulfide compounds as inhibitors of the key base excision repair enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salakhutdinov N. F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To increase the capacity of antitumor therapy based on DNA damage it is important to minimize the repair of DNA lesions that can be achieved by inhibiting the activity of key DNA repair enzymes. To this end several benzopentathiepine and benzo[1,3]dithiol derivatives were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of the key base excision repair (BER enzymes, PARP1, DNA polymerase β, and APE1. Methods. The procedure of synthesis of several new compounds was developed. The inhibitory capacity of the compounds was estimated by comparison of the enzyme activities in specific tests in the presence of compounds versus their absence. Results. Benzopentathiepine derivative bearing trifluoromethyl group at the 1st position was shown to be a weak inhibitor of PARP1. Cyclic substituents at the 1st position attached through amide bond bring about moderate enhancement of pol β inhibition. Each studied substituent at the 1st position considerably increases the inhibition of APE1-catalyzed hydrolysis of AP sites as compared to parent compound. Conclusions. Several new inhibitors of BER enzymes were revealed. The directions for further modification of compounds to improve their inhibitory activity were found out.

  6. Ruthenium-containing P450 inhibitors for dual enzyme inhibition and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Ana; Denning, Catherine A; Heidary, David K; Wachter, Erin; Nease, Leona A; Ruiz, José; Glazer, Edith C

    2017-02-14

    Cytochrome P450s are key players in drug metabolism, and overexpression in tumors is associated with significant resistance to many medicinal agents. Consequently, inhibition of P450s could serve as a strategy to restore drug efficacy. However, the widespread expression of P450s throughout the human body and the critical roles they play in various biosynthetic pathways motivates the development of P450 inhibitors capable of controlled local administration. Ruthenium complexes containing P450 inhibitors as ligands were synthesized in order to develop pro-drugs that can be triggered to release the inhibitors in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. Upon light activation the compounds release ligands that directly bind and inhibit P450 enzymes, while the ruthenium center is able to directly damage DNA.

  7. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitors from Marine Resources: Prospects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isuru Wijesekara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, the inhibition of ACE activity is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS and phlorotannins have been derived from marine organisms as potential ACE inhibitors. These inhibitory derivatives can be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals with potential to prevent hypertension. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the marine-derived ACE inhibitors and their future prospects as novel therapeutic drug candidates for treat hypertension.

  8. Chalcone-based Selective Inhibitors of a C4 Plant Key Enzyme as Novel Potential Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, G. T. T.; Erlenkamp, G.; Jäck, O.; Küberl, A.; Bott, M.; Fiorani, F.; Gohlke, H.; Groth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world’s most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2‧,3‧,4‧,3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2‧,3‧,4‧-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4.2 μM) are potent inhibitors of C4 PEPC but do not affect C3 PEPC at a same concentration range (selectivity factor: 15-45). Binding and modeling studies indicate that the active compounds bind at the same site as malate/aspartate, the natural feedback inhibitors of the C4 pathway. At the whole plant level, both substances showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on the C4 weed Amaranthus retroflexus, while there were no measurable effects on oilseed rape, a C3 plant. Growth of selected soil bacteria was not affected by these substances. Our chalcone compounds are the most potent and selective C4 PEPC inhibitors known to date. They offer a novel approach to combat C4 weeds based on a hitherto unexplored mode of allosteric inhibition of a C4 plant key enzyme.

  9. Frontal affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for screening mixtures of enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Palcic, M M; Schriemer, D C; Alvarez-Manilla, G; Pierce, M; Hindsgaul, O

    2001-12-15

    Frontal affinity chromatography coupled online to mass spectrometry (FAC/MS) has previously been used to estimate binding constants for individual protein ligands present in mixtures of compounds. In this study FAC/MS is used to determine enzyme substrate kinetic parameters and binding constants for enzyme inhibitors. Recombinant human N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V was biotinylated and adsorbed onto immobilized streptavidin in a microcolumn (20 microL). The enzyme was shown to be catalytically competent transferring GlcNAc from the donor UDP-GlcNAc to beta-d-GlcpNAc-(1-->2)-alpha-d-Manp-(1-->6)-beta-d-Glcp-OR acceptor giving beta-d-GlcpNAc-(1-->2)-[beta-d-GlcpNAc-(1-->6)]-alpha-d-Manp-(1-->6)-beta-d-Glcp-OR as the reaction product. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) for the immobilized enzyme could be determined by FAC/MS and were comparable to those measured in solution. Analysis of a mixture of eight trisaccharide analogs in a single run yielded K(d) values for each of the eight compounds ranging from 0.3 to 36 microM. These K(d) values were 2 to 10 times lower than the inhibition constants, K(I)'s, determined in solution using a standard radiochemical assay. However, the ranking order of K(d)'s was the same as the ranking of K(I) values. FAC/MS assays can therefore be employed for the rapid estimation of inhibitor K(d) values making it a valuable tool for enzyme inhibitor evaluations. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  10. Proteasome Inhibitor Up Regulates Liver Antioxidative Enzymes in Rat Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Lin, Andrew; Li, Jun; French, Barbara A.; French, Samuel W.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs in the liver of rats fed alcohol chronically due to ethanol metabolism by CYP2E1, causing liver injury. The proteasome is considered as an antioxidant defense in the cell because of its activity in removing damaged and oxidized proteins, but a growing body of evidence shows that proteasome inhibitor treatment, at a non toxic low dose, provides protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, rats were fed ethanol for 4 weeks and were treated with the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade®). Exposure to proteasome inhibitor elicited the elevation of antioxidative defense by enhancing the levels of mRNA and protein expression transcripts of glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione synthetase (GSS), glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the liver of rats fed ethanol chronically, while ethanol alone did not increase these genes mRNA. Our results also showed that glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), a rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, was also up regulated in the liver of rats fed ethanol and injected with PS-431. Nrf2 mRNA level was significantly decreased in the liver of ethanol fed rats, as well as in the livers of animal fed ethanol and treated with proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the mechanism by which proteasome inhibitor up regulates the antioxidant response element is not due to regulation of Nrf2. However, ATF4, a major regulator of antioxidant response elements, was significantly up regulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment also reside in the reversibility of the drug because the proteasome activity was significantly increased 72h post treatment. In conclusion, proteasome inhibitor treatment used at a non toxic low dose has potential protective effects against oxidative stress due to chronic ethanol feeding. PMID:21036165

  11. Designed inhibitors of insulin-degrading enzyme regulate the catabolism and activity of insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm A Leissring

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged.We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are approximately 10(6 times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-à-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's "closed," inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin.The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Designed Inhibitors of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Regulate the Catabolism and Activity of Insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leissring, Malcolm A.; Malito, Enrico; Hedouin, Sabrine; Reinstatler, Lael; Sahara, Tomoko; Abdul-Hay, Samer O.; Choudhry, Shakeel; Maharvi, Ghulam M.; Fauq, Abdul H.; Huzarska, Malwina; May, Philip S.; Choi, Sungwoon; Logan, Todd P.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Manolopoulou, Marika; Tang, Wei-Jen; Stein, Ross L.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Selkoe, Dennis J. (Harvard-Med); (BWH); (Yale-MED); (Scripps); (UC); (Mayo)

    2010-09-20

    Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged. We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are {approx} 10{sup 6} times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-a-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's 'closed,' inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin. Conclusions/Significance: The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes.

  13. Improved inhibitor screening experiments by comparative analysis of simulated enzyme progress curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Tholander

    Full Text Available A difficulty associated with high throughput screening for enzyme inhibitors is to establish reaction conditions that maximize the sensitivity and resolution of the assay. Deduction of information from end-point assays at single concentrations requires a detailed understanding of the time progress of the enzymatic reaction, an essential but often difficult process to model. A tool to simulate the time progress of enzyme catalyzed reactions and allows adjustment of reactant concentrations and parameters (initial concentrations, K(m, k(cat, K(i values, enzyme half-life, product•enzyme dissociation constant, and the rate constant for the reversed reaction has been developed. This tool provides comparison of the progress of uninhibited versus inhibited reactions for common inhibitory mechanisms, and guides the tuning of reaction conditions. Possible applications include: analysis of substrate turnover, identification of the point of maximum difference in product concentration (Δ(max[P] between inhibited and uninhibited reactions, determination of an optimal observation window unbiased for inhibitor mechanisms or potency, and interpretation of observed inhibition in terms of true inhibition. An important observation that can be utilized to improve assay signal strength and resolution is that Δ(max[P] occurs at a high degree of substrate consumption (commonly >75% and that observation close to this point does not adversely affect observed inhibition or IC(50 values.

  14. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of the ribonuclease H2 enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rachel; Saxty, Barbara; Large, Jonathan; Kettleborough, Catherine A; Jackson, Andrew P

    2013-06-01

    Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) is a nuclease that specifically hydrolyzes RNA residues in RNA-DNA hybrids. Mutations in the RNase H2 enzyme complex have been identified in the genetic disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), which has similarities to the autoimmune disease systemic lupus eryrthrematosis (SLE). The RNase H2 enzyme has also been recently implicated as a key genome surveillance enzyme. Therefore, small-molecule modulators of RNase H2 activity may have utility in therapeutics and as tools to investigate the cellular functions of RNase H2. A fluorescent quench assay, measuring cleavage of an RNA-DNA duplex substrate by recombinant RNase H2, was developed into a high-throughput format and used to screen a 48 560 compound library. A hit validation strategy was subsequently employed, leading to the identification of two novel inhibitor compounds with in vitro nanomolar range inhibition of RNase H2 activity and >100-fold selectivity compared with RNase H type 1. These compounds are the first small-molecule inhibitors of RNase H2 to be reported. They and their derivatives should provide the basis for the development of tool compounds investigating the cellular functions of the RNase H2 enzyme, and, potentially, for pharmacological manipulation of nucleic acid-mediated immune responses.

  15. Fumarate analogs act as allosteric inhibitors of the human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Yang, Pai-Chun; Lin, Chi-Li; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme (m-NAD(P)-ME) is allosterically activated by the four-carbon trans dicarboxylic acid, fumarate. Previous studies have suggested that the dicarboxylic acid in a trans conformation around the carbon-carbon double bond is required for the allosteric activation of the enzyme. In this paper, the allosteric effects of fumarate analogs on m-NAD(P)-ME are investigated. Two fumarate-insensitive mutants, m-NAD(P)-ME_R67A/R91A and m-NAD(P)-ME_K57S/E59N/K73E/D102S, as well as c-NADP-ME, were used as the negative controls. Among these analogs, mesaconate, trans-aconitate, monomethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate were allosteric activators of the enzyme, while oxaloacetate, diethyl oxalacetate, and dimethyl fumarate were found to be allosteric inhibitors of human m-NAD(P)-ME. The IC50 value for diethyl oxalacetate was approximately 2.5 mM. This paper suggests that the allosteric inhibitors may impede the conformational change from open form to closed form and therefore inhibit m-NAD(P)-ME enzyme activity.

  16. Fumarate analogs act as allosteric inhibitors of the human mitochondrial NAD(P+-dependent malic enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yi Hsieh

    Full Text Available Human mitochondrial NAD(P+-dependent malic enzyme (m-NAD(P-ME is allosterically activated by the four-carbon trans dicarboxylic acid, fumarate. Previous studies have suggested that the dicarboxylic acid in a trans conformation around the carbon-carbon double bond is required for the allosteric activation of the enzyme. In this paper, the allosteric effects of fumarate analogs on m-NAD(P-ME are investigated. Two fumarate-insensitive mutants, m-NAD(P-ME_R67A/R91A and m-NAD(P-ME_K57S/E59N/K73E/D102S, as well as c-NADP-ME, were used as the negative controls. Among these analogs, mesaconate, trans-aconitate, monomethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate were allosteric activators of the enzyme, while oxaloacetate, diethyl oxalacetate, and dimethyl fumarate were found to be allosteric inhibitors of human m-NAD(P-ME. The IC50 value for diethyl oxalacetate was approximately 2.5 mM. This paper suggests that the allosteric inhibitors may impede the conformational change from open form to closed form and therefore inhibit m-NAD(P-ME enzyme activity.

  17. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  18. Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and troponin in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzo, Luiz; Santos, Elizabete Silva dos; Timerman, Ari

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western world and its treatment should be optimized to decrease severe adverse events. To determine the effect of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cardiac troponin I measurement in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and evaluate clinical outcomes at 180 days. Prospective, observational study, carried out in a tertiary center, in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory variables were analyzed, with emphasis on previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac troponin I. The Pearson chi-square tests (Pereira) or Fisher's exact test (Armitage) were used, as well as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's test. Variables with significance levels of mean age of 62.1 years, of whom 63.7% were males, were included. Risk factors such as hypertension (85.3%) and dyslipidemia (75.9%) were the most prevalent, with 35% of diabetics. In the evaluation of events at 180 days, there were 28 deaths (6.2%). The statistical analysis showed that the variables that interfered with troponin elevation (> 0.5 ng / mL) were high blood glucose at admission (p = 0.0034) and ST-segment depression ≥ 0.5 mm in one or more leads (p = 0.0016). The use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors prior to hospitalization was associated with troponin ≤ 0.5 ng / mL (p = 0.0482). The C-statistics for this model was 0.77. This study showed a correlation between prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and reduction in the myocardial necrosis marker troponin I in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, there are no data available yet to state that this reduction could lead to fewer severe clinical events such as death and re-infarction at 180 days.

  19. Association between Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Troponin in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Minuzzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western world and its treatment should be optimized to decrease severe adverse events. Objective: To determine the effect of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cardiac troponin I measurement in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and evaluate clinical outcomes at 180 days. Methods: Prospective, observational study, carried out in a tertiary center, in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory variables were analyzed, with emphasis on previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac troponin I. The Pearson chi-square tests (Pereira or Fisher's exact test (Armitage were used, as well as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's test. Variables with significance levels of 0.5 ng / mL were high blood glucose at admission (p = 0.0034 and ST-segment depression ≥ 0.5 mm in one or more leads (p = 0.0016. The use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors prior to hospitalization was associated with troponin ≤ 0.5 ng / mL (p = 0.0482. The C-statistics for this model was 0.77. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and reduction in the myocardial necrosis marker troponin I in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, there are no data available yet to state that this reduction could lead to fewer severe clinical events such as death and re-infarction at 180 days.

  20. A kinetic study of irreversible enzyme inhibition by an inhibitor that is rendered unstable by enzymic catalysis. The inhibition of polyphenol oxidase by L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, E; Varón, R; García-Carmona, F

    1991-01-01

    A kinetic study of the irreversible inhibition of an enzyme by an inhibitor that is depleted in the medium by its reaction with the product of enzymic analysis was made. The model is illustrated by the study of the inhibition of catecholase activity of polyphenol oxidase by L-cysteine. The inhibition is characterized by an initial lag period followed by a concomitant decrease in enzymic activity expressed when the steady state is reached, both kinetic parameters being modulated by enzyme, substrate and inhibitor concentrations. There is no analytical solution to the non-linear differential-equation system that describes the kinetics of the reaction, and so computer simulations of this dynamic behaviour are presented. The results obtained show that the system here studied presents kinetic co-operativity for a target enzyme that follows the simple Michaelis-Menten mechanism in its action on the substrate. PMID:1908225

  1. Nanoscale enzyme inhibitors: fullerenes inhibit carbonic anhydrase by occluding the active site entrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessio; Durdagi, Serdar; Doostdar, Nadjmeh; Strom, T Amanda; Barron, Andrew R; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2010-04-15

    We investigated a series of derivatized fullerenes possessing alcohol, amine, and amino acid pendant groups as inhibitors of the zinc enzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). We discovered that fullerenes bind CAs with submicromolar-low micromolar affinity, despite the fact that these compounds do not possess moieties normally associated with CA inhibitors such as the sulfonamides and their isosteres, or the coumarins. The 13 different mammalian CA isoforms showed a diverse inhibition profile with these compounds. By means of computational methods we assessed the inhibition mechanism as being due to occlusion of the active site entrance by means of the fullerene cage (possessing dimension of the same order of magnitude as the opening of the enzyme cavity, of 1nm). The pendant moieties to the fullerene cage make interactions with amino acid residues from the active site, among which His64, His94, His96, Val121, and Thr200. Fullerenes thus represent a totally new class of nanoscale CA inhibitors which may show applications for targeting physiologically relevant isoforms, such as the dominant CA II and the tumor-associated CA IX. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereochemical course, isotope effects, and enzyme inhibitor studies of glaucine metabolism in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The microbial transformation of the aporphine alkaloid glaucine by the fungi Fusarium solani (ATCC 12823) and Aspergillus flavipes (ATCC 1030) proceeds with complete substrate stereoselectivity. The fungus F. solani metabolizes only S-(+)-glaucine (1) to dehydroglaucine (3), and A. flavipes metabolizes only R-(-)-glaucine (2) to dehydroglaucine. This facile microbiological reaction is useful in the destructive resolution of racemic mixtures of glaucine, and may provide a model for producing pure enantiomers (either R or S) of other aporphines from racemic mixtures. In order to extend the reaction to other aporphines and related alkaloids, the overall stereochemical course and enzyme(s) involved in the reaction, and the substrate requirements of the enzyme were investigated. The overall stereochemical course of the transformation was examined using C-7 methyl-blocked analogs of glaucine, cis- and trans-7-methylglaucine, as substrates for the fungi. Isolation and examination of residual substrates from semi-preparative scale incubations by MS, PMR, PMR with a chiral shift reagent, OR and ORD indicated that the transformation was enantioselective in the case of A. flavipes. However, only a 10% enrichment of 6aR,7R-cis-7-methylglaucine was observed in F. solani cultures. The oxidation of glaucine can be envisioned as proceeding through one of several mechanisms, each involving a different enzyme system. Deuterium isotope, induction and enzyme inhibitor experiments helped to distinguish between the three mechanisms.

  3. Inhibitors of the Hydrolytic Enzyme Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH: Discovery, Synthesis and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys B. Murphy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH is a highly conserved hydrolytic enzyme found in numerous species, including bacteria, rodents, and humans. In humans, the DDAH-1 isoform is known to metabolize endogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and monomethyl arginine (l-NMMA, with ADMA proposed to be a putative marker of cardiovascular disease. Current literature reports identify the DDAH family of enzymes as a potential therapeutic target in the regulation of nitric oxide (NO production, mediated via its biochemical interaction with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS family of enzymes. Increased DDAH expression and NO production have been linked to multiple pathological conditions, specifically, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and septic shock. As such, the discovery, chemical synthesis, and development of DDAH inhibitors as potential drug candidates represent a growing field of interest. This review article summarizes the current knowledge on DDAH inhibition and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters of the main DDAH inhibitors reported in the literature. Furthermore, current methods of development and chemical synthetic pathways are discussed.

  4. Cyclic secondary sulfonamides: unusually good inhibitors of cancer-related carbonic anhydrase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeker, Janina; Peat, Thomas S; Bornaghi, Laurent F; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2014-04-24

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a target for hypoxic cancer therapies, and the discovery of CA IX selective ligands is imperative for the development of these agents. Primary sulfonamides are broad specificity inhibitors of CA enzymes, while secondary sulfonamides are generally poor CA inhibitors. However, saccharin, a cyclic secondary sulfonamide, has unusually good inhibition of CA IX (Ki = 103 nM). In this study, we demonstrate that the affinity and selectivity of saccharin for CA IX can be further modulated when linked to hydrophobic or hydrophilic substituents. The hydrophilic glycoconjugate derivative (12) showed improved inhibition of CA IX (Ki = 49.5 nM) and extremely poor inhibition of the predominant off-target CAs (Ki > 50000 nM) compared to saccharin. This >1000-fold selectivity for CA IX over off-target CAs is unprecedented for classical primary sulfonamide CA inhibitors. Our study highlights the potential of cyclic secondary sulfonamides to be exploited for the discovery of potent, cancer-selective CA inhibitors.

  5. Biological properties of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor derived from tuna muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Y; Oka, H; Matsumoto, S; Nakagawa, T; Miyamoto, T; Mimura, T; Nagase, Y; Satake, M; Takane, T; Fujita, T

    1989-09-01

    A novel inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) derived from tuna muscle, Pro-Thr-His-Ile-Lys-Trp-Gly-Asp (tuna AI), was chemically synthesized, and its biological properties were investigated. Synthetic tuna AI was found to be chemically and biologically indistinguishable from the native one. Tuna AI inhibited rabbit lung ACE non-competitively with Ki values of 1.7 and 5.7 microM with substrates, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine and angiotensin I, respectively. This peptide (5.3 microM) also doubled the effect of bradykinin in the contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum. The peptide did not show zinc chelating activity and carboxypeptidase A inhibitory activity. Thus, tuna AI was found to be a unique ACE inhibitory peptide with non-competitive manner, differing from many naturally occurring peptide ACE-inhibitors.

  6. Use of different types of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and mortality in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanström, Henrik; Pasternak, Björn; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    -2012, were identified using the Danish HF Registry. New users of enalapril (n=1807), perindopril (n=1064), ramipril (n=3270), or trandolapril (n=1150), who started treatment within 60days of first-time hospital diagnosis of HF, were selected for inclusion. Subgroup analyses were conducted by sex, age, NYHA......BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACEIs) are the first-line treatment for patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF). The benefit of ACEIs in HF is regarded as a class effect and different types of agents are used interchangeably. However, evidence...

  7. Pharmacogenetic Risk Stratification in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Treated Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelveg-Kristensen, Karl Emil; Busk Madsen, Majbritt; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for pharmacogenetic risk stratification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment is limited. Therefore, in a cohort of ACEI-treated patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we investigated the predictive value of two pharmacogenetic scores...... that previously were found to predict ACEI efficacy in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension, respectively. Score A combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (rs275651 and rs5182) and the bradykinin receptor B1 gene (rs12050217). Score B combined...... SNPs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (rs4343) and ABO blood group genes (rs495828 and rs8176746). METHODS: Danish patients with CHF enrolled in the previously reported Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included. Subjects were genotyped and categorized according to pharmacogenetic...

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of chalcone analogues based pyrimidines as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S N A; Butt, A M; Amjad, M W B; Ahmad, W; Shah, V H; Trivedi, A R

    2013-11-01

    Hypertension is a widespread and frequently progressive ailment that imparts a foremost threat for cardiovascular and renal disorders. Mammoth efforts are needed for the synthesis of innovative antihypertensive agents to combat this lethal disease. Chalcones have shown antihypertensive activity through inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). Hence, a series of chalcone analogues is synthesized and used as precursor for the synthesis of novel series of pyrimidines. Precursor chalcones were prepared by reacting aldehydes and ketones in presence of sodium hydroxide followed by synthesis of corresponding pyrimidines by reaction with urea in presence of potassium hydroxide. Both groups were then evaluated for their effects on ACE. The results depicted that pyrimidines were more active than chalcones with methoxy (C5 and P5) substitution showing best results to inhibit ACE. Given that chalcone analogues and pyrimidines show a potential as the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

  9. Pharmacotherapy for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Claire M; Ananth, Ashwin; Barton, Blair M; Flowers, Thomas C; McCoul, Edward D

    2017-11-01

    Objective Angioedema is a potentially life-threatening complication of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use, occurring in up to 0.5% of users. Although the pathophysiology of ACEI-induced angioedema is attributable to elevated serum bradykinin, standard management typically includes corticosteroids and antihistamines. We sought to summarize the evidence supporting pharmacotherapy for ACEI-induced angioedema. Data Sources PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase portals. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Databases were queried by 3 independent reviewers for English-language studies published between 1980 and 2017. The initial search screened for all occurrences of "angioedema" and then was further refined to include studies of ACEI-related cases and exclude hereditary angioedema. Results Five articles representing 218 cases were identified, including 3 randomized controlled trials and 2 prospective case series with historical controls. One of 2 studies of icatibant (bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) found more rapid symptom improvement than that with a control group of corticosteroids and antihistamines. Two studies of ecallantide (plasma kallikrein inhibitor) and 1 study of C1 inhibitor replacement found no significant benefit over control. No studies were identified that compared the efficacy of corticosteroids with antihistamines, of one dose with another, of fresh frozen plasma, or of combination therapy. Conclusion The efficacy of treatment of ACEI-induced angioedema with bradykinin antagonists, kallikrein inhibitor, and C1 inhibitor warrants further study. Although consistent benefit of these medications has not been demonstrated, their use has not caused harm. One study examining off-label use of icatibant has demonstrated efficacy over control. In addition, further study is needed to establish the efficacy and mechanism of action of standard pharmacotherapy such as corticosteroids and antihistamines in

  10. Evolution toward small molecule inhibitor resistance affects native enzyme function and stability, generating acarbose-insensitive cyclodextrin glucanotransferase variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronan M; Leemhuis, Hans; Gätjen, Linda; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2008-04-18

    Small molecule inhibitors play an essential role in the selective inhibition of enzymes associated with human infection and metabolic disorders. Targeted enzymes may evolve toward inhibitor resistance through selective incorporation of mutations. Acquisition of insensitivity may, however, result in profound devolution of native enzyme function and stability. We therefore investigated the consequential effects on native function and stability by evolving a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) enzyme toward insensitivity to the small molecule inhibitor of the protein, acarbose. Error-prone PCR mutagenesis was applied to search the sequence space of CGTase for acarbose-insensitive variants. Our results show that all selected mutations were localized around the active site of the enzyme, and in particular, at the acceptor substrate binding sites, highlighting the regions importance in acarbose inhibition. Single mutations conferring increased resistance, K232E, F283L, and A230V, raised IC(50) values for acarbose between 3,500- and 6,700-fold when compared with wild-type CGTase but at a significant cost to catalytic efficiency. In addition, the thermostability of these variants was significantly lowered. These results reveal not only the relative ease by which resistance may be acquired to small molecule inhibitors but also the considerable cost incurred to native enzyme function and stability, highlighting the subsequent constraints in the further evolutionary potential of inhibitor-resistant variants.

  11. 1-L-methyltryptophan is a more effective inhibitor of vertebrate IDO2 enzymes than 1-D-methyltryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Austin, Christopher J D; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2010-09-01

    1-D-methyltryptophan (D-1MT) is an effective anti-cancer agent in mouse tumour models. It has been suggested to be a selective inhibitor of the recently described tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) rather than the closely related enzyme IDO1. We found that mammalian (mouse, opossum and platypus), chicken, frog, and fish IDO2 could be functional tryptophan-catabolising enzymes. The characteristics of pH-dependent activity and inhibitor selectivity were conserved amongst the vertebrate IDO2 proteins tested. Like IDO1 enzymes, the enzymatic activity of all IDO2s was inhibited by L-1MT but not by D-1MT in a cell-free assay. When IDO2s were expressed in mammalian cells, L-1MT was also a better inhibitor than D-1MT. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Marketing research on the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboia, Anamaria; Grigorescu, Marius Rareş; Turcu-Ştiolică, Adina

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed at investigating sales trends of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors antihypertensive medicines, both in terms of quantity and value, in ten community pharmacies, for a period of three years. The research on the antihypertensive medicines consumption is important for highlighting the ever increasing impact of hypertension among the population. The methods used in this research were the following: marketing research, method of sampling, descriptive methods, retrospective analysis, method of comparison. The results showed that the drugs containing the active substances of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors class had had significant increases in quantitative and value sales, bringing substantial revenues to pharmacies. From the quantitative perspective, the best-selling products were those containing Enalaprilum, while in terms of value, the best-selling medicines were those containing Perindoprilum. We evidenced that spectacular sales were also achieved for products that have Lisinoprilum, respectively Captoprilum, as active substances. The largest quantities were marketed for the Captopril Terapia® product and the highest earnings were recorded for the Prestarium® medicine. This paper approaches an interesting and topical issue, which can be helpful to professionals (pharmacists, doctors) and other categories, such as economists, statisticians, representatives of companies manufacturing medicines, as well as to hypertensive patients, as it could be used to warn population regarding the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and, at the same time, trace sales trends in order to accomplish profitable business plans.

  13. [Digoxin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thery, C

    1994-01-01

    Several controlled studies with the best methodology had showed that digoxin improves the symptoms of patients with chronic heart failure and sinus rhythm, whose ventricular systolic function is impaired. The Proved and Radiance studies show that in patients receiving diuretics and digoxin, or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics and digoxin, the withdrawal of digoxin results in clinical deterioration and worsening of exercise tolerance. In addition to an inotropic action, digitalis exerts effects in the neurocardiovascular axis, produces reduction in plasma norepinephrine, renin, aldosterone, vasopressin activity and restores a more normal sympathetic-parasympathetic autonomic balance and baroreceptor function. ACE inhibitors reduce mortality, improve symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure in class IV (Consensus I trial), in class II and III (SOLVD, treatment trial) and prevent the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with ejection fraction myocardial infarction they reduce mortality, severe heart failure, re-hospitalization, and induce an unexpected reduction of recurrent myocardial infarction (SAVE trial). However, the early administration, within 2 hours after the onset of chest pain, of ACE inhibitors by intravenous infusion, does not improve survival; the hypotension may be responsible of increased mortality (Consensus II trial).

  14. The Fetal Safety of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myla E. Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are known to cause fetal renal damage in pregnancy. Due to conflicting reports in the literature, their safety after first trimester exposure has been debated. Our aim was to determine whether the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for major malformations or other adverse outcomes. All subjects were prospectively enrolled from among women contacting a teratogen information service. At initial contact, details of maternal medical history and exposures were collected and follow-up interviews were conducted to ascertain pregnancy outcomes. Two comparator groups, women with hypertension treated with other antihypertensives, and healthy controls were also recruited. Baseline maternal characteristics were not different among the three groups. There were no differences in rates of major malformations. Both the ACE-ARBs and disease-matched groups exhibited significantly lower birth weight and gestational ages than the healthy controls (P<0.001 for both variables. There was a significantly higher rate of miscarriage noted in the ACE/ARB group (P<0.001. These results suggest that ACE inhibitors/ARBs are not major human teratogens; however, they may be associated with an increased risk for miscarriage.

  15. Anti-diabetic activity of insulin-degrading enzyme inhibitors mediated by multiple hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maianti, Juan Pablo; McFedries, Amanda; Foda, Zachariah H; Kleiner, Ralph E; Du, Xiu Quan; Leissring, Malcolm A; Tang, Wei-Jen; Charron, Maureen J; Seeliger, Markus A; Saghatelian, Alan; Liu, David R

    2014-07-03

    Despite decades of speculation that inhibiting endogenous insulin degradation might treat type-2 diabetes, and the identification of IDE (insulin-degrading enzyme) as a diabetes susceptibility gene, the relationship between the activity of the zinc metalloprotein IDE and glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Although Ide(-/-) mice have elevated insulin levels, they exhibit impaired, rather than improved, glucose tolerance that may arise from compensatory insulin signalling dysfunction. IDE inhibitors that are active in vivo are therefore needed to elucidate IDE's physiological roles and to determine its potential to serve as a target for the treatment of diabetes. Here we report the discovery of a physiologically active IDE inhibitor identified from a DNA-templated macrocycle library. An X-ray structure of the macrocycle bound to IDE reveals that it engages a binding pocket away from the catalytic site, which explains its remarkable selectivity. Treatment of lean and obese mice with this inhibitor shows that IDE regulates the abundance and signalling of glucagon and amylin, in addition to that of insulin. Under physiological conditions that augment insulin and amylin levels, such as oral glucose administration, acute IDE inhibition leads to substantially improved glucose tolerance and slower gastric emptying. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of modulating IDE activity as a new therapeutic strategy to treat type-2 diabetes and expand our understanding of the roles of IDE in glucose and hormone regulation.

  16. Characterization of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During the Chemical Pretreatments of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy

    Production of fuels and chemicals from a renewable and inexpensive resource such as lignocellulosic biomass is a lucrative and sustainable option for the advanced biofuel and bio-based chemical platform. Agricultural residues constitute the bulk of potential feedstock available for cellulosic fuel production. On a global scale, rice straw is the largest source of agricultural residues and is therefore an ideal crop model for biomass deconstruction studies. Lignocellulosic biofuel production involves the processes of biomass conditioning, enzymatic saccharification, microbial fermentation and ethanol distillation, and one of the major factors affecting its techno-economic feasibility is the biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification. Preconditioning of lignocellulosic biomass, using chemical, physico-chemical, mechanical and biological pretreatments, is often practiced such that biomass becomes available to downstream processing. Pretreatments, such as dilute acid and hot water, are effective means of biomass conversion. However, despite their processing importance, preconditioning biomass also results in the production of carbohydrate and lignin degradation products that are inhibitory to downstream saccharification enzymes. The saccharification enzyme cocktail is made up of endo-cellulase, exo-cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes, whose role is to cleave cellulose polymers into glucose monomers. Specifically, endo-cellulase and exo-cellulase enzymes cleave cellulose chains in the middle and at the end, resulting in cellobiose molecules, which are hydrolyzed into glucose by beta-glucosidase. Unfortunately, degradation compounds generated during pretreatment inhibit the saccharification enzyme cocktail. Various research groups have identified specific classes of inhibitors formed during biomass pretreatment and have studied their inhibitory effect on the saccharification cocktail. These various research groups prepared surrogate solutions in an attempt to

  17. Enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for searching for low-mass inhibitors of enzymes in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: 'ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and 'ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  18. Secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction and coronary revascularisation: focus on Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, Juan Carlos; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for an estimated one third of all deaths worldwide. One group of patients who are at a particularly high risk of cardiovascular events and death are those with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), especially if they have had a previous myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularisation. Lifestyle changes (smoking, alcohol intake, diet, exercise) and cardiac rehabilitation play an important part in reducing risk of recurrent events. In patients with a history of MI and/or those who underwent myocardial revascularisation these have to be supplemented with medication. Several pharmacological agents are known to improve prognosis in these patients, i.e. beta-blockers, antiplatelet agents, statins, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). The present article focuses mainly on the role of ACEi in the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of MI or myocardial revascularization.

  19. Mixed micellar liquid chromatography methods: modelling quantitative retention-activity relationships of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Ping; Cui, Yan; Xiong, Mei-Jin; Wang, Shu-Rong; Chen, Cong; Ye, Li-Ming

    2008-11-01

    The capability of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC), using pure Brij35 solution and mixed micellar system of Brij35-SDS (85:15) as mobile phase, to describe and estimate bioactivities of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors at different pH has been studied. Quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRAR) in BMC were investigated for these compounds. The obtained BMC(Brij35-SDS)-QRAR models were compared with the traditional BMC(Brij35)-QRAR, and better statistically models were obtained using Brij35-SDS retention data. The superiority of BMC(Brij35-SDS)-QRAR is due to the fact that the mixed micellar mobile phase can simulate the resting membrane potential and the conformation of the long hydrophilic polyoxyethylene chains remains unchanged.

  20. Influence of selected angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on alloxan-induced diabetic cataract in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablecka, Anna; Czaplicka, Ewa; Olszewski, Jan; Bogdanski, Pawel; Krauss, Hanna; Smolarek, Iwona

    2009-11-01

    Hyperglycemia enhances cataractogenesis. Elevated glucose level is commonly accompanied by arterial hypertension, for which angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs) are a widely used intervention. ACE inhibitors exert some endothelial pleiotropic actions and can beneficially modulate glucose control and some other metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ACEIs on cataract formation in experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rabbits and assess the role of the reactive function group of the ACEIs in this process. Two study and two control groups of rabbits were examined. In the study groups and in one of the control groups, diabetes was induced by alloxan. The study groups were assigned to receive captopril or enalapril for six months; the controls received distilled water. Glucose concentration was monitored with a glucometer. A biomicroscope and an ophthalmoscope were used to evaluate lens opacity and cataractogenesis. Six-month administration of ACEI to rabbis resulted in a delay of diabetic cataractogenesis. The rate of cataract formation was significantly lower in the group treated with captopril than in the enalapril group. A difference in morphology of lens opacity formation between the two study groups was observed. ACEIs delay diabetic cataractogenesis in an experimental animal model. The ACEI functional groups have different influences on the pattern and rate of lens opacity.

  1. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Duus, Nicolaj; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema...... (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature.......Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor...

  2. Metal II complexes of ethambutol as good enzyme inhibitor and promising antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Muhammad; Farwa, Ume; Mazhar, Farhana; Malik, Afza; Ahmad, Ejaz

    2016-09-01

    Ethambutoldihydrogenchloride (EMB) with chemical formula C10H24N2O2.2HCl is ethane-1,2-diamine in which one hydrogen attached to each of the nitrogen is substituted by a 1-hydroxybutan-2-yl group (S,S-configuration). It is an FDA approved drug and has been used for treatment of tuberculosis since 1960's. Prolong use of EMB has a side effect of visual impairment and in literature it is related with the depletion of Zn metal from the body. As it is a good chelating agent, many metal II complexes have been synthesized with anti-tubercular activity. The purpose of this work was to synthesize metal II complexes of EMB and to evaluate their antioxidant activity along with enzyme inhibition activity (acetylcholine esterase and protease). The metals used for complex formation were Co, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni. IR spectral data and physical parameters supported the complex formation. The obtained results showed the synthesized complexes as notable antioxidants and enzyme inhibitors.

  3. Molecular design and synthesis of novel peptides from amphibians skin acting as inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Alvaro; Garibotto, Francisco F; Andujar, Sebastian A; Baldoni, Hector A; Tonarelli, Georgina G; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2017-03-01

    Cholinesterases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. There are two types of cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which differ in their distribution in the body. Currently, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) represent the treatment of choice for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this paper, we report the synthesis and inhibitory effect on both enzymes of four new peptides structurally related to P1-Hp-1971 (amphibian skin peptide found in our previous work. Sequence: TKPTLLGLPLGAGPAAGPGKR-NH2 ). The bioassay data and cytotoxicity test show that some of the compounds possess a significant AChE and BChE inhibition and no toxic effect. The present work demonstrates that diminution of the size of the original peptide could potentially result in new compounds with significant cholinesterase inhibition activity, although it appears that there is an optimal size for the sequence. We also conducted an exhaustive molecular modeling study to better understand the mechanism of action of these compounds by combining docking techniques with molecular dynamics simulations on BChE. This is the first report about amphibian peptides and the second one of natural peptides with ChE inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Barsett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO, inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

  5. Computational Glycobiology: Mechanistic Studies of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes and Implication for Inhibitor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Andrew P; Xiao, Kela; Wang, Xingyong; Skropeta, Danielle; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are families of essential and structurally related enzymes, which catalyze the creation, modification, and degradation of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates to maintain essentially all kingdoms of life. CAZymes play a key role in many biological processes underpinning human health and diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's diseases, AIDS) and have thus emerged as important drug targets in the fight against pathogenesis. The realization of the full potential of CAZymes remains a significant challenge, relying on a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of catalysis. Considering numerous unsettled questions in the literature, while with a large amount of structural, kinetic, and mutagenesis data available for CAZymes, there is a pressing need and an abundant opportunity for collaborative computational and experimental investigations with the aim to unlock the secrets of CAZyme catalysis at an atomic level. In this review, we briefly survey key methodology development in computational studies of CAZyme catalysis. This is complemented by selected case studies highlighting mechanistic insights provided by computational glycobiology. Implication for inhibitor design by mimicking the transition state is also illustrated for both glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases. The challenges for such studies will be noted and finally an outlook for future directions will be provided. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  7. Fabrication of enzyme reactor utilizing magnetic porous polymer membrane for screening D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun Fang; Qiao, Juan; Mu, Xiao Yu; Moon, Myeong Hee; Qi, Li

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a unique D-amino acid oxidase reactor for enhanced enzymolysis efficiency is presented. A kind of magnetic polymer matrices, composed of iron oxide nanoparticles and porous polymer membrane (poly styrene-co-maleic anhydride), was prepared. With covalent bonding D-Amino acid oxidase on the surface of the matrices and characterization of scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer, it demonstrated that the membrane enzyme reactor was successfully constructed. The enzymolysis efficiency of the enzyme reactor was evaluated and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of D-Amino acid oxidase were determined (Km was 1.10mM, Vmax was 23.8mMmin(-1)) by a chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis protocol with methionine as the substrate. The results indicated that the enzyme reactor could exhibit good stability and excellent reusability. Importantly, because the enzyme and the substrate could be confined into the pores of the matrices, the enzyme reactor displayed the improved enzymolysis efficiency due to the confinement effect. Further, the prepared enzyme reactor was applied for D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors screening. It has displayed that the proposed protocol could pave a new way for fabrication of novel porous polymer membrane based enzyme reactors to screen enzyme inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and exercise, immune tolerance therapy, and needs of older adults with hemophilia and an inhibitor. For more information, visit https://www.hemophilia.org/Events-Educational-Programs/Inhibitor-Education/Inhibitor-Education-Summits The NHF’s Inhibitor Education Summits ...

  9. Oct-2-yn-4-enoyl-CoA as a multifunctional enzyme inhibitor in fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long; Liu, Xiaojun; Li, Ding

    2008-06-05

    Oct-2-yn-4-enoyl-CoA was found to be a multifunctional irreversible enzyme inhibitor in fatty acid oxidation mainly targeting mitochondrial trifunctional protein beta-subunit. It can also inactivate enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. This study increased our understanding for the effect of acetylenic acids on fatty acid oxidation.

  10. Determinants of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) intolerance and angioedema in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudpour, Seyed Hamidreza; Baranova, Ekaterina Vitalievna; Souverein, Patrick C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke Hilse

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and determinants of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEI) intolerance and angioedema (AE) among patients initiating ACEI therapy in a real-world primary care population. METHODS: Two nested case-control studies were

  11. Pralnacasan, an inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme, reduces joint damage in two murine models of osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolphi, K.; Gerwin, N.; Verzijl, N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of pralnacasan, the orally bioavailable pro-drug of a potent, non-peptide inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE), RU 36384/VRT-18858, on joint damage in two mouse models of knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: In a collagenase-induced OA model, pralnacasan

  12. Comparing the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on renal function decline in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yunyu; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Voorham, Jaco

    Aim: To compare effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for protecting Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients from renal function decline in a real-world setting. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of new ACEi/ARB users in 2007-2012 in

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce mortality compared to angiotensin receptor blockers: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Gabriel Lo; Marmentini, Vinicius M; Cosmo, Willian R; Junior, Emilton L

    2017-12-01

    Background There are few reviews comparing the long-term outcomes of the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in a hypertensive population because both are effective in reducing blood pressure. None of them compared angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers with a placebo group in patients with essential hypertension, because few studies exist with this design. Methods A systematic search of PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO, ICTRP, Cochrane, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials.gov from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2015 selected prospective studies that reported an association between the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in the following cardiovascular outcomes: heart failure/hospitalisation, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, total cardiovascular deaths, total deaths and total outcomes. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined by using a fixed-effects model. Results Seventeen studies ( n = 73,761) were included of which 12 studies were randomly assigned to angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy ( n = 24,697) and five to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ( n = 12,170). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors proved to be significant in reducing total deaths (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and cardiovascular deaths (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.87). Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy did not show a reduction in total deaths (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.09) or cardiovascular deaths (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.06). For acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure/hospitalisation, the reductions were significant for both classes. Conclusion Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker use is similar in preventing major cardiovascular outcomes regarding acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure/hospitalisation. However, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme

  14. Differential scanning fluorometry signatures as indicators of enzyme inhibitor mode of action: case study of glutathione S-transferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A Lea

    Full Text Available Differential scanning fluorometry (DSF, also referred to as fluorescence thermal shift, is emerging as a convenient method to evaluate the stabilizing effect of small molecules on proteins of interest. However, its use in the mechanism of action studies has received far less attention. Herein, the ability of DSF to report on inhibitor mode of action was evaluated using glutathione S-transferase (GST as a model enzyme that utilizes two distinct substrates and is known to be subject to a range of inhibition modes. Detailed investigation of the propensity of small molecule inhibitors to protect GST from thermal denaturation revealed that compounds with different inhibition modes displayed distinct thermal shift signatures when tested in the presence or absence of the enzyme's native co-substrate glutathione (GSH. Glutathione-competitive inhibitors produced dose-dependent thermal shift trendlines that converged at high compound concentrations. Inhibitors acting via the formation of glutathione conjugates induced a very pronounced stabilizing effect toward the protein only when GSH was present. Lastly, compounds known to act as noncompetitive inhibitors exhibited parallel concentration-dependent trends. Similar effects were observed with human GST isozymes A1-1 and M1-1. The results illustrate the potential of DSF as a tool to differentiate diverse classes of inhibitors based on simple analysis of co-substrate dependency of protein stabilization.

  15. Chalcone-based small-molecule inhibitors attenuate malignant phenotype via targeting deubiquitinating enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaenko, Olga A.; Amerik, Alexander Yu

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is usurped by many if not all cancers to regulate their survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Bioflavonoids curcumin and chalcones exhibit anti-neoplastic selectivity through inhibition of the 26S proteasome-activity within the UPS. Here, we provide evidence for a novel mechanism of action of chalcone-based derivatives AM146, RA-9 and RA-14, which exert anticancer activity by targeting deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB) without affecting 20S proteasome catalytic-core activity. The presence of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group susceptible to nucleophilic attack from the sulfhydryl of cysteines in the active sites of DUB determines the capacity of novel small-molecules to act as cell-permeable, partly selective DUB inhibitors and induce rapid accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and deplete the pool of free ubiquitin. These chalcone-derivatives directly suppress activity of DUB UCH-L1, UCH-L3, USP2, USP5 and USP8, which are known to regulate the turnover and stability of key regulators of cell survival and proliferation. Inhibition of DUB-activity mediated by these compounds downregulates cell-cycle promoters, e.g., cyclin D1 and upregulates tumor suppressors p53, p27Kip1 and p16Ink4A. These changes are associated with arrest in S-G2/M, abrogated anchorage-dependent growth and onset of apoptosis in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer cells without noticeable alterations in primary human cells. Altogether, this work provides evidence of antitumor activity of novel chalcone-based derivatives mediated by their DUB-targeting capacity; supports the development of pharmaceuticals to directly target DUB as a most efficient strategy compared with proteasome inhibition and also provides a clear rationale for the clinical evaluation of these novel small-molecule DUB inhibitors. PMID:22510564

  16. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Shitiz

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I and Picroside-II (P-II, which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE, coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  17. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  18. Antimalarial activity of potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme selected by docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ∼90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC(50) values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use.

  19. Antimalarial activity of potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme selected by docking studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Penna-Coutinho

    Full Text Available The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH all exhibit ∼90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2. The IC(50 values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use.

  20. Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Liver Fibrosis in HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Liver fibrosis is accelerated in HIV and hepatitis C coinfection, mediated by profibrotic effects of angiotensin. The objective of this study was to determine if angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is attenuate liver fibrosis in coinfection. Methods. A retrospective review of 156 coinfected subjects was conducted to analyze the association between exposure to ACE-Is and liver fibrosis. Noninvasive indices of liver fibrosis (APRI, FIB-4, Forns indices were compared between subjects who had taken ACE-Is and controls who had not taken them. Linear regression was used to evaluate ACE-I use as an independent predictor of fibrosis. Results. Subjects taking ACE-Is for three years were no different than controls on the APRI and the FIB-4 but had significantly higher scores than controls on the Forns index, indicating more advanced fibrosis. The use of ACE-Is for three years remained independently associated with an elevated Forns score when adjusted for age, race, and HIV viral load (P<0.001. There were significant associations between all of the indices and significant fibrosis, as determined clinically and radiologically. Conclusions. There was not a protective association between angiotensin inhibition and liver fibrosis in coinfection. These noninvasive indices may be useful for ruling out significant fibrosis in coinfection.

  1. [Psychotropic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: what are the arguments?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesure, G; Fallet, A; Chevalier, J F

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of acute mania induced by perindopril (Coversyl) in a 57 year old man with no prior history of mental illness. This Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI) had been introduced eight days prior to the first signs of excitation, in order to treat recently diagnosed arterial hypertension. Without proof of reintroduction, and on the basis of clinical observations, the attribution appears plausible. Similar observations have been made for other molecules in this class of medication, such as captopril (Lopril). A review of literature regroups recent data concerning psychotropic effects of ACEIs. Several reports claim that captopril clearly acts as an antidepressant. Studies on the mood or the quality of life of treated hypertensive patients show ACEIs to have an euphoric-type positive effect compared to other anti-hypertensive treatments. Captopril and perindopril also act like potential antidepressants in experimental models of antidepression. Furthermore, pharmacologic data confirm that the most lipophilic ACEIs penetrate the central nervous system and argue in favor of the role of these molecules in activating central opioides. As these data provide evidence of mood swing in some patients, but also of an overall benefit in hypertensive populations, the clinical importance of the antidepressant effect of ACEIs needs further investigations.

  2. Quantitative retention-activity relationship models of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors using biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Rong; Chen, Cong; Xiong, Mei-Jin; Wu, Li-Ping; Ye, Li-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) is a mode of micellar liquid chromatography that uses micellar mobile phases of Brij35 under adequate experimental conditions and can simulate biopartioning process of many kinds of drugs and describe their biological behavior. The capability of BMC to describe and estimate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) had been studied in this paper. The correlation between retention factors of ACEIs obtained using BMC and bioactivity parameters (half-life, volume of distribution, clearance, and IC(50)) was investigated utilizing a second-order polynomial model. The P-values obtained for half-life, volume of distribution, clearance, and IC(50) models were less than 0.05, and the r(2) of those four models were 0.89, 0.98, 0.94, and 0.97, with r(2)(adj) (adjusted for freedom degrees) being 0.85, 0.98, 0.91, and 0.95, respectively. The predictive and interpretative ability of the chromatographic models was evaluated in terms of cross-validated data [root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean squared error of cross-validation (leave-one-out) (RMSECV), and root mean squared error of cross-validation (leave-one-out) for interpolated data (RMSECVi)]. The quantitative retention-activity relationship (QRAR) models of ACEIs developed in this paper may be a useful approach to screening new chemicals in the early stage of development.

  3. Acute Kidney Injury in Elderly Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Carry a Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Martin; Pourcelet, Aline; van Nuffelen, Marc; Racapé, Judith; Leeman, Marc; Hougardy, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mainly excreted by the liver, the dosage of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, cleared by the kidney, must be adapted to account for renal clearance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to avoid acute kidney injury (AKI). Community-acquired AKI and the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the emergency department were retrospectively assessed in 324 patients with baseline stage 3 or higher CKD. After stepwise regression analysis, the use of ACE inhibitors (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.1; P=.02) and the presence of dehydration (OR, 30.8; 95% CI, 3.9-239.1) were associated with AKI. A total of 45% of patients using ACE inhibitors experienced overdosing, which causes most of the excess risk of AKI. These results suggest that dosage adjustment of ACE inhibitors to renal function or substitution of ACE inhibitors with ARBs could reduce the incidence of AKI. Moreover, ACE inhibitors and ARBs should be stopped in cases of dehydration. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio, E-mail: toshio_n@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.

  5. Mechanism of action of penicillin: triggering of the pneumococcal autolytic enzyme by inhibitors of cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasz, A; Waks, S

    1975-10-01

    During penicillin treatment of an autolysin defective mutant pneumococcus we have observed three novel phenomena: (i) Growth of the mutant cultures is inhibited by the same concentrations of penicillin that induce lysis in the wild type. (ii) Mutant bacteria treated with the minimum growth inhibitory concentration of penicillin will lyse upon the addition of wild-type autolysin to the growth medium. Chloramphenicol and other inhibitors of protein synthesis protect the cells against lysis by exogenous enzyme. Sensitivity of the cells to exogenous autolysin requires treatment with penicillin or other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis (e.g., D-cycloserine or fosfonomycin) since exogenous autolysin alone has no effect on bacterial growth. (iii) Treatment with penicillin (or other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis) causes the escape into the medium of a choline-containing macromolecule that has properties suggesting that it contains pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (Forssman antigen). Each one of these three phenomena (growth inhibition, sensitization to exogenous autolysin, and leakage of lipoteichoic acid) shows the same dose response as that of the penicillin-induced lysis of wild-type pneumococci. On the basis of these findings we propose a new hypothesis for the mechanism of penicillin-induced lysis of bacteria. It is suggested that inhibition of cell wall synthesis by any means triggers bacterial autolytic enzymes by destabilizing the endogenous complex of an autolysin inhibitor (lipoteichoic acid) and autolytic enzyme. Escape of lipoteichoic acid-like material to the growth medium is a consequence of this labilization. Chloramphenicol protects bacteria against penicillin-induced lysis by interfering with the activity of the autolytic enzyme, rather than by depleting the concentration of the enzyme at the cell surface.

  6. Post-mortem degradation of myosin heavy chain in intact fish muscle: Effects of pH and enzyme inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P. A.; Vang, B.; Pedersen, A M; Martínez, Iciar; Olsen, R L

    2011-01-01

    Fish muscle is rapidly degraded during post-mortem storage, due to proteolytic enzymes acting probably both on muscle cells and connective tissue. In this work we have developed a model system which may be used to study the enzymatic degradation occurring in intact post-mortem fish muscle. Degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) was monitored in muscle with pH adjusted to 6.05, 6.3 and 6.9 and in the presence of the enzyme inhibitors PMSF, EDTA, phenanthroline, pepstatin A, antipain, E-64 and...

  7. Conservative management of chronic kidney disease stage 5: role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattolo, Pietro C; Gallo, Pamela; Michelassi, Stefano; Paudice, Nunzia; Cannavò, Rossella; Romoli, Elena; Fani, Filippo; Tsalouchos, Aris; Mehmetaj, Alma; Ferro, Giuseppe; Sisca, Sergio; Pizzarelli, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Benefits and risks of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are controversial. We tested the role of ACE-I in slowing the progression of renal damage in a real-world elderly population with CKD stage 5. We evaluated all patients consecutively referred to our CKD stage 5 outpatient clinic from January 2002 to December 2013. Chronicity was defined as two consecutive estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements below 15 ml/min/1.73 m(2). We retrieved parameters of interest at baseline and assessed eGFR reduction rate during follow-up. We estimated GFR by the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Mean age of the 342 subjects analyzed was 72 years and eGFR 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In the 188 patients on ACE-I at baseline, the subsequent annual rate of eGFR reduction was less than a third of that found in the 154 patients off ACE-I. Across phosphate quartiles, baseline eGFR significantly decreased while its annual reduction rate significantly increased. Of the original cohort, 60 patients (17 %) died, 201 (59 %) started dialysis and 81 (24 %) were still in conservative treatment at the end of the study. Multivariate analysis identified age, phosphate, proteinuria, baseline eGFR and its rate of progression as independent risk factors directly or inversely predictive of progression to dialysis. ACE-I use significantly reduced by 31 % the risk of dialysis. Our study shows that proteinuria independently predicts further renal damage progression even in end-stage renal disease patients not yet in dialysis. In our cohort of elderly patients with very advanced CKD, ACE-I was effective in slowing down further renal damage progression.

  8. Effect of the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, MK-421, on Experimentally Induced Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregley, Melvin J.; Fater, Dennis C.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1982-01-01

    MK-421, the ethyl ester maleate salt of N-(S)-1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-propyl- Ala-L-Pro, is an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor. An initial objective was to determine whether MK-421, administered at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg, ip to 96 female rats 15 min prior to administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (25 microgram/kg, ip), would inhibit the drinking induced by isoproterenol during 2 h after its administration. The water intake induced by isoproterenol was inhibited significantly by 2.5 mg MK-421/kg. When a similar experiment was performed using Angiotensin I (AI) (200 microgram/kg, ip) as the dipsogenic agent, MK-421 (5 mg/kg, ip), administered 15 min prior to AI, inhibited significantly both the dipsogenic and the diuretic effect of AI. However, administration of angiotensin II (AII, 200 microgram/kg, ip) 15 min after MK-421 (5mg/kg) was accompanied by a water intake that did not differ from AII alone. The drink induced by ip administration of 1.0 m NaCl solution (1% of body wt, ip) was not inhibited by administration of MK-421 (5 mg/kg) 15 min prior to allowing access to water while the drink induced by a 24 h dehydration was partially inhibited. Thus, the drinks induced by administraition of either isoproterenol or AI are dependent on formation of AII. That induced by dehydration is partially dependent, while that induced by hypertonic siilinc is independent of the formation of AII.

  9. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and freedom from amputation after lower extremity revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jared E; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y; Vogel, Todd R

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have not been well evaluated in conjunction with lower extremity revascularization (LER). This study evaluated freedom from amputation in patients who underwent either an open (OPEN) or endovascular (ENDO) revascularization with and without utilization of an ACEI. Patients who underwent LER were identified from 2007-2008 Medicare Provider Analysis and Review files. Demographics, comorbidities, and disease severity were obtained. Post-procedural use of an ACEI was confirmed using combining them with National Drug Codes and Part D Files. Outcomes were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Kaplan-Meier test, and Cox regression. We identified 22,954 patients who underwent LER: 8,128 (35.4%) patients with claudication, 3,056 (13.3%) with rest pain, and 11,770 (51.3%) with ulceration or gangrene. More patients underwent ENDO (14,353) than OPEN (8,601) revascularization and 38% of the cohort was taking an ACEI. Overall, ACEI utilization compared to patients not taking ACEI was not associated with lower amputation rates at 30 days (13.5% vs. 12.6%), 90 days (17.7% vs. 17.1%), or 1 year (23.9% vs. 22.8%) (P>0.05 for all). After adjustment for comorbidities, ACEI utilization was associated with higher amputation rates for patients with rest pain (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.8). ACEI utilization was not associated with overall improved rates of amputation-free survival or overall survival in the vascular surgery population. However, an important finding of this study was that patients presenting with a diagnosis of rest pain and taking an ACEI who underwent a LER had statistically higher amputation rates and a lower amputation-free survival at 1 year. Further analysis is needed to delineate best medical management for patients with critical limb ischemia and taking ACEI who undergo vascular revascularization.

  10. Renal graft failure after addition of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Baekgaard, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB) has been suggested in order to achieve a more complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular and renal disease. The present report descri...... describes a case of acute renal graft dysfunction following the addition of an ARB to existing ACE inhibition. This unmasked an unknown iliac artery stenosis. The case indicates a possible important role of Ang II generated by non-ACE pathways in this situation.......Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB) has been suggested in order to achieve a more complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular and renal disease. The present report...

  11. Icatibant er en ny behandlingsmulighed ved livstruende angiotensinkonverterende enzym-inhibitor-udløst angioødem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    A 78 year-old woman with life-threatening angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-i) induced angioedema was unresponsive to conventional treatment with corticosteroids, antihistamines and epinephrine. She was successfully treated with icatibant licensed for treatment of hereditary angioedema...... knowing that both conditions involve bradykinin induced activation of bradykinin B2 receptors. Randomised, controlled trials are warranted to document the efficacy of icatibant in ACE-i angioedema....

  12. Verapamil and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F; Tingsted, L; Rasmussen, Verner

    1996-01-01

    Verapamil is effective as antianginal medication but contraindicated in patients with congestive heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve survival in patients with congestive heart failure but have limited effect on patients with angina pectoris. No studies have been.......4 to 2.5 +/- 0.6 (p attacks were both significantly reduced after 3 months of treatment. These findings support the hypothesis that the combination of verapamil and trandolapril is useful in patients with attenuated left ventricular function...

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce mortality in hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors involving 158 998 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vark, Laura C.; Bertrand, Michel; Akkerhuis, K. Martijn; Brugts, Jasper J.; Fox, Kim; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Boersma, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Aims Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are well established for the reduction in cardiovascular morbidity, but their impact on all-cause mortality in hypertensive patients is uncertain. Our objective was to analyse the effects of RAAS inhibitors as a class of drugs, as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) separately, on all-cause mortality. Methods and results We performed a pooled analysis of 20 cardiovascular morbidity–mortality trials. In each trial at least two-thirds of the patients had to be diagnosed with hypertension, according to the trial-specific definition, and randomized to treatment with an RAAS inhibitor or control treatment. The cohort included 158 998 patients (71 401 RAAS inhibitor; 87 597 control). The incidence of all-cause death was 20.9 and 23.3 per 1000 patient-years in patients randomized to RAAS inhibition and controls, respectively. Overall, RAAS inhibition was associated with a 5% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–1.00, P= 0.032), and a 7% reduction in cardiovascular mortality (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, P= 0.018). The observed treatment effect resulted entirely from the class of ACE inhibitors, which were associated with a significant 10% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84–0.97, P= 0.004), whereas no mortality reduction could be demonstrated with ARB treatment (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.94–1.04, P= 0.683). This difference in treatment effect between ACE inhibitors and ARBs on all-cause mortality was statistically significant (P-value for heterogeneity 0.036). Conclusion In patients with hypertension, treatment with an ACE inhibitor results in a significant further reduction in all-cause mortality. Because of the high prevalence of hypertension, the widespread use of ACE inhibitors may result in an important gain in lives saved. PMID:22511654

  14. Plant Flavonoids as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Regulation of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is a key component in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS which regulates blood pressure. As the over expression of RAAS is associated with vascular hypertension, ACE inhibition has become a major target control for hypertension. The research on potential ACE inhibitors is expanding broadly and most are focused on natural product derivatives such as peptides, polyphenolics, and terpenes. Plant polyphenolics are antioxidant molecules with various beneficial pharmacological properties. The current study is focused on investigating and reviewing the ACE inhibitory property of fruit flavonoids. An apple skin extract (ASE rich in flavonoids, the major constituents of the extract and their selected metabolites were assessed for the ACE inhibitory property in vitro. It is important to investigate the metabolites along with the flavonoids as they are the constituents active inside the human body.Objective: To investigate whether flavonoids, flavonoid rich apple extracts and their metabolites could inhibit ACE in vitro.Method: The samples were incubated with sodium borate buffer (30 μL, pH 8.3, 150 μL of substrate (Hip-His-Liu and ACE (30 μL at 37 oC for 1 h. The reaction was stopped by addition of 150 μL of 0.3M NaOH. The enzyme cleaved substrate was detected by making a fluorimetricadduct by adding 100 μL of o-phthaladehyde for 10 min at room temperature. Reaction wasstopped by adding 50 μL of 3M HCl. Fluorescence was measured by using a FluoStar Optimaplate reader at excitation of 350 nm and emission of 500 nm.Results: The extract and the compounds showed a concentration dependant enzyme inhibition.Increasing concentrations from 0.001 ppm to 100 ppm of ASE showed an increment of 29% to64% ACE inhibition. The IC50 (concentration of test compound which gives 50% enzymeinhibition values of ASE, quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside were 49

  15. Structure, function and protein engineering in starch debranching enzyme systems. Barley limit dextrinase and its endogenous inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate in cereal grains. It is composed primarily of amylopectin, a polymer of glucose in which α-1,4-linked glucan chains are branched with α-1,6-bonds. Enzymatic degradation of starch in germinating barley seeds involves an initial solubilisation, mainly...... seed, it has a key role in malting and brewing. But an endogenous inhibitor, limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI), is present in barley seeds. It specifically inhibits LD, and thereby suppresses the degradation of branched limit dextrins to fermentable sugars. The knowledge about this enzyme:inhibitor pair....... Here I present crystal structures of LD, and LD in complex with 62-α-maltotriosyl-maltotriose, i.e. a limit dextrin, or two maltotriose molecules. The branched ligand is in contact with LD via interactions between all six glucose units and amino acid residues of LD. The active site cleft of LD can...

  16. Long-term compliance with beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Rasmussen, Jeppe N; Abildstrøm, Steen Z

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study initiation, dosages, and compliance with beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, and statins in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to identify likely targets for improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients admitted with first AMI between 1995...... and 2002 were identified by linking nationwide administrative registers. A total of 55 315 patients survived 30 days after discharge and were included; 58.3% received beta-blockers, 29.1% ACE-inhibitors, and 33.5% statins. After 1, 3, and 5 years, 78, 64, and 58% of survivors who had started therapy were...... still receiving beta-blockers, 86, 78, and 74% were receiving ACE-inhibitors, and 85, 80, and 82% were receiving statins, respectively. Increased age and female sex were associated with improved compliance. The dosages prescribed were generally 50% or less of the dosages used in clinical trials...

  17. Some Investigations on Protease Enzyme Production Kinetics Using Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 and Effects of Inhibitors on Protease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghobadi Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to great commercial application of protease, it is necessary to study kinetic characterization of this enzyme in order to improve design of enzymatic reactors. In this study, mathematical modeling of protease enzyme production kinetics which is derived from Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 was studied (at 37°C, pH 10 after 73 h in stationary phase, and 150 rpm. The aim of the present paper was to determine the best kinetic model and kinetic parameters for production of protease and calculating Ki (inhibition constant of different inhibitors to find the most effective one. The kinetic parameters Km (Michaelis-Menten constant and Vm (maximum rate were calculated 0.626 mM and 0.0523 mM/min. According to the experimental results, using DFP (diisopropyl fluorophosphate and PMSF (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride as inhibitors almost 50% of the enzyme activity could be inhibited when their concentrations were 0.525 and 0.541 mM, respectively. Ki for DFP and PMSF were 0.46 and 0.56 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Lineweaver-Burk model was the best fitting model for protease production kinetics DFP was more effective than PMSF and both of them should be covered in the group of noncompetitive inhibitors.

  18. Combined Rational Design and a High Throughput Screening Platform for Identifying Chemical Inhibitors of a Ras-activating Enzyme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L.; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions. PMID:25825487

  19. Effects of canrenoate plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors alone on systolic and diastolic function in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Pietro; Cannizzaro, Sergio; Scalzo, Sebastiano; Parrinello, Gaspare; Fasullo, Sergio; Giambanco, Francesco; Fatta, Antonio; Paterna, Salvatore

    2005-11-01

    Aldosterone (ALDO) exerts profibrotic effects, acting via the mineralocorticoid receptors in cardiovascular tissues. Aldosterone antagonism in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition may better protect against the untoward effects of ALDO than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition alone. In a double-blind randomized study, the tolerability and efficacy of canrenoate (25 mg/d) plus captopril versus captopril alone were evaluated in 510 patients with an acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI), a serum creatinine concentration function, and incidence of surgical interventions and angioplasty were comparable. Overall, creatinine, blood urea, and serum potassium levels did not show significant differences between groups. However, in 18 patients in group A, increases in serum potassium levels to > 5.5 mEq/L and creatinine levels to > 2.0 mg/L after 10 days of treatment were observed. At 180 days, the mitral E-wave-A-wave ratio was higher (P = .0001) and left ventricular end-systolic volume was smaller (P = .0001) in patients treated with canrenoate than in those receiving placebo. No further side effects were observed during the study period. Our data suggest that the combination of captopril plus canrenoate is well tolerated after an acute MI and has beneficial effect on systolic and diastolic parameters and may decrease post-MI remodeling.

  20. Application of robotics to steady state enzyme kinetics: analysis of tight-binding inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiying; Huang, Yanting; Taunk, Prakash; Magnin, David R; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Robertson, James G

    2003-10-15

    Using available commercial robotics and instrumentation, we developed a fully automated and rigorous steady state enzyme kinetic assay for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV; E.C. 3.4.14.5). The automated assay was validated with isoleucyl thiazolidide, a potent inhibitor of DPP IV with K(is)=110nM. Signal window analysis indicated that the assay had a 98% probability of detecting an inhibitor yielding 15% inhibition, with a predicted false positive rate of 0.13%. A mechanistic inhibition version of the automated assay was validated with isoleucyl 4-cyanothiazolidide, a very potent inhibitor of DPP IV. Isoleucyl 4-cyanothiazolidide was a competitive inhibitor of purified porcine DPP IV with K(is)=1 nM. Similar K(is) values were obtained for purified rat DPP IV and for DPP IV activity in human plasma from normal and diabetic donors. The pH dependence of K(is) for isoleucyl 4-cyanothiazolidide yielded a bell-shaped profile, with pK(a)=5.0 and pK(b)=7.6. To date, over 100,000 data points have been generated in profiling targeted compound libraries and in the analysis of tight-binding inhibitors of DPP IV. The data also show that robotic analysis is capable of producing full mechanistic inhibition analysis in a timely fashion to support drug discovery.

  1. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ{sup 2} tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ{sup 2} (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of amide imidazole derivatives as novel metabolic enzyme CYP26A1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Liu, Kai; Han, Jing; Zhao, Li-yu; Su, Xiao; Lin, Bin; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Cheng, Mao-Sheng

    2015-10-15

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) as a physiological metabolite of vitamin A is widely applied in the treatment of cancer, skin, neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. CYP26A1 enzyme, induced by ATRA in liver and target tissues, metabolizes ATRA into 4-hydroxyl-RA. Inhibition of CYP26A1 metabolic enzyme represents a promising strategy for discovery of new specific anticancer agents. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of new amide imidazole derivatives as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) toward CYP26A1 enzyme. First, based on the recent theoretical models (Sun et al., J. Mol. Graph. Model., 2015, 56, 10-19) a series of RAMBAs with novel scaffolds were designed using fragment-based drug discovery approach. Subsequently, the new RAMBAs were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities. All the compounds demonstrated appropriate enzyme activities and cell activities. The promising inhibitors 20 and 23 with IC50 value of 0.22 μM and 0.46 μM toward CYP26A1, respectively, were further evaluated for CYP selectivity and the metabolic profile of ATRA. Both compounds 20 and 23 showed higher selectivity for CYP26A1 over other CYPs (CYP2D6, CYP3A4) when compared to liarozole. They also showed better inhibitory activities for the metabolism of ATRA when also compared to liarozole. These studies further validated the pharmacophore and structure-activity relationship models obtained about CYP26A1 inhibitors and highlighted the promising activities of the new series of CYP26A1 inhibitors designed from such models. They also paved the way for future development of those candidates as potential drugs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and comorbidity in diabetes: results from the Vermont diabetes information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors reduce peripheral vascular resistance via blockage of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat congestive heart failure and high blood pressure, but other effects have been reported. In this study, we explored the association between ACE inhibitor therapy and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in adults with diabetes Methods We surveyed 1003 adults with diabetes randomly selected from community practices. Patients were interviewed at home and self-reported their personal and clinical characteristics including comorbidity. Current medications were obtained by direct observation of medication containers. We built logistic regression models with the history of comorbidities as the outcome variable and the current use of ACE inhibitors as the primary predictor variable. We adjusted for possible confounding by social (age, sex, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and clinical factors (systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, glycosolated hemoglobin (A1C, number of comorbid conditions, and number of prescription medications. Results ACE users reported a history of any cancer (except the non-life-threatening skin cancers less frequently than non-users (10% vs. 15%; odd ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [0.39, 0.89]; P = 0.01; and a history of stomach ulcers or peptic ulcer disease less frequently than non-users (12% vs. 16%, odd ratio = 0.70, [0.49, 1.01], P = 0.06. After correcting for potential confounders, ACE inhibitors remained significantly inversely associated with a personal history of cancer (odds ratio = 0.59, [0.39, 0.89]; P = 0.01 and peptic ulcer disease (odd ratio = 0.68, [0.46, 1.00], P = 0.05. Conclusion ACE inhibitor use is associated with a lower likelihood of a history of cancer and peptic ulcers in patients with diabetes. These findings are limited by the cross sectional study design, self-report of comorbid

  4. EARLY INTERVENTION WITH ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME-INHIBITORS DURING THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION - RATIONALE AND DESIGN OF CAPTOPRIL AND THROMBOLYSIS STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGILST, WH; KINGMA, JH

    1991-01-01

    The adjunctive use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors with thrombolytic therapy early during acute myocardial infarction offers theoretic advantages. In the acute phase, captopril may scavenge free radicals, blunt the catecholamine response, elicit coronary vasodilation, and increase

  5. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors on progression of advanced polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Stark, Paul C; Schmid, Christopher H

    2005-01-01

    of doubling of baseline serum creatinine or onset of kidney failure). We also performed multivariable linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses. Based on previous findings, we searched for interactions between the treatment effect (effect of ACE inhibitors vs. controls) and baseline urine......). CONCLUSION: As in other causes of non-diabetic kidney disease, antihypertensive regimens with ACE inhibitors are more effective in lowering urine protein excretion in patients with advanced PKD compared to regimens without ACE inhibitors, and this benefit is greater in patients with higher levels of baseline...

  6. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors suppress production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, M; Satoh, J; Sagara, M; Muto, G; Muto, Y; Nishimura, S; Miyaguchi, S; Qiang, X L; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, T; Ikehata, F; Ohta, S; Toyota, T

    1997-04-01

    It has been reported that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have beneficial effects on insulin resistance and congestive heart failure, in which elevations of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level have been indicated. Therefore, in this study, we examined effect of ACE inhibitors on TNF-alpha production both in vitro and in vivo by using human blood mononuclear cells and mice, respectively. LPS (20 micrograms/ml)-induced in vitro TNF-alpha production, measured by bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was significantly inhibited with captopril, delapril and cilazapril in a concentration of 10(-3) mol/l. A single, oral administration of captopril, delapril and cilazapril at more than 10-fold doses of common clinical use in man significantly inhibited LPS (2 mg/kg)-induced serum TNF-alpha activity in Balb/c mice. These results indicate that ACE inhibitors such as captopril, delapril and cilazapril have an inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha production not only in vitro as previously reported, but also in vivo, although relatively high concentrations and large doses were required in this study.

  7. Structure-based design of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with modified P1-biphenyl ligands: synthesis, biological evaluation, and enzyme-inhibitor X-ray structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Yu, Xufen; Osswald, Heather L; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2015-07-09

    We report the design, synthesis, X-ray structural studies, and biological evaluation of a novel series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. We designed a variety of functionalized biphenyl derivatives to make enhanced van der Waals interactions in the S1 subsite of HIV-1 protease. These biphenyl derivatives were conveniently synthesized using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction as the key step. We examined the potential of these functionalized biphenyl-derived P1 ligands in combination with 3-(S)-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane and bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane as the P2 ligands. Inhibitor 21e, with a 2-methoxy-1,1'-biphenyl derivative as P1 ligand and bis-THF as the P2 ligand, displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. This inhibitor also exhibited potent activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of related Boc-derivative 17a-bound HIV-1 protease provided important molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions of the biphenyl core in the S1 subsite of HIV-1 protease.

  8. Monoterpenes as inhibitors of digestive enzymes and counter-adaptations in a specialist avian herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Pitman, Elizabeth; Robb, Brecken C; Connelly, John W; Dearing, M Denise; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-05-01

    Many plants produce plant secondary metabolites (PSM) that inhibit digestive enzymes of herbivores, thus limiting nutrient availability. In response, some specialist herbivores have evolved digestive enzymes that are resistant to inhibition. Monoterpenes, a class of PSMs, have not been investigated with respect to the interference of specific digestive enzymes, nor have such interactions been studied in avian herbivores. We investigated this interaction in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Phasianidae: Centrocercus urophasianus), which specializes on monoterpene-rich sagebrush species (Artemisia spp.). We first measured the monoterpene concentrations in gut contents of free-ranging sage-grouse. Next, we compared the ability of seven individual monoterpenes present in sagebrush to inhibit a protein-digesting enzyme, aminopeptidase-N. We also measured the inhibitory effects of PSM extracts from two sagebrush species. Inhibition of aminopeptidase-N in sage-grouse was compared to inhibition in chickens (Gallus gallus). We predicted that sage-grouse enzymes would retain higher activity when incubated with isolated monoterpenes or sagebrush extracts than chicken enzymes. We detected unchanged monoterpenes in the gut contents of free-ranging sage-grouse. We found that three isolated oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, camphor, and 1,8-cineole) inhibited digestive enzymes of both bird species. Camphor and 1,8-cineole inhibited enzymes from chickens more than from sage-grouse. Extracts from both species of sagebrush had similar inhibition of chicken enzymes, but did not inhibit sage-grouse enzymes. These results suggest that specific monoterpenes may limit the protein digestibility of plant material by avian herbivores. Further, this work presents additional evidence that adaptations of digestive enzymes to plant defensive compounds may be a trait of specialist herbivores.

  9. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from marine resources: prospects in the pharmaceutical industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    .... Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides...

  10. Mutational analysis of target enzyme recognition of the beta-trefoil fold barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, Per K.; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor ( BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics...... of binding to target enzymes by surface plasmon resonance. Generally, the mutations had little effect on k(on), whereas the k(off) values were increased up to 67-fold. The effects on the inhibitory activity, however, were far more pronounced, and the K-i values of some mutants on the AMY2-binding side...

  11. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism.

  12. In silico screening of mutational effects on enzyme-proteic inhibitor affinity: a docking-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orco, Daniele; De Benedetti, Pier Giuseppe; Fanelli, Francesca

    2007-06-08

    Molecular recognition between enzymes and proteic inhibitors is crucial for normal functioning of many biological pathways. Mutations in either the enzyme or the inhibitor protein often lead to a modulation of the binding affinity with no major alterations in the 3D structure of the complex. In this study, a rigid body docking-based approach has been successfully probed in its ability to predict the effects of single and multiple point mutations on the binding energetics in three enzyme-proteic inhibitor systems. The only requirement of the approach is an accurate structural model of the complex between the wild type forms of the interacting proteins, with the assumption that the architecture of the mutated complexes is almost the same as that of the wild type and no major conformational changes occur upon binding. The method was applied to 23 variants of the ribonuclease inhibitor-angiogenin complex, to 15 variants of the barnase-barstar complex, and to 8 variants of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor-beta Trypsin system, leading to thermodynamic and kinetic estimates consistent with in vitro data. Furthermore, simulations with and without explicit water molecules at the protein-protein interface suggested that they should be included in the simulations only when their positions are well defined both in the wild type and in the mutants and they result to be relevant for the modulation of mutational effects on the association process. The correlative models built in this study allow for predictions of mutational effects on the thermodynamics and kinetics of association of three substantially different systems, and represent important extensions of our computational approach to cases in which it is not possible to estimate the absolute free energies. Moreover, this study is the first example in the literature of an extensive evaluation of the correlative weights of the single components of the ZDOCK score on the thermodynamics and kinetics of binding of protein

  13. In silico screening of mutational effects on enzyme-proteic inhibitor affinity: a docking-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Benedetti Pier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular recognition between enzymes and proteic inhibitors is crucial for normal functioning of many biological pathways. Mutations in either the enzyme or the inhibitor protein often lead to a modulation of the binding affinity with no major alterations in the 3D structure of the complex. Results In this study, a rigid body docking-based approach has been successfully probed in its ability to predict the effects of single and multiple point mutations on the binding energetics in three enzyme-proteic inhibitor systems. The only requirement of the approach is an accurate structural model of the complex between the wild type forms of the interacting proteins, with the assumption that the architecture of the mutated complexes is almost the same as that of the wild type and no major conformational changes occur upon binding. The method was applied to 23 variants of the ribonuclease inhibitor-angiogenin complex, to 15 variants of the barnase-barstar complex, and to 8 variants of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor-β Trypsin system, leading to thermodynamic and kinetic estimates consistent with in vitro data. Furthermore, simulations with and without explicit water molecules at the protein-protein interface suggested that they should be included in the simulations only when their positions are well defined both in the wild type and in the mutants and they result to be relevant for the modulation of mutational effects on the association process. Conclusion The correlative models built in this study allow for predictions of mutational effects on the thermodynamics and kinetics of association of three substantially different systems, and represent important extensions of our computational approach to cases in which it is not possible to estimate the absolute free energies. Moreover, this study is the first example in the literature of an extensive evaluation of the correlative weights of the single components of the ZDOCK score

  14. Inhibitors of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme ICL1 in Candida albicans for potential use as antifungal agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Leong Cheah

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis in humans. In recent years, metabolic pathways in C. albicans have been explored as potential antifungal targets to treat candidiasis. The glyoxylate cycle, which enables C. albicans to survive in nutrient-limited host niches and its. Key enzymes (e.g., isocitrate lyase (ICL1, are particularly attractive antifungal targets for C. albicans. In this study, we used a new screening approach that better reflects the physiological environment that C. albicans cells experience during infection to identify potential inhibitors of ICL. Three compounds (caffeic acid (CAFF, rosmarinic acid (ROS, and apigenin (API were found to have antifungal activity against C. albicans when tested under glucose-depleted conditions. We further confirmed the inhibitory potential of these compounds against ICL using the ICL enzyme assay. Lastly, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these compounds using Lipinski's rule-of-five and ADMET analysis.

  15. Three low molecular weight cysteine proteinase inhibitors of human seminal fluid: purification and enzyme kinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Chhikara, Nirmal; Gill, Kamaldeep; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2013-08-01

    The cystatins form a superfamily of structurally related proteins with highly conserved structural folds. They are all potent, reversible, competitive inhibitors of cysteine proteinases (CPs). Proteins from this group present differences in proteinase inhibition despite their high level of structural similarities. In this study, three cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) of low molecular weight were isolated from human seminal fluid (HSF) by affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-papain-Sepharose column, purified using various chromatographic procedures and checked for purity on sodium-dodecyl PAGE (SDS-PAGE). Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified these proteins as cystatin 9, cystatin SN, and SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S). All three CPIs suppressed the activity of papain potentially and showed remarkable heat stability. Interestingly SAP-1 also inhibits the activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and PSA (prostate specific antigen) and acts as a cross-class protease inhibitor in in vitro studies. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we have also observed that SAP-1 shows a significant binding with all these proteases. These studies suggest that SAP-1 is a cross-class inhibitor that may regulate activity of various classes of proteases within the reproductive systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about purification of CPIs from HSF; the identification of such proteins could provide better insights into the physiological processes and offer intimation for further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. New degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment: routes for formation of potent oligophenolic enzyme inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Tanner, David Ackland; Sørensen, H. R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study 26 new oligophenol cellulase inhibitors were discovered from wheat straw pretreatment liquors. By consideration of the reaction mechanisms for their formation it is proposed that these oligophenols are formed during hydrothermal biomass pretreatment by pentose self-condensation reac...

  17. Synthesis of Transition-State Inhibitors of Chorismate Utilizing Enzymes from Bromobenzene cis-1,2-Dihydrodiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Kang; Liu, Feng; Fiers, William D; Sun, Wen-Mei; Guo, Jun; Liu, Zheng; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2017-04-07

    In order to survive in a mammalian host, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) produces aryl-capped siderophores known as the mycobactins for iron acquisition. Salicylic acid is a key building block of the mycobactin core and is synthesized by the bifunctional enzyme MbtI, which converts chorismate into isochorismate via a SN2″ reaction followed by further transformation into salicylate through a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. MbtI belongs to a family of chorismate-utilizing enzymes (CUEs) that have conserved topology and active site residues. The transition-state inhibitor 1 described by Bartlett, Kozlowski, and co-workers is the most potent reported inhibitor to date of CUEs. Herein, we disclose a concise asymmetric synthesis and the accompanying biochemical characterization of 1 along with three closely related analogues beginning from bromobenzene cis-1S,2S-dihydrodiol produced through microbial oxidation that features a series of regio- and stereoselective transformations for introduction of the C-4 hydroxy and C-6 amino substituents. The flexible synthesis enables late-stage introduction of the carboxy group and other bioisosteres at the C-1 position as well as installation of the enol-pyruvate side chain at the C-5 position.

  18. Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ∼90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docki...

  19. Enzyme Inhibitors Cause Multiple Effects on Accumulation of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Catharanthus Roseus Cambial Meristematic Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Zhou; Jianhua, Zhu; Rongmin, Yu; Jiachen, Zi

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme inhibitors have been used for the clarification of biosynthesis of natural products. Catharanthus roseus cambial meristematic cell (CMC) culture has been established and proved to be a better monoterpeneindole alkaloid (MIA) producer than C. roseus dedifferentiated cell (DDC) culture. However, little is known about the inter-relationship of the MIA-biosynthetic genes with respect to their transcription. To clarify effects of alteration of one gene transcription on transcript levels of another genes in MIA-biosynthetic pathway, and how the accumulation of MIAs in CMCs are influenced by the alteration of their biosynthetic gene transcript levels. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitor lovastatin and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) inhibitor clomazone were fed to C. roseus CMC cultures. The contents of MIAs were qualified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and the transcript levels of the relevant genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Lovastatin improved the accumulation of MIAs via increasing the transcription of their biosynthetic genes encoding DXS1, tryptonphan decarboxylase (TDC), loganic acid methyltransferase (LAMT), strictosidine synthase (STR), desacetoxyvindoline-4-hydroxylase (D4H) and ORCA3 (a jasmonate-responsive transcriptional regulator), whereas clomazone reduced the contents of MIAs and the mRNA levels of the corresponding genes. The biosynthesis of MIAs in C. roseus is is manipulated via a complex mechanism, the knowledge of which paves the way for rationally tuning metabolic flux to improve MIA production in C. roseus CMCs.

  20. Lunasin and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor concentrations of protein extracts from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Nobrega de Moura, Juliana Maria; Hernandez-Ledesma, Blanca; de Almeida, Neiva Maria; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; de Lumen, Ben O; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2011-07-13

    Lunasin and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) are two soybean peptides to which health-promoting properties have been attributed. Concentrations of these peptides were determined in skim fractions produced by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded full-fat soybean flakes (an alternative to extracting oil from soybeans with hexane) and compared with similar extracts from hexane-defatted soybean meal. Oil and protein were extracted by using countercurrent two-stage EAEP of soybeans at 1:6 solids-to-liquid ratio, 50 °C, pH 9.0, and 120 rpm for 1 h. Protein-rich skim fractions were produced from extruded full-fat soybean flakes using different enzyme strategies in EAEP: 0.5% protease (wt/g extruded flakes) used in both extraction stages; 0.5% protease used only in the second extraction stage; no enzyme used in either extraction stage. Countercurrent two-stage protein extraction of air-desolventized, hexane-defatted soybean flakes was used as a control. Protein extraction yields increased from 66% to 89-96% when using countercurrent two-stage EAEP with extruded full-fat flakes compared to 85% when using countercurrent two-stage protein extraction of air-desolventized, hexane-defatted soybean flakes. Extruding full-fat soybean flakes reduced BBI activity. Enzymatic hydrolysis reduced BBI contents of EAEP skims. Lunasin, however, was more resistant to both enzymatic hydrolysis and heat denaturation. Although using enzymes in both EAEP extraction stages yielded the highest protein and oil extractions, reducing enzyme use to only the second stage preserved much of the BBI and Lunasin.

  1. Immobilization of chiral enzyme inhibitors on solid supports by amide-forming coupling and olefin metathesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reetz, MT; Ruggeberg, CJ; Droge, MJ; Quax, WJ

    2002-01-01

    The question whether phage display can be used as a selection method in the directed evolution of enantioselective enzymes has not been answered satisfactorily to date. In order to be able to test this in a specific case, namely in the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of the acetate derived from

  2. New degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment: routes for formation of potent oligophenolic enzyme inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, H.; Tanner, David Ackland; Sørensen, H.R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study 26 new oligophenol cellulase inhibitors were discovered from wheat straw pretreatment liquors. By consideration of the reaction mechanisms for their formation it is proposed that these oligophenols are formed during hydrothermal biomass pretreatment by pentose self-condensation reactions involving aldol condensations, 1,4 additions to α,β unsaturated carbonyl compounds, 3-keto acid decarboxylations and oxidations. Furthermore, pentose reactions with phenolic lignin components ar...

  3. Inhibitors of membrane transport reduce lysosomal enzyme secretion from dogfish phagocytes and their killing of sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, P; Arvan, P; Falkow, S; Hoffstein, S; Weissmann, G

    1979-04-01

    Blood phagocytes of the dogfish Mustelus canis attack oocytes of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, first provoking a surrogate fertilization response and then killing the eggs. To test the hypothesis that secretion of lysosomal contents is critical in this model of phagocyte-mediated cell injury, we studied effects of agents that modify lysosomal enzyme secretion. Inhibitors of membrane transport (>0.1 mM) inhibited postphagocytic secretion of lysosomal beta-glucuronidase from dogfish phagocytes: phloretin > ethacrynate > furosemide > 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid > pyridoxal phosphate > ouabain. The same order of activity was found for inhibition by these agents of killing of Arbacia eggs by phagocytes. Cell activation (fertilization response) and cytotoxicity were quantitated both morphologically and by measurements of enzyme (beta-glucuronidase, catalase) release. The agents neither inhibited fertilization responses of eggs to calcium ionophore A23187 nor impaired their viability. Vital staining demonstrated that ethacrynate prevented phagocytes from degranulating upon contact with zymosan particles. The data not only suggest that agents primarily known for their capacity to inhibit membrane transport systems can inhibit lysosomal enzyme secretion from phagocytes but also support the hypothesis that secretion of lysosomal contents mediates activation and killing of target cells in phagocyte-mediated tissue injury.

  4. Effects of fungicide iprodione and nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate on soil enzyme and bacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manyun; Wang, Weijin; Zhang, Yaling; Teng, Ying; Xu, Zhihong

    2017-12-01

    Agrochemical applications may have unintended detrimental effects on soil microorganisms and soil health. However, limited studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of repeated fungicide applications and interactive effects of different agrochemical applications on soil microorganisms. In this study, an incubation experiment was established to evaluate the potential influences of the fungicide iprodione and the nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil enzyme activities and bacterial properties. Weekly iprodione applications decreased the activities of all enzymes tested, and DMPP application inhibited soil urease activity. Compared with the blank control, bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance decreased following repeated iprodione applications, but increased after DMPP application. After 28days of incubation, the treatment receiving both iprodione and DMPP application had higher bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance and Shannon diversity index than the treatment with iprodione applications alone. Repeated iprodione applications significantly increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased the relative abundances of Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria. Simultaneously, bacterial community structure was changed by repeated iprodione applications, alone or together with DMPP. These results showed that repeated iprodione applications exerted negative effects on soil enzyme activities, bacterial biomass and community diversity. Moreover, relative to iprodione applications alone, additional DMPP application could alleviate the toxic effects of iprodione applications on bacterial biomass and community diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-throughput screening for enzyme inhibitors using frontal affinity chromatography with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ella S M; Yang, Feng; Kameyama, Akihiko; Palcic, Monica M; Hindsgaul, Ole; Schriemer, David C

    2005-10-01

    This work presents new frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) methodologies for high-throughput screening of compound libraries, designed to increase screening rates and improve sensitivity and ruggedness in performance. A FAC column constructed around the enzyme N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) was implemented in the identification of potential enzyme inhibitors from two libraries of trisaccharides. Effluent from the FAC column was fractionated, sequentially processed via LC/MS, and referenced to a similar analysis through a control FAC column lacking the enzyme. The resulting multidimensional data sets were compared across corresponding sample and control fractions to identify binders, in a semiautomated approach. A strong binder in the protonated form at m/z 795 was identified from the first library of 81 compounds, exhibiting an estimated Kd value of 0.3 microM. Other binders yielded Kd values ranging from 0.35 to 3.35 microM. To demonstrate the improvement in performance of this FAC-LC/MS approach over the conventional online FAC/MS approach, 15 compounds from this library were blended with a second library of 1000 synthetic trisaccharides and screened against GnT-V. All ligands in the 15-compound set were identified in this larger screen, and no ligands of greater affinity than compound 1 were found. Our results show that FAC-LC/MS is a reliable method for screening large compound libraries directly and useful for large-scale ligand discovery initiatives.

  6. Interactions of Rosiglitazone and Anti.Arrhythmic Drugs in Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes increases the risk of vascular problems by two times compared with a healthy individual, with deposition of fats in blood vessel and this includes cardiovascular disease. The treatment regimens for patients suffering from both diseases generally include prolonged use of anti.diabetic drugs for diabetes ...

  7. Decreased Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis With Incidental Concurrent Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Cohen, Eric P. [Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Tomic, Rade [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Xiang Qun [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Gore, Elizabeth, E-mail: Egore@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to mitigate radiation-induced lung injury in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ACE inhibitors decrease the risk of radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage I through III small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer treated definitively with radiation from 2004-2009 at the Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Acute pulmonary toxicity was quantified within 6 months of completion of treatment according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. The use of ACE inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled glucocorticosteroids, statins, and angiotensin receptor blockers; dose-volume histogram parameters; and patient factors were assessed for association with Grade 2 or higher pneumonitis. Results: A total of 162 patients met the criteria for inclusion. The majority of patients had Stage III disease (64%) and received concurrent chemotherapy (61%). Sixty-two patients were identified as ACE inhibitor users (38%). All patients had acceptable radiation plans based on dose-volume histogram constraints (V20 [volume of lung receiving at least 20 Gy] {<=}37% and mean lung dose {<=}20 Gy) with the exception of 2 patients who did not meet both criteria. Grade 2 or higher pulmonary toxicity occurred in 12 patients (7.4%). The rate of Grade 2 or higher pneumonitis was lower in ACE inhibitor users vs. nonusers (2% vs. 11%, p = 0.032). Rates of Grade 2 or higher pneumonitis were significantly increased in patients aged greater than 70 years (16% vs. 2%, p = 0.005) or in whom V5 (volume of lung receiving at least 5 Gy) was 50% or greater (13% vs. 4%, p = 0.04). V10 (volume of lung receiving at least 10 Gy), V20, V30 (volume of lung receiving at least 30 Gy), and mean lung dose were not independently associated with Grade 2 or

  8. Reflection on design and testing of pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors: an in silico comparison between rat and rabbit enzyme models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Moghaddam Shiva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of pancreatic alpha-amylase are potential drugs to treat diabetes and obesity. In order to find compounds that would be effective amylase inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo models are usually used. The accuracy of models is limited, but these tools are nonetheless valuable. In vitro models could be used in large screenings involving thousands of chemicals that are tested to find potential lead compounds. In vivo models are still used as preliminary mean of testing compounds behavior in the whole organism. In the case of alpha-amylase inhibitors, both rats and rabbits could be chosen as in vivo models. The question was which animal could present more accuracy with regard to its pancreatic alpha-amylase. Results As there is no crystal structure of these enzymes, a molecular modeling study was done in order to compare the rabbit and rat enzymes with the human one. The overall result is that rabbit enzyme could probably be a better choice in this regard, but in the case of large ligands, which could make putative interactions with the −4 subsite of pancreatic alpha-amylase, interpretation of results should be made cautiously. Conclusion Molecular modeling tools could be used to choose the most suitable model enzyme that would help to identify new enzyme inhibitors. In the case of alpha-amylase, three-dimensional structures of animal enzymes show differences with the human one which should be taken into account when testing potential new drugs.

  9. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or

  10. Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Mads D M; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2005-01-01

    elevation is more pronounced in patients with persistent AF than in those with paroxysmal AF. Furthermore, treatment with glucocorticoids, statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers seems to reduce recurrence of AF. Part of this anti-arrhythmic effect may...

  11. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitor activity of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Elumalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was prepared by reacting of N-(3-oxobutanoylpyrazine-2-carboxamide with urea/thiourea and appropriate aldehyde in the presence of catalytic amount of laboratory made p-toluenesulfonic acid as an efficient catalyst. Confirmation of the chemical structure of the synthesized compounds (4a–l was substantiated by TLC, different spectral data IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for acetyl and butyl cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. The titled compounds exhibited weak, moderate or high AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. Especially, compound (4l showed the best AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity of all the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives, with an IC50 value of 0.11 μM and 3.4 μM.

  12. Selective inhibitors of a PAF biosynthetic enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarui, Megumi; Shindou, Hideo; Kumagai, Kazuo; Morimoto, Ryo; Harayama, Takeshi; Hashidate, Tomomi; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Nagase, Takahide; Shimizu, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid mediator. In response to extracellular stimuli, PAF is rapidly biosynthesized by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAFAT). Previously, we identified two types of lyso-PAFATs: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)1, mostly expressed in the lungs where it produces PAF and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine essential for respiration, and LPCAT2, which biosynthesizes PAF and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the inflammatory cells. Under inflammatory conditions, LPCAT2, but not LPCAT1, is activated and upregulated to produce PAF. Thus, it is important to develop inhibitors specific for LPCAT2 in order to ameliorate PAF-related inflammatory diseases. Here, we report the first identification of LPCAT2-specific inhibitors, N-phenylmaleimide derivatives, selected from a 174,000-compound library using fluorescence-based high-throughput screening followed by the evaluation of the effects on LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 activities, cell viability, and cellular PAF production. Selected compounds competed with acetyl-CoA for the inhibition of LPCAT2 lyso-PAFAT activity and suppressed PAF biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with a calcium ionophore. These compounds had low inhibitory effects on LPCAT1 activity, indicating that adverse effects on respiratory functions may be avoided. The identified compounds and their derivatives will contribute to the development of novel drugs for PAF-related diseases and facilitate the analysis of LPCAT2 functions in phospholipid metabolism in vivo. PMID:24850807

  13. Questioning the reliability of estimates of enzyme inhibitor constant: Case of competitive inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Dhatt, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Reliability of kinetic parameters are crucial in understanding enzyme kinetics within cellular system. The present study suggests a few cautions that need introspection for estimation of parameters like K(M), V(max) and K(I) using Lineweaver-Burk plots. The quality of IC(50) too needs a thorough reinvestigation because of its direct link with K(I) and K(M) values. Inhibition kinetics under both steady-state and non-steady-state conditions are studied and errors in estimated parameters are compared against actual values to settle the question of their adequacy.

  14. Versatility of 7-Substituted Coumarin Molecules as Antimycobacterial Agents, Neuronal Enzyme Inhibitors and Neuroprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kapp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A medium-throughput screen using Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was employed to screen an in-house library of structurally diverse compounds for antimycobacterial activity. In this initial screen, eleven 7-substituted coumarin derivatives with confirmed monoamine oxidase-B and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, demonstrated growth inhibition of more than 50% at 50 µM. This prompted further exploration of all the 7-substituted coumarins in our library. Four compounds showed promising MIC99 values of 8.31–29.70 µM and 44.15–57.17 µM on M. tuberculosis H37Rv in independent assays using GAST-Fe and 7H9+OADC media, respectively. These compounds were found to bind to albumin, which may explain the variations in MIC between the two assays. Preliminary data showed that they were able to maintain their activity in fluoroquinolone resistant mycobacteria. Structure-activity relationships indicated that structural modification on position 4 and/or 7 of the coumarin scaffold could direct the selectivity towards either the inhibition of neuronal enzymes or the antimycobacterial effect. Moderate cytotoxicities were observed for these compounds and slight selectivity towards mycobacteria was indicated. Further neuroprotective assays showed significant neuroprotection for selected compounds irrespective of their neuronal enzyme inhibitory properties. These coumarin molecules are thus interesting lead compounds that may provide insight into the design of new antimicrobacterial and neuroprotective agents.

  15. Natural products inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE: a review between 1980 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    Full Text Available Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE is a modern therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension. Within the enzyme cascade of the renin-angiotensin system, ACE removes histidyl-leucine from angiotensin I to form the physiologically active octapeptide angiotensin II, one of the most potent known vasoconstrictors. Therefore, a rationale for treating hypertension would be to administer drugs or natural compounds which selectively inhibit ACE. The present work constitutes a review of the literature of plants and chemically defined molecules from natural sources with in vitro anti-hypertensive potential based on the inhibition of ACE. The review refers to 321 plants, the parts utilized, type of extract and whether they are active or not. It includes also the names of 158 compounds isolated from higher plants, marine sponges and algae, fungi and snake venom. Some aspects of recent research with natural products directed to produce anti-hypertensive drugs are discussed. In this review, 148 references were cited.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor usage and acute kidney injury: a secondary analysis of RENAL study outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Amanda Y; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Lo, Serigne; Cass, Alan; Jardine, Meg; Gallagher, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality. While angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease, their role in AKI remains unclear. The Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study data were analysed according to ACEI use over time. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 90 days following randomisation. Analyses used a multivariate Cox model adjusted for either baseline or for time-dependent covariates, and a sensitivity analysis of patients surviving to at least the median time to ACEI initiation. Of the 1463 participants with available data on ACE inhibitors usage, 142 (9.7%) received ACEI at least once during study data collection. Participants treated with ACEI were older (P = 0.02) and had less sepsis at baseline (P study cohort, the use of ACEI during the study was not common and, after adjustment for time-dependent covariates, was not significantly associated with reductions in mortality. Further assessment of the effect of ACEI use in AKI patients is needed. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. In-silico Design and ADMET Studies of Natural Compounds as Inhibitors of Xanthine Oxidase (XO) Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neelam; Dhiman, Priyanka; Khatkar, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase a ubiquitous enzyme has been found to be involved in various pathological disorders including gout, hyperuricemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase thus find a crucial role in the therapeutic treatment of these deadly diseases. Considering the side effects of today's treatment regimen here we choose nature based compounds to act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In the present work, we performed in-silico docking of natural compounds to reveal the underlying mechanism of inhibition of xanthine oxidase. Further filtration of screened compounds with ADMET studies has been performed. An in-house library of natural compounds screened through ADMET profile for the drug likeliness property was approached for docking studies using Schrödinger suite. Calculation of docking score was done by glide module and free binding energy calculations were performed through MM/GBSA software. Natural leads having better pharmacokinetic profile and mechanism of inhibition were obtained. Docking score, binding energy and different forces involved in interaction were calculated for the top-ranked molecules and good comparison with the standard drugs was achieved Conclusion: Compounds having potential therapeutic activity with low systematic toxicity has been identified against xanthine oxidase which could serve as pharmacophore for the design and synthesis of new drug-like molecules. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Discovery of novel hydroxamates as highly potent tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] converting enzyme inhibitors. Part II: Optimization of the S3′ pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola Jr., Robert D.; Zhu, Zhaoning; Sinning, Lisa; McKittrick, Brian; Lavey, Brian; Spitler, James; Kozlowski, Joseph; Neng-Yang, Shih; Zhou, Guowei; Guo, Zhuyan; Orth, Peter; Madison, Vincent; Sun, Jing; Lundell, Daniel; Niu, Xiaoda (SPRI)

    2010-10-01

    A series of cyclopropyl hydroxamic acids were prepared. Many of the compounds displayed picomolar affinity for the TACE enzyme while maintaining good to excellent selectivity profiles versus MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -14, and ADAM-10. X-ray analysis of an inhibitor in the TACE active site indicated that the molecules bound to the enzyme in the S1{prime}-S3{prime} pocket.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema of the stomach and small intestine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Korsten, Mark A; Blatt, Charles; Motwani, Pooja

    2006-12-01

    This is a case report on a 45-year old African-American female with newly diagnosed hypertension, who was started on a combination pill of amlodipine/benazapril 10/5 mg. The very next day, she presented at the emergency room (ER) with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical exam, complete metabolic panel, and hemogram were in the normal range. She was discharged from the ER after a few hours of treatment with fluid and analgesics. However, she returned to the ER the next day with the same complaints. This time the physical exam was significant for a distended abdomen with dullness to percussion. CT scan of the abdomen revealed markedly thickened antrum of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum, along with fluid in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced angioedema was suspected, and anti-hypertensive medications were discontinued. Her symptoms improved within the next 24 hours, and repeat CT after 72 hours revealed marked improvement in stomach and small bowel thickening and resolution of ascites. The recognition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) intestinal angioedema constitutes a challenge to primary care physicians, internists, emergency room personal and surgeons.

  20. Screening of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Leite

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of crude extracts of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plants on glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 100 μg/mL. Forty-six extracts were tested and fifteen of them showed significant inhibitory activity (IA % > 50. The majority of the assayed extracts of Meliaceae plants (Cedrela fissilis, Cipadessa fruticosa and Trichilia ramalhoi showed high ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity. The fractionation of the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa led to the isolation of three flavonoids: flavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 3',4',5',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone. The two last compounds showed high ability to inhibit the gGAPDH activity. Therefore, the assayed Meliaceae species could be considered as a promising source of lead compounds against Chagas' disease.

  1. Effects of long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in the presence or absence of aspirin: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Pfeffer, Marc

    2002-01-01

    -Yusuf method to undertake a systematic overview of data for 22060 patients from six long-term randomised trials of ACE inhibitors to assess whether aspirin altered the effects of ACE inhibitor therapy on major clinical outcomes (composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission...... between the proportional reductions in risk with ACE inhibitor therapy in the presence or absence of aspirin for the major clinical outcomes (p=0.15), or in any of its individual components, except myocardial infarction (interaction p=0.01). Overall, ACE inhibitor therapy significantly reduced the risk......BACKGROUND: Results from a retrospective analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) study suggest that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be less effective in patients receiving aspirin. We aimed to confirm or refute this theory. METHODS: We used the Peto...

  2. Nationwide trends in the prescription of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors after myocardial infarction in Denmark, 1995-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Denmark from 1995 to 2002. DESIGN: Information about patients with first AMI aged > or = 30 years and the dispensing of beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors from......-diuretics and antidiabetic drugs received beta-blockers less frequently, but patients taking loop-diuretics or antidiabetic drugs had the greatest increase. ACE inhibitor use increased from 24.5 to 35.5% (OR = 1.86, CI: 1.72-2.01). Women, patients aged or = 80 years and patients not taking loop......-diuretics received ACE inhibitors less frequently, but patients not taking loop-diuretics had the greatest increase. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-blocker use increased markedly post-AMI from 1995 to 2002, whereas ACE inhibitor use increased modestly. The results suggested undertreatment of women, elderly patients and people...

  3. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors with activity against trypsin and papain from Pithecellobium dumosum seeds: purification, characterization, and activity towards pest insect digestive enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A S; Migliolo, L; Aquino, R O; Ribeiro, J K C; Macedo, L L P; Bemquerer, M P; Santos, E A; Kiyota, S; de Sales, M P

    2009-01-01

    Two trypsin inhibitors (called PdKI-3.1 and PdKI-3.2) were purified from the seeds of the Pithecellobium dumosum tree. Inhibitors were obtained by TCA precipitation, affinity chromatography on Trypsin-Sepharose and reversed-phase-HPLC. SDS-PAGE analysis with or without reducing agent showed that they are a single polypeptide chain, and MALDI-TOF analysis determined molecular masses of 19696.96 and 19696.36 Da, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of both inhibitors showed strong identity to the Kunitz family trypsin inhibitors. They were stable over a wide pH (2-9) and temperature (37 to 100 degrees C) range. These inhibitors reduced over 84% of trypsin activity with inhibition constant (Ki) of 4.20 x 10(-8) and 2.88 x 10(-8) M, and also moderately inhibited papain activity, a cysteine proteinase. PdKI-3.1 and PdKI-3.2 mainly inhibited digestive enzymes from Plodia interpunctella, Zabrotes subfasciatus and Ceratitis capitata guts. Results show that both inhibitors are members of the Kunitz-inhibitor family and that they affect the digestive enzyme larvae of diverse orders, indicating a potential insect antifeedant.

  4. Enzyme inhibition by iminosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Óscar; Qing, Feng-Ling; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Imino- and azasugar glycosidase inhibitors display pH dependant inhibition reflecting that both the inhibitor and the enzyme active site have groups that change protonation state with pH. With the enzyme having two acidic groups and the inhibitor one basic group, enzyme-inhibitor complexes...

  5. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Derived from Cross-Linked Oyster Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Liang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following cross-linking by microbial transglutaminase, modified oyster proteins were hydrolyzed to improve inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity with the use of a single protease, or a combination of six proteases. The oyster hydrolysate with the lowest 50% ACE inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 0.40 mg/mL was obtained by two-step hydrolysis of the cross-linked oyster protein using Protamex and Neutrase. Five ACE inhibitory peptides were purified from the oyster hydrolysate using a multistep chromatographic procedure comprised of ion-exchange, size exclusion, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Their sequences were identified as TAY, VK, KY, FYN, and YA, using automated Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. These peptides were synthesized, and their IC50 values were measured to be 16.7, 29.0, 51.5, 68.2, and 93.9 μM, respectively. Toxicity of the peptides on the HepG2 cell line was not detected. The oyster hydrolysate also significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The antihypertensive effect of the oyster hydrolysate on SHR was rapid and long-lasting, compared to commercially obtained sardine hydrolysate. These results suggest that the oyster hydrolysate could be a source of effective nutraceuticals against hypertension.

  6. Polypharmacy in chronic heart failure : practical issues regarding the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers and other drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, RA; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers are the cornerstone for treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and are usually combined with diuretics, with or without digoxin. With the development of new, additional treatments, the problem of polypharmacy becomes

  7. The rationale and design of the perindopril genetic association study (PERGENE): A pharmacogenetic analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Brugts (Jasper); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); H. Boersma (Eric); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.E. Bertrand (Michel); W.J. Remme (Willem); K.M. Fox (Kim); R. Ferrari (Roberto); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce clinical symptoms and improve outcome in patients with hypertension, heart failure, and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and are among the most frequently used drugs in these patient groups. For hypertension, treatment

  8. The rationale and design of the PERindopril GENEtic association study (PERGENE): a pharmacogenetic analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugts, J. J.; de Maat, M. P. M.; Boersma, E.; Witteman, J. C. M.; van Duijn, C.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Bertrand, M.; Remme, W.; Fox, K.; Ferrari, R.; Danser, A. H. J.; Simoons, M. L.; Remme, W. J.; Aldershville, J.; Hildebrandt, P.; Bassand, J. P.; Cokkinos, D.; Toutouzas, P.; Eha, J.; Erhardt, L.; Erikssen, J.; Grybauskas, R.; Kalnins, U.; Karsch, K.; Sechtem, U.; Keltai, M.; Klein, W.; Luescher, T.; Mulcahy, D.; Nieminen, M.; Oto, A.; Ozsaruhan, O.; Paulus, W.; Providencia, L.; Riecansky, I.; Ruzyllo, W.; Santini, U.; Tavazzi, L.; Soler-Soler, J.; Widimsky, P.; Julian, D.; Dargie, H.; Kobler, W.; Duprez, D.; Steg, G.; Thygesen, K.; Drexel, H.; Gombotz, G.; Stoeckl, G.; Heyndrickx, G. H.; Legrand, V.; Materne, P.; van Mieghem, W.; Bocek, P.; Branny, M.; Cech, M.; Charouzek, J.; Drazka, J.; Fabik, L.; Florian, J.; Francek, L.; Groch, L.; Havranek, P.; Herman, A.; Hradec, J.; Jansky, P.; Jirmar, R.; Jokl, I.; Krejcova, H.; Kvasnak, M.; Maratka, T.; Marcinek, G.; Moravcova, J.; Nedbal, P.; Peterka, K.; Povolny, J.; Rosolova, H.; Semrad, B.; Sochor, K.; Spacek, R.; Spinar, J.; Stipal, R.; Stuchlik, K.; Sulda, M.; Ulman, J.; Vaclavicek, A.; Vojtisek, P.; Bjerregard Andersen, H.; Dorff, B.; Kristensen, K.; Madsen, J. K.; Markenvard, J.; Meibom, J.; Norgaard, A.; Scheibel, M.; Leht, A.; Teesalu, R.; Vahulaa, V.; Itkonen, A.; Juvonen, J.; Karmakoski, J.; Kilkki, E.; Koskela, E.; Kotila, M. J.; Melin, J.; Nieminen, M. S.; Savola, R.; Terho, T.; Voipio Pulkki, L. M.; Apffel, F.; Attali, P.; Baron, B.; Berthier, Y.; Dambrine, P.; Danchin, N.; Decoulx, E.; Deshayes, P.; Fouche, R.; Genest, M.; Godard, S.; Guillot, J. P.; Hanania, G.; Lelguen, C.; Leroy, F.; Mansourati, J.; Mery, D.; Michel, A. N.; Quiret, J. C.; Raynaud, P.; Rondepierre, D.; Roynard, J. L.; van Belle, E.; Veyrat, A.; Gaudron, P.; Karsch, K. R.; Lauer, B.; Rettig Stsrmer, G.; Riessen, R.; Rutsch, W.; Sigel, H. A.; Simon, R.; Stork, S.; von Schacky, C.; Winkelmann, B. R.; Christakos, S.; Feggos, S.; Geleris, P.; Georgiadis, S.; Gialafos, J.; Goudevenos, I.; Kardara, D.; Kardaras, F.; Karidis, C.; Kelesides, C.; Kyriakidis, M.; Koliopoulos, N.; Kremastinos, D.; Liberi, S.; Manolis, A. N.; Pyrgakis, V.; Papasteriadis, E.; Papazoglou, N.; Skoufas, P.; Stamatelopoulos, S.; Stambola, S.; Stavridis, A.; Syribeis, S.; Vardas, P.; Vassiliadis, I.; Voudris, V.; Zacharoulis, A.; Zobolos, S.; Zouras, C.; Berenyi, I.; Bocsa, Z.; Csendes, E.; Edes, I.; Gelesz, E.; Janosi, A.; Kalo, E.; Karpati, P.; Kornel, S.; Pap, I.; Pinter, I.; Polak, G.; Reiber, I.; Rusznak, M.; Simon, A.; Tarjan, J.; Tihanyi, L.; Timar, S.; Toth, K.; Veress, G.; Barton, J.; Crean, P.; Daly, K.; Kearney, P.; Meany, T. B.; Quigley, P.; Azzolini, P.; Barone, G.; Barsotti, A.; Bellone, E.; Borghetti, A.; Branzi, A.; Brunelli, C.; Capponi, E.; Capucci, A.; Casaccia, M.; Casali, G.; Cecchetti, E.; Ceci, V.; Celegon, L.; Chimini, C.; Colombo, A.; Corsini, G.; Cucchini, F.; Dalla Volta, S.; de Luca, I.; de Servi, S.; Delise, P.; Di Donato, M.; Di Giacomo, U.; Di Pasquale, G.; Fiorentini, C.; Gaddi, O.; Giannetto, M.; Giannuzzi, P.; Giordano, A.; Giovannini, E.; Iacono, A.; Inama, G.; Ippoliti, G.; Leghissa, R.; Lorusso, R.; Marzilli, M.; Minutiello, L.; Moretti, G.; Mosele, G. M.; Pasotti, C.; Pettinati, G.; Pezzano, A.; Polimeni, M. R.; Portaluppi, F.; Proto, C.; Riva, S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Santini, M.; Severi, S.; Sinagra, G.; Tantalo, L.; Vajola, S. F.; Vincenzi, M.; Volterrani, M.; Zavatteri, G.; Zogno, M.; Gailiss, E.; Gersamija, A.; Ozolina, M. A.; Skards, J.; Baubiniene, A.; Berukstis, E.; Grigoniene, L.; Grybauskas, A. N.; Kibarskis, A.; Kirkutis, A.; Marcinkus, R.; Milvidaite, I.; Vasiliauskas, D.; Aalders, J. C. A.; Bruggeling, W. A. J.; Bucx, J. J. J.; de Feyter, P. J.; de Leeuw, M. J.; de Waard, D. E. P.; de Weerd, G. J.; de Zwaan, C.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Droste, H. T.; Freericks, M. P.; Hagoort Kok, A. W.; Jap, W. T. J.; Jochemsen, G. M.; Kiemeney, K.; Kuijer, P. J. P.; Mannaerts, H. F. J.; Piek, J. J.; Saelman, J. P. M.; Slob, F. D.; Smits, W. C. G.; Spierenburg, H. A. M.; Suttorp, M. J.; Tan, T. B.; van Beek, G. J.; van Daele, M. E. R. M.; van den Merkhof, L. F. M.; van den Toren, E. W.; van Hessen, M. W. J.; van Langeveld, R. A. M.; van Loo, L. W. H.; van Nierop, P. R.; van Rey, F. J. W.; van Straalen, M. J.; Vos, J.; Werner, H. A.; Westendorp, J. J. C.; Zwiers, G.; Achremczyk, P.; Adamus, J.; Baska, J.; Bolinska Soltysiak, H.; Bubinski, R.; Ceremuzynski, L.; Cieslinski, A.; Dariusz, D.; Deptulski, T.; Drewla, P.; Drozdowski, P.; Dubiel, J. S.; Dudek, D.; Galewicz, M.; Ghlebus, K.; Halawa, B.; Jakubowska Majnigier, M.; Janion, M.; Jaworska, K.; Kaszewska, I.; Kleinrok, A.; Kornacewicz Jach, Z.; Krawczyk, W.; Krynicki, R.; Krzciuk, M.; Krzeminska Pakula, M.; Kuch, J.; Kuzniar, J.; Legutko, J.; Liszewska Pfejfer, D.; Loboz Grudzien, K.; Musial, W.; Opolski, G.; Pasyk, S.; Piwowarska, W.; Pulkowski, G.; Radziszewski, B.; Romanski, B.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Skura, M.; Slowinski, S.; Smielak Korombel, W.; Targonski, R.; Templin, W.; Tendera, M.; Tracz, W.; Trusz Gluza, M.; Turek, P.; Tyminska Sedek, K.; Wodniecki, J.; Zalewski, M.; Zinka, E.; Carrageta, M.; Coelho, J.; Ferreira Gil, R.; Leitao Marques, A.; Santos Andrade, C. M.; Seabra Gomes, R.; Bada, V.; Belicova, M.; Buksarova, E.; Dukat, A.; Gonsorcik, J.; Jonas, P.; Kamensky, G.; Karvaj, M.; Micko, K.; Mikes, Z.; Palinsky, M.; Pella, D.; Renker, B.; Sefara, P.; Sojka, G.; Sulej, P.; Szakacs, M.; Szentivanyi, M.; Aguirre Salcedo, J. M.; Alonso Orcajo, N.; Ancillo Garcia, P.; Auge Sanpera, J. M.; Ayuela Azcarate, J.; Bardaji Mayor, J. L.; Bertomeu Martinez, V.; Blanco Coronado, J. L.; Bros Caimari, R.; Bruguera Cortada, J.; Caparros Valderrama, J.; DeArmas Trujillo, D.; del Rio Ligorit, A.; Espinosa Caliani, J. S.; Fernandez Aviles, F.; Garcia Guerrero, J. J.; Garcia Lopez, D.; Gonzalez Cocina, E.; Guallar Urena, C.; Jodar Lorente, L.; Lopez Garcia, Aranda V.; MacayaDeMiguel, C.; Maroto Montero, J.; Martinez Romero, P.; Navarro Lopez, F.; Noriega Peiro, F.; Olague de Ros, J.; Orellana Mas, J.; Paz Bermejo, M. A.; Placer Peralta, L. J.; Rodriguez Padial, L.; Salvador Sanz, A.; Segui Bonnin, J.; Simarro Martin, E.; Sobrino Daza, J.; Valles Belsue, F.; Ekdahl, S.; Forslund, L.; Ohlin, H.; Persson, S.; Pieper, M.; Moccetti, T.; Acartsrk, E.; Guzelsoy, D.; TMZsaruhan, O.; Ozturk, M.; Sansoy, V.; Turkoglu, C.; Ysksel, H.; Adgey, A. A. J.; Ahsan, A.; Al Khafaji, M.; Ball, S. G.; Birkhead, J.; Boon, N.; Bowker, T.; Brack, M.; Bridges, A.; Buchalter, M.; Buchalter, B.; Calder, B.; Cooke, R. A.; Corr, L.; Cowell, R.; Curzen, N. P.; Davidson, C.; Davies, E.; Davies, J.; de Belder, M.; Dhiya, L.; Doig, J. C.; Findlay, I. N.; Francis, C. M.; Glancy, J. M.; Glen, S.; Greenwood, T. W.; Groves, P.; Hall, A. S.; Hamilton, G.; Hillman, R.; Holdright, D.; Hubbard, W.; Travill, C.; Hutton, I.; Ilsley, C.; Innes, M.; James, M.; Jennings, K.; Jones, C. J. H.; Joy, M.; Keeling, P.; Kooner, J.; Lawson, C.; Levy, R. D.; Lip, G.; Lorimer, A. R.; Marshall, H.; Mclachlan, B.; Montgomery, H.; Morley, C.; Murdoch, D. L.; Muthusamy, R.; Oakley, G. D.; Penny, W.; Pohl, J. E. F.; Purvis, J.; Pye, M.; Ramsdale, D.; Reid, D.; Roberts, D. H.; Rowlands, D.; Rozkovec, A.; Saltissi, S.; Schofield, P. M.; Scott, M.; Shapiro, L. M.; Silke, B.; Stephens, J.; Sutherland, S.; Swan, J. W.; Shakespeare, C.; Tildesley, G.; Watson, R. D. S.; Wilkinson, P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce clinical symptoms and improve outcome in patients with hypertension, heart failure, and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and are among the most frequently used drugs in these patient groups. For hypertension, treatment is guided

  9. Matrix-Based Activity Pattern Classification as a Novel Method for the Characterization of Enzyme Inhibitors Derived from High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Douglas S; Jimenez, Marta; Yue, Kimberley; Busby, Scott; Chen, Yu-Chi; Bowes, Scott; Wendel, Greg; Smith, Thomas; Zhang, Ji-Hu

    2016-12-01

    One of the central questions in the characterization of enzyme inhibitors is determining the mode of inhibition (MOI). Classically, this is done with a number of low-throughput methods in which inhibition models are fitted to the data. The ability to rapidly characterize the MOI for inhibitors arising from high-throughput screening in which hundreds to thousands of primary inhibitors may need to be characterized would greatly help in lead selection efforts. Here we describe a novel method for determining the MOI of a compound without the need for curve fitting of the enzyme inhibition data. We provide experimental data to demonstrate the utility of this new high-throughput MOI classification method based on nonparametric analysis of the activity derived from a small matrix of substrate and inhibitor concentrations (e.g., from a 4 S × 4 I matrix). Lists of inhibitors from four different enzyme assays are studied, and the results are compared with the previously described IC 50 -shift method for MOI classification. The MOI results from this method are in good agreement with the known MOI and compare favorably with those from the IC 50 -shift method. In addition, we discuss some advantages and limitations of the method and provide recommendations for utilization of this MOI classification method.

  10. Pralnacasan, an inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme, reduces joint damage in two murine models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, K; Gerwin, N; Verzijl, N; van der Kraan, P; van den Berg, W

    2003-10-01

    To study the effect of pralnacasan, the orally bioavailable pro-drug of a potent, non-peptide inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE), RU 36384/VRT-18858, on joint damage in two mouse models of knee osteoarthritis (OA). In a collagenase-induced OA model, pralnacasan was given orally by gavage to female Balb/c mice at 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg twice a day. In the second study, pralnacasan was tested in male STR/1N mice, which develop OA spontaneously, by administering food-drug mixtures ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 700 and 4200 ppm (mg/kg food). OA joint damage was assessed by a semi-quantitative histopathological score in both studies. In the STR/1N mouse study, urinary levels of collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography at baseline, after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment and RU 36384/VRT-18858 plasma concentrations was measured after 6 weeks. In both studies, the mice developed moderate to severe knee joint OA in the medial joint compartments (tibial plateau and femoral condyle), the non-treated control groups showing median histopathological scores from 18 to 21 of a maximal score of 32. Pralnacasan was well tolerated. At the doses of 12.5 and 50 mg/kg in collagenase-induced OA and at the high dose of 4200 ppm in STR/1N mice pralnacasan treatment significantly reduced OA by 13-22%. In the STR/1N mice, urinary levels of HP cross-links and the ratio of HP/LP, which are indicators of joint damage in OA, were significantly reduced in the high dose group by 59 and 84%, respectively. The ICE inhibitor pralnacasan reduced joint damage in two experimental models of OA and has the potential to become a disease-modifying drug for the treatment of OA.

  11. Characterization of human liver enzymes involved in the biotransformation of boceprevir, a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Anima; Yuan, Yuan; Tong, Wei; Su, Ai-Duen; Gu, Chunyan; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-03-01

    Boceprevir (SCH 503034), a protease inhibitor, is under clinical development for the treatment of human hepatitis C virus infections. In human liver microsomes, formation of oxidative metabolites after incubations with [(14)C]boceprevir was catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. In addition, the highest turnover was observed in recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. After a single radiolabeled dose to human, boceprevir was subjected to two distinct pathways, namely cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation and ketone reduction. Therefore, attempts were made to identify the enzymes responsible for the formation of carbonyl-reduced metabolites. Human liver S9 and cytosol converted ∼ 28 and ∼ 68% of boceprevir to M28, respectively, in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. Screening of boceprevir with recombinant human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) revealed that AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 exhibited catalytic activity with respect to the formation of M+2 metabolites (M28 and M31). The formation of M28 was inhibited by 100 μM flufenamic acid (80.3%), 200 μM mefenamic acid (83.7%), and 100 μM phenolphthalein (86.1%), known inhibitors of AKRs, suggesting its formation through carbonyl reduction pathway. Formation of M28 was also inhibited by 100 μM diazepam (75.1%), 1 mM ibuprofen (70%), and 200 μM diflunisal (89.4%). These data demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are primarily responsible for the formation of oxidative metabolites and the formation of M28 and M31, the keto-reduced metabolites, are most likely mediated by AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Because the biotransformation and clearance of boceprevir involves two different enzymatic pathways, boceprevir is less likely to be a victim of significant drug-drug interaction with concomitant medication affecting either of these pathways.

  12. Inhibition of the ribonuclease H activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by GSK5750 correlates with slow enzyme-inhibitor dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilhartz, Greg L; Ngure, Marianne; Johns, Brian A; DeAnda, Felix; Gerondelis, Peter; Götte, Matthias

    2014-06-06

    Compounds that efficiently inhibit the ribonuclease (RNase) H activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) have yet to be developed. Here, we demonstrate that GSK5750, a 1-hydroxy-pyridopyrimidinone analog, binds to the enzyme with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of ~400 nM. Inhibition of HIV-1 RNase H is specific, as DNA synthesis is not affected. Moreover, GSK5750 does not inhibit the activity of Escherichia coli RNase H. Order-of-addition experiments show that GSK5750 binds to the free enzyme in an Mg(2+)-dependent fashion. However, as reported for other active site inhibitors, binding of GSK5750 to a preformed enzyme-substrate complex is severely compromised. The bound nucleic acid prevents access to the RNase H active site, which represents a possible biochemical hurdle in the development of potent RNase H inhibitors. Previous studies suggested that formation of a complex with the prototypic RNase H inhibitor β-thujaplicinol is slow, and, once formed, it dissociates rapidly. This unfavorable kinetic behavior can limit the potency of RNase H active site inhibitors. Although the association kinetics of GSK5750 remains slow, our data show that this compound forms a long lasting complex with HIV-1 RT. We conclude that slow dissociation of the inhibitor and HIV-1 RT improves RNase H active site inhibitors and may circumvent the obstacle posed by the inability of these compounds to bind to a preformed enzyme-substrate complex. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. New ferrocene compounds as selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors: design, synthesis, cytotoxicity and enzyme-inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Shabnam; Zainalzadeh, Elnaz; Daraei, Bahram; Shahhosseini, Soraya; Zarghi, Afshin

    2017-10-03

    Background Due to the astonishing properties of ferrocene and its derivatives, it has a broad application in diverse areas. Numerous ferrocene derivatives demonstrated anti-proliferative activity. Also COX-2, as a key isoenzyme for production of prostaglandins, is frequently overexpressed in various cancers. It is now recognized that COX-2 over expression promotes tumorigenic functions which can be suppressed by COX-2 inhibitors, a phenomenon useful for the preventing of tumor progression. The combination of COX-2 inhibitors with other anti-cancer or cancer prevention drugs may reduce their side effects in future cancer prevention and treatment. Objective Owing to high anticancer potential of ferrocene derivatives and considerable COX-2 inhibitory and cytotoxicity effects of our previously synthesized chalcones, we decided to incorporate the ferrocenyl moiety into appropriate COX-2 inhibitor chalcone based scaffold, to evaluate COX-2 inhibitory activity as well as anti-cancer activities. Method Chalcones were synthesized via clasien-schmidt condensation of methylsulfonyl aldehyde and acetyl ferrocene. Further different amines with solvent free and ultra sound condition were reacted with chalcones to have different 1-ferrocenyl-3-amino carbonyl compounds. Docking study was carried out with Auto Dock vina software. All the newly-synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory activity using chemiluminescent enzyme assays as well as cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 and T47D and fibroblast cell lines by MTT assay. Results In vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition studies demonstrated that all compounds were selective inhibitors of the COX-2 isozyme with IC50 values in the highly potent 0.05-0.12 µM range, and COX-2 selectivity indexes (SI) in the 148.3-313.7 range. These results indicated that either potency or selectivity of COX-2 inhibitory activity was affected by the nature and size of the substituents on C-3 of propane-1-one. Also anti

  14. Exploring the chemical space around 8-mercaptoguanine as a route to new inhibitors of the folate biosynthesis enzyme HPPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chhabra

    Full Text Available As the second essential enzyme of the folate biosynthetic pathway, the potential antimicrobial target, HPPK (6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase, catalyzes the Mg(2+-dependant transfer of pyrophosphate from the cofactor (ATP to the substrate, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin. Recently, we showed that 8-mercaptoguanine (8-MG bound at the substrate site (KD ∼13 µM, inhibited the S. aureus enzyme (SaHPPK (IC50 ∼ 41 µM, and determined the structure of the SaHPPK/8-MG complex. Here we present the synthesis of a series of guanine derivatives, together with their HPPK binding affinities, as determined by SPR and ITC analysis. The binding mode of the most potent was investigated using 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The results indicate, firstly, that the SH group of 8-MG makes a significant contribution to the free energy of binding. Secondly, direct N(9 substitution, or tautomerization arising from N(7 substitution in some cases, leads to a dramatic reduction in affinity due to loss of a critical N(9-H···Val46 hydrogen bond, combined with the limited space available around the N(9 position. The water-filled pocket under the N(7 position is significantly more tolerant of substitution, with a hydroxyl ethyl 8-MG derivative attached to N(7 (compound 21a exhibiting an affinity for the apo enzyme comparable to the parent compound (KD ∼ 12 µM. In contrast to 8-MG, however, 21a displays competitive binding with the ATP cofactor, as judged by NMR and SPR analysis. The 1.85 Å X-ray structure of the SaHPPK/21a complex confirms that extension from the N(7 position towards the Mg(2+-binding site, which affords the only tractable route out from the pterin-binding pocket. Promising strategies for the creation of more potent binders might therefore include the introduction of groups capable of interacting with the Mg(2+ centres or Mg(2+-binding residues, as well as the development of bitopic inhibitors featuring 8-MG

  15. Metabolite profiling and enzyme reaction phenotyping of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Atsunori; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Hachiuma, Kenji; Mori, Haruyuki; Horiuchi, Nobuko; Mizuno-Yasuhira, Akiko; Chino, Yukihiro; Jingu, Shigeji; Sakai, Soichi; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    1. To understand the clearance mechanism of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, we investigated its human metabolite profile and metabolic enzymes responsible for the primary metabolic pathways in human using reaction phenotyping. 2. Sixteen metabolites of luseogliflozin were found in human plasma and/or urine and their structural information indicated that the drug was metabolized via multiple metabolic pathways. The primary metabolic pathways involve (1) O-deethylation to form M2 and subsequent glucuronidation to form M12, (2) ω-hydroxylation at ethoxy group to form M3 followed by oxidation to form the corresponding carboxylic acid metabolite (M17) and (3) direct glucuronidation to form M8. 3. The reaction phenotyping studies indicated that the formation of M2 was mainly mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5, and subsequently M12 formation was catalyzed by UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9. The formation of M3 was mediated by CYP4A11, CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B, and the further oxidation of M3 to M17 was mediated by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The formation of M8 was catalyzed by UGT1A1. 4. These results demonstrate that luseogliflozin is metabolized through multiple pathways, including CYP-mediated oxidation and glucuronidation, in human.

  16. A comparative study of neuroprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of neuroprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors against scopolamine-induced neuroinflammation in albino Wistar rats was studied. Male albino rats were administered with scopolamine to induce memory impairment. The standard nootropic agent, piracetam (200 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.], perindopril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.], enalapril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.], and ramipril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.] were administered in different group of animals for 5 days. On 5 th day, scopolamine (1 mg/kg b.w., i.p. was administered after 60 min of the last dose of test drug. Memory function was evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM test and pole climbing test (PCT. Biochemical estimations like glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain were estimated after completion of behavior study. All three test groups shows improvement in learning and memory in comparison to control group. Perindopril treated group showed a more effective significant decrease in escape latency time and transfer latency time compared to enalapril and ramipril treated group on day 4 in MWM test and PCT, respectively. Perindopril shows a significant reduction in MDA level and acetylcholinesterase activity and a significant rise in GSH level compared to enalapril and ramipril. The finding of this study indicates that Perindopril is more effective in memory retention compared to enalapril and ramipril.

  17. β-Blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: comparison of effects on aortic growth in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomakay, Venusa; Huett, Wilson G; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Tang, Xinyu; Bornemeier, Renee A; Collins, R Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have been shown to decrease aortic growth velocity (AGV) in Marfan syndrome (MFS). We sought to compare the effect of β-blockers and ACEI on AGV in MFS. We retrospectively reviewed all data from all patients with MFS seen at Arkansas Children's Hospital between January 1, 1976 and January 1, 2013. Generalized least squares were used to evaluate AGV over time as a function of age, medication group, and the interaction between the 2. A mixed model was used to compare AGV between medication groups as a function of age, medication group (none, β-blocker, ACEI), and the interaction between the 2. A total of 67 patients with confirmed MFS were identified (34/67, 51% female). Mean age at first encounter was 13 ± 10 years, with mean follow-up of 7.6 ± 5.8 years. There were 839 patient encounters with a median of 10 (range 2-42) encounters per patient. AGV was nearly normal in the β-blocker group, and was less than either the ACEI or untreated groups. The AGV was higher than normal in ACEI and untreated groups (P AGV in MFS. ACEI did not decrease AGV in a clinically significant manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors attenuate propofol-induced pro-oxidative and antifibrinolytic effect in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewodzka-Zelezniakowicz, Marzena; Gromotowicz-Poplawska, Anna; Kisiel, Wioleta; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szemraj, Janusz; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Chabielska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) against propofol-induced endothelial dysfunction and to elucidate the involved mechanisms in vitro. We examined the effects of propofol (50 μM), quinaprilat and enalaprilat (10-5 M) on fibrinolysis (t-PA, PAI-1, TAFI antigen levels), oxidative stress parameters (H2O2 and MDA antigen levels and SOD and NADPH oxidase mRNA levels) and nitric oxide bioavailability (NO2/NO3 concentration and NOS expression at the level of mRNA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that both ACE-Is promoted similar endothelial fibrinolytic properties and decreased oxidative stress in vitro. Propofol alone increased the release of antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative factors from the endothelium and increased mRNA iNOS expression. We also found that the incubation of HUVECs in the presence of propofol following ACE-Is pre-incubation caused weakness of the antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative potential of propofol and this effect was similar after both ACE-Is. This observation suggests that the studied ACE-Is exerted protective effects against endothelial cell dysfunction caused by propofol, independently of hemodynamics.

  19. Production of Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Derived from Egg White Protein Hydrolysates Using a Membrane Reactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen-Dee Chiang; May-June Tsou; Chien-Hui Weng; Tsun-Chung Tsai

    2008-01-01

      Egg white proteins (EWP) were hydrolyzed with four proteolytic enzymes, including Thermolysin, Alcalase, Esperase and Chymotrysin, to produce hydrolysates with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE...

  20. Chelation Motifs Affecting Metal-dependent Viral Enzymes: N'-acylhydrazone Ligands as Dual Target Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase and Reverse Transcriptase Ribonuclease H Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; Pala, Nicolino; Corona, Angela; Caredda, Alessia; Tramontano, Enzo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Naesens, Lieve; Esposito, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, still represent a serious global health emergency. The chronic toxicity derived from the current anti-retroviral therapy limits the prolonged use of several antiretroviral agents, continuously requiring the discovery of new antiviral agents with innovative strategies of action. In particular, the development of single molecules targeting two proteins (dual inhibitors) is one of the current main goals in drug discovery. In this contest, metal-chelating molecules have been extensively explored as potential inhibitors of viral metal-dependent enzymes, resulting in some important classes of antiviral agents. Inhibition of HIV Integrase (IN) is, in this sense, paradigmatic. HIV-1 IN and Reverse Transcriptase-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) active sites show structural homologies, with the presence of two Mg(II) cofactors, hence it seems possible to inhibit both enzymes by means of chelating ligands with analogous structural features. Here we present a series of N'-acylhydrazone ligands with groups able to chelate the Mg(II) hard Lewis acid ions in the active sites of both the enzymes, resulting in dual inhibitors with micromolar and even nanomolar activities. The most interesting identified N'-acylhydrazone analog, compound 18, shows dual RNase H-IN inhibition and it is also able to inhibit viral replication in cell-based antiviral assays in the low micromolar range. Computational modeling studies were also conducted to explore the binding attitudes of some model ligands within the active site of both the enzymes.

  1. A meta-analysis of the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on functional capacity in patients with symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Køber, Lars Valeur

    2004-01-01

    that evaluated the effect of ACE inhibitors vs. placebo on exercise duration were selected. Ninety-four percent of patients were in New York Heart Association class II-IV. The studies were combined using the Cochrane meta-analysis program (Review manager version 4.1). Analyses according to treatment period......AIM: To determine by meta-analysis whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve exercise tolerance in patients with symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). METHODS AND RESULTS: After literature search 13 multi-centre double blind parallel group trials...

  2. Weight loss for reduction of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy: Comparison with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of weight in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM individuals is emerging as a significant strategy in the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy along with control of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The objective was to evaluate the reduction in 24-h proteinuria in T2DM patients with nephropathy by weight loss, with conventional therapy (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors as the control arm. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted between June 2010 and May 2011. T2DM patients with confirmed nephropathy by 24-h urinary protein estimation with a body mass index (BMI of >25 kg/m 2 were studied. Patients who had nondiabetic nephropathy, uncontrolled hypertension (>125/75 mmHg irrespective of antihypertensive drugs, excess weight due to edema or obesity due to other specific diseases, alcoholics, smokers, and patients who were on hemodialysis were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into three groups, namely, group A, patients on ACE inhibitor therapy; group B, patients on lifestyle modifications for weight loss; and group C, patients on an antiobesity drug (orlistat and lifestyle modifications. At the end of 6 months, all the three groups were compared. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15.0. This study encompassed a total of 88 patients; 12 patients were dropped during the study period and 76 (group A: 22, group B: 23, and group C: 31 patients remained. The mean age of the patients was 58.36 ± 10.87 years (range: 30-70 years. At baseline, age, gender, mean BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and 24-h proteinuria did not vary significantly among the three groups. At 6 months, the mean BMI significantly decreased in group C ( P < 0.001 compared to that in the other two groups. Among the parameters BMI and WHR, the proportional form of BMI correlated well with the degree of reduction in proteinuria (r = 0.397, P = 0.01. Reduction in weight using lifestyle

  3. Influence of the interleukin-converting enzyme inhibitor HMR-3480 on myocardial stunning in pigs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Holger; Südkamp, Hendrik; Ebel, Dirk; Müllenheim, Jost; Schlack, Wolfgang; Preckel, Benedikt

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta is converted into its active form by interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE). Circulating cytokines may promote myocardial dysfunction (stunning) after ischemia. To investigate whether ICE inhibition by HMR-3840 improves myocardial stunning in vivo. Anesthetized (isoflurane and fentanyl) pigs were used for measurement of left ventricular (LV) pressure, cardiac output and blood flow in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial function was assessed by sonomicrometry as systolic wall thickening and mean systolic thickening velocity in the anteroapical and posterobasal walls. The animals were subjected to 10 min of LAD occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion. The ICE inhibitor (flow-adjusted to achieve coronary plasma concentrations of 10 mug/mL) (ISCH, n=7) or the vehicle (CON, n=7) was infused via a side branch into the LAD during ischemia, or during ischemia and the first 60 min of reperfusion (REP, n=6). Occlusion of the LAD resulted in systolic outward movement (bulging) of the anteroapical wall during ischemia in all groups. Infusion of the ICE inhibitor had no effect on functional recovery when given during ischemia or when given during reperfusion (at the end of reperfusion in the anteroapical wall, values for systolic wall thickening were: CON 17.3+/-7.3%, ISCH 23.2+/-9.8% and REP 19.3+/-6.1%; and values for mean systolic thickening velocity were: CON 4.3+/-1.1 mm/s, ISCH 6.1+/-3.9 mm/s and REP 5.2+/-1.7 mm/s; all P values not significant for CON versus ISCH or REP). LAD blood flow was not affected by HMR-3840 (23.4+/-5.2 mL/min versus 24.3+/-8.1 mL/min; P not significant). Global myocardial function (LV pressure, maximum rate of LV pressure increase and cardiac output) was not different between controls and treatment groups during reperfusion. ICE inhibition by HMR-3480 had no effect on myocardial stunning in pigs in vivo.

  4. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril disrupts the motility activation of sperm from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Kawasaki, Saori; Kawasaki, Hideki; Kamei, Kaeko

    2017-11-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (also known as peptidyl dicarboxypeptidase A, ACE, and EC 3.4.15.1), which is found in a wide range of organisms, cleaves C-terminal dipeptides from relatively short oligopeptides. Mammalian ACE plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. However, the precise physiological functions of insect ACE homologs have not been understood. As part of our effort to elucidate new physiological roles of insect ACE, we herein report a soluble ACE protein in male reproductive secretions from the silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Seminal vesicle sperm are quiescent in vitro, but vigorous motility is activated by treatment with either a glandula (g.) prostatica homogenate or trypsin in vitro. When seminal vesicle sperm were pre-incubated with captopril, a strong and specific inhibitor of mammalian ACE, and then stimulated to initiate motility by the addition of the g. prostatica homogenate or trypsin, the overall level of acquired motility was reduced in an inhibitor-concentration-dependent manner. In the course of this project, we detected ACE-related carboxypeptidase activity that was inhibited by captopril in both the vesicular (v.) seminalis of the noncopulative male reproductive tract and in the spermatophore that forms in the female bursa copulatrix at the time of mating, just as in an earlier report on the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea, which belongs to a different lepidopteran species (Ekbote et al., 2003a). Two distinct genes encoding ACE-like proteins were identified by analysis of B. mori cDNA, and were named BmAcer and BmAcer2, respectively [the former was previously reported by Quan et al. (2001) and the latter was first isolated in this paper]. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses indicated that the BmAcer2 was predominantly produced in v. seminalis and transferred to the spermatophore during copulation, while the BmAcer was not detected in the adult male reproductive organs. A recombinant protein of BmAcer2 (devoid of a signal

  5. Murine Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Flaviviral NS5 Capping Enzyme 2-Thioxothiazolidin-4-One Inhibitor BG-323.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Bullard

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne flavivirus infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identification of drug targets and novel antiflaviviral compounds to treat these diseases has become a global health imperative. A previous screen of 235,456 commercially available small molecules identified the 2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one family of compounds as inhibitors of the flaviviral NS5 capping enzyme, a promising target for antiviral drug development. Rational drug design methodologies enabled identification of lead compound BG-323 from this series. We have shown previously that BG-323 potently inhibits NS5 capping enzyme activity, displays antiviral effects in dengue virus replicon assays and inhibits growth of West Nile and yellow fever viruses with low cytotoxicity in vitro. In this study we further characterized BG-323's antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that BG-323 was able to reduce replication of WNV (NY99 and Powassan viruses in culture, and we were unable to force resistance into WNV (Kunjin in long-term culture experiments. We then evaluated the antiviral activity of BG-323 in a murine model. Mice were challenged with WNV NY99 and administered BG-323 or mock by IP inoculation immediately post challenge and twice daily thereafter. Mice were bled and viremia was quantified on day three. No significant differences in viremia were observed between BG-323-treated and control groups and clinical scores indicated both BG-323-treated and control mice developed signs of illness on approximately the same day post challenge. To determine whether differences in in vitro and in vivo efficacy were due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties of BG-323, we conducted a pharmacokinetic evaluation of this small molecule. Insights from pharmacokinetic studies indicate that BG-323 is cell permeable, has a low efflux ratio and does not significantly inhibit two common cytochrome P450 (CYP P450 isoforms thus suggesting this molecule

  6. The effect of three angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on kynurenic acid production in rat kidney in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrocka, Izabela; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2017-06-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is commonly known to regulate blood pressure, water and electrolyte homeostasis, however it also exerts paracrine and autocrine actions on the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), alongside their hypotensive properties, have been shown to decrease kidney function decline in animal models of nephropathy. Glutamate (GLU) is the main stimulatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, however its importance in the periphery should also be considered. Activation of renal GLU receptors has been linked to normal kidney function and also renal injury. The wide spectrum GLU receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) possesses neuroprotective and central hypotensive effects, however its actions outside the brain are less well recognized. KYNA is a tryptophan metabolite synthesized from kynurenine by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three ACE-Is: lisinopril, perindopril and ramipril on KYNA production and KATs activity in rat kidney in vitro. The effect of ACE-Is on KYNA production and KATs activity was examined in rat kidney homogenates. KYNA was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified fluorometrically. All examined ACE-Is: lisinopril, perindopril and ramipril decreased KYNA production in rat kidney in vitro. KAT I activity was decreased by lisinopril and ramipril whereas the activity of KAT II was lowered by ramipril. Our study shows that ACE-Is can decrease KYNA production in rat kidney in vitro. Further studies are required to determine the clinical importance of the inhibitory action of ACE-Is on KYNA synthesis in the kidney. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduced dementia risk in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yi-Chun; Huang, Kuang-Wei; Yen, Der-Jen; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-10-01

    The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) on dementia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension remain unknown. We investigated the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on dementia risk in patients with type 2 DM and hypertension. We conducted a cohort study by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We included 2377 patients receiving ACEIs and 1780 patients receiving ARBs in the ACEI and ARB cohorts, respectively. We included a comparable number of patients not receiving ACEIs and ARBs as controls in the non-ACEI and non-ARB cohorts through propensity score matching. The effect of ACEIs and ARBs on dementia risk was estimated through multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression after adjustment for several confounding factors. During the 12-year follow-up period, compared with the non-ACEI cohort, all-cause dementia risk decreased by 26% in the ACEI cohort [hazard ratio (HR)=0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.56-0.96]. The all-cause dementia risk was nearly 40% lower in the ARB cohort than in the non-ARB cohort (HR=0.60, 95% CI=0.37-0.97). These drugs prevented the occurrence of vascular dementia (VD), however, this effect was nonsignificant for Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Treatment duration- and dosage-related protection effects on dementia occurrence were observed. ACEIs and ARBs may effectively prevent all-cause dementia, particularly VD, in patients with type 2 DM and hypertension. Moreover, compared with ACEIs, ARBs appear to be more advantageous in dementia prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors' purported benefit on breast cancer survival may be explained by aspirin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle D; Hankinson, Susan E; Feskanich, Diane; Chen, Wendy Y

    2013-06-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic evidence supports a possible role for beta-adrenergic blocking drugs (beta-blockers), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in promoting survival after breast cancer. However, these drugs are often used concurrently with aspirin, and there is a growing body of evidence indicating a survival benefit for aspirin. Therefore, we analyzed the use of beta-blockers and ACEIs after a breast cancer diagnosis and their association with breast cancer mortality, both individually, combined with each other, and in combination with aspirin use in the Nurses' Health Study, using updated measures of medication use and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 4,661 women with stages I-III breast cancer included; 292 breast cancer deaths occurred during median follow-up time of 10.5 years. Modeled individually, the multivariable relative risk and 95 % confidence intervals (RR, 95 % CI) for breast cancer death were (0.76, 0.54-1.05) for beta blockers, (0.89, 0.60-1.32) for ACEIs, and (0.46, 0.35-0.60) for aspirin. Modeled simultaneously, the multivariable (RR, 95 % CI) for breast cancer death were (0.83, 0.60-1.16) for beta blockers, (1.00, 0.68-1.46) for ACEIs, and (0.46, 0.35-0.61) for aspirin. We did not see a significant association with beta blockers and survival, but there was a suggestion. Our study was limited in that we could not assess type of beta blocker and the number of events among users was still quite low. We found no evidence of a protective effect for ACEIs. The strong protective association with aspirin use confounds the associations with these other drugs and underscores the importance of considering aspirin use in analyses of breast cancer survival.

  9. HIV Aspartic Peptidase Inhibitors Modulate Surface Molecules and Enzyme Activities Involved with Physiopathological Events in Fonsecaea pedrosoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanila F. Palmeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have shown anti-F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi conidial cells, including surface molecules and secreted enzymes, both of which are directly involved in the disease development. In all the experiments, conidia were treated with indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir (100 μM for 24 h, and then fungal cells were used to evaluate the effects of HIV-PIs on different virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi. In comparison to untreated controls, exposure of F. pedrosoi cells to HIV-PIs caused (i reduction on the conidial granularity; (ii irreversible surface ultrastructural alterations, such as shedding of electron dense and amorphous material from the cell wall, undulations/invaginations of the plasma membrane with and withdrawal of this membrane from the cell wall; (iii a decrease in both mannose-rich glycoconjugates and melanin molecules and an increase in glucosylceramides on the conidial surface; (iv inhibition of ergosterol and lanosterol production; (v reduction in the secretion of aspartic peptidase, esterase and phospholipase; (vi significant reduction in the viability of non-pigmented conidia compared to pigmented ones. In summary, HIV-PIs are efficient drugs with an ability to block crucial biological processes of F. pedrosoi and can be seriously considered as potential compounds for the development of new chromoblastomycosis chemotherapeutics.

  10. SLCO1B1 Variants and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (Enalapril)-Induced Cough: a Pharmacogenetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Quan; He, Fa-Zhong; Wang, Zhen-Min; Sun, Ning-Ling; Wang, Lu-Yan; Tang, Gen-Fu; Liu, Mou-Ze; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-11-26

    Clinical observations suggest that incidence of cough in Chinese taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is much higher than other racial groups. Cough is the most common adverse reaction of enalapril. We investigate whether SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphisms, previously reported to be important determinants of inter-individual variability in enalapril pharmacokinetics, are associated with the enalapril-induced cough. A cohort of 450 patients with essential hypertension taking 10 mg enalapril maleate were genotyped for the functional SLCO1B1 variants, 388A > G (Asn130Asp, rs2306283) and 521T > C (Val174Ala, rs4149056). The primary endpoint was cough, which was recorded when participants were bothered by cough and respiratory symptoms during enalapril treatment without an identifiable cause. SLCO1B1 521C allele conferred a 2-fold relative risk of enalapril-induced cough (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-3.04, P = 6.2 × 10(-4)), and haplotype analysis suggested the relative risk of cough was 6.94-fold (95% CI = 1.30-37.07, P = 0.020) in SLCO1B1*15/*15 carriers. Furthermore, there was strong evidence for a gene-dose effect (percent with cough in those with 0, 1, or 2 copy of the 521C allele: 28.2%, 42.5%, and 71.4%, trend P = 6.6 × 10(-4)). Our study highlights, for the first time, SLCO1B1 variants are strongly associated with an increased risk of enalapril-induced cough. The findings will be useful to provide pharmacogenetic markers for enalapril treatment.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers on aspirin antiplatelet effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Quttina, Maram; Zayadeen, Raya

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major burdens on societies and healthcare systems. Antiplatelet aspirin is used to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of cardiovascular events. However, studies have shown that a good portion of patients still suffer from cardiovascular events in spite of using aspirin (also called aspirin nonresponders). On the other hand, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) as well as angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in patients with different spectrums of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the possible interactive effect of ACEIs and ARBs on aspirin response was evaluated in vitro. A multiplate analyzer was used to assay the possible interactions between ACEIs and ARBs drugs on antiplatelet effect of aspirin using blood obtained from 6 healthy volunteers. Means of area under the aggregation curves (AUCs) of the blood samples treated with 10 μg/mL aspirin were calculated before and after exposure to captopril, lisinopril, candesartan, or losartan. Results showed potential antithrombotic effect of ACEIs and ARBs only at high concentrations (3.3 μg/mL).The antiplatelet effect of aspirin 10 μg/mL was significantly enhanced by the addition of captopril or lisinopril at high dose (3.3 μg/mL), candesartan at all tested doses (0.03 μg/mL, 0.33 μg/mL, 3.3 μg/mL), and losartan at doses of 0.33 μg/mL and 3.3 μg/m. Treatment with ACEIs (captopril and lisinopril) and ARBs (candesartan and losartan) improved the antiplatelet response to aspirin. Further studies are needed to confirm this action and potentially apply it to clinical practice.

  12. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shakarami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL defined by two or more failed pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Several factors play a role in RPL including thrombophilic conditions which can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE genes are closely related to fibrinolytic process, embryonic development and pregnancy success. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RPL and common polymorphisms in ACE and PAI-1 genes. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 100 women with recurrent abortions (at least two were selected as cases and 100 healthy women with two or more normal term deliveries without a history of abortion as controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The status of the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE (D/I polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP. Results: Homozygosity for PAI-1 4G polymorphism was seen in 17 cases (17%, and 5 controls (5% (p=0.006 so patients with homozygote 4G mutation were significantly more prone to RPL in contrast to control group (OR: 4.63, % 95 CI: 1.55-13.84. In addition, 7 patients (7 %, and no one from the control group, were homozygote (I/I for ACE polymorphism (p=0.034, suggesting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL. Conclusion: Considering these results, because 4G/4G polymorphism for PAI-1 gene could be a thrombophilic variant leading to abortion, analysis of this mutation and other susceptibility factors are recommended in patients with RPL.

  13. Low-Dose Vasopressin and Analogues to Treat Intraoperative Refractory Hypotension in Patients Prescribed Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Undergoing General Anesthesia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Kara F; Mann, Carrie L; Spulecki, Cheryl; Castner, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This review assessed the utility of vasopressin and vasopressin analogues for the treatment of refractory hypotension associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the perioperative setting. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ProQuest. Six randomized controlled trials met eligibility criteria. In the perioperative setting, continued use of ACE inhibitors within 24 hours before surgery remains controversial. Authors of the reviewed studies suggested that the morning dose of the ACE inhibitor be held, and those patients experienced decreased catecholamine use postoperatively and shorter duration of decreased mean arterial pressure. No incidence of refractory hypertension from withholding the morning dose of the ACE inhibitor was mentioned. All of the patients receiving vasopressin demonstrated improved hemodynamic stability with small, intermittent doses, without profound ischemic changes. For management (prevention and treatment) of ACE inhibitor-associated hypotension in the perioperative setting, all studies showed statistically significant success with vasopressin or vasopressin analogues for improvement of systemic blood pressures. Before vasopressin is widely accepted as a standard of care, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess the general utility of vasopressin in surgical populations for management of ACE inhibitor-associated refractory hypotension. Copyright© by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists.

  14. Development of inhibitors of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes as potential anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Tiziana; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2014-12-11

    Important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agents of tuberculosis and malaria, respectively, and plants, utilize the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP, 5) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (1) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (2), the universal precursors of isoprenoids, while humans exclusively utilize the alternative mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of 1 and 2. This distinct distribution, together with the fact that the MEP pathway is essential in numerous organisms, makes the enzymes of the MEP pathway attractive drug targets for the development of anti-infective agents and herbicides. Herein, we review the inhibitors reported over the past 2 years, in the context of the most important older developments and with a particular focus on the results obtained against enzymes of pathogenic organisms. We will also discuss new discoveries in terms of structural and mechanistic features, which can help to guide a rational development of inhibitors.

  15. How should we manage heart failure developing in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers for hypertension, diabetes or coronary disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    failure despite such treatment. Based on data from hypertension trials it can be estimated that approximately 5% of treated patients will develop heart failure over 5 years. It is unclear whether patients developing heart failure on and off ACE-inhibitors or beta-blockers, respectively, at the time......An increasing number of patients in the community are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers for hypertension, coronary disease or diabetic renal and vascular complications. Some of these patients will develop heart...... of heart failure diagnosis have similar prognosis.Treatment options for patients developing heart failure while already treated with ACE inhibitors/ARBs and beta-blockers are very limited if current heart failure guidelines are followed. In this review possible strategies are outlined and important areas...

  16. How should we manage heart failure developing in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers for hypertension, diabetes or coronary disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of patients in the community are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers for hypertension, coronary disease or diabetic renal and vascular complications. Some of these patients will develop heart...... failure despite such treatment. Based on data from hypertension trials it can be estimated that approximately 5% of treated patients will develop heart failure over 5 years. It is unclear whether patients developing heart failure on and off ACE-inhibitors or beta-blockers, respectively, at the time...... of heart failure diagnosis have similar prognosis.Treatment options for patients developing heart failure while already treated with ACE inhibitors/ARBs and beta-blockers are very limited if current heart failure guidelines are followed. In this review possible strategies are outlined and important areas...

  17. Apricot and other seed stones: amygdalin content and the potential to obtain antioxidant, angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor and hypocholesterolemic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M C; González-García, E; Vásquez-Villanueva, R; Marina, M L

    2016-11-09

    Stones from olives and Prunus genus fruits are cheap and sustainable sources of proteins and could be potential sources of bioactive peptides. The main limitation to the use of these seeds is the presence of amygdalin. This work proposes to determine amygdalin in olive and Prunus seeds and in protein isolates obtained from them. Moreover, antioxidant, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and hypocholesterolemic properties will be evaluated in hydrolysates obtained from these seeds. Despite some seeds contained amygdalin, all protein isolates were free of this substance. Two different procedures to obtain bioactive peptides from protein isolates were examined: gastrointestinal digestion and processing with Alcalase, Flavourzyme or Thermolysin. Higher antioxidant, ACE inhibitor and hypocholesterolemic activities were observed when proteins were processed with Alcalase, Flavourzyme or Thermolysin. The highest antioxidant and ACE inhibitor capacities were observed for the Prunus genus seed hydrolysates while the highest capacity to reduce micellar cholesterol solubility was observed for the apricot and olive seed hydrolysates.

  18. How should we manage heart failure developing in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers for hypertension, diabetes or coronary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis M

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of patients in the community are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers for hypertension, coronary disease or diabetic renal and vascular complications. Some of these patients will develop heart failure despite such treatment. Based on data from hypertension trials it can be estimated that approximately 5% of treated patients will develop heart failure over 5 years. It is unclear whether patients developing heart failure on and off ACE-inhibitors or beta-blockers, respectively, at the time of heart failure diagnosis have similar prognosis.Treatment options for patients developing heart failure while already treated with ACE inhibitors/ARBs and beta-blockers are very limited if current heart failure guidelines are followed. In this review possible strategies are outlined and important areas for research are identified. It is suggested that trials are designed specifically to address prognosis and treatment in this growing population.

  19. Potent arylsulfonamide inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme able to reduce activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule shedding in cancer cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Elisa; Casalini, Francesca; Avramova, Stanislava I; Santamaria, Salvatore; Fabbi, Marina; Ferrini, Silvano; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Limongelli, Vittorio; Novellino, Ettore; Cercignani, Giovanni; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Rossello, Armando

    2010-03-25

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) plays a relevant role in tumor biology and progression. Our previous studies showed that ALCAM is expressed at the surface of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and is released in a soluble form by ADAM-17-mediated shedding. This process is relevant to EOC cell motility and invasiveness, which is reduced by nonspecific inhibitors of ADAM-17. For this reason, ADAM-17 may represent a new useful target in anticancer therapy. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of new ADAM-17 inhibitors containing an arylsulfonamidic scaffold. Among the new potential inhibitors, two very promising compounds 17 and 18 were discovered, with a nanomolar activity for ADAM-17 isolated enzyme. These compounds proved to be also the most potent in inhibiting soluble ALCAM release in cancer cells, showing a nanomolar activity on A2774 and SKOV3 cell lines.

  20. Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L. (Scripps)

    2011-11-02

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (K{sub i} = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same 'in action' state with the three catalytic residues Ser241-Ser217-Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of {alpha}-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed.

  1. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A trypsin inhibitor from Sapindus saponaria L. seeds: purification, characterization, and activity towards pest insect digestive enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Diz Filho, Eduardo B S; Freire, Mariadas Graças M; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Sumikawa, Joana T; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the purification, characterization and determination of the partial primary structure of the first trypsin inhibitor isolated from the family Sapindaceae. A highly stable, potent trypsin inhibitor (SSTI) was purified to homogeneity. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the protein consists of a two-polypeptide chain with molecular masses of approximately 15 and 3 kDa. The purified inhibitor inhibited bovine trypsin at a 1:1 M ratio. Kinetic analysis revealed that the protein is a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10⁻⁹ M for trypsin. The partial NH₂- terminal sequence of 36 amino acids in SSTI indicates homology with other members of the trypsin-inhibitor family from different sources. This inhibitor is highly stable in the presence of denaturing agents. SSTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midgut on Anagasta kuehniella, Corcyra cephalonica, Diatreae saccharalis and Anticarsia gemmatalis.

  3. Crystal Structure of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Bound to the Carbamate Inhibitor URB597: Discovery of a Deacylating Water Molecule and Insight into Enzyme Inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C.; Benson, Timothy E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C. (Scripps); (Pfizer)

    2010-08-12

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH's catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 {angstrom}) than previously reported. The higher-resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggests a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases.

  4. Determinants of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) intolerance and angioedema in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Seyed Hamidreza; Baranova, Ekaterina Vitalievna; Souverein, Patrick C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke Hilse

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and determinants of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEI) intolerance and angioedema (AE) among patients initiating ACEI therapy in a real-world primary care population. Two nested case-control studies were conducted in a cohort of 276 977 patients aged ≥45 years initiating ACEIs from 2007 to 2014 in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Cases of AE occurring for the first time during ACEI therapy (n = 416) were matched with AE-free controls (n = 4335) on the duration of ACEI treatment. Documented switches to angiotensin-II receptor blockers in the prescription records were used to identify ACEI-intolerance cases (n = 24 709), and these were matched with continuous ACEI users (n = 84 238) on the duration of ACEI therapy. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the associations of demographic factors, comorbidities and comedication with AE and ACEI intolerance. AE during ACEI therapy was associated with age over 65 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 1.73], history of allergy (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.19, 1.96), use of calcium channel blockers (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.23; 2.01), use of antihistamines (OR 21.25, 95% CI 16.44, 27.46) and use of systemic corticosteroids (OR 4.52, 95% CI 3.26, 6.27). ACEI intolerance was significantly associated with more comorbidities and comedication compared with AE, including allergy (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.96, 2.09), use of antiasthmatic drugs (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.42, 1.61) and use of antihistamines (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.43, 1.63). Among ACEI users developing AE or ACEI intolerance, several comorbidities and comedication classes were significantly more prevalent compared with ACEI users not developing these adverse reactions. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Niusha; Souri, Effat; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Amin, Gholamreza; Amanlou, Massoud

    2013-12-20

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate ACE inhibition activity of 50 Iranian medicinal plants using an in vitro assay. The ACE activity was evaluated by determining the hydrolysis rate of substrate, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL), using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Six extracts revealed > 50% ACE inhibition activity at 330 μg/ml concentration. They were Berberis integerrima Bunge. (Berberidaceae) (88.2 ± 1.7%), Crataegus microphylla C. Koch (Rosaceae) (80.9 ± 1.3%), Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) (66.3 ± 1.2%), Onopordon acanthium L. (Asteraceae) (80.2 ± 2.0%), Quercus infectoria G. Olivier. (Fagaceae) (93.9 ± 2.5%) and Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (51.3 ± 1.0%). Q. infectoria possessed the highest total phenolic content with 7410 ± 101 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant. Antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria (IC50 value 1.7 ± 0.03 μg/ml) was more than that of BHT (IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.15 μg/ml) and Trolox (IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.06 μg/ml) as the positive controls. In this study, we introduced six medicinal plants with ACE inhibition activity. Despite the high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria, due to its tannin content (tannins interfere in ACE activity), another plant, O. acanthium, which also had high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, but contained no tannin, could be utilized in further studies for isolation of active compounds.

  6. Inhibition of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and rat arginases by green tea EGCG, (+-catechin and (--epicatechin: a comparative structural analysis of enzyme-inhibitor interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Balduíno Goncalves dos Reis

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a dietary polyphenol (flavanol from green tea, possesses leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal activity. Mitochondrial damage was observed in Leishmania treated with EGCG, and it contributed to the lethal effect. However, the molecular target has not been defined. In this study, EGCG, (+-catechin and (--epicatechin were tested against recombinant arginase from Leishmania amazonensis (ARG-L and rat liver arginase (ARG-1. The compounds inhibit ARG-L and ARG-1 but are more active against the parasite enzyme. Enzyme kinetics reveal that EGCG is a mixed inhibitor of the ARG-L while (+-catechin and (--epicatechin are competitive inhibitors. The most potent arginase inhibitor is (+-catechin (IC50 = 0.8 µM followed by (--epicatechin (IC50 = 1.8 µM, gallic acid (IC50 = 2.2 µM and EGCG (IC50 = 3.8 µM. Docking analyses showed different modes of interaction of the compounds with the active sites of ARG-L and ARG-1. Due to the low IC50 values obtained for ARG-L, flavanols can be used as a supplement for leishmaniasis treatment.

  7. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long...

  8. Fragment-based design for the development of N-domain-selective angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Ross G; Sharma, Rajni K; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Lubbe, Lizelle; Zamora, Ismael; Acharya, K Ravi; Chibale, Kelly; Sturrock, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    .... The design of inhibitors that selectively inhibit the N-domain (N-selective) could be useful in treating conditions of tissue injury and fibrosis due to build-up of N-domain-specific substrate Ac-SDKP...

  9. Rational Inhibitors of DNA Base Excision (BER) Enzymes: New Tools for Elucidating the Role of BER in Cancer Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krosky, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    .... Major findings in this period include the synthesis and screening of new bipartite transition state-based inhibitors for UDG, and the exploration of the roles of hydrogen bonding and molecular...

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce mortality in hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors involving 158,998 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vark, Laura C; Bertrand, Michel; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; Brugts, Jasper J; Fox, Kim; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Boersma, Eric

    2012-08-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are well established for the reduction in cardiovascular morbidity, but their impact on all-cause mortality in hypertensive patients is uncertain. Our objective was to analyse the effects of RAAS inhibitors as a class of drugs, as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) separately, on all-cause mortality. We performed a pooled analysis of 20 cardiovascular morbidity-mortality trials. In each trial at least two-thirds of the patients had to be diagnosed with hypertension, according to the trial-specific definition, and randomized to treatment with an RAAS inhibitor or control treatment. The cohort included 158 998 patients (71 401 RAAS inhibitor; 87 597 control). The incidence of all-cause death was 20.9 and 23.3 per 1000 patient-years in patients randomized to RAAS inhibition and controls, respectively. Overall, RAAS inhibition was associated with a 5% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00, P= 0.032), and a 7% reduction in cardiovascular mortality (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99, P= 0.018). The observed treatment effect resulted entirely from the class of ACE inhibitors, which were associated with a significant 10% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.97, P= 0.004), whereas no mortality reduction could be demonstrated with ARB treatment (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.94-1.04, P= 0.683). This difference in treatment effect between ACE inhibitors and ARBs on all-cause mortality was statistically significant (P-value for heterogeneity 0.036). In patients with hypertension, treatment with an ACE inhibitor results in a significant further reduction in all-cause mortality. Because of the high prevalence of hypertension, the widespread use of ACE inhibitors may result in an important gain in lives saved.

  11. An innovative strategy for dual inhibitor design and its application in dual inhibition of human thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreen Arooj

    Full Text Available Due to the diligence of inherent redundancy and robustness in many biological networks and pathways, multitarget inhibitors present a new prospect in the pharmaceutical industry for treatment of complex diseases. Nevertheless, to design multitarget inhibitors is concurrently a great challenge for medicinal chemists. We have developed a novel computational approach by integrating the affinity predictions from structure-based virtual screening with dual ligand-based pharmacophore to discover potential dual inhibitors of human Thymidylate synthase (hTS and human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR. These are the key enzymes in folate metabolic pathway that is necessary for the biosynthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein. Their inhibition has found clinical utility as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal agents. A druglike database was utilized to perform dual-target docking studies. Hits identified through docking experiments were mapped over a dual pharmacophore which was developed from experimentally known dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Pharmacophore mapping procedure helped us in eliminating the compounds which do not possess basic chemical features necessary for dual inhibition. Finally, three structurally diverse hit compounds that showed key interactions at both active sites, mapped well upon the dual pharmacophore, and exhibited lowest binding energies were regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Furthermore, optimization studies were performed for final dual hit compound and eight optimized dual hits demonstrating excellent binding features at target systems were also regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. In general, the strategy used in the current study could be a promising computational approach and may be generally applicable to other dual target drug designs.

  12. Effect of preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker use on hemodynamic variables in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuba-Iwuji, Chinwe C; Puttreddy, Sahitya; Maxwell, Bryan G; Bembea, Melania; Vricella, Luca; Heitmiller, Eugenie

    2014-10-01

    Some have suggested that children undergoing cardiac surgery who receive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors experience a greater degree of hypotension after anesthesia induction and in the immediate postcardiopulmonary bypass period than children who did not receive these drugs. Therefore, we examined the effect of ACE inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy on intraoperative hemodynamics and vasopressor use in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In a retrospective cohort study of patients younger than 18 years who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass between March 1, 2010, and April 1, 2011, we compared intraoperative hemodynamics and vasopressor use between patients who received preoperative ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy and those who did not. The primary outcome was vasoactive infusion score after cardiopulmonary bypass. The occurrence of hypotension did not differ significantly between the ACE inhibitor/ARB group and the control group during induction of anesthesia or at any time point after cardiopulmonary bypass. At 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass, patients on ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy tended to have a higher vasoactive infusion score (7.1, 7.6, 9.4, and 11.3) than patients in the control group (6.3, 6.1, 6.0, and 6.7). Although this difference became more pronounced over time, it did not reach statistical significance. The use of preoperative ACE inhibitors and ARBs in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery did not significantly increase the incidence of hypotension after induction of anesthesia and did not increase significantly the vasoconstrictor requirements upon weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass; however, additional prospective studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Investigating the effects of the Rho-kinase enzyme inhibitors AS1892802 and fasudil hydrochloride on the contractions of isolated pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, Merve; Turgut, Nergiz H; Sarac, Bülent; Altun, Ahmet; Yildirim, Şahin; Bagcivan, Ihsan

    2016-07-01

    Rho-kinases (ROCKs), are one of the dynamic structures of the actin cytoskeleton and they mediate different biological processes, including regulation of calcium sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction. The activation of Rho A/ROCK system is thought to be effective on the termination time of the pregnancy process. The aim of this study, was to investigate in vitro effects of the ROCK enzyme inhibitors, clinically available fasudil hydrochloride, and a new promising inhibitor AS1892802, on the contractions of isolated pregnant rat myometrium. Term pregnant Wistar albino rats (n=12), weighing 200-220g, were used in this study. Myometrial tissues obtained from rats were dissected into four full-thickness longitudinal muscle strips and then myometrial tension was recorded isometrically. The inhibitory effects of cumulative concentrations of AS1892802 and of fasudil hydrochloride in the presence and absence of ODQ (guanylate cyclase inhibitor), l-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and l-NNA (endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractions were measured, and values for -log10EC50 (pD2) and mean maximal inhibition (Emax) were compared. Both ROCK inhibitors, AS1892802 and fasudil hydrochloride starting from the concentrations of 10(-6)M reached statistical significance on contraction amplitude and frequency of myometrial strips (p<0.05). The inhibition of the amplitude and frequency of myometrial contractions was antagonized with ODQ (10(-5)M; only amplitude), l-NAME (3×10(-5)M) and l-NNA (10(-5)M) (p<0.05). These results suggest that fasudil hydrochloride and AS1892802 may contribute to the development of new tocolytic drugs. We conclude that AS1892802 and fasudil hydrochloride perform this inhibitory effect partially through ROCK inhibition and the NO/cGMP pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conception of total cardio-vascular risk plays important role in defining tactics of arterial hypertension therapy according to the new European recommendations. Choice of antihypertensive therapy is based on meta-analysis of large clinical studies with hard end points. It is recommended to use five classes of antihypertensive drugs in mono- and combined therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors keep important place in the therapy of arterial hypertension accompanying with risk factors and associated diseases. Enalapril is one of the widely used ACE inhibitors, its efficiency was proved in prospective clinical studies. In high risk patients monotherapy with Enam (enalapril, Dr. Reddy’s decreases blood pressure and leads to positive metabolic changes. This results in significant risk reduction of cardio-vascular complications.

  15. REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conception of total cardio-vascular risk plays important role in defining tactics of arterial hypertension therapy according to the new European recommendations. Choice of antihypertensive therapy is based on meta-analysis of large clinical studies with hard end points. It is recommended to use five classes of antihypertensive drugs in mono- and combined therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors keep important place in the therapy of arterial hypertension accompanying with risk factors and associated diseases. Enalapril is one of the widely used ACE inhibitors, its efficiency was proved in prospective clinical studies. In high risk patients monotherapy with Enam (enalapril, Dr. Reddy’s decreases blood pressure and leads to positive metabolic changes. This results in significant risk reduction of cardio-vascular complications.

  16. Severe hepatic encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis after administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker combination therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podda Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A combination therapy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers has been used to control proteinuria, following initial demonstration of its efficacy. However, recently concerns about the safety of this therapy have emerged, prompting several authors to urge for caution in its use. In the following case report, we describe the occurrence of a serious and unexpected adverse drug reaction after administration of a combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to a patient with nephrotic syndrome and liver cirrhosis with severe portal hypertension. Case presentation We administered this combination therapy to a 40-year-old Caucasian man with liver cirrhosis in our Hepatology Clinic, given the concomitant presence of glomerulopathy associated with severe proteinuria. While the administration of one single drug appeared to be well-tolerated, our patient developed severe acute encephalopathy after the addition of the second one. Discontinuation of the therapy led to the disappearance of the side-effect. A tentative rechallenge with the same drug combination led to a second episode of acute severe encephalopathy. Conclusion We speculate that this adverse reaction may be directly related to the effect of angiotensin II on the excretion of blood ammonia. Therefore, we suggest that patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are at risk of developing clinically relevant encephalopathy when angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker combination therapy is administered, thus indicating the need for a careful clinical follow-up. In addition, the incidence of this serious side-effect should be rigorously evaluated in all patients with liver cirrhosis administered with this common treatment combination.

  17. [Influence of the thymidine phosphorylase (platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor) on tumor angiogenesis. Catalytic activity of enzyme inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak-Zaborska, Elzbieta; Smolarek, Monika; Bartkowiak, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase, also known as platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, is a potent angiogenic factor. Thymidine phosphorylase is overexpressed in various human tumors and plays an important role in angiogenesis. A novel inhibitor of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), 5-chloro-6-[1-(2-iminopyrrolidinyl) methyl] uracil hydrochloride (TPI) is about 1000-fold more active than 6-amino-5-chlorouracil, one of the most potent TP inhibitors to 1999 year. Thymidine phosphorylase is also inhibited by 5'-O-trityl-inosine (KIN59) and related compounds, 2-deoxy-L-ribose and glycosides isolated from the bark of Symplocos racemosa.

  18. Development of specific inhibitors of CYP707A, a key enzyme in the catabolism of abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Y; Ueno, K

    2010-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in stress tolerance, stomatal closure, seed dormancy, and other physiological events. Although ABA is registered as a farm chemical (plant growth regulator), its practical use has been limited, mainly due to its weak effect in field trials, which is considered to be due to its rapid inactivation through biodegradation. Catabolic inactivation of ABA is mainly controlled by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), which is the cytochrome P450 catalyzing the C8'-hydroxylation of ABA into 8'-hydroxy-ABA and its more stable tautomer, phaseic acid, which has much lower hormonal activity than ABA. Thus, a specific inhibitor of CYP707A is promising not only as a chemical probe for the mechanism of ABA action, but also because of its potential use in agriculture and horticulture. This review article focuses on our recent research on the development of two types of specific inhibitors of CYP707A: the ABA analogue-type inhibitors that were designed on the basis of differences between the structural requirements for CYP707A and for ABA activity, and the azole-type P450 inhibitors that were developed by conformational restriction or enlargement of the plant growth retardant uniconazole.

  19. Dose-finding study of imidapril, a novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in patients with stable chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y. M.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Tjon-Ka-Jie, R. T.; Rooks, G.; Netzer, T.; Lie, K. I.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the haemodynamic profile and tolerability of imidapril, a new long-acting ACE inhibitor, and to investigate the effect of inhibition of circulating ACE on blood pressure in patients with stable chronic heart failure. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with stable, chronic heart

  20. Dose-finding study of imidapril, a novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in patients with stable chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, YM; vanVeldhuisen, DJ; TjonKaJie, RT; Rooks, G; Netzer, T; Lie, KI

    Objective: To study the haemodynamic profile and tolerability of imidapril, a new long-acting ACE inhibitor, and to investigate the effect of inhibition of circulating ACE on blood pressure in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Methods: Twenty-four patients with stable, chronic heart

  1. In-vitro Studies on Calotropis procera Leaf Extracts as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Linked to Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Mayaki, Ayuva Mercy; Ogungbe, Bimpe Folashade; Ojekale, Anthony Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The side effects associated with the usage of synthetic antidiabetic drugs make it imperative to search for alternative drugs from medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Calotropis procera leaf, as well as its possible mode of inhibiting these enzymes. Acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. procera leaf was subjected to standard enzymes' inhibitory assay in-vitro using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Results obtained showed that out of all the extracts tested, ethanolic and aqueous extracts possessed the best inhibition of α-amylase (IC50 7.80 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (3.25 mg/mL) respectively. The kinetic analysis of the mode of inhibition of these enzymes by the leaf extracts of C. procera, revealed that these extracts inhibited both enzymes in a non-competitive manner. It is speculated that the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of leaf extracts of C. procera may be due to the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins and saponins in the plant. It can be concluded from this study that the Calotropis procera extracts could serve as source of antidiabetic agents which may act through the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  2. Effect of Combination of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Vitamin D Receptor Activators on Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tarek Mohamed; Mehanna, Osama Mahmoud; Elsaid, Amgad Gaber; Askary, Ahmad El

    2016-08-01

    The principle mediator of diabetic myocardial injury is oxidative stress. The aim was to compare the effect of monotherapy with enalapril, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and paricalcitol (vitamin D receptor activator), to the combined therapy with both drugs on the cardiac oxidant-antioxidant balance in the type 2 diabetic rats. A total of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, namely the normal control and diabetic, vehicle, enalapril, paricalcitol and paricalcitol and enalapril-treated groups. Enalapril was given at a dose of (25mg/L) in drinking water once daily and paricalcitol was given intraperitoneally (0.8μg/kg/3 × week) for 3 months. Glycemic status, cardiac oxidant-antioxidant parameters and histologic examination were determined. Paricalcitol and combined treatment significantly (P model assessment-insulin resistance, cardiac malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. Moreover, they significantly (P < 0.01) increased the levels of insulin and c-peptide compared to diabetic control rats. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.01) raised the level of glutathione, glutathione S-transferase and catalase more than monotherapy. The combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and vitamin D receptor activators has a superior effect on reducing cardiac oxidative stress by raising antioxidant activity than monotherapy in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemometrics Optimized Extraction Procedures, Phytosynergistic Blending and in vitro Screening of Natural Enzyme Inhibitors Amongst Leaves of Tulsi, Banyan and Jamun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Baishakhi; Bhandari, Koushik; Singla, Rajeev K; Katakam, Prakash; Samanta, Tanmoy; Kushwaha, Dilip Kumar; Gundamaraju, Rohit; Mitra, Analava

    2015-10-01

    Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported. Chemometrically optimized extraction procedures, ratios of polyherbal composites to achieve phyto-synergistic actions, and in-vitro screening of NEIs amongst leaves of Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun. The extraction process parameters of the leaves of three plant species (Ficus benghalensis, Syzigium cumini and Ocimum sanctum) were optimized by rotatable central composite design of chemometrics so as to get maximal yield of bio-actives. Phyto-blends of three species were prepared so as to achieve synergistic antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials and the ratios were optimized by chemometrics. Next, for in vitro screening of natural enzyme inhibitors the individual leaf extracts as well as composite blends were subjected to assay procedures to see their inhibitory potentials against the enzymes pathogenic in type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant potentials were also estimated by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS, FRAP and Dot Blot assay. Considering response surface methodology studies and from the solutions obtained using desirability function, it was found that hydro-ethanolic or methanolic solvent ratio of 52.46 ± 1.6 and at a temperature of 20.17 ± 0.6 gave an optimum yield of polyphenols with minimal chlorophyll leaching. The species also showed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, and saponins. Composites in the ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:1:2 gave synergistic effects in terms of polyphenol yield and anti-oxidant potentials. All composites (1:1:1, 1:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:2) showed synergistic anti-oxidant actions. Inhibitory activities against the

  4. Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Calcium Antagonist Combination Therapy on Renal Function in Hypertensive Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Chikushi Anti-Hypertension Trial - Benidipine and Perindopril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsu; Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-02-01

    Appropriate blood pressure control suppresses progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). If an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is ineffective, adding a calcium antagonist is recommended. We compared the long-term effect of two ACE inhibitor/calcium antagonist combinations on renal function in hypertensive patients with CKD. Patients who failed to achieve the target blood pressure (systolic/diastolic: hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy, combined therapy with an ACE inhibitor and T/L type calcium antagonist may prevent deterioration of renal function more effectively than an ACE inhibitor/L type calcium antagonist combination.

  5. Nationwide trends in the prescription of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors after myocardial infarction in Denmark, 1995-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Rasmussen, Jeppe N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Denmark from 1995 to 2002. DESIGN: Information about patients with first AMI aged > or = 30 years and the dispensing of beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors from...... pharmacies within 30 d from discharge was obtained from the National Patient Registry and the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: Beta-blocker use increased from 38.1% of patients in 1995 to 67.9% in 2002 (OR = 3.85, CI: 3.58-4.13). Women, elderly patients and patients taking loop......-diuretics and antidiabetic drugs received beta-blockers less frequently, but patients taking loop-diuretics or antidiabetic drugs had the greatest increase. ACE inhibitor use increased from 24.5 to 35.5% (OR = 1.86, CI: 1.72-2.01). Women, patients aged or = 80 years and patients not taking loop...

  6. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy to reduce cardiovascular events in high-risk patients: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommer, William J

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is understood as a continuum; risk factors induce a pathophysiologic cascade that culminates in end-organ failure. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences multiple aspects of the pathophysiology via hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic effects. Many long-term clinical trials provide overwhelming evidence of benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) across the cardiovascular continuum, including benefits regarding hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, renal disease, and heart failure. Trials also indicate additive or synergistic effects of combination therapy in renal disease and heart failure, a possibility supported by the basic biochemistry of the agents. Discussion of these trials is included in part 1 of this 2-part review. Part 2 of the review will discuss the extensive interaction of the RAS with the cellular and molecular pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and the cross-continuum effects of ARBs and ACE inhibitors, which raise the possibility that RAS inhibition can offer protection in high-risk patients who do not have symptoms. The benefits of combined ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy in high-risk patients await confirmation; ongoing clinical research in this area will be discussed.

  7. Opposing Effects of Beta-Blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Development of New Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Orly; Uno, Hajime; Braunwald, Eugene; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; Gersh, Bernard; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Domanski, Michael; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    We utilized data from patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) to assess the risk of new onset diabetes (NOD) with beta-blockers, and to determine whether angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would modify this risk. The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition (PEACE) trial randomized 8290 patients with stable CAD to trandolapril or placebo. The presence of NOD was assessed at each study visit over a median follow-up time of 4.8 years. We examined the risk of NOD associated with beta-blockers use with Cox regression models, adjusting for 25 baseline covariates, and tested whether this risk was modified by randomization to the ACE inhibitor. Of 6910 patients without diabetes mellitus at enrollment (1179 females/5731 males, mean age 64 ± 8 years), 4147 (60%) were taking beta blockers, and 733 (8.8%) developed NOD. We observed a significant interaction between beta-blocker use and randomization to ACE inhibitor with respect to new onset diabetes (p = 0.028). Participants taking beta-blockers assigned to the placebo group (N=2090) were at increased risk for NOD adjusting for baseline covariates (HR 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.29, 2.05, p<0.001, while this risk was attenuated in those assigned to trandolapril (N=2057) (HR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.42; p=0.39). Beta blocker use was associated with increased risk for NOD in patients with stable CAD, and this risk was reduced in patients treated concurrently with an ACE inhibitor. In conclusion, these data suggest that ACE inhibition may attenuate the risk for glucose abnormalities observed in patients taking beta blockers. PMID:21507365

  8. Calcium-dependent, interleukin 1-converting enzyme inhibitor-insensitive degradation of lamin B1 and DNA fragmentation in isolated thymocyte nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, D J

    1996-09-13

    Recent work suggests that the proteolytic degradation of the nuclear lamins is a common event in apoptosis, although the nature of the proteases involved is still not clear. Our previous work showed that the degradation of lamin B1 in glucocorticoid-treated thymocytes occurs via a Ca2+-sensitive mechanism and that exogenous Ca2+ promotes lamin degradation in isolated thymocyte nuclei from untreated cells. Here we demonstrate that peptide-based inhibitors of the interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme family of cysteine proteases (Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone) and of the nuclear scaffold multicatalytic proteinase (Ala-Pro-Phe chloromethyl ketone) block the degradation of lamin B1 to a 21-kDa fragment in thymocytes treated with glucocorticoid, the Ca2+-mobilizing agent thapsigargin, or antibodies to the T cell receptor. However, among a panel of inhibitors specific for several different proteases implicated in apoptosis, only tosylphenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone and the nuclear scaffold protease inhibitor block lamin degradation, histone H1 cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in isolated thymocyte nuclei incubated with Ca2+. Overexpression of human BCL-2 in nuclei by stable transfection resulted in an inhibition of Ca2+-stimulated lamin degradation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that endogenous nuclear BCL-2 regulates activation of the nuclear scaffold protease. The results demonstrate the existence of an alternative pathway of lamin degradation and DNA fragmentation mediated by a resident Ca2+-stimulated nuclear protease that is not directly dependent upon activation of the interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme family of cell death regulators.

  9. [Effect of Azospirillum lectins on the Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Their Inhibitors in Wheat Seedling Roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alen'kina, S A; Nikitina, V E

    2015-01-01

    The lectins of associative nitrogen-fixing strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Sp245 were shown to exerte a multidirectional effect on the activity of acidic (pH 3.5), neutral (6.8), and alkaline (pH 7.8) proteinases. The lectin of the epiphytic A. brasilense Sp7 decreased proteolytic activity at all pH values, whereas the lectin of the endophytic A. brasilense Sp245 activated neutral and alkaline proteinases, while not affecting the alkaline ones. Experiments with protease inhibitors made it possible to conclude that the lectins of the studied A. brasilense strains alter the ratio between the activities of different protease types in germinating seeds. The activity of trypsin inhibitors in wheat seedling roots was found to increase in the presence of the lectins. Our results indicate a broader spectrum of effects of azospirilla lectins on the host plant organism.

  10. The role of lipid and carbohydrate digestive enzyme inhibitors in the management of obesity: a review of current and emerging therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucci S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sonia A Tucci, Emma J Boyland, Jason CG HalfordKissileff Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behaviour, School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKAbstract: Obesity is a global epidemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality in adults and ill health in children. A proven successful approach in weight management has been the disruption of nutrient digestion, with orlistat having been used to treat obesity for the last 10 years. Although orlistat-induced weight loss remains modest, it produces meaningful reductions in risk factors for obesity-related conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, this lipase inhibitor is free of the serious side effects that have dogged appetite-suppressing drugs. This success had driven investigation into new generation nutraceuticals, supplements and pharmaceutical agents that inhibit the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and fats within the gut. This review focuses on agents purported to inhibit intestinal enzymes responsible for macronutrient digestion. Except for some synthetic products, the majority of agents reviewed are either botanical extracts or bacterial products. Currently, carbohydrate digestion inhibitors are under development to improve glycemic control and these may also induce some weight loss. However, colonic fermentation induced side effects, such as excess gas production, remain an issue for these compounds. The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, and the α-amylase inhibitor phaseolamine, have been used in humans with some promising results relating to weight loss. Nonetheless, few of these agents have made it into clinical studies and without any clinical proof of concept or proven efficacy it is unlikely any will enter the market soon.Keywords: lipase, amylase, saccharidases, overweight, orlistat, Alli®, digestion, body weight

  11. Elafin, an elastase-specific inhibitor, is cleaved by its cognate enzyme neutrophil elastase in sputum from individuals with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Guyot, Nicolas

    2008-11-21

    Elafin is a neutrophil serine protease inhibitor expressed in lung and displaying anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Previous studies demonstrated that some innate host defense molecules of the cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease airways are impaired due to increased proteolytic degradation observed during lung inflammation. In light of these findings, we thus focused on the status of elafin in CF lung. We showed in the present study that elafin is cleaved in sputum from individuals with CF. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive CF sputum, which was found to contain lower elafin levels and higher neutrophil elastase (NE) activity compared with P. aeruginosa-negative samples, was particularly effective in cleaving recombinant elafin. NE plays a pivotal role in the process as only NE inhibitors are able to inhibit elafin degradation. Further in vitro studies demonstrated that incubation of recombinant elafin with excess of NE leads to the rapid cleavage of the inhibitor. Two cleavage sites were identified at the N-terminal extremity of elafin (Val-5-Lys-6 and Val-9-Ser-10). Interestingly, purified fragments of the inhibitor (Lys-6-Gln-57 and Ser-10-Gln-57) were shown to still be active for inhibiting NE. However, NE in excess was shown to strongly diminish the ability of elafin to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its capacity to be immobilized by transglutamination. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that elafin is cleaved by its cognate enzyme NE present at excessive concentration in CF sputum and that P. aeruginosa infection promotes this effect. Such cleavage may have repercussions on the innate immune function of elafin.

  12. Calcium channel blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: Effectiveness in combination with diuretics or β-blockers for treating hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Bisognano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available John D Bisognano1, Trent McLaughlin2, Craig S Roberts3, Simon SK Tang31Internal Medicine Department, Cardiology Division, the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; 2NDC Health, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This retrospective database analysis compared the effectiveness of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DHPs, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs added to diuretics or β-blockers. Adults with hypertension treated with diuretic or β-blocker monotherapy between 1998 and 2001 were identified from a large US electronic medical records database of primary care practices. Patients were required to have a baseline blood pressure (BP ≥140/90 mmHg (≥130/80 mmHg for diabetes mellitus and recorded BP measurements within 6 months before and 1–12 months following index date. Patients were matched 1:1:1 by propensity score to correct for differences in baseline characteristics. 1875 patients met study criteria and 660 (220 in each cohort were matched based on propensity scores. Matched cohorts had no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Mean changes in systolic/diastolic BP were –17.5/–8.8, –15.7/–6.3, and –13.0/–8.0 mmHg with DHPs, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs, respectively. Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High BP 6/7 goal attainment for each regimen was 47.3%, 40.0%, and 32.2%, respectively. DHPs, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs improved BP when added to patients’ β-blocker or diuretic therapy. The greatest benefits were observed with DHPs, followed by ACE inhibitors, then ARBs.Keywords: hypertension, amlodipine besylate, lisinopril, valsartan, Joint National Committee (JNC 6 and 7

  13. Chaperone therapy for neuronopathic lysosomal diseases: competitive inhibitors as chemical chaperones for enhancement of mutant enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Seiichiro; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2009-05-26

    Chaperone therapy is a newly developed molecular approach to lysosomal diseases, a group of human genetic diseases causing severe brain damage. We found two valienamine derivatives, N-octyl-4-epi-beta-valienamine (NOEV) and N-octyl-beta-valienamine (NOV), as promising therapeutic agents for human beta-galactosidase deficiency disorders (mainly G(M1)-gangliosidosis) and beta-glucosidase deficiency disorders (Gaucher disease), respectively. We briefly reviewed the historical background of research in carbasugar glycosidase inhibitors. Originally NOEV and NOV had been discovered as competitive inhibitors, and then their paradoxical bioactivities as chaperones were confirmed in cultured fibroblasts from patients with these disorders. Subsequently G(M1)-gangliosidosis model mice were developed and useful for experimental studies. Orally administered NOEV entered the brain through the blood-brain barrier, enhanced beta-galactosidase activity, reduced substrate storage, and improved neurological deterioration clinically. Furthermore, we executed computational analysis for prediction of molecular interactions between beta-galactosidase and NOEV. Some preliminary results of computational analysis of molecular interaction mechanism are presented in this article. NOV also showed the chaperone effect toward several beta-glucosidase gene mutations in Gaucher disease. We hope chaperone therapy will become available for some patients with G(M1)-gangliosidosis, Gaucher disease, and potentially other lysosomal storage diseases with central nervous system involvement.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor increases angiotensin type 1A receptor gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, N; Kanayama, Y; Iwai, J; Umetani, N; Nishimura, M; Konishi, Y; Okamura, M; Inoue, T; Takeda, T

    1994-04-12

    To examine the regulation of angiotensin receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells, we studied the effects of antihypertensive drugs on angiotensin type 1A (AT1A) receptor gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) using both ribonuclease protection assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. An increase in AT1A receptor gene expression in ASMCs of SHRs was induced by treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) for 2 weeks and 4 weeks, but not by other types of antihypertensive drugs such as alpha-blocker (doxazosin), alpha, beta-blocker (arotinolol), Ca antagonist (nicardipine) or vascular smooth muscle relaxant (hydralazine). Since all antihypertensive drugs lowered the blood pressure of the rats almost equally, our results suggest that AT1A receptor gene expression in ASMCs of SHRs may be regulated by the vascular renin-angiotensin system.

  15. Lack of SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN 1 (SMAP1) causes increased sensitivity to an inhibitor of RUB/NEDD8-activating enzyme in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Yutaka; Nakasone, Akari

    2013-10-01

    SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN 1 (SMAP1) functions upstream of the degradation of AUX/IAA-proteins in the response to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and physically interacts with the COP9 SIGNALOSOME (CSN). Also, its function is linked to RELATED TO UBIQUITIN (RUB) modification. To further investigate the relationship between SMAP1 and the RUB modification system, we examined the effect of MLN4924, an inhibitor of RUB/NEDD8-activating E1 enzyme, on the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the anti-auxin resistant 1 mutants, which lack SMAP1, are more sensitive to MLN4924 than wild type and that SMAP1 is responsible for this hypersensitivity. This new evidence supports our previous speculation that SMAP1 acts in Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase regulated signaling processes via its interaction with components associated with the RUB modification system.

  16. Enzymic aromatization of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive and mechanism-based inhibitors of aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A; Oshibe, M

    1998-01-01

    To gain insight into the relationships between the aromatase inhibitory activity of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive inhibitors, and their ability to serve as a substrate of aromatase, we studied the aromatization of a series of 6alpha- and 6beta-alkyl (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-pentyl and n-heptyl)-substituted androst-4-ene-3,17-diones (ADs) and their androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) derivatives with human placental aromatase, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the inhibitors examined, ADD and its 6alpha-alkyl derivatives with alkyl functions less than three carbons long, together with 6beta-methyl ADD, are suicide substrates of aromatase. All of the steroids, except for 6beta-n-pentyl ADD and its n-heptyl analogue as well as 6beta-n-heptyl AD, were found to be converted into the corresponding 6-alkyl oestrogens. The 6-methyl steroids were aromatized most efficiently in each series, and the aromatization rate essentially decreased in proportion to the length of the 6-alkyl chains in each series, where the 6alpha-alkyl androgens were more efficient substrates than the corresponding 6beta isomers. The Vmax of 6alpha-methyl ADD was approx. 2.5-fold that of the natural substrate AD and approx. 3-fold that of the parent ADD. On the basis of this, along with the facts that the rates of a mechanism-based inactivation of aromatase by ADD and its 6alpha-methyl derivative are similar, it is implied that alignment of 6alpha-methyl ADD in the active site could favour the pathway leading to oestrogen over the inactivation pathway, compared with that of ADD. The relative apparent Km values for the androgens obtained in this study are different from the relative Ki values obtained previously, indicating that there is a difference between the ability to serve as an inhibitor and the ability to serve as a substrate in the 6-alkyl androgen series. PMID:9405288

  17. Structure and stability of the non-covalent swapped dimer of bovine seminal ribonuclease: an enzyme tailored to evade ribonuclease protein inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Filomena; Di Fiore, Anna; Merlino, Antonello; Mazzarella, Lelio

    2004-08-27

    A growing number of pancreatic-type ribonucleases (RNases) present cytotoxic activity against malignant cells. The cytoxicity of these enzymes is related to their resistance to the ribonuclease protein inhibitor (RI). In particular, bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is toxic to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. BS-RNase is a covalent dimer with two intersubunit disulfide bridges between Cys(31) of one chain and Cys(32) of the second and vice versa. The native enzyme is an equilibrium mixture of two isomers, MxM and M=M. In the former the two subunits swap their N-terminal helices. The cytotoxic action is a peculiar property of MxM. In the reducing environment of cytosol, M=M dissociates into monomers, which are strongly inhibited by RI, whereas MxM remains as a non-covalent dimer (NCD), which evades RI. We have solved the crystal structure of NCD, carboxyamidomethylated at residues Cys(31) and Cys(32) (NCD-CAM), in a complex with 2'-deoxycitidylyl(3'-5')-2'-deoxyadenosine. The molecule reveals a quaternary structural organization much closer to MxM than to other N-terminal-swapped non-covalent dimeric forms of RNases. Model building of the complexes between these non-covalent dimers and RI reveals that NCD-CAM is the only dimer equipped with a quaternary organization capable of interfering seriously with the binding of the inhibitor. Moreover, a detailed comparative structural analysis of the dimers has highlighted the residues, which are mostly important in driving the quaternary structure toward that found in NCD-CAM.

  18. Nonallergic hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, volume substitutes and medications used in general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Marinović, Branka; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Urticaria and angioedema are common allergic manifestations and medications are one of common triggering factors. The most severe immediate drug reaction is anaphylaxis. Apart from the well established IgE-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reactions, the pathogenesis of drug-induced urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis often remains obscure. In this article, emphasis is put on nonallergic reactions to the most commonly used drug groups of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, radiocontrast media, volume expanders and drugs used in general anesthesia. Urticaria is the second most common drug eruption after maculopapular exanthema. The mechanisms of acute urticarial reactions are multiple, mostly IgE mediated, but some drugs can induce immune complex reactions and activate complement cascade, while others can induce direct activation of mast cells and degranulation or activation of complement by non-immune mechanisms. With different types of medications different pathomechanisms are involved. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are thought to cause reaction due to cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition and overproduction of leukotrienes, blamed for cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can cause fatal angioedema, which is partially explained with bradykinin excess and impairment of aminopeptidase P and dipeptidyl peptidase IV that are involved in the metabolism of substance P and bradykinin. It remains unknown what additional mechanisms are involved. Radiocontrast media and local anesthetics mostly cause nonallergic hypersensitivity reaction, but in rare cases true allergic reaction can occur. Dextran is known to cause IgG mediated, immune complex anaphylaxis and it is recommended to use human serum albumin as the safest colloid.

  19. Radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors and binding agents targeting PSMA: Effective theranostic tools for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Nanabala, Raviteja; Joy, Ajith; Sasikumar, Arun; Russ Knapp, Furn F

    2016-11-01

    Because of the broad incidence, morbidity and mortality associated with prostate-derived cancer, the development of more effective new technologies continues to be an important goal for the accurate detection and treatment of localized prostate cancer, lymphatic involvement and metastases. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; Glycoprotein II) is expressed in high levels on prostate-derived cells and is an important target for visualization and treatment of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled peptide targeting technologies have rapidly evolved over the last decade and have focused on the successful development of radiolabeled small molecules that act as inhibitors to the binding of the N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate (NAAG) substrate to the PSMA molecule. A number of radiolabeled PSMA inhibitors have been described in the literature and labeled with SPECT, PET and therapeutic radionuclides. Clinical studies with these agents have demonstrated the improved potential of PSMA-targeted PET imaging agents to detect metastatic prostate cancer in comparison with conventional imaging technologies. Although many of these agents have been evaluated in humans, by far the most extensive clinical literature has described use of the 68Ga and 177Lu agents. This review describes the design and development of these agents, with a focus on the broad clinical introduction of PSMA targeting motifs labeled with 68Ga for PET-CT imaging and 177Lu for therapy. In particular, because of availability from the long-lived 68Ge (T1/2=270days)/68Ga (T1/2=68min) generator system and increasing availability of PET-CT, the 68Ga-labeled PSMA targeted agent is receiving widespread interest and is one of the fastest growing radiopharmaceuticals for PET-CT imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Antimalarial Benzoisothiazolones: Species-Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium spp. MEP Pathway enzyme, IspD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kathryn E.; Armstrong, Christopher M.; Imlay, Leah S.; Hodge, Dana M.; Pidathala, C.; Roberts, Natalie J.; Park, Jooyoung; Mikati, Marwa; Sharma, Raman; Lawrenson, Alexandre S.; Tolia, Niraj H.; Berry, Neil G.; O’Neill, Paul M.; John, Audrey R. Odom

    2016-01-01

    The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is an essential metabolic pathway found in malaria parasites, but absent in mammals, making it a highly attractive target for the discovery of novel and selective antimalarial therapies. Using high-throughput screening, we have identified 2-phenyl benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-ones as species-selective inhibitors of Plasmodium spp. 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidyltransferase (IspD), the third catalytic enzyme of the MEP pathway. 2-Phenyl benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-ones display nanomolar inhibitory activity against P. falciparum and P. vivax IspD and prevent the growth of P. falciparum in culture, with EC50 values below 400 nM. In silico modeling, along with enzymatic, genetic and crystallographic studies, have established a mechanism-of-action involving initial non-covalent recognition of inhibitors at the IspD binding site, followed by disulfide bond formation through attack of an active site cysteine residue on the benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one core. The species-selective inhibitory activity of these small molecules against Plasmodium spp. IspD and cultured parasites suggests they have potential as lead compounds in the pursuit of novel drugs to treat malaria. PMID:27857147

  1. [Daily blood pressure profiles and endothelial functions during long-term treatment of arterial hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V B; Fisun, A Ia; Mikhaĭlov, A A; Kuroedov, A V; Brizhan, M V; Butikov, V P; Tsokolov, A V

    2004-01-01

    Clinical practice has been recently applied new approaches to classifying patients with arterial hypertension (AH), which are based on the determination of the summary risk suggesting the prognosis of the disease. This approach is quite efficient due to the fact that it takes into account a combination of the comparable clinical symptoms of AH, which characterize its course. The paper presents data on the values of blood pressure (BP) in AH and on daily BP profiles (DBPP) in 494 patients with different categories of a risk and on their endothelial function. It also gives the results of achievement of target BP levels in patients with AH having different categories of a risk during long-term (36-month) treatment with enapril and perindopril, as well as data on its impact on endothelial vasomotor function. The findings suggest that the higher the risk is, the more severe the hypertensive syndrome is; that the redistribution of DBPP occurs towards prognostically poor types and endothelial dysfunction (EDF) progresses. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors results not only to the achievement of target BP levels and to the normalization of DBPP, but also to the amelioration of EDF. Moreover, the co-administration of ACE inhibitors and isosorbide-5-mononitrates causes additional antiischemic effects.

  2. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Antimalarial Benzoisothiazolones: Species-Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium spp. MEP Pathway enzyme, IspD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kathryn E; Armstrong, Christopher M; Imlay, Leah S; Hodge, Dana M; Pidathala, C; Roberts, Natalie J; Park, Jooyoung; Mikati, Marwa; Sharma, Raman; Lawrenson, Alexandre S; Tolia, Niraj H; Berry, Neil G; O'Neill, Paul M; John, Audrey R Odom

    2016-11-18

    The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is an essential metabolic pathway found in malaria parasites, but absent in mammals, making it a highly attractive target for the discovery of novel and selective antimalarial therapies. Using high-throughput screening, we have identified 2-phenyl benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-ones as species-selective inhibitors of Plasmodium spp. 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidyltransferase (IspD), the third catalytic enzyme of the MEP pathway. 2-Phenyl benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-ones display nanomolar inhibitory activity against P. falciparum and P. vivax IspD and prevent the growth of P. falciparum in culture, with EC50 values below 400 nM. In silico modeling, along with enzymatic, genetic and crystallographic studies, have established a mechanism-of-action involving initial non-covalent recognition of inhibitors at the IspD binding site, followed by disulfide bond formation through attack of an active site cysteine residue on the benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one core. The species-selective inhibitory activity of these small molecules against Plasmodium spp. IspD and cultured parasites suggests they have potential as lead compounds in the pursuit of novel drugs to treat malaria.

  4. Synergy of Irofulven in combination with various anti-metabolites, enzyme inhibitors, and miscellaneous agents in MV522 lung carcinoma cells: marked interaction with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Michael J; McMorris, Trevor C; Rojas, Rafael J; Estes, Leita A; Suthipinijtham, Pharnuk

    2008-10-01

    The novel agent Irofulven (HMAF, NSC 683863) has demonstrated significant antitumor activity against solid tumors in various xenograft models and human clinical trials. The antitumor potential of combining irofulven with 72 different anti-metabolite, enzyme inhibiting, and miscellaneous agents was investigated in this study. The human lung carcinoma MV522 cell line and its corresponding xenograft model were used to evaluate the activity of irofulven in combination with these different agents. Irofulven in combination with select anti-metabolites, notably cytidine or adenine-derived agents, displayed strong synergistic activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Agents demonstrating strong synergistic interaction with irofulven included gemcitabine, cyclocytidine, cytarabine, fludarabine phosphate, cladribine, and 5-fluorouracil. Other anti-metabolites, enzyme inhibitors, and a variety of miscellaneous agents failed to interact beneficially when administered in combination with irofulven. The therapeutic activity of irofulven is enhanced considerably when irofulven is combined with select anti-metabolite agents, and further clinical evaluation of these combinations is warranted. The synergistic interaction with these combinations may stem from a variety of actions including inhibition of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, topoisomerase I activity, and caspase-dependent and independent induction of apoptosis.

  5. Clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for acute myocardial infarction are similar in the presence and absence of aspirin: systematic overview of individual data from 96,712 randomized patients. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, R; Tognoni, G; Maggioni, A P

    2000-01-01

    after MI. Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of vasodilating prostaglandins, and, in principle, this inhibition might antagonize some of the effects of ACEi. But it is uncertain whether, in practice, this influences the effects of ACEi on mortality and major morbidity after MI. METHODS: This overview sought......OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEi) treatment for acute myocardial infarction (MI) are influenced by the concomitant use of aspirin (ASA). BACKGROUND: Aspirin and ACEi both reduce mortality when given early...

  6. Use of digoxin, diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers in older patients in an academic hospital-based geriatrics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkind, D; Paris, B E; Aronow, W S

    1997-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and indications for digoxin use and the prevalence of beta blocker and calcium channel blocker use in older patients with previous myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease (CAD), and the prevalence of use of diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers in older patients with hypertension in an academic hospital-based geriatrics practice. A retrospective analysis of charts from 528 unselected older patients, seen from June 1995 through July 1996 at an academic hospital-based geriatrics practice, was performed to investigate the prevalence of digoxin use and indications for digoxin use, the prevalence of beta blocker and calcium channel blocker use in older patients with previous myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease (CAD), and the prevalence of use of diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers in older patients with hypertension. An academic hospital-based, primary care geriatrics practice staffed by fellows in a geriatrics training program and full-time faculty geriatricians. A total of 416 women and 112 men, mean age 81 +/- 8 years (range 58 to 101), were included in the study. Ninety-two of the 528 patients (17%) were taking digoxin. Recorded indications for digoxin were atrial fibrillation with or without congestive heart failure (CHF) in 39% of patients, CHF with sinus rhythm and abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in 18% of patients, a clinical assessment of CHF with sinus rhythm and no recorded measurement of LVEF in 20% of patients, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 14% of patients, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 9% of patients. Of 121 patients with previous myocardial infarction, 23 (19%) were prescribed beta blockers, and 54 (45%) were taking calcium channel blockers. Of 173 patients with CAD, 41 (24%) were treated with beta blockers, and 79 (46%) were taking calcium

  7. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action...

  8. Inhibition of Human Steroid 5-Reductase (AKR1D1) by Finasteride and Structure of the Enzyme-Inhibitor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.; Di Costanzo, L; Penning, T; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    The {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroid functionality is present in nearly all steroid hormones apart from estrogens. The first step in functionalization of the A-ring is mediated in humans by steroid 5{alpha}- or 5{beta}-reductase. Finasteride is a mechanism-based inactivator of 5{alpha}-reductase type 2 with subnanomolar affinity and is widely used as a therapeutic for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also used for androgen deprivation in hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma, and it has been examined as a chemopreventive agent in prostate cancer. The effect of finasteride on steroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1) has not been previously reported. We show that finasteride competitively inhibits AKR1D1 with low micromolar affinity but does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator. The structure of the AKR1D1 {center_dot} NADP{sup +} {center_dot} finasteride complex determined at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution shows that it is not possible for NADPH to reduce the {Delta}{sup 1-2}-ene of finasteride because the cofactor and steroid are not proximal to each other. The C3-ketone of finasteride accepts hydrogen bonds from the catalytic residues Tyr-58 and Glu-120 in the active site of AKR1D1, providing an explanation for the competitive inhibition observed. This is the first reported structure of finasteride bound to an enzyme involved in steroid hormone metabolism.

  9. Effect of the 5α-reductase enzyme inhibitor dutasteride in the brain of intact and parkinsonian mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litim, Nadhir; Morissette, Marc; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto C; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2017-11-01

    Dutasteride is a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor in clinical use to treat endocrine conditions. The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanisms of action of dutasteride in intact and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mice using a low dose of MPTP not affecting motor activity modeling early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that dutasteride neuroprotection is due to altered steroids levels. Dutasteride pre-treatment prevented loss of striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolite DOPAC. Dutasteride decreased effects of MPTP on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and D2 DA receptor specific binding while D1 receptor specific binding remained unchanged. Dutasteride enhanced DAT specific binding and the glycosylated form of DAT in intact mice. MPTP-lesioned mice had plasma and brain testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels lower than control mice whereas progesterone and its metabolites (dihydroprogesterone, isopregnanolone and tetrahydroprogesterone) pathway showed increases. Dutasteride treatment by inhibiting transformation of progesterone and testosterone to its metabolites elevated plasma and brain concentrations of testosterone compared to MPTP mice and decreased DHT levels in intact mice. Plasma and brain estradiol levels were low and remained unchanged by MPTP and/or dutasteride treatment. Dutasteride treatment did not affect striatal phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrate GSK3β as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in intact and MPTP lesioned MPTP mice. Striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels were markedly elevated in MPTP compared to control mice and dutasteride reduced GFAP levels in MPTP mice. Treatment with dutasteride post-lesion left unchanged striatal DA levels. These results suggest dutasteride as promising drug for PD neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structures and inhibitor binding properties of plant class V chitinases: the cycad enzyme exhibits unique structural and functional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Naoyuki; Kanda, Yuka; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Osawa, Takuo; Numata, Tomoyuki; Sakuda, Shohei; Taira, Toki; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2015-04-01

    A class V (glycoside hydrolase family 18) chitinase from the cycad Cycas revoluta (CrChiA) is a plant chitinase that has been reported to possess efficient transglycosylation (TG) activity. We solved the crystal structure of CrChiA, and compared it with those of class V chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum (NtChiV) and Arabidopsis thaliana (AtChiC), which do not efficiently catalyze the TG reaction. All three chitinases had a similar (α/β)8 barrel fold with an (α + β) insertion domain. In the acceptor binding site (+1, +2 and +3) of CrChiA, the Trp168 side chain was found to stack face-to-face with the +3 sugar. However, this interaction was not found in the identical regions of NtChiV and AtChiC. In the DxDxE motif, which is essential for catalysis, the carboxyl group of the middle Asp (Asp117) was always oriented toward the catalytic acid Glu119 in CrChiA, whereas the corresponding Asp in NtChiV and AtChiC was oriented toward the first Asp. These structural features of CrChiA appear to be responsible for the efficient TG activity. When binding of the inhibitor allosamidin was evaluated using isothermal titration calorimetry, the changes in binding free energy of the three chitinases were found to be similar to each other, i.e. between -9.5 and -9.8 kcal mol(-1) . However, solvation and conformational entropy changes in CrChiA were markedly different from those in NtChiV and AtChiC, but similar to those of chitinase A from Serratia marcescens (SmChiA), which also exhibits significant TG activity. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the TG reaction and the molecular evolution from bacterial chitinases to plant class V chitinases. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, while piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volak, Laurie P.; Ghirmai, Senait; Cashman, John R.; Court, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Curcuminoid extract and piperine are being evaluated for beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease, among other intractable disorders. Consequently, we studied the potential for herb-drug interactions involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The curcuminoid extract inhibited SULT > CYP2C19 > CYP2B6 > UGT > CYP2C9 > CYP3A activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.99 ± 0.04 to 25.3 ± 1.3 μM, while CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1 activities were less affected (IC50 values >60 μM). Inhibition of CYP3A activity by curcuminoid extract was consistent with competitive inhibition (Ki = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM), while inhibition of both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were consistent with mixed competitive-noncompetitive inhibition (10.6 ± 1.1 μM and 7.8 ± 0.9 μM, respectively). Piperine was a relatively selective noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP3A (IC50 5.5 ± 0.7 μM, Ki = 5.4 ± 0.3 μM) with less effect on other enzymes evaluated (IC50 >29 μM). Curcuminoid extract and piperine inhibited recombinant CYP3A4 much more potently (by >5-fold) than CYP3A5. Pure synthetic curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were also evaluated for their effects on CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT activities. All three curcuminoids had similar effects on CYP3A, UGT, and SULT activity, but demethoxycurcumin (IC50 = 8.8 ± 1.2 μM) was more active against CYP2C9 than either curcumin or bisdemethoxycurcumin (IC50 >50 μM). Based on these data and expected tissue concentrations of inhibitors, we predict that an orally administered curcuminoid/piperine combination is most likely to inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT metabolism within the intestinal mucosa. PMID:18480186

  12. A comparative study of the prevalence of hyperkalemia with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Sadjadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Ali Sadjadi1, James I McMillan1, Navin Jaipaul1, Patricia Blakely1, Su Su Hline21Section of Nephrology (111N, Jerry L Pettis Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Divison of Nephrology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USABackground and objectives: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB are increasingly used in a variety of settings including heart failure, renal failure, arterial hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperkalemia with ACEI and ARB use, in a population of the United States veterans.Design, settings, material, and measurements: Retrospective observational cohort study of 1163 patients on ACEIs and 1168 patients on ARBs in a single Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Electronic medical records were reviewed over a 12-month period with data collected on various demographic, laboratory, comorbidity, and medication related variables. Results: Hyperkalemia (>5 mEq/L was observed in 20.4% of patients on ACEIs and 31.0% on ARBs. Severe hyperkalemia (6 mEq/L or higher, was observed in 0.8% of ACEI and 2.8% of ARB users. In univariate logistic regression analyses, diabetes mellitus; serum glucose, total carbon dioxide content, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were significantly associated with hyperkalemia. ARB use, when compared to ACEI, was associated with a 42% increase in odds of hyperkalemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; p = 0.001 in a model including adjustment for GFR and a 56% increase in odds of hyperkalemia (OR = 1.56; p < 0.001 in a model including adjustment for serum creatinine.Conclusions: Hyperkalemia, associated with the use of ACEIs and ARBs, is usually mild and severe hyperkalemia is rare. Hyperkalemia is more common with ARBs than ACEIs. ARB use, when compared to ACEI use, may significantly and independently be associated with increased odds of

  13. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on the intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Soo Byon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI on intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM, candesartan-treated DM, and enalapril-treated DM (each group, n=10. After the induction of DM by streptozotocin, candesartan [ARB, 5 mg/(kg·d] and enalapril [ACEI, 10 mg/(kg·d] were administered to rats orally for 4wk. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin II (Ang II concentrations in the vitreous were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and VEGF receptor 2 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R levels were assessed at week 4 by Western blotting. RESULTS: Vitreous Ang II levels were significantly higher in the DM group and candesartan-treated DM group than in the control (P=0.04 and 0.005, respectively. Vitreous AT1R increased significantly in DM compared to the other three groups (P<0.007. Candesartan-treated DM rats showed higher vitreal AT1R concentration than the enalapril-treated DM group and control (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively. No difference in vitreous Ang II and AT1R concentration was found between the enalapril-treated DM group and control. VEGF and its receptor were below the minimum detection limit in all 4 groups. CONCLUSION: Increased Ang II and AT1R in the hyperglycemic state indicate activated the intraocular renin-angiotensin system, which is inhibited more effectively by systemic ACEI than systemic ARB.

  14. Deletion of the Monkeypox Virus Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes Locus Impacts the Adaptive Immune Response to Monkeypox Virus in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Infection ▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Ryan D.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; O'Connor, Megan A.; Li, Helen; Sprague, Jerald; Barron, Alexander; Engelmann, Flora; Yen, Bonnie; Powers, Michael F.; Jones, John M.; Robinson, Bridget A.; Orzechowska, Beata U.; Manoharan, Minsha; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Wilk, Jennifer; Axthelm, Michael K.; Wong, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an orthopoxvirus closely related to variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Human MPXV infection results in a disease that is similar to smallpox and can also be fatal. Two clades of MPXV have been identified, with viruses of the central African clade displaying more pathogenic properties than those within the west African clade. The monkeypox inhibitor of complement enzymes (MOPICE), which is not expressed by viruses of the west African clade, has been hypothesized to be a main virulence factor responsible for increased pathogenic properties of central African strains of MPXV. To gain a better understanding of the role of MOPICE during MPXV-mediated disease, we compared the host adaptive immune response and disease severity following intrabronchial infection with MPXV-Zaire (n = 4), or a recombinant MPXV-Zaire (n = 4) lacking expression of MOPICE in rhesus macaques (RM). Data presented here demonstrate that infection of RM with MPXV leads to significant viral replication in the peripheral blood and lungs and results in the induction of a robust and sustained adaptive immune response against the virus. More importantly, we show that the loss of MOPICE expression results in enhanced viral replication in vivo, as well as a dampened adaptive immune response against MPXV. Taken together, these findings suggest that MOPICE modulates the anti-MPXV immune response and that this protein is not the sole virulence factor of the central African clade of MPXV. PMID:21752919

  15. A phage display selected 7-mer peptide inhibitor of the Tannerella forsythia metalloprotease-like enzyme Karilysin can be truncated to Ser-Trp-Phe-Pro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durand Skottrup

    Full Text Available Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered a likely drug target. In this study peptides were selected towards the catalytic domain from Karilysin (Kly18 by phage display. The peptides were linear with low micromolar binding affinities. The two best binders (peptide14 and peptide15, shared the consensus sequence XWFPXXXGGG. A peptide15 fusion with Maltose Binding protein (MBP was produced with peptide15 fused to the N-terminus of MBP. The peptide15-MBP was expressed in E. coli and the purified fusion-protein was used to verify Kly18 specific binding. Chemically synthesised peptide15 (SWFPLRSGGG could inhibit the enzymatic activity of both Kly18 and intact Karilysin (Kly48. Furthermore, peptide15 could slow down the autoprocessing of intact Kly48 to Kly18. The WFP motif was important for inhibition and a truncation study further demonstrated that the N-terminal serine was also essential for Kly18 inhibition. The SWFP peptide had a Ki value in the low micromolar range, which was similar to the intact peptide15. In conclusion SWFP is the first reported inhibitor of Karilysin and can be used as a valuable tool in structure-function studies of Karilysin.

  16. Use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers and breast cancer survival: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Sara; Botteri, Edoardo; Munzone, Elisabetta; Cipolla, Carlo; Rotmensz, Nicole; DeCensi, Andrea; Gandini, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in Western Countries. Beta-blocker (BB) drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) were suggested to have a favorable role in the development and progression of BC. We have performed a meta-analysis to clarify the potential benefits of these drugs on BC survival. A total number of 46 265 BC patients from eleven papers were included, ten independent studies on BB use and seven on ACEi/ARB use. The summary hazard ratio (SHR) was estimated by pooling the study-specific estimates with random effects models and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the homogeneity of the effects across studies and evaluated between-study heterogeneity by meta-regression and sensitivity analyses. We found a significant improvement in BC specific survival for patients treated with BB drugs at the time of BC diagnosis (SHR: 0.44; 95%CI: 0.26-0.73 with I(2) = 78%). We also observed a borderline significant improvement in disease free survival for subjects treated with BB (SHR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.19-1.03). No association of ACEi/ARB use with disease free and overall survival was found. In conclusion, we report epidemiological evidence that BB improve BC-specific survival. Clinical trials addressing this hypothesis are warranted. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Exploiting drug-resistant enzymes as tools to identify thienopyrimidinone inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Takashi; Chung, Suhman; Caboni, Pierluigi; Rausch, Jason W; Wilson, Jennifer A; Taskent-Sezgin, Humeyra; Beutler, John A; Tocco, Graziella; Le Grice, Stuart F J

    2013-07-11

    The thienopyrimidinone 5,6-dimethyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (DNTP) occupies the interface between the p66 ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain and p51 thumb of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (HIV RT), thereby inducing a conformational change incompatible with catalysis. Here, we combined biochemical characterization of 39 DNTP derivatives with antiviral testing of selected compounds. In addition to wild-type HIV-1 RT, derivatives were evaluated with rationally designed, p66/p51 heterodimers exhibiting high-level DNTP sensitivity or resistance. This strategy identified 3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl (catechol) substituted thienopyrimidinones with submicromolar in vitro activity against both wild type HIV-1 RT and drug-resistant variants. Thermal shift analysis indicates that, in contrast to active site RNase H inhibitors, these thienopyrimidinones destabilize the enzyme, in some instances reducing the Tm by 5 °C. Importantly, catechol-containing thienopyrimidinones also inhibit HIV-1 replication in cells. Our data strengthen the case for allosteric inhibition of HIV RNase H activity, providing a platform for designing improved antagonists for use in combination antiviral therapy.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers for major renal outcomes in patients with diabetes: A 15-year cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Yen Wu

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are considered to have similar renoprotective effects; so far there has been no consensus about their priorities. This study aimed to compare ACEIs and ARBs for major renal outcomes and survival in a 15-year cohort of adults with diabetes.This study utilized Taiwan's medical and pharmacy claims data in the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients. The primary outcome was long-term dialysis, and secondary outcomes were hospitalization for acute kidney injury, hospitalization for hyperkalemia, all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and non-cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for outcomes comparing ACEIs with ARBs. We conducted subgroup analyses and interaction tests among patients with different age and comorbid diseases.A total of 34,043 patients received ACEIs and 23,772 patients received ARBs. No differences were found for primary or secondary outcomes in the main analyses. ACEIs showed significantly lower hazard than ARBs for long-term dialysis among patients with cardiovascular disease (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97, interaction P = 0.003 or chronic kidney disease (0.81, 0.71-0.93, interaction P = 0.001.Our analyses show similar effects of ACEIs and ARBs in patients with diabetes. However, ACEIs might provide additional renoprotective effects among patients who have cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease.

  19. Temocapril, a long-acting non-SH group angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, modulates glomerular injury in chronic puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yali; Shirato, Isao; Maeda, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Noriyoshi; Liao, Jie; Shou, Ichiyu; Fukui, Mitsumine; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic administration of temocapril, a long-acting non-SH group angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, reduced proteinuria, inhibited glomerular hypertrophy and prevented glomerulosclerosis in chronic puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) - induced nephrotic rats. Nephrosis was induced by injection of PAN (15mg/100g body weight) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Four groups were used, i) the PAN group (14), ii) PAN/temocapril (13), iii) temocapril (14) and iv) untreated controls (15). Temocapril (8 mg/kg/day) was administered to the rats which were killed at weeks 4, 14 or 20. At each time point, systolic blood pressure (BP), urinary protein excretion and renal histopathological findings were evaluated, and morphometric image analysis was done. Systolic BP in the PAN group was significantly high at 4, 14 and 20 weeks, but was normal in the PAN/temocapril group. Urinary protein excretion in the PAN group increased significantly, peaking at 8 days, then decreased at 4 weeks, but rose again significantly at 14 and 20 weeks. Temocapril did not attenuate proteinuria at 8 days, but it did markedly lower it from weeks 4 to 20. The glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was 6.21 % at 4 weeks and respectively 25.35 % and 30.49 % at 14 and 20 weeks in the PAN group. There was a significant correlation between urinary protein excretion and GSI (r = 0.808, p neprotic rats.

  20. Is there an embryopathy associated with first-trimester exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists? A critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polifka, Janine E

    2012-08-01

    Drugs that interfere with the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are widely used to manage hypertension and heart failure. Adequate functioning of the RAS is essential for normal fetal kidney development. The potential for ACEIs and ARBs to impair fetal and neonatal renal function if taken after the first trimester of pregnancy has been well documented. Although these drugs were not found to be teratogenic in animals, until recently little was known about the teratogenic effects of ACEIs and ARBs in humans when exposure was limited to the first trimester of pregnancy. New evidence from epidemiologic studies indicates that there may be an elevated teratogenic risk when these drugs are taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. However, this elevated risk does not appear to be specific to ACEIs and ARBs, but is instead related to maternal factors and diseases that typically coexist with hypertension in pregnancy, such as diabetes, advanced maternal age, and obesity. Women who become pregnant while being treated with an ACEI or ARB should be advised to avoid exposure to these drugs during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy by switching to a different class of antihypertensive drugs between weeks 8 and 10 after conception. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Plasma oxidative stress level of IgA nephropathy in children and the effect of early intervention with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuxin; Xu, Yuanyuan; Ruan, Jingwei; Rong, Liping; Jiang, Mengjie; Mo, Ying; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of the plasma oxidative stress level in children with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and analyze its relativity to the clinical and pathological classification. To discuss the early effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on the plasma oxidative stress level in children with IgA nephropathy. Thirty-eight children with IgAN were divided into groups according to their clinical features, pathologic grades, and treatments. Twenty healthy children were included in the control group. The plasma level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), malonaldehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected. The plasma level of oxidative stress was significantly increased in the IgAN group, including a higher plasma level of AOPP and MDA and a lower plasma level of SOD. After treatment, the plasma level of oxidative stress was significantly decreased in the ACEI group. The children with IgAN had an increase in the plasma level of oxidative stress, expressed as an increased plasma level of AOPP and MDA and a decreased plasma level of SOD. Oxidative stress was associated with the progression of IgAN in children. Early treatment with ACEI therapy can significantly reduce the plasma level of oxidative stress in children with IgAN. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [The investigation of angiotensin converting enzyme I/D and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphisms in venous thromboembolism patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Halide; Karkucak, Mutlu; Salifoğlu, Hatice; Torun, Deniz; Kozan, Salih; Tunca, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, known as venous thromboembolism and seen as a fairly common multifactorial diseases. Differ between populations due to genetic factors, several polymorphisms associated with venous thromboembolism was conducted. As a result of these studies the relationship between disease development and polymorphism is not clear yet. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of angiotensin converting enzyme insersion/deletion (ACE I/D) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G (PAI-1 4G/5G) polymorphism in the development of disease. In our study, DNA isolated from 80 venous thromboembolism patients and 79 control groups was used. While the classical polymerase chain reaction method used to investigate the ACE I/D polymorphism, the polymerase chain reaction based on allele-specific amplification was used for the detection of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. As a result, there were no significant statistical differences for ACE I/D and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism among patient and control groups (p> 0.05). These findings revealed that there is no relationship between these polymorphisms and the development of venous thromboembolism, but large-scale studies are need to be done.

  3. DPP-4 inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors inhibit the activity of the enzyme responsible for the initial rapid degradation of the incretin hormones, thereby enhancing their antihyperglycemic effects.......Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors inhibit the activity of the enzyme responsible for the initial rapid degradation of the incretin hormones, thereby enhancing their antihyperglycemic effects....

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor as a risk factor for the development of anemia, and the impact of incident anemia on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishani, Areef; Weinhandl, Eric; Zhao, Zihong; Gilbertson, David T; Collins, Allan J; Yusuf, Salim; Herzog, Charles A

    2005-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on hematocrit values in those with heart failure, and the relationship between incident anemia and mortality. Prevalent anemia is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in those with heart failure. Studies in patients with polycythemia have demonstrated that ACEIs are effective in lowering hematocrit values. We used the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) database to compare the odds of developing new anemia at one year in patients who were not anemic at entry and who were randomized to enalapril or placebo. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to determine the impact of incident and prevalent anemia on subsequent mortality. Enalapril increased the odds of incident anemia (hematocrit year by 48% (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.82) in unadjusted and 56% (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.93) in adjusted models. With multivariate analysis, prevalent anemia at randomization was associated with a 44% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.66) increase in all-cause mortality, whereas incident anemia after randomization was associated with a 108% increase (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.82 to 2.38). After adjusting for incident and prevalent anemia, use of enalapril was associated with a survival benefit. Enalapril was associated with increased odds of developing anemia at one year. Those with periods of time with incident anemia had the poorest survival, followed by those with prevalent anemia, then those without anemia. Enalapril was protective of overall mortality after adjusting for incident anemia and in those with prevalent anemia.

  5. Individualized Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitor Therapy in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Based on Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Determinants: The PERindopril GENEtic (PERGENE) Risk Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; Van Vark, Laura C; Redekop, W Ken; Rudez, Goran; Remme, Willem J; Bertrand, Michel E; Fox, Kim M; Ferrari, Roberto; Danser, A H Jan; de Maat, Moniek; Simoons, Maarten L; Brugts, Jasper J; Boersma, Eric

    2016-03-28

    Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) constitute a heterogeneous group in which the treatment benefits by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy vary between individuals. Our objective was to integrate clinical and pharmacogenetic determinants in an ultimate combined risk prediction model. Clinical, genetic, and outcomes data were used from 8726 stable CAD patients participating in the EUROPA/PERGENE trial of perindopril versus placebo. Multivariable analysis of phenotype data resulted in a clinical risk score (range, 0-21 points). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs275651 and rs5182 in the angiotensin-II type I-receptor gene and rs12050217 in the bradykinin type I-receptor gene) were used to construct a pharmacogenetic risk score (PGXscore; range, 0-6 points). Seven hundred eighty-five patients (9.0%) experienced the primary endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction or resuscitated cardiac arrest, during 4.2 years of follow-up. Absolute risk reductions ranged from 1.2% to 7.5% in the 73.5% of patients with PGXscore of 0 to 2. As a consequence, estimated annual numbers needed to treat ranged from as low as 29 (clinical risk score ≥10 and PGXscore of 0) to 521 (clinical risk score ≤6 and PGXscore of 2). Furthermore, our data suggest that long-term perindopril prescription in patients with a PGXscore of 0 to 2 is cost-effective. Both baseline clinical phenotype, as well as genotype determine the efficacy of widely prescribed ACE inhibition in stable CAD. Integration of clinical and pharmacogenetic determinants in a combined risk prediction model demonstrated a very wide range of gradients of absolute treatment benefit. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuchen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Qi; Lv, Jia Yi; Qi, Na; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-05-01

    There has been much controversy over the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) on patients with renal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding the effect of ACEIs/ARBs administration on mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using a meta-analytic approach. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies on the effect of ACEIs/ARBs administration on mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD published before March 2015. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals were derived using the random-effects model, no matter whether the heterogeneity between the included studies was of statistical significance or not. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. Up to 25 March 2015, 10 cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. The hazard risk of the association between ACEIs/ARBs administration and overall mortality was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.78-0.87) using a random-effects model with no heterogeneity (heterogeneity test I(2)  = 43.8%, p = 0.067) and publication bias (Egger's test, p = 0.763). The subgroup was divided according to estimated glomerular filtration rate, duration of follow-up, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale star, and proportion of patients with common complications including heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Improved survival outcomes were observed in all subgroups analysis. Sensitivity analysis proved that overall estimated effect was robust. This meta-analysis suggested that the use of ACEIs/ARBs in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD was associated with improved survival. However, randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings and further establish causal relationship. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Adenoviral delivery of pan-caspase inhibitor p35 enhances bystander killing by P450 gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy using cyclophosphamide+

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    Doloff Joshua C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450-based suicide gene therapy for cancer using prodrugs such as cyclophosphamide (CPA increases anti-tumor activity, both directly and via a bystander killing mechanism. Bystander cell killing is essential for the clinical success of this treatment strategy, given the difficulty of achieving 100% efficient gene delivery in vivo using current technologies. Previous studies have shown that the pan-caspase inhibitor p35 significantly increases CPA-induced bystander killing by tumor cells that stably express P450 enzyme CYP2B6 (Schwartz et al, (2002 Cancer Res. 62: 6928-37. Methods To further develop this approach, we constructed and characterized a replication-defective adenovirus, Adeno-2B6/p35, which expresses p35 in combination with CYP2B6 and its electron transfer partner, P450 reductase. Results The expression of p35 in Adeno-2B6/p35-infected tumor cells inhibited caspase activation, delaying the death of the CYP2B6 "factory" cells that produce active CPA metabolites, and increased bystander tumor cell killing compared to that achieved in the absence of p35. Tumor cells infected with Adeno-2B6/p35 were readily killed by cisplatin and doxorubicin, indicating that p35 expression is not associated with acquisition of general drug resistance. Finally, p35 did not inhibit viral release when the replication-competent adenovirus ONYX-017 was used as a helper virus to facilitate co-replication and spread of Adeno-2B6/p35 and further increase CPA-induced bystander cell killing. Conclusions The introduction of p35 into gene therapeutic regimens constitutes an effective approach to increase bystander killing by cytochrome P450 gene therapy. This strategy may also be used to enhance other bystander cytotoxic therapies, including those involving the production of tumor cell toxic protein products.

  8. Functional, thermodynamics, structural and biological studies of in silico-identified inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Leonardo K. B.; Rotta, Mariane; Villela, Anne D.; Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês S.; Abbadi, Bruno L.; Trindade, Rogério V.; Petersen, Guilherme O.; Danesi, Giuliano M.; Nery, Laura R.; Pauli, Ivani; Campos, Maria M.; Bonan, Carla D.; de Souza, Osmar Norberto; Basso, Luiz A.; Santos, Diogenes S.

    2017-04-01

    Novel chemotherapeutics agents are needed to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). The M. tuberculosis 2-trans-enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase enzyme (MtInhA) is the druggable bona fide target of isoniazid. New chemotypes were previously identified by two in silico approaches as potential ligands to MtInhA. The inhibition mode was determined by steady-state kinetics for seven compounds that inhibited MtInhA activity. Dissociation constant values at different temperatures were determined by protein fluorescence spectroscopy. van’t Hoff analyses of ligand binding to MtInhA:NADH provided the thermodynamic signatures of non-covalent interactions (ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG°). Phenotypic screening showed that five compounds inhibited in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Labio_16 and Labio_17 compounds also inhibited the in vitro growth of PE-003 multidrug-resistant strain. Cytotoxic effects on Hacat, Vero and RAW 264.7 cell lines were assessed for the latter two compounds. The Labio_16 was bacteriostatic and Labio_17 bactericidal in an M. tuberculosis-infected macrophage model. In Zebrafish model, Labio_16 showed no cardiotoxicity whereas Labio_17 showed dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, a model was built for the MtInhA:NADH:Labio_16 ternary complex. The results show that the Labio_16 compound is a direct inhibitor of MtInhA, and it may represent a hit for the development of chemotherapeutic agents to treat TB.

  9. An investigation of the concomitant use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsa, C; Moga, D C; Farcas, A; Mogosan, C; Dumitrascu, D L

    2015-08-01

    To determine in retrospective data the prevalence at hospital discharge of co-prescribing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and ACE-I/NSAIDs and diuretics and to identify factors associated with the co-prescription. Secondary, we evaluated the extent of serum creatinine and potassium monitoring in patients treated with ACE-I and these associations and determined the prevalence of values above the upper normal limit (UNL) in monitored patients. Hospitalized patients with ACE-I in their therapy at discharge were included in 3 groups as follows: ACE-I, DT (double therapy with ACE-I and NSAIDs) and TT (triple therapy with ACE-I, NSAIDs and diuretics) groups. We evaluated differences on demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, medications, laboratory monitoring and quantified the patients with serum creatinine and potassium levels above the UNL using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression analysis with backward elimination was performed to identify significant predictors of combination therapy. Of 9960 admitted patients, 1214 were prescribed ACE-I, 40 were prescribed ACE-I/NSAIDs and 22 were prescribed ACE-I/NSAIDs/diuretics (3.13% and 1.72%, respectively, of the patients prescribed with ACE-I). Serum creatinine and potassium were monitored for the great majority of patients from all groups. The highest percentage of hyperkalemia was found in the DT group (10% of the patients) and of serum creatinine above UNL in the TT group (45.45%). The logistic regression final model showed that younger patients and monitoring for potassium were significantly associated with combination therapy. The prevalence of patients receiving DT/TT was relatively low and their monitoring during hospitalization was high. Factors associated with the combinations were younger patients and patients not tested for serum potassium.

  10. Phase I Study of the Novel Investigational NEDD8-Activating Enzyme Inhibitor Pevonedistat (MLN4924) in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma or Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jatin J; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J; O'Connor, Owen A; Orlowski, Robert Z; Harvey, R Donald; Smith, Mitchell R; Lebovic, Daniel; Diefenbach, Catherine; Kelly, Kevin; Hua, Zhaowei; Berger, Allison J; Mulligan, George; Faessel, Hélène M; Tirrell, Stephen; Dezube, Bruce J; Lonial, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacodynamic effects, and antitumor activity of the first-in-class investigational NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor pevonedistat (TAK-924/MLN4924) in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma (n = 17) or lymphoma (n = 27) received intravenous pevonedistat 25 to 147 mg/m(2) on days 1, 2, 8, 9 (schedule A; n = 27) or 100 to 261 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, 11 (schedule B; n = 17) of 21-day cycles. Maximum tolerated doses were 110 mg/m(2) (schedule A) and 196 mg/m(2) (schedule B). Dose-limiting toxicities included febrile neutropenia, transaminase elevations, muscle cramps (schedule A), and thrombocytopenia (schedule B). Common adverse events included fatigue and nausea. Common grade ≥3 events were anemia (19%; schedule A), and neutropenia and pneumonia (12%; schedule B). Clinically significant myelosuppression was uncommon. There were no treatment-related deaths. Pevonedistat pharmacokinetics exhibited a biphasic disposition phase and approximate dose-proportional increases in systemic exposure. Consistent with the short mean elimination half-life of approximately 8.5 hours, little-to-no drug accumulation in plasma was seen after multiple dosing. Pharmacodynamic evidence of NAE inhibition included increased skin levels of CDT-1 and NRF-2 (substrates of NAE-dependent ubiquitin ligases), and increased NRF-2-regulated gene transcript levels in whole blood. Pevonedistat-NEDD8 adduct was detected in bone marrow aspirates, indicating pevonedistat target engagement in the bone marrow compartment. Three lymphoma patients had partial responses; 30 patients achieved stable disease. Pevonedistat demonstrated anticipated pharmacodynamic effects in the clinical setting, a tolerable safety profile, and some preliminary evidence that may be suggestive of the potential for activity in relapsed/refractory lymphoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Angiotensin Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Calcium Channel Blockers Are Associated with Prolonged Vascular Access Patency in Uremic Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-An Chen

    Full Text Available Vascular access failure is a huge burden for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Many efforts have been made to maintain vascular access patency, including pharmacotherapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB, and calcium channel blocker (CCB are known for their antihypertensive and cardio-protective effects, however, their effects on long-term vascular access patency are still inconclusive.We retrospectively enrolled patients commencing maintenance hemodialysis between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006 by using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Primary patency was defined as the date of first arteriovenous fistula (AVF or arteriovenous graft (AVG creation to the time of access thrombosis or any intervention aimed to maintain or re-establish vascular access patency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust the influences of patient characteristics, co-morbidities and medications.Total 42244 patients were enrolled in this study, 37771 (89.4% used AVF, 4473 (10.6% used AVG as their first long term dialysis access. ACE-I, ARB, and CCB use were all associated with prolonged primary patency of AVF [hazard ratio (HR 0.586, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.557-0.616 for ACE-I use; HR 0.532, CI 0.508-0.556 for ARB use; HR 0.485, CI 0.470-0.501 for CCB use] and AVG (HR 0.557, CI 0.482-0.643 for ACE-I use, HR 0.536, CI 0.467-0.614 for ARB use, HR 0.482, CI 0.442-0.526 for CCB use.In our analysis, ACE-I, ARB, and CCB were strongly associated with prolonged primary patency of both AVF and AVG. Further prospective randomized studies are still warranted to prove the causality.

  12. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on cardiac fibrosis and oxidative stress status in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation model in rats

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    Azam Abareshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renin-angiotensin (Ang-aldosterone system not only plays a key role in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis, but also it acts as a powerful pro-inflammatory mediator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of captopril (Cap, a known Ang-converting enzyme inhibitor, on inflammation-induced cardiac fibrosis, and heart oxidative stress status in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in male rats. Methods: Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups control, LPS (1 mg/kg/day, LPS + Cap 10 mg/kg, LPS + Cap 50 mg/kg and LPS + Cap 100 mg/kg. After 2 weeks, blood samples were taken, and hearts were harvested for evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and nitric oxide metabolite in serum and tissue hemogenate, histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome and oxidative stress status. Results: Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentration were higher in LPS group compared to control and Cap reduced them, significantly. Heart TNF-α and IL-6 contents in LPS group were significantly higher than control (P < 0.05. The administration of Cap significantly decreased inflammatory markers level to control (P < 0.05. The higher levels of malondialdehyde and lower antioxidative markers (total thiol, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the heart were observed in LPS group and treatment by Cap improved them, dose-dependently. Histopathological study revealed cardiac fibrosis and more collagen content in LPS group which significantly improved by Cap treatment. Conclusions: Treatment by Cap reduced cardiac fibrosis possibly through improving oxidative stress status, and it can be considered to increase cardiac compliance in this condition.

  13. CoMFA and docking study of 2,N6-disubstituted 1,2-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine-4,6-diamines as novel PfDHFR enzyme inhibitors for antimalarial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam N. Dube

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR study was performed on 1,3,5-triazine derivatives which were based on Ala16Val + Ser108Thr mutant DHFR inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum clone (FCR-3. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA was carried out for designing novel PfDHFR enzyme inhibitors. It is shown that the steric and electrostatic properties by CoMFA contours can be related to the PfDHFR inhibitory activity. Glide-XP of Schrödinger was used for docking of PfDHFR inhibitors into the putative binding sites of the PfDHFR.

  14. Imobilização de enzimas em suportes cromatográficos: uma ferramenta na busca por substâncias bioativas Immobilization of the enzymes on chromatographic supports: a tool to research of inhibitor compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and characterization of bioreactors or IMER (immobilized enzyme reactors as research tools are important in the scope of medicinal chemistry and constitute an alternative for the rational development of drugs. This approach does not require highly purified enzymes or a great amount of protein, but increase the enzymatic stability against heat, organic solvents and pH, without too much loss of catalyst activity. Immobilized enzyme reactors (IMER can be used for the accomplishment of high efficiency screening on-line and, thus inhibitors can be quickly identified. Here, we emphasize the development of IMER by use of different methods of immobilization and chromatographic supports. Their applications, in different areas of research, are also fully discussed.

  15. A Systematic Review of Outcomes Associated With Withholding or Continuing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Before Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Caryl; Fernandes, Nicole L; Biccard, Bruce M

    2018-01-29

    The global rate of major noncardiac surgical procedures is increasing annually, and of those patients presenting for surgery, increasing numbers are taking either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). The current recommendations of whether to continue or withhold ACE-I and ARB in the perioperative period are conflicting. Previous meta-analyses have linked preoperative ACE-I/ARB therapy to the increased incidence of postinduction hypotension; however, they have failed to correlate this with adverse patient outcomes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether continuation or withholding ACE-I or ARB therapy in the perioperative period is associated with mortality and major morbidity. This meta-analysis was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017055291). A comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL (EBSCO host), ProQuest, Cochrane database, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted on December 6, 2016. We included adult patients >18 years of age on chronic ACE-I or ARB therapy who underwent noncardiac surgery in which ACE-I or ARB was either withheld or continued on the morning of surgery. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (MACE). Secondary outcomes included the risk of congestive heart failure, acute kidney injury, stroke, intraoperative/postoperative hypotension, and the length of hospital stay. After abstract review, the full text of 25 studies was retrieved, of which 9 fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 5 were randomized control trials, and 4 were cohort studies. These studies included a total of 6022 patients on chronic ACE-I/ARB therapy before noncardiac surgery. A total of 1816 patients withheld treatment the morning of surgery and 4206 continued their ACE-I/ARB. Preoperative demographics were similar between the 2 groups. Withholding ACE-I/ARB therapy was not associated with a difference in mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval

  16. Impact of drug price adjustments on utilization of and expenditures on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A previous study has suggested that drug price adjustments allow physicians in Taiwan to gain greater profit by prescribing generic drugs. To better understand the effect of price adjustments on physician choice, this study used renin-angiotensin drugs (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) to examine the impact of price adjustments on utilization of and expenditures on patented and off-patent drugs with the same therapeutic indication. Methods Using the Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (2005), we identified 147,157 patients received ACEIs and/or ARBs between 1997 and 2008. The annual incident and prevalent users of ACEIs, ARBs and overall renin-angiotensin drugs were examined. Box-Tiao intervention analysis was applied to assess the impact of price adjustments on monthly utilization of and expenditures on these drugs. ACEIs were divided into patented and off-patent drugs, off-patent ACEIs were further divided into original brands and generics, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results The number of incident renin-angiotensin drug users decreased over the study period. The number of prevalent ARB users increased and exceeded the cumulative number of first-time renin-angiotensin drug users starting on ARBs, implying that some patients switched from ACEIs to ARBs. After price adjustments, long term trend increases in utilization were observed for patented ACEIs and ARBs; a long-term trend decrease was observed for off-patent ACEIs; long-term trend change was not significant for overall renin-angiotensin drugs. Significant long-term trend increases in expenditures were observed for patented ACEIs after price adjustment in 2007 (200.9%, p = 0.0088) and in ARBs after price adjustments in 2001 (173.4%, p price adjustment (−156.9%, p drugs showed long-term trend increases after price adjustments in 2001 (72.2%, p Price adjustments did not achieve long-term cost

  17. Impact of drug price adjustments on utilization of and expenditures on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shiou-Huei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study has suggested that drug price adjustments allow physicians in Taiwan to gain greater profit by prescribing generic drugs. To better understand the effect of price adjustments on physician choice, this study used renin-angiotensin drugs (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] to examine the impact of price adjustments on utilization of and expenditures on patented and off-patent drugs with the same therapeutic indication. Methods Using the Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (2005, we identified 147,157 patients received ACEIs and/or ARBs between 1997 and 2008. The annual incident and prevalent users of ACEIs, ARBs and overall renin-angiotensin drugs were examined. Box-Tiao intervention analysis was applied to assess the impact of price adjustments on monthly utilization of and expenditures on these drugs. ACEIs were divided into patented and off-patent drugs, off-patent ACEIs were further divided into original brands and generics, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results The number of incident renin-angiotensin drug users decreased over the study period. The number of prevalent ARB users increased and exceeded the cumulative number of first-time renin-angiotensin drug users starting on ARBs, implying that some patients switched from ACEIs to ARBs. After price adjustments, long term trend increases in utilization were observed for patented ACEIs and ARBs; a long-term trend decrease was observed for off-patent ACEIs; long-term trend change was not significant for overall renin-angiotensin drugs. Significant long-term trend increases in expenditures were observed for patented ACEIs after price adjustment in 2007 (200.9%, p = 0.0088 and in ARBs after price adjustments in 2001 (173.4%, p  Conclusions Price adjustments did not achieve long-term cost savings for overall renin-angiotensin drugs. Possible switching from ACEIs to ARBs

  18. Prescriptions for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tzu Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs are commonly used in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We studied the status of ACEI/ARB prescriptions and serum creatinine (Scr and potassium monitoring in CKD patients. A retrospective observational study was conducted on patients who had at least two sets of Scr data at outpatient visit. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR based on the second Scr value was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease four-variable equation. CKD was defined and staged according to the National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Guideline. Patients with diabetes and/or hypertension with an eGFR over 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without proteinuria were defined as the CKD-at-risk group. The percentages and factors associated with ACEI/ARB prescription and Scr and potassium monitoring were calculated and analyzed by logistic regression. Among the 5714 subjects included, ACEIs/ARBs were prescribed to over 50% of patients in the CKD-at-risk group and in CKD stages 1–5. After adjusting for age, sex, potassium level, eGFR, and co-morbidities, the odds ratios for prescriptions of ACEIs/ARBs were 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.44–1.91, p < 0.001 and 2.80 (95% CI 2.12–3.70, p < 0.001 in CKD stage 3, and stages 4 and 5, respectively, compared with the reference group (eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During the year of ACEI/ARB treatment, Scr was monitored in 91.6% of ACEI/ARB-treated patients, while potassium was monitored in only 38.1%. Renal function status was the independent factor for monitoring of Scr and potassium. In conclusion, prescription of ACEIs/ARBs was common in all stages of CKD. Most patients underwent Scr monitoring, but potassium monitoring was less frequent, and this should be improved in clinical practice.

  19. Synthesis, computational studies and enzyme inhibitory kinetics of substituted methyl[2-(4-dimethylamino-benzylidene)-hydrazono)-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]acetates as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Rafiq, Muhammad; Ashraf, Zaman; Jabeen, Farukh; Fattah, Tanzeela Abdul

    2017-11-01

    The present article describes the synthesis and enzyme inhibitory kinetics of methyl[2-(arylmethylene-hydrazono)-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]acetates 5a-j as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. The title compounds were synthesized via cyclocondensation of thiosemicarbazones 3a-j with dimethyl but-2-ynedioate (DMAD) 4 in good yields under solvent-free conditions. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. It was unveiled that compounds 5i showed excellent enzyme inhibitory activity with IC 50 3.17µM while IC 50 of standard kojic acid is 15.91µM. The presence of heterocyclic pyridine ring in compound 5i play important role in enzyme inhibitory activity as rest of the functional groups are common in all synthesized compounds. The enzyme inhibitory kinetics of the most potent derivative 5i determined by Lineweaver-Burk plots and Dixon plots showed that it is non-competitive inhibitor with Ki value 1.5µM. It was further investigated that the wet lab results are in good agreement with the computational results. The molecular docking of the synthesized compounds was performed against tyrosinase protein (PDBID 2Y9X) to delineate ligand-protein interactions at molecular level. The docking results showed that the major interacting residues are His244, His85, His263, Val 283, His 296, Asn260, Val248, His260, His261 and Phe264 which are located in active binding site of the protein. The molecular modeling demonstrates that the oxygen atom of the compound 5i coordinated with the key residues in the active site of mushroom tyrosinase contribute significantly against inhibitory ability and diminishing the human melanin synthesis. These results evident that compound 5i is a lead structure in developing most potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CYP4 enzymes as potential drug targets: focus on enzyme multiplicity, inducers and inhibitors, and therapeutic modulation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthase and fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Katheryne Z; Rettie, Allan E

    2013-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 4 (CYP4) family of enzymes in humans is comprised of thirteen isozymes that typically catalyze the ω-oxidation of endogenous fatty acids and eicosanoids. Several CYP4 enzymes can biosynthesize 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, or 20-HETE, an important signaling eicosanoid involved in regulation of vascular tone and kidney reabsorption. Additionally, accumulation of certain fatty acids is a hallmark of the rare genetic disorders, Refsum disease and X-ALD. Therefore, modulation of CYP4 enzyme activity, either by inhibition or induction, is a potential strategy for drug discovery. Here we review the substrate specificities, sites of expression, genetic regulation, and inhibition by exogenous chemicals of the human CYP4 enzymes, and discuss the targeting of CYP4 enzymes in the development of new treatments for hypertension, stroke, certain cancers and the fatty acid-linked orphan diseases.

  1. Assessment of anti-arrhythmic activity of antipsychotic drugs in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mow, Tomas; Frederiksen, Kristen; Thomsen, Morten B.

    2015-01-01

    limited experimental information exists about the effects of α1-adrenergic receptor activity of antipsychotic drugs in pro-arrhythmic models, we have decided to investigate this. In this study we show that four antipsychotic drugs all have high affinity for α1-adrenergic receptor (sertindole>risperidone......>haloperidol>olanzapine) and all block IKr (sertindole>haloperidol>risperidone>olanzapine). In canine Purkinje fibres, α1-adrenergic stimulation prolonged action potential duration; however, the stimulation does not cause afterdepolarizations, even in the presence of dofetilide-induced delayed repolarization. We showed...

  2. Novel Anti-arrhythmic Medications in the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Saklani, Pradyot; Skanes, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent condition particularly amongst the elderly, which contributes to both morbidity and mortality. The burden of disease has lead to significant increases in health care utilization and cost in recent years. Treatment of Atrial fibrillation consists of either a rate or rhythm control strategy. Rhythm control is achieved using medical management and/or catheter ablation. In spite of major strides in catheter ablation, this procedure remains a second line tre...

  3. [Anti-arrhythmic effect of oral propafenone. Apropos of 70 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumel, P; Leclercq, J F; Assayag, P; Maisonblanche, P; Cauchemez, B

    1984-11-01

    During a 3 year period, seventy patients aged 53 +/- 16 years with a total of 73 arrhythmias were treated over a mean period of 6.8 months (maximum 27 months) with oral propafenone, the usual dose being 900 mg/day. The study covered the whole spectrum of cardiac arrhythmias (32 supraventricular, 41 ventricular), and their relation to the autonomic nervous system. The efficacy was scored from 1 (no effect) to 5 (complete control) as judged by the clinical response, the results of Holter monitoring (175 control and 133 test recordings on therapy), and a comparison was made between the effects of propafenone and other antiarrhythmics: quinidine-like drugs, beta-blockers and amiodarone. With respect to supraventricular arrhythmias: 9 cases of vagally-induced atrial flutter and fibrillation were unaffected by propafenone (mean score = 1.1). On the other hand, the drug was very effective (mean score = 4.1) in 8 cases of adrenergic atrial arrhythmias. In 12 arrhythmias with more varied mechanisms (extrasystoles, tachysystole, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation) an intermediate score was obtained (2.8). Three cases of resistant junctional tachycardia due to reentry were improved. At ventricular level, 5 cases of extrasystole sensitive to quinidine were also improved by propafenone (4.6); the difference was more clearcut in 8 cases of benign idiopathic tachycardia (propafenone: 4.1, and quinidine: 2.4). This was more marked in 13 cases of more severe arrhythmia in diseased hearts in which the effect of propafenone (4.1) was superior even to that of amiodarone. However, propafenone was less effective (3.3) than amiodarone in 4 cases of severe polymorphic idiopathic ventricular tachycardia closely related to the autonomic nervous system. The antiarrhythmic effect of propafenone was appreciable in 10 cases of resistant post-infarction ventricular tachycardia, eventually in association with amiodarone. Slowing of the sinus rhythm (-11.6%) with no change in the day/night ratio was due to beta-inhibition. However, in toxic doses this may progress to sinoatrial block (9 cases). A lengthening of the PR interval and duration of QRS was common, but this was not complicated by torsade de pointes, one case of which was successfully treated by propafenone. Secondary gastro-intestinal effects and vertigo were rarely severe enough to warrant stopping therapy. In conclusion, these results show that the introduction of propafenone is a valuable therapeutic advance in the treatment of arrhythmias, especially in those with a favoring adrenergic mechanism.

  4. Proteolytic digestive enzymes and peritrophic membranes during the development of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Piralidae): targets for the action of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) and chitin-binding vicilin (EvV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Ticiana M L; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Uchoa, Adriana F; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Macedo, Francisco P; Santos, Elizeu A; de Sales, Mauricio P

    2008-09-10

    The digestive system of P. interpunctella was characterized during its larval development to determine possible targets for the action of proteinaceous enzyme inhibitors and chitin-binding proteins. High proteolytic activities using azocasein at pH 9.5 as substrate were found. These specific enzymatic activities (AU/mg protein) showed an increase in the homogenate of third instar larvae, and when analyzed by individual larvae (AU/gut), the increase was in sixth instar larvae. Zymograms showed two bands corresponding to those enzymatic activities, which were inhibited by TLCK and SBTI, indicating that the larvae mainly used serine proteinases at pH 9.5 in their digestive process. The presence of a peritrophic membrane in the larvae was confirmed by chemical testing and light microscopy. In a bioassay, P. interpunctella was not susceptible to the soybean trypsin inhibitor, which did not affect larval mass and mortality, likely due to the weak association with its target digestive enzyme. EvV (Erythrina velutina vicilin), when added to the diet, affected mortality (LD50 0.23%) and larval mass (ED50 0.27%). This effect was associated with EvV-binding to the peritrophic membrane, as seen by immunolocalization. EvV was susceptible to gut enzymes and after the digestion process, released an immunoreactive fragment that was bound to the peritrophic matrix, which probably was responsible for the action of EvV.

  5. In silico modeling of the type 2 IDI enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus for virtual screening of potential inhibitors of this therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torktaz, Ibrahim; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2013-02-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase is an essential enzyme in those living organisms such as pathogenic strains of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genera which rely on the Mevalonate pathway for the production of isoprenoids. The pathogens contain type 2 IDI in contrast to human that contains type 1 IDI. Therefore, the type 2 IDI may be a potential target for the therapy of some infectious diseases. In the current study, a virtual screening by docking was performed among 2000 chemicals from CoCoCo library to find a specific inhibitor for type 2 IDIs. To this end, the structures of the type 2 IDIs of Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were molded using comparative modeling and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based prediction. The predicted models were evaluated based on Q-mean and Prosa score. Molegro Virtual Docker with MolDock scoring function was used for measuring the binding affinity of the found inhibitor to the active site of the models. Also the inhibition effect of the compound was virtually tested on the crystallography-solved structures of the Sulfolobus shibatae and Thermus thermophilus type 2 IDIs as well as the Escherichia coli type 1 IDI. Finally, the inhibition effect of the found inhibitor was virtually tested on the human type 1 IDI. Interestingly, the results suggest that the inhibitor efficiently binds to and inhibits the bacterial IDIs especially the type 2 IDIs of pathogens while it is not inhibiting the human IDI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gibbs Free Energy of Hydrolytic Water Molecule in Acyl-Enzyme Intermediates of a Serine Protease: A Potential Application for Computer-Aided Discovery of Mechanism-Based Reversible Covalent Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yosuke; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the potencies of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors, the relationships between calculated Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule in acyl-trypsin intermediates and experimentally measured catalytic rate constants (kcat) were investigated. After obtaining representative solution structures by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, hydration thermodynamics analyses using WaterMap™ were conducted. Consequently, we found for the first time that when Gibbs free energy of the hydrolytic water molecule was lower, logarithms of kcat were also lower. The hydrolytic water molecule with favorable Gibbs free energy may hydrolyze acylated serine slowly. Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule might be a useful descriptor for computer-aided discovery of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors of hydrolytic enzymes.

  7. Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Francesco; Azoulay, Laurent; Yin, Hui; Nessim, Sharon J; Suissa, Samy

    2013-01-08

    To assess whether a double therapy combination consisting of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers with addition of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the triple therapy combination of two of the aforementioned antihypertensive drugs to which NSAIDs are added are associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. Retrospective cohort study using nested case-control analysis. General practices contributing data to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database. A cohort of 487,372 users of antihypertensive drugs. Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals of acute kidney injury associated with current use of double and triple therapy combinations of antihypertensive drugs with NSAIDs. During a mean follow-up of 5.9 (SD 3.4) years, 2215 cases of acute kidney injury were identified (incidence rate 7/10,000 person years). Overall, current use of a double therapy combination containing either diuretics or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with NSAIDs was not associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury. In contrast, current use of a triple therapy combination was associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury (rate ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.53). In secondary analyses, the highest risk was observed in the first 30 days of use (rate ratio 1.82, 1.35 to 2.46). A triple therapy combination consisting of diuretics with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. The risk was greatest at the start of treatment. Although antihypertensive drugs have cardiovascular benefits, vigilance may be warranted when they are used concurrently with NSAIDs.

  8. [Evaluation of long-term therapy influence with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril on morphofunctional parameters of the left ventricle, peripheral artery endothelium disfunction and painless myocardial ischemia in premenopausal women with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibulina, M M

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess influence of long-term therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril on morphofunctional parameters of the left ventricle (LV) and painless myocardial ischemia in 109 premenopausal women with stage II hypertension depending on functional state of peripheral artery endothelium. The results show that lisinopril therapy in premenopausal women with hypertension can stop or even cause regression of LV myocardial hypertrophy and produce favorable effect on LV remodeling mostly in women with concentric type of hypertrophy and/or without endothelial dysfunction, and has positive effect on frequency of painless myocardial ischemia events.

  9. Opposing Effects of Beta-Blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Development of New Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vardeny, Orly; Uno, Hajime; Braunwald, Eugene; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; Gersh, Bernard; Maggioni, Aldo P; Domanski, Michael; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    We utilized data from patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) to assess the risk of new onset diabetes (NOD) with beta-blockers, and to determine whether angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would modify this risk. The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition (PEACE) trial randomized 8290 patients with stable CAD to trandolapril or placebo. The presence of NOD was assessed at each study visit over a median follow-up time of 4.8 years. We examined...

  10. Nationwide trends in the prescription of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors after myocardial infarction in Denmark, 1995-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Rasmussen, Jeppe N

    2005-01-01

    pharmacies within 30 d from discharge was obtained from the National Patient Registry and the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: Beta-blocker use increased from 38.1% of patients in 1995 to 67.9% in 2002 (OR = 3.85, CI: 3.58-4.13). Women, elderly patients and patients taking loop-diuretics...... and antidiabetic drugs received beta-blockers less frequently, but patients taking loop-diuretics or antidiabetic drugs had the greatest increase. ACE inhibitor use increased from 24.5 to 35.5% (OR = 1.86, CI: 1.72-2.01). Women, patients aged or = 80 years and patients not taking loop-diuretics...... received ACE inhibitors less frequently, but patients not taking loop-diuretics had the greatest increase. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-blocker use increased markedly post-AMI from 1995 to 2002, whereas ACE inhibitor use increased modestly. The results suggested undertreatment of women, elderly patients and people...

  11. First demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma A beta lowering with oral administration of a beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitor in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Holahan, Marie A; Colussi, Dennis; Crouthamel, Ming-Chih; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Ellis, Joan; Espeseth, Amy; Gates, Adam T; Graham, Samuel L; Gregro, Allison R; Hazuda, Daria; Hochman, Jerome H; Holloway, Katharine; Jin, Lixia; Kahana, Jason; Lai, Ming-tain; Lineberger, Janet; McGaughey, Georgia; Moore, Keith P; Nantermet, Philippe; Pietrak, Beth; Price, Eric A; Rajapakse, Hemaka; Stauffer, Shaun; Steinbeiser, Melissa A; Seabrook, Guy; Selnick, Harold G; Shi, Xiao-Ping; Stanton, Matthew G; Swestock, John; Tugusheva, Katherine; Tyler, Keala X; Vacca, Joseph P; Wong, Jacky; Wu, Guoxin; Xu, Min; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Simon, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    beta-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 cleavage of amyloid precursor protein is an essential step in the generation of the potentially neurotoxic and amyloidogenic A beta 42 peptides in Alzheimer's disease. Although previous mouse studies have shown brain A beta lowering after BACE1 inhibition, extension of such studies to nonhuman primates or man was precluded by poor potency, brain penetration, and pharmacokinetics of available inhibitors. In this study, a novel tertiary carbinamine BACE1 inhibitor, tertiary carbinamine (TC)-1, was assessed in a unique cisterna magna ported rhesus monkey model, where the temporal dynamics of A beta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma could be evaluated. TC-1, a potent inhibitor (IC(50) approximately 0.4 nM), has excellent passive membrane permeability, low susceptibility to P-glycoprotein transport, and lowered brain A beta levels in a mouse model. Intravenous infusion of TC-1 led to a significant but transient lowering of CSF and plasma A beta levels in conscious rhesus monkeys because it underwent CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. Oral codosing of TC-1 with ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, twice daily over 3.5 days in rhesus monkeys led to sustained plasma TC-1 exposure and a significant and sustained reduction in CSF sAPP beta, A beta 40, A beta 42, and plasma A beta 40 levels. CSF A beta 42 lowering showed an EC(50) of approximately 20 nM with respect to the CSF [TC-1] levels, demonstrating excellent concordance with its potency in a cell-based assay. These results demonstrate the first in vivo proof of concept of CSF A beta lowering after oral administration of a BACE1 inhibitor in a nonhuman primate.

  12. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Nellemann, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are known to have a range of disorders that are often linked to the endocrine system e.g. hormonal imbalances, breast enlargement, sexual dysfunction, and menstrual cycle disorders. The mechanisms behind most of these disorders are not known in details...

  13. Circular trimers of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 constitute a distinct population of functional enzyme molecules differentially regulated by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Born, Benjamin; Solomonov, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (EC 3.4.24.35) cleaves many substrates and is produced by most cell types as a zymogen, proMMP-9, in complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Natural proMMP-9 occurs as monomers, homomultimers and heterocomplexes, but our ...

  14. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril has neutral effect on exercise tolerance or functional class in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Burchardt, Hans; Z Abildstrøm, Steen

    2003-01-01

    /day of furosemide was spared in trandolapril arm (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Trandolapril had a mild diuretic-sparing effect. These results emphasis the importance of explaining to patients that ACE inhibitors provide protection against death and hospitalisation for heart failure but do not have any significant effect...

  15. Inhibitors of histone demethylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Kristensen, Jesper L; Kristensen, Line H

    2011-01-01

    Methylated lysines are important epigenetic marks. The enzymes involved in demethylation have recently been discovered and found to be involved in cancer development and progression. Despite the relative recent discovery of these enzymes a number of inhibitors have already appeared. Most of the i...

  16. Development of predictive pharmacophore model for in silico screening, and 3D QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA studies for lead optimization, for designing of potent tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, Prashant Revan; Zambre, Vishal Prakash; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2010-02-01

    A chemical feature-based pharmacophore model was developed for Tumor Necrosis Factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) inhibitors. A five point pharmacophore model having two hydrogen bond acceptors (A), one hydrogen bond donor (D) and two aromatic rings (R) with discrete geometries as pharmacophoric features was developed. The pharmacophore model so generated was then utilized for in silico screening of a database. The pharmacophore model so developed was validated by using four compounds having proven TACE inhibitory activity which were grafted into the database. These compounds mapped well onto the five listed pharmacophoric features. This validated pharmacophore model was also used for alignment of molecules in CoMFA and CoMSIA analysis. The contour maps of the CoMFA/CoMSIA models were utilized to provide structural insight for activity improvement of potential novel TACE inhibitors. The pharmacophore model so developed could be used for in silico screening of any commercial/in house database for identification of TACE inhibiting lead compounds, and the leads so identified could be optimized using the developed CoMSIA model. The present work highlights the tremendous potential of the two mutually complementary ligand-based drug designing techniques (i.e. pharmacophore mapping and 3D-QSAR analysis) using TACE inhibitors as prototype biologically active molecules.

  17. A phage display delected 7-mer peptide inhibitor of the tannerella forsythia metalloprotease-like enzyme karilysin can be truncated to ser-trp-phe-pro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Sørensen, Grete; Ksiazek, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered a l...

  18. ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS AND ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS: IS THERE A REASON TO CONSIDER AN EQUIVALENCE OF TWO DRUG CLASSES FROM THE EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE STANDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the main large controlled trials that had proven effect of ACE inhibitors (ACEi and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB on cardiovascular diseases outcomes are evaluated. Data of the recent meta-analyzes comparing ACEi and ARB effects on the life prognosis in patients of the high cardiovascular risk are presented. Better validity of ACEi efficacy versus this of ARB is concluded.

  19. Screening of thrombin inhibitors from phenolic acids using enzyme-immobilized magnetic beads through direct covalent binding by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Liu, Xun-Gao; Wang, Shu-Ling; Peng, Li-Qing

    2016-10-14

    Thrombin was immobilized on dynabeads(®)M-270 epoxy by direct covalent binding method for the first time. The enzyme coated magnetic beads were combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry technique to establish a simple, rapid and reliable approach for screening thrombin inhibitors from Danshen preparation. The conjugation of thrombin to the magnetic beads was characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and infrared spectroscopy, and the enzyme activity was determined by the analysis of enzyme-bead ratio and peak areas of target compounds. Several factors including amount of magnetic beads, type of elution solvent, incubation temperature and time were optimized. Additionally, two thrombin-bound compounds (protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid C) in Danshen injection were validated by conventional inhibitory assay and the IC50 values were 286.11 and 66.09μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggested that the proposed method was efficient in screening active compounds from medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [The effect of esmolol on corrected-QT interval, corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceker, Zahit; Takmaz, Suna Akın; Baltaci, Bülent; Başar, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500mcg/kg followed by a 100mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5min after esmolol and saline administration, 3min after the induction and 30s, 2min and 4min after intubation. The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p=0.012), the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p=0.034) and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p=0.022) 30s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p=0.038). Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. These effects were prevented with esmolol (500mcg/kg bolus, followed by

  1. The effect of esmolol on corrected-QT interval, corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahit Çeker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. METHODS: 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500 mcg/kg followed by a 100 mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5 min after esmolol and saline administration, 3 min after the induction and 30 s, 2 min and 4 min after intubation. RESULTS: The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p = 0.012, the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p = 0.034 and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p = 0.022 30 s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting

  2. Use of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin hepatobiliary scintigraphy to study the protective effect of a synthetic enzyme inhibitor on acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Song, B J; Seidel, J; Soh, Y; Jeong, K S; Kim, I S; Kobayashi, H; Green, M V; Carrasquillo, J A; Paik, C H

    1998-08-01

    Recent data suggest that inhibitors of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) can protect the liver from injury caused by various substrates of CYP2E1. In this study, we measured the protective effect of isopropyl-2-(1,3-dithioetane-2-ylidene)-2[N-(4-methylthiazol -2-yl)-carbamoyl]acetate (YH439), a transcriptional inhibitor of CYP2E1, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity by using various conventional methods and dynamic scintigraphy with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin, a recently developed scintigraphic agent. Balb/c mice were pretreated with two doses of YH439 (50 or 150 mg/kg per day) at 48 h and 24 h and one dose of CCl4 (0.25 mL/kg) at 18 h before scintigraphy. The results were compared with those of two other groups, one that received CCl4 but not YH439, and the other that received neither (control). Scintigraphic images were acquired continuously at 15-sec intervals for 30 min. Pharmacokinetic parameters, such as peak liver/heart ratio (r(max)), peak liver uptake time (t(max)), and hepatic half-clearance time (HCT), were obtained from time-activity curves derived from regions-of-interest (ROI) over the liver and the heart. Acute administration of CCl4 alone caused centrilobular necrosis and serum transaminase levels to rise more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. Pharmacokinetic parameters also changed significantly from those of the control group. Administration of YH439 prevented centrilobular necrosis and significantly improved pharmacokinetic parameters. This study demonstrates for the first time that hepatobiliary scintigraphy can be used to study in vivo biochemistry of the CYP2E1 inhibitor (YH439) against liver toxicity.

  3. Use of {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin hepatobiliary scintigraphy to study the protective effect of a synthetic enzyme inhibitor on acute hepatotoxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Meyoung-kon; Song, Byoung J.; Seidel, Juergen; Soh, Yunjo; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Kim, In Sook; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Green, Michael V.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Paik, Chang H. E-mail: paik@nmdhst.cc.nih.gov

    1998-08-01

    Recent data suggest that inhibitors of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) can protect the liver from injury caused by various substrates of CYP2E1. In this study, we measured the protective effect of isopropyl-2-(1,3-dithioetane-2-ylidene)-2[N-(4-methylthiazol-2-yl) -carbamoyl]acetate (YH439), a transcriptional inhibitor of CYP2E1, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity by using various conventional methods and dynamic scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin, a recently developed scintigraphic agent. Balb/c mice were pretreated with two doses of YH439 (50 or 150 mg/kg per day) at 48 h and 24 h and one dose of CCl{sub 4} (0.25 mL/kg) at 18 h before scintigraphy. The results were compared with those of two other groups, one that received CCl{sub 4} but not YH439, and the other that received neither (control). Scintigraphic images were acquired continuously at 15-sec intervals for 30 min. Pharmacokinetic parameters, such as peak liver/heart ratio (r{sub max}), peak liver uptake time (t{sub max}), and hepatic half-clearance time (HCT), were obtained from time-activity curves derived from regions-of-interest (ROI) over the liver and the heart. Acute administration of CCl{sub 4} alone caused centrilobular necrosis and serum transaminase levels to rise more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. Pharmacokinetic parameters also changed significantly from those of the control group. Administration of YH439 prevented centrilobular necrosis and significantly improved pharmacokinetic parameters. This study demonstrates for the first time that hepatobiliary scintigraphy can be used to study in vivo biochemistry of the CYP2E1 inhibitor (YH439) against liver toxicity.

  4. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Lesinurad, a New Selective Urate Reabsorption Inhibitor, and CYP Enzyme Substrates Sildenafil, Amlodipine, Tolbutamide, and Repaglinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Michael; Yang, Chun; Wilson, David; Valdez, Shakti; Lee, Caroline; Kerr, Bradley; Shen, Zancong

    2017-07-01

    Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for the treatment of hyperuricemia associated with gout in combination with xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In vitro assays indicate that lesinurad is an inducer of CYPs in the order CYP3A > CYP2C8 > CYP2C9 > CYP2C19 > CYP2B6 and an inhibitor of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. To investigate the drug interaction potential of lesinurad, clinical drug interaction studies were conducted. Open-label studies in volunteers investigated the effects of single-/multiple-dose lesinurad on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and amlodipine (CYP3A4 induction), tolbutamide (CYP2C9 inhibition/induction), and repaglinide (CYP2C8 inhibition/induction). There was no apparent induction of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 following repeated lesinurad administration, although no inhibition of CYP2C9 and modest inhibition of CYP2C8 were observed following single-dose lesinurad. Consistent with in vitro observations, lesinurad (200 mg once daily) was an inducer of CYP3A based on the effects on sildenafil exposure. Sildenafil exposure decreased by approximately 34% for Cmax and AUC when administered with multiple-dose lesinurad 200 mg and allopurinol 300 mg, relative to sildenafil alone. During lesinurad therapy, the possibility of reduced efficacy of concomitant drugs that are CYP3A substrates should be considered and their efficacy monitored because of induction of CYP3A by lesinurad. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Structure-Based Design of an Iminoheterocyclic β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme (BACE) Inhibitor that Lowers Central Aβ in Nonhuman Primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Mihirbaran; Wu, Yusheng; Misiaszek, Jeffrey; Li, Guoqing; Buevich, Alexei; Caldwell, John P.; Liu, Xiaoxiang; Mazzola, Robert D.; Orth, Peter; Strickland, Corey; Voigt, Johannes; Wang, Hongwu; Zhu, Zhaoning; Chen, Xia; Grzelak, Michael; Hyde, Lynn A.; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Leach, Prescott T.; Terracina, Giuseppe; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Michener, Maria S.; Smith, Brad; Cox, Kathleen; Grotz, Diane; Favreau, Leonard; Mitra, Kaushik; Kazakevich, Irina; McKittrick, Brian A.; Greenlee, William; Kennedy, Matthew E.; Parker, Eric M.; Cumming, Jared N.; Stamford, Andrew W. (Merck)

    2016-04-14

    We describe successful efforts to optimize the in vivo profile and address off-target liabilities of a series of BACE1 inhibitors represented by 6 that embodies the recently validated fused pyrrolidine iminopyrimidinone scaffold. Employing structure-based design, truncation of the cyanophenyl group of 6 that binds in the S3 pocket of BACE1 followed by modification of the thienyl group in S1 was pursued. Optimization of the pyrimidine substituent that binds in the S2'–S2'' pocket of BACE1 remediated time-dependent CYP3A4 inhibition of earlier analogues in this series and imparted high BACE1 affinity. These efforts resulted in the discovery of difluorophenyl analogue 9 (MBi-4), which robustly lowered CSF and cortex Aβ40 in both rats and cynomolgus monkeys following a single oral dose. Compound 9 represents a unique molecular shape among BACE inhibitors reported to potently lower central Aβ in nonrodent preclinical species.

  6. Discovery of the 3-Imino-1,2,4-thiadiazinane 1,1-Dioxide Derivative Verubecestat (MK-8931)–A β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Jack D.; Li, Sarah W.; Brunskill, Andrew P.J.; Chen, Xia; Cox, Kathleen; Cumming, Jared N.; Forman, Mark; Gilbert, Eric J.; Hodgson, Robert A.; Hyde, Lynn A.; Jiang, Qin; Iserloh, Ulrich; Kazakevich, Irina; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Mei, Hong; Meredith, John; Misiaszek, Jeffrey; Orth, Peter; Rossiter, Lana M.; Slater, Meagan; Stone, Julie; Strickland, Corey O.; Voigt, Johannes H.; Wang, Ganfeng; Wang, Hongwu; Wu, Yusheng; Greenlee, William J.; Parker, Eric M.; Kennedy, Matthew E.; Stamford, Andrew W. (Merck)

    2016-12-08

    Verubecestat 3 (MK-8931), a diaryl amide-substituted 3-imino-1,2,4-thiadiazinane 1,1-dioxide derivative, is a high-affinity β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitor currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical evaluation for the treatment of mild to moderate and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Although not selective over the closely related aspartyl protease BACE2, verubecestat has high selectivity for BACE1 over other key aspartyl proteases, notably cathepsin D, and profoundly lowers CSF and brain Aβ levels in rats and nonhuman primates and CSF Aβ levels in humans. In this annotation, we describe the discovery of 3, including design, validation, and selected SAR around the novel iminothiadiazinane dioxide core as well as aspects of its preclinical and Phase 1 clinical characterization.

  7. Does Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and β-Blocker Use Reduce the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer? A Case-Control Study Using the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; McGlynn, Katherine A; Jick, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that use of the antihypertensive drugs angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers may decrease the risk of primary liver cancer; thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether use of ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers is associated with a lower risk of liver cancer. Nested case-control study. United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified 490 cases with hypertension and a first-time (incident) diagnosis of primary liver cancer between 1988 and 2011. To account for an induction period, the index date was defined as the date of the first recorded liver cancer diagnosis minus 1 year. Controls were selected from patients with hypertension in the CPRD during the study period with a recorded diagnosis of hypertension who had no diagnosis of liver cancer and were free of any other cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) before the index date; they were matched up to a 4:1 ratio to cases based on index date (same index date as that of their matched case), age (same year of birth), sex, general practice, and number of years of recorded history in the CPRD before the index date (1909 controls). Both cases and controls were required to have at least 2 years of recorded activity in the database before the index date. Exposure was defined as receipt of two or more prescriptions for ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers before the index date; the reference group was nonuse (0-1 prescription) of ACE or β-blocker prescriptions before the index date. We also examined the effect of duration of use and, separately, the effect of individual drugs within each medication class on risk of liver cancer, and conducted analyses restricted to patients without liver disease or diabetes mellitus. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No association was found between use of ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers and the risk of liver cancer compared

  8. Effect of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen leaching, nitrifying organisms, and enzyme activities in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Lian, Yanfeng; Tian, Guangming; Ni, Wuzhong

    2008-01-01

    DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) has been used to reduce nitrogen (N) loss from leaching or denitrification and to improve N supply in agricultural land. However, its impact on soil nitrifying organisms and enzyme activities involved in N cycling is largely unknown. Therefore, an on-farm experiment, for two years, has been conducted, to elucidate the effects of DMPP on mineral N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) leaching, nitrifying organisms, and denitrifying enzymes in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system. Three treatments including urea alone (UA), urea + 1% DMPP (DP), and no fertilizer (CK), have been carried out. The results showed that DP enhanced the mean NH4(+)-N concentrations by 19.1%--24.3%, but reduced the mean NO3(-)-N concentrations by 44.9%--56.6% in the leachate, under a two-year rice-rape rotation, compared to the UA treatment. The population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, the activity of nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase in the DP treatment decreased about 24.5%--30.9%, 14.9%--43.5%, and 14.7%--31.6%, respectively, as compared to the UA treatment. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria and hydroxylamine reductase remained almost unaffected by DMPP. It is proposed that DMPP has the potential to either reduce NO3(-)-N leaching by inhibiting ammonia oxidization or N losses from denitrification, which is in favor of the N conversations in the rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

  9. Beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, nitrate-hydralazine, diuretics, aldosterone antagonist, ivabradine, devices and digoxin (BANDAID(2) ): an evidence-based mnemonic for the treatment of systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, N; Fulcher, J; Keech, A

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure causes significant morbidity and mortality, with recognised underutilisation rates of guideline-based therapies. Our aim was to review current evidence for heart failure treatments and derive a mnemonic summarising best practice, which might assist physicians in patient care. Treatments were identified for review from multinational society guidelines and recent randomised trials, with a primary aim of examining their effects in systolic heart failure patients on mortality, hospitalisation rates and symptoms. Secondary aims were to consider other clinical benefits. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using a structured keyword strategy and the retrieved articles were evaluated methodically to produce an optimised reference list for each treatment. We devised the mnemonic BANDAID (2) , standing for beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, nitrate-hydralazine (or potentially neprilysin inhibitor), diuretics, aldosterone antagonist, ivabradine, devices (automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator, cardiac resynchronisation therapy or both) and digoxin as a representation of treatments with strong evidence for their use in systolic heart failure. Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, statins or anti-thrombotic therapies has limited benefits in a general heart failure population. Adoption of this mnemonic for current evidence-based treatments for heart failure may help improve prescribing rates and patient outcomes in this debilitating, high mortality condition. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Hologram QSAR Models of a Series of 6-Arylquinazolin-4-Amine Inhibitors of a New Alzheimer’s Disease Target: Dual Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase-1A Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Dias Leal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase-1A (DYRK1A is an enzyme directly involved in Alzheimer’s disease, since its increased expression leads to β-amyloidosis, Tau protein aggregation, and subsequent formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR, 2D fragment-based models were developed for a series of 6-arylquinazolin-4-amine inhibitors (36 training, 10 test of DYRK1A. The best HQSAR model (q2 = 0.757; SEcv = 0.493; R2 = 0.937; SE = 0.251; R2pred = 0.659 presents high goodness-of-fit (R2 > 0.9, as well as high internal (q2 > 0.7 and external (R2pred > 0.5 predictive power. The fragments that increase and decrease the biological activity values were addressed using the colored atomic contribution maps provided by the method. The HQSAR contribution map of the best model is an important tool to understand the activity profiles of new derivatives and may provide information for further design of novel DYRK1A inhibitors.

  11. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus capsule biosynthesis pathway in vitro: characterization of the UDP-GlcNAc C6 dehydratases CapD and CapE and identification of enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ulm, Hannah; Rausch, Marvin; Li, Xue; O'Riordan, Katie; Lee, Jean C; Schneider, Tanja; Müller, Christa E

    2014-11-01

    Polysaccharide capsules significantly contribute to virulence of invasive pathogens, and inhibition of capsule biosynthesis may offer a valuable strategy for novel anti-infective treatment. We purified and characterized the enzymes CapD and CapE of the Staphylococcus aureus serotype 5 biosynthesis cluster, which catalyze the first steps in the synthesis of the soluble capsule precursors UDP-D-FucNAc and UDP-L-FucNAc, respectively. CapD is an integral membrane protein and was obtained for the first time in a purified, active form. A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based method applying micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) coupled with UV detection at 260 nm was developed for functional characterization of the enzymes using a fused-silica capillary, electrokinetic injection, and dynamic coating with polybrene at pH 12.4. The limits of detection for the CapD and CapE products UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex-4-ulose and UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose, respectively, were below 1 μM. Using this new, robust and sensitive method we performed kinetic studies for CapD and CapE and screened a compound library in search for enzyme inhibitors. Several active compounds were identified and characterized, including suramin (IC50 at CapE 1.82 μM) and ampicillin (IC50 at CapD 40.1 μM). Furthermore, the cell wall precursors UDP-D-MurNAc-pentapeptide and lipid II appear to function as inhibitors of CapD enzymatic activity, suggesting an integrated mechanism of regulation for cell envelope biosynthesis pathways in S. aureus. Corroborating the in vitro findings, staphylococcal cells grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin displayed drastically reduced CP production. Our studies contribute to a profound understanding of the capsule biosynthesis in pathogenic bacteria. This approach may lead to the identification of novel anti-virulence and antibiotic drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of various phytochemicals on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 activity: galanal is a novel, competitive inhibitor of the enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO 1, that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the degradation of L-tryptophan, has an important immunomodulatory function. The activity of IDO1 increases in various inflammatory diseases, including tumors, autoimmune diseases, and different kinds of inflammation. We evaluated the suppressive effect of plant extracts or phytochemicals on IDO1 induction and activity; sixteen kinds of plants extracts and fourteen kinds of phytochemicals were examined. As a result, the methanol extracts of Myoga flower buds, which are traditional Japanese foods, and labdane-type diterpene galanal derived from Myoga flowers significantly suppressed IDO1 activity. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that galanal is a competitive inhibitor. Galanal attenuated L-kynurenine formation with an IC₅₀ value of 7.7 µM in the assay system using recombinant human IDO1, and an IC₅₀ value of 45 nM in the cell-based assay. Further, mechanistic analysis revealed that galanal interfered with the transcriptional function of the nuclear factor-κB and the interferon-γ signaling pathway. These effects of galanal are important for immune response. Because the inhibitory effect of galanal on IDO1 activity was stronger than that of 1-methyl tryptophan, a tryptophan analog, galanal may have great potential as the novel drug for various immune-related diseases.

  13. Effects of Various Phytochemicals on Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Activity: Galanal Is a Novel, Competitive Inhibitor of the Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Rie; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Imai, Shinjiro; Fukutomi, Ryuta; Ozawa, Yoshio; Abe, Masako; Matuo, Yushi; Saito, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the degradation of L-tryptophan, has an important immunomodulatory function. The activity of IDO1 increases in various inflammatory diseases, including tumors, autoimmune diseases, and different kinds of inflammation. We evaluated the suppressive effect of plant extracts or phytochemicals on IDO1 induction and activity; sixteen kinds of plants extracts and fourteen kinds of phytochemicals were examined. As a result, the methanol extracts of Myoga flower buds, which are traditional Japanese foods, and labdane-type diterpene galanal derived from Myoga flowers significantly suppressed IDO1 activity. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that galanal is a competitive inhibitor. Galanal attenuated L-kynurenine formation with an IC50 value of 7.7 µM in the assay system using recombinant human IDO1, and an IC50 value of 45 nM in the cell-based assay. Further, mechanistic analysis revealed that galanal interfered with the transcriptional function of the nuclear factor-κB and the interferon-γ signaling pathway. These effects of galanal are important for immune response. Because the inhibitory effect of galanal on IDO1 activity was stronger than that of 1-methyl tryptophan, a tryptophan analog, galanal may have great potential as the novel drug for various immune-related diseases. PMID:24533148

  14. Novel N-substituted indole Schiff bases as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes: Synthesis, biological activities in vitro and docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamie, Phoebe F; Ali, Waleed A M; Bazgier, Vaclav; Rárová, Lucie

    2016-11-10

    Two new series of N-substituted indole derivatives 4a-l and 5a-h were synthesized. Their chemical structures were confirmed using spectroscopic tools including IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR mass spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The results showed no significant cytotoxic activity on either cancer or normal human cells. Anti-inflammatory activity for all target compounds was evaluated in vitro. Compounds 5a-h were found to have better anti-inflammatory activity than 4a-l. The inhibitory activity of COX-2 and 5-LOX were tested for 5a-h. Three compounds, 5c, 5d and 5f showed excellent COX-2 inhibitory activity with IC50 ranging from 0.98 to 1.23 μM compared to the reference celecoxib (1.54 μM). These compounds had a reasonable selectivity index between 7.03 and 8.05. Additionally, p-methylbenzoyl derivative 5g (IC50 = 5.78 μM) had superior 5-LOX inhibitory activity, higher than quercetin. 5e was close to quercetin in its LOX inhibitory activity. Compounds 5a-h were docked inside the active site of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone and its Palladium(II), Cobalt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyar, Saliha; Adem, Şevki

    2014-10-01

    We report the synthesis of the ligand, salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone (salptsmh) derived from p-toluenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (ptsmh) and its Pd(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized for the first time. The structure of the ligand and their complexes were investigated using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR, NMR and LC-MS) measurements. Salptsmh has also been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The complexes were found to have general composition [ML2]. The results of elemental analysis showed 1:2 (metal/ligand) stoichiometry for all the complex. Magnetic and spectral data indicate a square planar geometry for Pd(II) complex and a distorted tetrahedral geometry for Co(II) complexes. The ligand and its metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disk diffusion method against the selected Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Gram negative bacteria: Eschericha coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values and it has been found that Pd(II) complex have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than salptsmh and Co(II) complex.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ümmühan Özmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide ( esh: CH 3CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone ( 5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone ( 5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC 50 and Ki values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  17. A combination of pharmacophore modeling, atom-based 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies on PDE4 enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripuraneni, Naga Srinivas; Azam, Mohammed Afzal

    2016-11-01

    Phosphodiesterases 4 enzyme is an attractive target for the design of anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator agents. In the present study, pharmacophore and atom-based 3D-QSAR studies were carried out for pyrazolopyridine and quinoline derivatives using Schrödinger suite 2014-3. A four-point pharmacophore model was developed using 74 molecules having pIC50 ranging from 10.1 to 4.5. The best four feature model consists of one hydrogen bond acceptor, two aromatic rings, and one hydrophobic group. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a statistically significant 3D-QSAR model, with a high correlation coefficient (R(2 )= .9949), cross validation coefficient (Q(2 )= .7291), and Pearson-r (.9107) at six component partial least square factor. The external validation indicated that our QSAR model possessed high predictive power with R(2) value of .88. The generated model was further validated by enrichment studies using the decoy test. Molecular docking, free energy calculation, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies have been performed to explore the putative binding modes of these ligands. A 10-ns MD simulation confirmed the docking results of both stability of the 1XMU-ligand complex and the presumed active conformation. Outcomes of the present study provide insight in designing novel molecules with better PDE4 inhibitory activity.

  18. Synthesis of some novel enzyme inhibitors and antibacterial agents derived from 5-(1-(4-tosylpiperidin-4-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas Sattar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Keeping in mind the pharmacological importance of the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety, a series of new S-substituted derivatives, 5a-h, of 5-(1-(4-tosylpiperidin-4-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiol (3 were synthesized. The reaction of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (a and ethyl isonipecotate (b produced ethyl 1-(4-tosylpiperidin-4-carboxylate (1 which was further transformed into 1-(4-tosylpiperidin-4-carbohydrazide (2 by hydrazine hydrate in methanol. Compound 2 was refluxed with CS2 in the presence of KOH to synthesize 5-(1-(4-tosylpiperidin-4-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiol (3. The desired compounds, 5a-h, were synthesized by stirring 3 with aralkyl halides, 4a-h, in DMF using NaH as an activator. The structures of synthesized compounds were elucidated by 1H-NMR, IR and EI-MS spectral studies. These compounds were further evaluated for enzyme inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase and alpha-glucosidase, along with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  19. Pancreatic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NOW HONOR/MEMORIAL GENERAL DONATION MONTHLY PURPLESTRIDE Pancreatic enzymes Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer ... and see a registered dietitian. What are pancreatic enzymes? Pancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and ...

  20. Pectic enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benen, J.A.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Visser, J.

    2003-01-01

    The pectic enzymes comprise a diverse group of enzymes. They consist of main-chain depolymerases and esterases active on methyl- and acetylesters of galacturonosyl uronic acid residues. The depolymerizing enzymes comprise hydrolases as wel as lyases

  1. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Vinken, Mathieu [Department of Toxicology, Center for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented when animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2-APB

  2. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, prevents the hyperactivity and impulsivity of neurokinin-1 receptor gene 'knockout' mice: sex differences and implications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ashley J; Pillidge, Katharine; Grabowska, Ewelina M; Stanford, S Clare

    2015-04-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display behavioural abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness. The preferred ligand for NK1R, substance P, is metabolised by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which forms part of the brain renin angiotensin system (BRAS). In view of evidence that the BRAS modulates locomotor activity and cognitive performance, we tested the effects of drugs that target the BRAS on these behaviours in NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. We first tested the effects of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, on locomotor activity. Because there are well-established sex differences in both ADHD and ACE activity, we compared the effects of captopril in both male and female mice. Locomotor hyperactivity was evident in male NK1R-/- mice, only, and this was abolished by treatment with captopril. By contrast, male wildtypes and females of both genotypes were unaffected by ACE inhibition. We then investigated the effects of angiotensin AT1 (losartan) and AT2 (PD 123319) receptor antagonists on the locomotor activity of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. Both antagonists increased the locomotor activity of NK1R-/- mice, but neither affected the wildtypes. Finally, we tested the effects of captopril on the performance of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task (5-CSRTT) and found that ACE inhibition prevented the impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice. These results indicate that certain behaviours, disrupted in ADHD, are influenced by an interaction between the BRAS and NK1R, and suggest that ACE inhibitors could provide a novel treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kunstige Enzymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Bjerre, Jeannette; Marinescu, Lavinia

    2007-01-01

    Enzymer har en enestående evne til at accelerere kemiske processer. Der forskes målrettet i at optimere enzymer baseret på cyclodextrin.......Enzymer har en enestående evne til at accelerere kemiske processer. Der forskes målrettet i at optimere enzymer baseret på cyclodextrin....

  4. The NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor pevonedistat activates the eIF2α and mTOR pathways inducing UPR-mediated cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Gilles M; Zheng, Shuhua; Leclerc, Guy J; DeSalvo, Joanna; Swords, Ronan T; Barredo, Julio C

    2016-11-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in children, and cure rates for adults remain dismal. Further, effective treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory ALL remain elusive. We previously uncovered that ALL cells are prone to apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated mechanisms. We investigated the antineoplastic activity of pevonedistat(®), a novel NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor that targets E3 cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) dependent proteasomal protein degradation, in ALL. Herein, we report that pevonedistat induces apoptosis in ALL cells by dysregulating the translational machinery leading to induction of proteotoxic/ER stress and UPR-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, pevonedistat led to P-eIF2a dephosphorylation causing atypical proteotoxic/ER stress from failure to halt protein translation via the UPR and upregulation of mTOR/p70S6K. Additional studies revealed that pevonedistat re-balanced the homeostasis of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins to favor cell death through altered expression and/or activity of Mcl-1, NOXA, and BIM, suggesting that pevonedistat has a "priming" effect on ALL by altering the apoptotic threshold through modulation of Mcl-1 activity. Further, we demonstrated that pevonedistat synergizes with selected anti-leukemic agents in vitro, and prolongs survival of NSG mice engrafted with ALL cells, lending support for the use of pevonedistat as part of a multi-agent approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of long term therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril, antagonist of receptors to angiotensin II valsartan, and combination of quinapril and valsartan in patients with moderate chronic heart failure. Main results of the SADKO-CHF study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A A; Nasonova, S N; Sychev, A V; Orlova, Ia A; Baklanova, N A; Masenko, V P; Mareev, V Iu; Belenkov, Iu N

    2006-01-01

    To compare effects of therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril (Q), angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan (V), and their combination in patients with stable moderate chronic heart failure (CHF). Patients (n=80) with NYHA class II-III CHF due to ischemic heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy or decompensated hypertensive heart and ejection fraction ECG monitoring with measurements of parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), and determination of neurohormones in peripheral blood. Examinations and measurements were made at baseline, in 3 and 6 months. Six months therapy with Q, V and their combination resulted in improvement of clinical and functional state of patients. More pronounced augmentation of exercise tolerance and lowering of CHF functional class were observed in group Q. Combined use of Q and V had no significant advantages over monotherapy with Q and V when effect on parameters of left ventricular remodeling were concerned. Therapy with Q was associated with "escape" of blockade of aldosterone synthesis and "reactivation" of angiotensin II formation after 6 months. The use of V and combination of V+Q allowed to achieve more stable but incomplete control of aldosterone activity. The use of Q appears to be the preferential regimen to influence activity of sympathoadrenal system and parameters of 24 hour HRV compared with V and Q+V. Long term therapy with V does not improve main parameters of 24 hour HRV.

  6. [Progress on matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingling, Jia; Qianbing, Wan

    2017-04-01

    Continuing advances in dentin bonding technology and adhesives revolutionized bonding of resin-based composite restorations. However, hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin adhesives present imperfect durability, and degradation of collagen matrix by endogenous enzymes is a significant factor causing destruction of hybrid layers. Bond durability can be improved by using enzyme inhibitors to prevent collagen degradation and to preserve integrity of collagen matrix. This review summarizes progress on matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (including chlorhexidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, quaternary ammonium salt, tetracycline and its derivatives, hydroxamic acid inhibitors, bisphosphonate derivative, and cross-linking agents) and suggests prospects for these compounds.

  7. Enzyme assays

    OpenAIRE

    Bisswanger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The essential requirements for enzyme assays are described and frequently occurring errors and pitfalls as well as their avoidance are discussed. The main factors, which must be considered for assaying enzymes, are temperature, pH, ionic strength and the proper concentrations of the essential components like substrates and enzymes. Standardization of these parameters would be desirable, but the diversity of the features of different enzymes prevents unification of assay conditions. Neverthele...

  8. Proteinase inhibitors in Brazilian leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Sampaio

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine proteinase inhitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil, were studied using bovine trypsin, a digestive enzyme, Factor XIIa and human plasma Kallikrein, two blood clotting factors. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Mr=23,000, Torresea cearensis (Mr = 13,000, Bauhinia pentandra (Mr = 20,000 and Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mr = 20,000. E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XSSa, but does nor affect plasma kallikrein; both Bauhinia inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the Bpentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa. Ki values were calculated between 10 [raised to the power of] -7 and 10 [raised to the power of] -8 M.

  9. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. of China (China); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O' Reilly, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gold, Kathryn A. [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ≥2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ≥2 among patients who received a low (≤20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  10. Plasma renin activity to plasma aldosterone concentration ratio correlates with night-time and pulse pressures in essential hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/AT1 blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannella, Francesco; Giulietti, Federico; Balietti, Paolo; Borioni, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Francesca E; Ricci, Maddalena; Cocci, Guido; Landi, Laura; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2017-11-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and AT1 blockers (ARB) are commonly used antihypertensive drugs, but several factors may affect their effectiveness. We evaluated the associations between ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) parameters and plasma renin activity (PRA)-to-plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) ratio (RAR) to test renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in essential hypertensive patients treated with ACE-I or ARB for at least 12 months. We evaluated 194 consecutive patients referred to our Hypertension Centre. ABPM, PRA and PAC tests were performed without any changes in drug therapy. RAR, PRA and PAC tertiles were considered for the analyses. Mean age: 57.4 ± 12.0 years; male prevalence: 63.9%. No differences between RAR tertiles regarding the use of ACE-I or ARB (P = 0.385), as well as the other antihypertensive drug classes, were found. A reduction of all ABPM values considered (24-h BP, daytime BP and night-time BP and 24-h pulse pressure (PP), daytime PP and night-time PP) and a better BP control were observed at increasing RAR tertiles, with an odds ratio = 0.12 to be not controlled during night-time period for patients in the third tertile compared with patients in the first tertile (P < 0.001). This association remained significant even after adjusting for 24-h BP control. All the associations were also confirmed for PRA tertiles, but not for PAC tertiles. Higher RAR values indicate effective renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition and lower night-time and pulse pressures in real-life clinical practice. It could be a useful biomarker in the management of essential hypertensive patients treated with ACE-I or ARB.

  11. Patterns of use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers among patients with acute myocardial infarction in China from 2001 to 2011: China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Qing; Murugiah, Karthik; Spatz, Erica S; Li, Jing; Li, Xi; Ross, Joseph S; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-02-23

    Chinese and U.S. guidelines recommend angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for all patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the absence of contraindications as either a Class I or Class IIa recommendation. Little is known about the use and trends of ACEI/ARB therapy in China over the past decade. Using nationally representative data from the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Retrospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction (China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study), we assessed use of ACEI/ARB therapy in 2001, 2006, and 2011, overall and across geographic regions and strata of estimated mortality risk, and predictors of ACEI/ARB therapy, among patients with Class I indication by Chinese guidelines. The weighted rate of ACEI/ARB therapy increased from 62.0% in 2001 to 71.4% in 2006, decreasing to 67.6% in 2011. Use was low across all 5 geographic regions. By strata of estimated mortality risk, in 2001, rates of therapy increased with increasing risk; however, by 2011, this reversed and those at higher risk were less likely to be treated (70.7% in lowest-risk quintile vs. 63.5% in the highest-risk quintile; P<0.001). One third of Chinese AMI patients with Class I indications do not receive ACEI/ARB therapy during hospitalization, with little improvement in rates over time. Patients at higher mortality risk in 2011 were less likely to be treated, highlighting important opportunities to optimize the use of this cost-effective therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624883. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Cathepsin D inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gacko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of cathepsin D belong to chemical compounds that estrify carboxyl groups of the Asp33 and Asp231residues of its catalytic site, penta-peptides containing statin, i.e. the amino acid similar in structure to the tetraedric indirectproduct, and polypeptides found in the spare organs of many plants and forming permanent noncovalent complexes withcathepsin. Cathepsin D activity is also inhibited by alpha2-macroglobulin and antibodies directed against this enzyme.Methods used to determine the activity and concentration of these inhibitors and their analytical, preparative and therapeuticapplications are discussed.

  13. Enzyme Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  14. Arctigenin, a potential anti-arrhythmic agent, inhibits aconitine-induced arrhythmia by regulating multi-ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Lou, Jianshi; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-01-01

    Arctigenin possesses biological activities, but its underlying mechanisms at the cellular and ion channel levels are not completely understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the anti-arrhythmia effect of arctigenin in vivo, as well as its cellular targets and mechanisms. A rat arrhythmia model was established via continuous aconitine infusion, and the onset times of ventricular premature contraction, ventricular tachycardia and death were recorded. The Action Potential Duration (APD), sodium current (I(Na)), L-type calcium current (I(Ca, L)) and transient outward potassium current (I(to)) were measured and analysed using a patch-clamp recording technique in normal rat cardiomyocytes and myocytes of arrhythmia aconitine-induced by. Arctigenin significantly delayed the arrhythmia onset in the aconitine-induced rat model. The 50% and 90% repolarisations (APD50 and APD90) were shortened by 100 µM arctigenin; the arctigenin dose also inhibited the prolongation of APD50 and APD90 caused by 1 µM aconitine. Arctigenin inhibited I(Na) and I(Ca,L) and attenuated the aconitine-increased I(Na) and I(Ca,L) by accelerating the activation process and delaying the inactivation process. Arctigenin enhanced Ito by facilitating the activation process and delaying the inactivation process, and recoverd the decreased Ito induced by aconitine. Arctigenin has displayed anti-arrhythmia effects, both in vivo and in vitro. In the context of electrophysiology, I(Na), I(Ca, L), and I(to) may be multiple targets of arctigenin, leading to its antiarrhythmic effect. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Arctigenin, a Potential Anti-Arrhythmic Agent, Inhibits Aconitine-Induced Arrhythmia by Regulating Multi-Ion Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenying Zhao; Yongqiang Yin; Hong Wu; Min Jiang; Jianshi Lou; Gang Bai; Guo‘an Luo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Arctigenin possesses biological activities, but its underlying mechanisms at the cellular and ion channel levels are not completely understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the anti-arrhythmia effect of arctigenin in vivo, as well as its cellular targets and mechanisms. Methods: A rat arrhythmia model was established via continuous aconitine infusion, and the onset times of ventricular premature contraction, ventricular tachycardia and death were reco...

  16. Arctigenin, a Potential Anti-Arrhythmic Agent, Inhibits Aconitine-Induced Arrhythmia by Regulating Multi-Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Zhao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Arctigenin possesses biological activities, but its underlying mechanisms at the cellular and ion channel levels are not completely understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the anti-arrhythmia effect of arctigenin in vivo, as well as its cellular targets and mechanisms. Methods: A rat arrhythmia model was established via continuous aconitine infusion, and the onset times of ventricular premature contraction, ventricular tachycardia and death were recorded. The Action Potential Duration (APD, sodium current (INa, L-type calcium current (ICa, L and transient outward potassium current (Ito were measured and analysed using a patch-clamp recording technique in normal rat cardiomyocytes and myocytes of arrhythmia aconitine-induced by. Results: Arctigenin significantly delayed the arrhythmia onset in the aconitine-induced rat model. The 50% and 90% repolarisations (APD50 and APD90 were shortened by 100 µM arctigenin; the arctigenin dose also inhibited the prolongation of APD50 and APD90 caused by 1 µM aconitine. Arctigenin inhibited INa and ICa,L and attenuated the aconitine-increased INa and ICa,L by accelerating the activation process and delaying the inactivation process. Arctigenin enhanced Ito by facilitating the activation process and delaying the inactivation process, and recoverd the decreased Ito induced by aconitine. Conclusions: Arctigenin has displayed anti-arrhythmia effects, both in vivo and in vitro. In the context of electrophysiology, INa, ICa, L, and Ito may be multiple targets of arctigenin, leading to its antiarrhythmic effect.

  17. Myocardial infarct size-limiting and anti-arrhythmic effects of mildronate orotate in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilskersts, Reinis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Kuka, Janis; Cirule, Helena; Veveris, Maris; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2009-08-01

    Mildronate and orotic acid act as modulators of energy metabolism and are considered as cardioprotective agents. This study was performed to compare the cardioprotective effects of mildronate, orotic acid and mildronate orotate. Male Wistar rats received mildronate, orotic acid or mildronate orotate for 14 days. The isolated rat heart infarction and isoproterenol-induced ischemia models were used to test the cardioprotective effects of compounds studied. Experimental arrhythmias were induced by the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 10 min with subsequent reperfusion or by administration of calcium chloride or aconitine at arrhythmogenic doses. The data obtained showed a statistically significant decrease of necrotic area in 25% of infarcted rat hearts after 14 days of treatment with mildronate and orotic acid, whereas mildronate orotate decreased the infarct size by 50%. Moreover, we found that the administration of mildronate and its orotate salt decreased the duration and incidence of arrhythmias in experimental arrhythmia models. The study provides experimental evidence that the combination of orotic acid and mildronate possesses additive pharmacological effects and that mildronate orotate might be considered as a powerful therapeutic agent facilitating recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  18. Enzyme Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; De Ferrari, Luna; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B O; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCa...

  19. Protein C inhibitor (plasminogen activator inhibitor-3) and the risk of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, JCM; Marquart, JA; Bertina, RM; Rosendaal, FR; Bouma, Bonno N.

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI), also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor-3, is a serine proteinase inhibitor that can inhibit enzymes in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and fertility. The role of PCI in regulating the blood coagulation mechanism is not known, as it can inhibit both procoagulant

  20. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes...... concentration reduced the stability of the enzymes, while addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) had the opposite effect. In addition, thermostable enzymes retained more activity when tested in a pilot distillation setup, where the enzymes were exposed to increasing temperature and air-liquid interfaces (chapter......, thermostable enzymes were shown to be more efficient than mesophilic enzymes when it came to temperature, inhibitor tolerance and stability against air-liquid forces....

  1. The impact of the 'Better Care Better Value' prescribing policy on the utilisation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers for treating hypertension in the UK primary care setting: longitudinal quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanj; Chen, Li-Chia; Elliott, Rachel A; Godman, Brian

    2015-09-10

    In April/2009, the UK National Health Service initiated four Better Care Better Value (BCBV) prescribing indicators, one of which encouraged the prescribing of cheaper angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) instead of expensive angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), with 80 % ACEIs/20 % ARBs as a proposed, and achievable target. The policy was intended to save costs without affecting patient outcomes. However, little is known about the actual impact of the BCBV indicator on ACEIs/ARBs utilisation and cost-savings. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of BCBV policy on ACEIs/ARBs utilisation and cost-savings, including exploration of regional variations of the policy's impact. This cross-sectional study used data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Segmented time-series analysis was applied to monthly ACEIs prescription proportion, adjusted number of ACEIs/ARBs prescriptions and costs. Overall, the proportion of ACEIs prescription decreased during the study period from 71.2% in April/2006 to 70.7% in March/2012, with a small but a statistically significant pre-policy reduction in its monthly trend of 0.02% (p < 0.001). Instantly after its initiation, the policy was associated with a sudden reduction in the proportion of ACEIs prescription; however, it resulted in a statistically significant increase in the post-policy monthly trend of ACEIs prescription proportion of 0.013% (p < 0.001), resulting in an overall post-policy slope of -0.007%. Despite this post-policy induced increment, the policy failed to achieve the 80% target, which resulted in missing a potential cost-saving opportunity. The pre-policy trend of the adjusted number of ACEIs/ARBs prescriptions was increasing; however, their trends declined after the policy implementation. The policy affected neither total ACEIs/ARBs cost nor individual ACEIs or ARBs costs. ACEIs/ARBs utilisation was not affected by the BCBV policy. The small increase in post-policy ACEIs

  2. Health outcomes and economic consequences of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in comparison with angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of arterial hypertension in the contemporary Polish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Witold; Budka, Katarzyna; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Niewada, Maciej; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (AH) represents a public health problem in Poland, firstly due to the huge, still growing population of patients (10.45 million patients based on NATPOL 2011 and PolSenior Surveys), and secondly because of the substantial cost of reimbursement from the National Health Fund (NHF). The most commonly used drugs in the treatment of AH include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), the latter being associated with significantly higher unit reimbursement cost. Recent meta-analyses of randomised, controlled trials indicate that there is no medical reason to favour ARBs over ACEIs in AH treatment. To assess the clinical benefit of using ACEIs instead of ARBs and to calculate the potential savings for the payer and patients associated with changing the treatment paradigm to preferential use of ACEIs. The assessment of clinical consequences includes differences between ACEIs and ARBs in terms of average life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. The impact of these drugs on general mortality was estimated based on the meta-analysis carried out by van Vark et al. in 2012. Patients' health-related quality of life was adjusted with Polish population utility norms derived for the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and additionally for ACEI-induced cough-related utility decrease. Potential savings for the payer on a yearly basis were calculated for a hypothetical cohort of patients who are currently treated with ARBs and might be switched to ACEIs. The number of patients treated with ARBs and ACEIs was estimated based on NHF and IMS Health data. ACEIs were associated with a statistically significant 10% reduction in all-cause mortality, which results in extra life gained of 0.354 years (4.2 months) or an additional 0.201 QALY (2.4 months). Potential annual savings could amount to 112.0 million PLN (25.7 million EUR) and 10.5 million PLN (2.4 million EUR) for the public payer (NHF) and patients

  3. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on cardiovascular events and residual renal function in dialysis patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youxia; Ma, Xinxin; Zheng, Jie; Jia, Junya; Yan, Tiekun

    2017-06-30

    The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) and preserving kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease is well-documented. However, the efficacy and safety of these agents in dialysis patients is still a controversial issue. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Wanfang for randomized trials. The relative risk (RR) reductions were calculated with a random-effects model. Major cardiovascular events, changes in GFR and drug-related adverse events were analyzed. Eleven trials included 1856 participants who were receiving dialysis therapy. Compared with placebo or other active agents groups, ARB therapy reduced the risk of heart failure events by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.93) with similar decrement in blood pressure in dialysis patients. Indirect comparison suggested that fewer cardiovascular events happened during treatment with ARB (0.77, 0.63 to 0.94). The results indicated no significant differences between the two treatment regimens with regard to frequency of myocardial infarction (1.0, 0.45 to 2.22), stroke (1.16, 0.69 to 1.96), cardiovascular death (0.89, 0.64 to 1.26) and all-cause mortality (0.94, 0.75 to 1.17). Five studies reported the renoprotective effect and revealed that ACEI/ARB therapy significantly slowed the rate of decline in both residual renal function (MD 0.93 mL/min/1.73 m2, 0.38 to 1.47 mL/min/1.73 m2) and urine volume (MD 167 ml, 95% CI 21 ml to 357 ml). No difference in drug-related adverse events was observed in both treatment groups. This study demonstrates that ACE-Is/ARBs therapy decreases the loss of residual renal function, mainly for patients with peritoneal dialysis. Overall, ACE-Is and ARBs do not reduce cardiovascular events in dialysis patients, however, treatment with ARB seems to reduce cardiovascular events including heart failure. ACE-Is and ARBs do not induce an extra risk

  4. Thrombin inhibitors from different animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka-Azevedo, A M; Morais-Zani, K; Torquato, R J S; Tanaka, A S

    2010-01-01

    Venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases are still the most frequent causes of death and disability in high-income countries. Clinical anticoagulants are inhibitors of enzymes involved in the coagulation pathway, such as thrombin and factor X(a). Thrombin is a key enzyme of blood coagulation system, activating the platelets, converting the fibrinogen to the fibrin net, and amplifying its self-generation by the activation of factors V, VIII, and XI. Thrombin has long been a target for the development of oral anticoagulants. Furthermore, selective inhibitors of thrombin represent a new class of antithrombotic agents. For these reasons, a number of specific thrombin inhibitors are under evaluation for possible use as antithrombotic drugs. This paper summarizes old and new interests of specific thrombin inhibitors described in different animals.

  5. Thrombin Inhibitors from Different Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Tanaka-Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases are still the most frequent causes of death and disability in high-income countries. Clinical anticoagulants are inhibitors of enzymes involved in the coagulation pathway, such as thrombin and factor Xa. Thrombin is a key enzyme of blood coagulation system, activating the platelets, converting the fibrinogen to the fibrin net, and amplifying its self-generation by the activation of factors V, VIII, and XI. Thrombin has long been a target for the development of oral anticoagulants. Furthermore, selective inhibitors of thrombin represent a new class of antithrombotic agents. For these reasons, a number of specific thrombin inhibitors are under evaluation for possible use as antithrombotic drugs. This paper summarizes old and new interests of specific thrombin inhibitors described in different animals.

  6. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  7. Potential physiological role of plant glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellincampi, D.; Carmadella, L.; Delcour, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes including glycosidases, transglycosidases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases are responsible for the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates in plants. A number of carbohydrate-active enzymes are produced by microbial pathogens...... and insects responsible of severe crop losses. Plants have evolved proteinaceous inhibitors to modulate the activity of several of these enzymes. The continuing discovery of new inhibitors indicates that this research area is still unexplored and may lead to new exciting developments. To date, the role...... of the inhibitors is not completely understood. Here we review recent results obtained on the best characterised inhibitors, pointing to their possible biological role in vivo. Results recently obtained with plant transformation technology indicate that this class of inhibitors has potential biotechnological...

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Cathepsin Inhibitor from Milkfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzyme is distributed acros all organism including fish. Cysteine proteases are the largest group of proteolytic enzyme. Lysosomal cathepsin, one of cysteine protease enzyme, cause softening and degradation of myofibril protein and it’s activity is regulated by endogenous inhibitors. The purposes of this study were to optimize the extraction cathepsin inhibitors from the skin, muscles, and viscera of fish, to partially purify the cathepsin inhibitors of selected sources, and to study the characteristics of the cathepsin inhibitor. The cathepsin inhibitor could be extracted from muscle fish and partially purified using ammonium sulfate of 70%. The purified cathepsin inhibitor had optimum temperature at 40°C and the optimum at pH 8. Metal ions decreased the activity of the protease inhibitor, except 1 mM of metal ion Mn2+ and Na+. Keywords: Cathepsin, characterization, partial purification, protease inhibitor

  9. Enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Dinesen, B; Deckert, M

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay for urinary albumin using commercially available reagents is described. The assay range is 2.5-120 micrograms/l. When samples are analysed in two standard dilutions, the assayable albumin concentration range is 2.5-240 mg/l, covering the clinical range from...

  10. Food Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  11. Enzyme Nanorings

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; So, Christopher; White, Brian R.; Carlson, Jonathan C.T.; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Wagner, Carston

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated that nanostructures, and in particular nanorings incorporating a homodimeric enzyme, can be prepared by chemically induced self-assembly of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-histidine triad nucleotide binding 1(Hint1) fusion proteins. The dimensions of the nanorings were found by static light scattering and atomic force microscopy studies to be dependent on the length and composition of the peptide linking the fusion proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 70 nm in diameter and...

  12. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    induce selection of resistant biotypes, such as occurred to Euphorbia heterophylla L. in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in areas of the Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States, in Brazil. In order to verify possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage this population, seeds of E. heterophylla were collected in the Assis region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species had survived to continuous herbicides application. The trial was carried out in glasshouse conditions where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. The study used several post-emergence herbicides sprayed at zero, one, two, four and eight times the recommended field application rates of these products. Twenty days after application, the plants were harvested and the percentage of control and the fresh weight were determined to establish the dose-response curves, to get the resistance factor using data of DL50 and GR50 and to verify if there was a multiple resistance. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was efficiently controlled by fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, ammonium-gluphosinate (150 g.ha-1 and glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.

  13. xtraction and Characterization of Cathepsin Inhibitor from Milkfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteolytic enzyme is distributed acros all organism including fish. Cysteine proteases are the largest group of proteolytic enzyme. Lysosomal cathepsin, one of cysteine protease enzyme, cause softening and degradation of myofibril protein and it’s activity is regulated by endogenous inhibitors. The purposes of this study were to optimize the extraction cathepsin inhibitors from the skin, muscles, and viscera of fish, to partially purify the cathepsin inhibitors of selected sources, and to study the characteristics of the cathepsin inhibitor. The cathepsin inhibitor could be extracted from muscle fish and partially purified using ammonium sulfate of 70%. The purified cathepsin inhibitor had optimum temperature at 40°C and the optimum at pH 8. Metal ions decreased the activity of the protease inhibitor, except 1 mM of metal ion Mn2+ and Na+.

  14. [ALK inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    While lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, the molecular mechanism underlying its carcinogenesis is mainly unknown. We have discovered a small, fusion-type tyrosine kinase EML4-ALK that is generated through a tiny inversion within the short arm of human chromosome 2. Transgenic mice expressing EML4-ALK in lung developed hundreds of lung cancer nodules soon after birth, but such nodules were readily eradicated upon treatment with an ALK inhibitor. Clinical trials for EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer with an ALK inhibitor is ongoing, with its interim results being highly promising.

  15. Enzymes and Enzyme Activity Encoded by Nonenveloped Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Kimi; Banerjee, Manidipa; Johnson, John E

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. This review summarizes the structural, biochemical, and mechanistic information available for several classes of enzymes and autocatalytic activity encoded by nonenveloped viruses. Advances in research and development of antiviral inhibitors targeting specific viral enzymes are also highlighted.

  16. Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels “feed” growing tumors with oxygen and nutrients , allowing the cancer cells to invade nearby tissue , to move throughout ... any angiogenesis inhibitors currently being used to treat cancer in humans? Yes. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved bevacizumab to ...

  17. The Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-Induced Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat

    2017-02-01

    The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant is effective in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. The drug is not approved officially for this indication and has to be administered in an emergency situation off-label. Corticosteroids or antihistamines do not seem to work in this condition. The effectiveness of C1-esterase-inhibitor in angiotensin-converting enzyme-induced angioedema must be verified in a double-blind study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-Nitropropionic Acid is a Suicide Inhibitor of MitochondrialRespiration that, Upon Oxidation by Complex II, Forms a Covalent AdductWith a Catalytic Base Arginine in the Active Site of the Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Sun, Gang; Cobessi, David; Wang, Andy C.; Shen,John T.; Tung, Eric Y.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-12-01

    We report three new structures of mitochondrial respiratory Complex II (succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.3.5.1) at up to 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, with various inhibitors. The structures define the conformation of the bound inhibitors and suggest the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the dicarboxylate site. In particular they support the role of Arg297 as a general base catalyst accepting a proton in the dehydrogenation of succinate. The dicarboxylate ligand in oxaloacetate-containing crystals appears to be the same as that reported for Shewanella flavocytochrome c treated with fumarate. The plant and fungal toxin 3-nitropropionic acid, an irreversible inactivator of succinate dehydrogenase, forms a covalent adduct with the side chain of Arg297. The modification eliminates a trypsin cleavage site in the flavoprotein, and tandem mass spectroscopic analysis of the new fragment shows the mass of Arg 297 to be increased by 83 Da and to have potential of losing 44 Da, consistent with decarboxylation, during fragmentation.

  19. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements.

  20. Safe use of NSAIDs and RAS-inhibitors at Agogo Presbyterian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inhibitors, and encouraging their widespread use among prescribers should be pursued. Keywords: Ghana, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Anti-Ulcer Agents, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor ...

  1. Metabolic Enzymes of Helminth Parasites: Potential as Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways that extract energy from carbon compounds are essential for an organism's survival. Therefore, inhibition of enzymes in these pathways represents a potential therapeutic strategy to combat parasitic infections. However, the high degree of similarity between host and parasite enzymes makes this strategy potentially difficult. Nevertheless, several existing drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (worms) target metabolic enzymes. These include the trivalent antimonials that target phosphofructokinase and Clorsulon that targets phosphoglycerate mutase and phosphoglycerate kinase. Glycolytic enzymes from a variety of helminths have been characterised biochemically, and some inhibitors identified. To date none of these inhibitors have been developed into therapies. Many of these enzymes are externalised from the parasite and so are also of interest in the development of potential vaccines. Less work has been done on tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Again, while some inhibitors have been identified none have been developed into drug-like molecules. Barriers to the development of novel drugs targeting metabolic enzymes include the lack of experimentally determined structures of helminth enzymes, lack of direct proof that the enzymes are vital in the parasites and lack of cell culture systems for many helminth species. Nevertheless, the success of Clorsulon (which discriminates between highly similar host and parasite enzymes) should inspire us to consider making serious efforts to discover novel anthelminthics, which target metabolic enzymes.

  2. A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Grover L.

    2009-01-01

    Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

  3. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) insertiondeletion (ID) gene polymorphism on the treatment responses of type 2 diabetic subjects at varying stages of nephropathy to ACE inhibitors (ACEI) with regard to blood pressure (MAP) and renal response (GFR). Methods: The ...

  4. From fragment screening to in vivo efficacy: optimization of a series of 2-aminoquinolines as potent inhibitors of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Judd, Ted C; Bartberger, Michael D; Brown, James; Chen, Kui; Fremeau, Robert T; Hickman, Dean; Hitchcock, Stephen A; Jordan, Brad; Li, Vivian; Lopez, Patricia; Louie, Steven W; Luo, Yi; Michelsen, Klaus; Nixey, Thomas; Powers, Timothy S; Rattan, Claire; Sickmier, E Allen; St Jean, David J; Wahl, Robert C; Wen, Paul H; Wood, Stephen

    2011-08-25

    Using fragment-based screening of a focused fragment library, 2-aminoquinoline 1 was identified as an initial hit for BACE1. Further SAR development was supported by X-ray structures of BACE1 cocrystallized with various ligands and molecular modeling studies to expedite the discovery of potent compounds. These strategies enabled us to integrate the C-3 side chain on 2-aminoquinoline 1 extending deep into the P2' binding pocket of BACE1 and enhancing the ligand's potency. We were able to improve the BACE1 potency to subnanomolar range, over 10(6)-fold more potent than the initial hit (900 μM). Further elaboration of the physical properties of the lead compounds to those more consistent with good blood-brain barrier permeability led to inhibitors with greatly improved cellular activity and permeability. Compound 59 showed an IC(50) value of 11 nM on BACE1 and cellular activity of 80 nM. This compound was advanced into rat pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies and demonstrated significant reduction of Aβ levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Structural biology of starch-degrading enzymes and their regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    disproportionating enzyme and a self-stabilised conformation of amylose accommodated in the active site of plant α-glucosidase. Important inhibitor complexes include a flavonol glycoside, montbretin A, binding at the active site of human pancreatic α-amylase and barley limit dextrinase inhibitor binding...

  6. Is there a difference between an angiotensin-converting enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of the RAS by the two most widely used inhibitors of the system, i.e. angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-specific receptor blockers (ARBs) plays a crucial role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. These drugs both target angiotensin II, but in different.

  7. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted by that enzyme......Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...

  8. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew A; Chabner, Bruce A

    2009-11-10

    Epigenetic processes are implicated in cancer causation and progression. The acetylation status of histones regulates access of transcription factors to DNA and influences levels of gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity diminishes acetylation of histones, causing compaction of the DNA/histone complex. This compaction blocks gene transcription and inhibits differentiation, providing a rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors. In this review, we explore the biology of the HDAC enzymes, summarize the pharmacologic properties of HDAC inhibitors, and examine results of selected clinical trials. We consider the potential of these inhibitors in combination therapy with targeted drugs and with cytotoxic chemotherapy. HDAC inhibitors promote growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of tumor cells, with minimal effects on normal tissue. In addition to decompaction of the histone/DNA complex, HDAC inhibition also affects acetylation status and function of nonhistone proteins. HDAC inhibitors have demonstrated antitumor activity in clinical trials, and one drug of this class, vorinostat, is US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Other inhibitors in advanced stages of clinical development, including depsipeptide and MGCD0103, differ from vorinostat in structure and isoenzyme specificity, and have shown activity against lymphoma, leukemia, and solid tumors. Promising preclinical activity in combination with cytotoxics, inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, and inhibitors of proteasome function have led to combination therapy trials. HDAC inhibitors are an important emerging therapy with single-agent activity against multiple cancers, and have significant potential in combination use.

  10. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  11. Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety of the Novel Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Inhibitor Darapladib in Healthy Chinese Subjects: An Open Label Phase-1 Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Hu

    Full Text Available Darapladib is a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 inhibitor. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects.Twenty-four subjects received darapladib 160 mg orally, approximately 1 hour after a standard breakfast, as a single dose and once daily for 28 days. Non-compartmental methods were used to determine the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of darapladib and its metabolite SB-553253. Repeat dose Lp-PLA2 activity and safety were evaluated.Systemic exposure (AUC(0-T, Cmax geometric mean (CVb% of darapladib was higher after multiple-dosing (519 ng.h/mL (33.3%, 34.4 ng/mL (49.9% compared to single-dose administration (153 ng.h/mL (69.0%, 17.9 ng/mL (55.2%. The steady-state accumulation ratio was less than unity (Rs = 0.80, indicating time-dependent pharmacokinetics of darapladib. Darapladib steady-state was reached by Day 14 of once daily dosing. Systemic exposure to SB-553253 was lower than darapladib with median (SB-553253: darapladib ratios for AUC(0-τ of 0.0786 for single dose and 0.0532 for multiple dose administration. On Day 28, pre-dose and maximum inhibition of Lp-PLA2 activity was approximately 70% and 75% relative to the baseline value, respectively and was dependent of darapladib concentration. The most common adverse events (≥ 21% subjects were abnormal faeces, abnormal urine odour, diarrhoea and nasopharyngitis.Darapladib 160 mg single and repeat doses were profiled in healthy Chinese subjects. Single dose systemic exposure to darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects was consistent with that observed previously in Western subjects whereas steady-state systemic exposure was approximately 65% higher in Chinese than Western subjects. The Lp-PLA2 activity and adverse event profile were similar in healthy Chinese and previous reports in Western subjects. Ethnic-specific dose adjustment of darapladib is not considered necessary for the Chinese

  12. Microarray Selection of Cooperative Peptides for Modulating Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglin Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, peptide microarrays have been used to distinguish proteins, antibodies, viruses, and bacteria based on their binding to random sequence peptides. We reported on the use of peptide arrays to identify enzyme modulators that involve screening an array of 10,000 defined and addressable peptides on a microarray. Primary peptides were first selected to inhibit the enzyme at low μM concentrations. Then, new peptides were found to only bind strongly with the enzyme–inhibitor complex, but not the native enzyme. These new peptides served as secondary inhibitors that enhanced the inhibition of the enzyme together with the primary peptides. Without the primary peptides, the secondary effect peptides had little effect on the enzyme activity. Conversely, we also selected peptides that recovered the activities of inhibited enzyme–peptide complex. The selection of cooperative peptide pairs will provide a versatile toolkit for modulating enzyme functions, which may potentially be applied to drug discovery and biocatalysis.

  13. Therapeutic substitution post-patent expiry: the cases of ACE inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoros, Sotiris

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines whether there is a switch in total (originator and generic) consumption after generic entry from molecules that face generic competition towards other molecules of the same class, which are still in-patent. Data from six European countries for the time period 1991 to 2006 are used to study the cases of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors. Empirical evidence shows that patent expiry of captopril and enalapril led to a switch in total (off-patent originator and generic) consumption towards other in-patent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, whereas patent expiry of omeprazole led to a switch in consumption towards other proton pump inhibitors. This phenomenon makes generic policies ineffective and results in an increase in pharmaceutical expenditure due to the absence of generic alternatives in the market of in-patent molecules. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors as new components of antiviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikazchikova, T A; Aleksandrov, D A; Gottikh, M B [A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sycheva, A M; Agapkina, Y Y [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-05-31

    Structural and functional features of HIV-1 integrase are considered and the state of the art in the quest for effective inhibitors of this enzyme is reported. The major classes of integrase inhibitors with known mechanisms of action as well as their in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities are presented.

  15. PROTEIN INHIBITORS SYNTHESISED BY MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Matseliukh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a review the literature data on protein inhibitors of peptidases synthesised by different types of microorganisms are systematized. It is shown that at the present time on the basis of amino acid sequence homology protein inhibitors are grouped into 77 families, 29 of which include inhibitors of microorganisms. The mechanism of inhibition of peptidases by proteins may be related to their catalytic mechanism of action or include unrelated blocking of the active site or its surroundings. The structural elements of the protein inhibitors are responsible for binding to the peptidases, mostly include the N- or C-terminal sequences, the unprotected polypeptide loops (chains, which are acting independently or in combination with other elements. The basic properties, structural features and, where it is established, the functions of the protein inhibitors of peptidases are considered. Since some of these proteins effectively inhibit such peptidases as subtilisin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, their practical use in the treatment of diseases such as emphysema, arthritis, pancreatitis, thrombosis, hypertension, muscular dystrophy, cancer. It is suggested that the role of a bacterial homologue of Escherichia coli alphaacroglobulin, which is a periplasmic protein, is to protect the periplasmic space from the action of bacteria own proteases. Based on the specific properties of alpha-2-macroglobulin to bind endopeptidases active molecules, they are used in biotechnology to isolate endopeptidases from crude biological preparations and titration of its active centers. Some free–living bacteria are able to synthesize protein inhibitors to protect from the effects of its own enzymes, while the presence of these proteins in pathogens may play a certain role both in the infectious process and in the protection of the host proteases.

  16. Peptidyl cyclopropenones: Reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors, or substrates of cysteine proteases?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Meital; Bretler, Uriel; Albeck, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl cyclopropenones were previously introduced as selective cysteine protease reversible inhibitors. In the present study we synthesized one such peptidyl cyclopropenone and investigated its interaction with papain, a prototype cysteine protease. A set of kinetics, biochemical, HPLC, MS, and 13C-NMR experiments revealed that the peptidyl cyclopropenone was an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme, alkylating the catalytic cysteine. In parallel, this cyclopropenone also behaved as an alter...

  17. Dissociable effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on object recognition memory: acquisition versus consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prickaerts, L.; Sik, A.; Staay, van der F.J.; Vente, de J.; Blokland, A.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale Phosphodiesterase enzyme type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have cognition-enhancing properties. However, it is not known whether these drug classes affect the same memory processes. Objective We investigated the memory-enhancing effects of the PDE5

  18. Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Eleanore; Tracy, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a general introduction to the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, with a focus on drug-metabolizing enzymes. A prerequisite to understanding enzyme kinetics is having a clear grasp of the meanings of "enzyme" and "catalysis." Catalysts are reagents that can increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Enzymes are proteins that form a subset of catalysts. These concepts are further explored below.

  19. Industrial enzyme applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ole; Borchert, Torben Vedel; Fuglsang, Claus Crone

    2002-08-01

    The effective catalytic properties of enzymes have already promoted their introduction into several industrial products and processes. Recent developments in biotechnology, particularly in areas such as protein engineering and directed evolution, have provided important tools for the efficient development of new enzymes. This has resulted in the development of enzymes with improved properties for established technical applications and in the production of new enzymes tailor-made for entirely new areas of application where enzymes have not previously been used.

  20. Small-molecule arginase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenkov, Yan A; Chufarova, Nina V

    2014-01-01

    Arginase is an enzyme that metabolizes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. In addition to its fundamental role in the hepatic ornithine cycle, it also influences the immune systems in humans and mice. Arginase participates in many inflammatory disorders by decreasing the synthesis of nitric oxide and inducing fibrosis and tissue regeneration. L-arginine deficiency, which is modulated by myeloid cell arginase, suppresses T-cell immune response. This mechanism plays a fundamental role in inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Pathogens can synthesize their own arginase to elude immune reaction. Small-molecule arginase inhibitors are currently described as promising therapeutics for the treatment of several diseases, including allergic asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and hypertension), diseases associated with pathogens (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella), cancer and induced or spontaneous immune disorders. This article summarizes recent patents in the area of arginase inhibitors and discusses their properties.

  1. Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Romaniuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are multisubunit enzyme complexes. They contain three enzymatic active sites which are termed chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like. The elementary function of the proteasomes is degradation of damaged proteins. Proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of damaged protein, which leads to caspase activation and cell death. This relationship is used in cancer therapy. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib belongs to the second generation of drugs, which was approved by the US FDA in 2012. Currently in the study phase there are four new inhibitors: ixazomib (MLN9780/MLN2238, delanzomib (CEP-18770, oprozomib (ONX0912/PR-047 and marizomib (NPI-0052.

  2. Administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor improves vascular function and urinary albumin excretion in low-risk essential hypertensive patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment with calcium channel blockers. Organ-protecting effects independent of anti-hypertensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takasugi, E; Shitakura, K; Okajima, K; Hota, N; Kubo, Y; Nunoda, S; Otsuka, K

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant administration of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease can prevent cardiovascular disease occurrence, but the effects of this treatment on renal and vascular function in low-risk hypertensive patients are unknown. The current study was an open-label prospective study. Hypertensive patients with no history of cardiovascular disease who had not met their blood pressure (BP) goals with CCB treatment were administered perindopril and followed for 6 months. Both home and office BP were significantly lowered by perindopril administration. The morning/evening (M/E) ratios calculated from home BP were 1.31 and 1.05 for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of an anti-hypertensive response, urinary albumin excretion, and cardio ankle vascular index were significantly reduced by perindopril administration in all the subjects, irrespective of the presence or absence of anti-hypertensive reaction. In low-risk hypertensive patients, perindopril improves renal and vascular function probably via its persistent anti-hypertensive effects and the concomitant effects of CCB.

  3. Rho-kinase inhibitors from adlay seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya; Zhu, Qinchang; Tran, Hai-Bang; Afifi, Mohamed S; Halim, Ahmed F; Ashour, Ahmed; Fujimoto, Ryoji; Goto, Takahiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-07-19

    Rho-kinase enzymes are one of the most important targets recently identified in our bodies. Several lines of evidence indicate that these enzymes are involved in many diseases and cellular disorders. ROCK inhibitors may have clinical applications for cancer, hypertension, glaucoma, etc. Our study aims to identify the possible involvement of Rho-kinase inhibition to the multiple biological activities of adlay seeds and provide a rationale for their folkloric medicines. Hence, we evaluated Rho-kinase I and II inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract and 28 compounds derived from the seeds. A molecular docking assay was designed to estimate the binding affinity of the tested compounds with the target enzymes. The results of our study suggest a possible involvement of Rho-kinase inhibition to the multiple biological activities of the seeds. Furthermore, the results obtained with the tested compounds revealed some interesting skeletons as a scaffold for design and development of natural Rho-kinase inhibitors.

  4. Evaluation of Inhibition Selectivity for Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Eva S.; Walsh, Agnes A.; Scott, Emily E.

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are mixed-function oxidases that catalyze the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous biochemicals. Selective inhibitors are needed to accurately distinguish the contributions of individual P450 enzymes in the metabolism of drugs and the activation of procarcinogens in human tissues, but very frequently these enzymes have substantial overlapping selectivity. We evaluated a chemically diverse set of nine previously identified CYP2A6 inhibitors to determine which...

  5. Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) against lethal ventricular arrhythmias induced by heart reperfusion in rat: a potential anti-arrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Ghasemipour-Afshar, Elham; Sheibani, Mohammad; Naghsh, Nooshin; Bashiri, Alireza

    2013-07-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a cuisine spice in eastern and western societies for thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron is recommended for the treatment of various kinds of disorders including heart palpitations. We investigated the hypothesis of the protective effect of saffron on lethal cardiac arrhythmias induced by heart ischemia-reperfusion in rat. Animals were divided into a control (CTL) group that received tap water, Saf50, Saf100 and Saf200 groups that were orally treated with aqueous extracts of saffron, at dosages of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, and amiodarone (Amio) group that orally received 30 mg/kg/day for seven days. On day 8, heart ischemia-reperfusion was induced by ligation and releasing of the left anterior descending coronary artery. During reperfusion, the numbers and durations of ventricular fibrillation (VF) decreased in all groups compared to the CTL group (p saffron only significantly prolonged the QTcn interval. The results suggest that pretreatment with saffron, especially at the dosage of 100 mg/kg/day, attenuates the susceptibility and incidence of fatal ventricular arrhythmia during the reperfusion period in the rat. This protective effect is apparently mediated through reduction of electrical conductivity and prolonging the action potential duration.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dronedarone versus other anti-arrhythmic drugs for the treatment of atrial fibrillation--results for Canada, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas; Åkerborg, Örjan; Bégo-Le Bagousse, Gaëlle; Rosenquist, Mårten; Lindgren, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The ATHENA clinical trial enrolled 4,628 patients in 37 countries and evaluated the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg twice daily versus placebo for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalisation or death from any cause in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The trial showed a statistically significant 24% reduction in the primary endpoint cardiovascular hospitalisations or all-cause death. In the current paper, parameters that drive the cost-effectiveness of dronedarone on top of standard therapy versus likely comparators, i.e. amiodarone, sotalol and flecainide, were investigated by means of a health economic model based on the ATHENA clinical trial. Dronedarone is cost-effective, and ICERs are low versus amiodarone with €5,340; €4,620; €3,850 and €5,630 per QALY gained for Canada, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland, respectively. The most significant driving factor for the cost-effectiveness of dronedarone is the increased survival rate for patients on dronedarone.

  7. A protective anti-arrhythmic role of ursodeoxycholic acid in an in-vitro rat model of the cholestatic fetal heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Michele; Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Siti H; Sheppard, Mary N.; Salvarani, Nicolό; Virta, Matilda; Wells, Sarah; Lab, Max J.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Moshkov, Alexey; Hague, William M; Rohr, Stephan; Williamson, Catherine; Gorelik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy may be complicated by fetal arrhythmia, fetal hypoxia, preterm labour and, in severe cases, intrauterine death. The precise aetiology of the fetal death is not known. However, taurocholate has been demonstrated to cause arrhythmia and abnormal calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes. To identify the underlying reason for increased susceptibility of fetal cardiomyocytes to arrhythmia we studied myofibroblasts, which appear during structural remodelling of the adult diseased heart. In-vitro, they depolarize rat cardiomyocytes via heterocellular gap junctional coupling. Recently, it has been hypothesized that ventricular myofibroblasts might appear in the developing human heart triggered by physiological fetal hypoxia. However, their presence in the fetal heart and their pro-arrhythmogenic effects have not been systematically characterized. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ventricular myofibroblasts transiently appear in the human fetal heart during gestation. We established two in-vitro models of the maternal and fetal heart both exposed to increasing doses of taurocholate. The maternal heart model consisted of confluent strands of rat cardiomyocytes, while for the fetal heart model we added cardiac myofibroblasts on top of cardiomyocytes. Taurocholate in the fetal heart model, but not in the maternal heart model, slowed the conduction velocity from 19 cm/s to 9 cm/s, induced early afterdepolarizations and resulted in sustained re-entrant arrhythmias. These arrhythmic events were prevented by ursodeoxycholic acid, which hyperpolarized the myofibroblast membrane potential by modulating potassium conductance. Conclusion These results illustrate that the appearance of myofibroblasts in the fetal heart may contribute to arrhythmias. The described mechanism represents a new therapeutic approach for cardiac arrhythmias at the level of myofibroblast. PMID:21809354

  8. Assessment of anti-arrhythmic activity of antipsychotic drugs in an animal model: influence of non-cardiac α₁-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mow, Tomas; Frederiksen, Kristen; Thomsen, Morten B

    2015-02-05

    Torsades de Pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia and a known adverse effect of many drugs secondary to block of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). In animal models antipsychotic drugs have shown reduced pro-arrhythmic potential compared to drugs with comparable IKr-blocking characteristics. The reduced pro-arrhythmic properties of antipsychotic drugs has been attributed to a variety of different causes e.g., effects on α₁-adrenergic receptors, β-adrenergic receptors, muscarinic receptors or cardiac ion channels like Ca(2+)- and Na(+)-channels. Since only limited experimental information exists about the effects of α₁-adrenergic receptor activity of antipsychotic drugs in pro-arrhythmic models, we have decided to investigate this. In this study we show that four antipsychotic drugs all have high affinity for α₁-adrenergic receptor (sertindole>risperidone>haloperidol>olanzapine) and all block IKr (sertindole>haloperidol>risperidone>olanzapine). In canine Purkinje fibres, α₁-adrenergic stimulation prolonged action potential duration; however, the stimulation does not cause afterdepolarizations, even in the presence of dofetilide-induced delayed repolarization. We showed for the first time in an in vivo pro-arrhythmic rabbit model that several antipsychotic drugs in accordance with their known α₁-adrenergic receptor blocking properties reduced the incidence of drug-induced TdP and that the overall ability of the antipsychotic drugs to prevent TdP was associated with prevention of methoxamine induced increase in blood pressure. Further investigations are required to clarify the relative importance of α₁-adrenergic receptor antagonism in conjunction with the additional effects of antipsychotic drugs on various receptors and ion channels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Price, Eric W; Phenix, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled substrates, reversible inhibitors, and irreversible inhibitors investigated as PET and SPECT tracers for imaging hydrolytic enzymes. By learning from the most successful examples of tracer development for hydrolytic enzymes, it appears that an early focus on careful enzyme kinetics and cell-based studies are key factors for identifying potentially useful new molecular imaging agents.

  10. Properties of purified gut trypsin from Helicoverpa zea, adapted to to proteinase inhibitors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpicella, M.; Ceci, L.R.; America, T.; Gallarani, R.; Bode, W.; Jongsma, M.A.; Beekwilder, J.

    2003-01-01

    Pest insects such as Helicoverpa spp. frequently feed on plants expressing protease inhibitors. Apparently, their digestive system can adapt to the presence of protease inhibitors. To study this, a trypsin enzyme was purified from the gut of insects that were raised on an inhibitor-containing diet.

  11. Dosing of ACE inhibitors in left ventricular dysfunction : Does current clinical dosing provide optimal benefit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, YM; van Geel, PP; Alkfaji, H; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH

    In the present review, we discuss the role of clinical dosing of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction. Although the precise mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors is still unresolved, the clinical efficacy of ACE inhibitors in the treatment

  12. Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sakib Hossen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom (BV is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2, phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in regulating various immune responses and physiological changes to provide a basis for future therapies for various diseases.

  13. Model for metabolic resistance against ALS inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter, Otto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to herbicide selection pressure metabolic resistance has evolved in many weed species. In this paper we analyse the interaction between the branched chain amino acid (BBC pathway and detoxifying pathways for herbicide breakdown. The four phase detoxification pathway of herbicides comprising the action of P450, GST, glycosyltransferase and ABC transporter is modelled by a system of coupled enzyme kinetic reactions represented by nonlinear differential equations. The herbicide under consideration inhibits the enzyme ALS, which is the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of branched amino acids. For the kinetics of ALS a Monod approach is employed with a binding site for the inhibitor. Synthetic and detoxification pathways are coupled. The model is used to study the production of branched amino acids under the action of ALS inhibitors for different structures and modes of action of the detoxification pathway. The model is capable of generating typical dose response curves and their shift in dependence of the activity pattern of the enzymes of the detoxification pathway of the inhibitor.

  14. Pyrazole Based Inhibitors against Enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Vijayakuma, Vinodhkumar; Palayam, Malathy

    2015-01-01

    agents. The current study focuses on molecular docking and dynamics studies of pyrazole derivatives against Nucleosidase and DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking and dynamics studies reveal that some of these derivatives show better binding abilities than some of the current drugs...

  15. The synthesis of mannose-derived bioconjugates and enzyme inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Chung Sing

    2015-01-01

    Bioconjugates are involved in many biological processes. Glycoconjugates can bind to lectin receptors based on their specific carbohydrate structure. The mannose receptor, a C-type lectin, makes an interesting target to induce selective uptake by dendritic cells and macrophages. This thesis focus on

  16. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  17. The interaction of the Eco R1 restriction enzyme E.coli with nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Donald F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1979-11-01

    The Eco R1 restriction enzyme can be shown to be inhibited by nucleotides which correspond to any part of its known site of phosphodiesterase activity. A series of di-, tetra-, and hexa-nucleotide fragments were synthesized and their effect on the activity of the enzyme upon superhelical Co1 E1 DNA studied. The inhibition caused by the individual mononucleotides were also studied. In general all the nucleotide fragments showed some form of interaction with the enzyme system. Tetranucleotides were stronger inhibitors than dinucleotides, which in turn were stronger inhibitors than the mononucleotides. Within each category of inhibitors, those containing the phosphodiester bond which is acted upon by the enzyme were the strongest inhibitors. Only those fragments which were consistent with the enzymes site of activity showed competitive inhibition kinetics. Nucleotides which do not fit within the site of phosphodiesterase activity show non-competitive inhibition kinetics.

  18. Recent advances in biosensors based on enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, A; Arduini, F; Moscone, D; Palleschi, G

    2016-02-15

    Enzyme inhibitors like drugs and pollutants are closely correlated to human and environmental health, thus their monitoring is of paramount importance in analytical chemistry. Enzymatic biosensors represent cost-effective, miniaturized and easy to use devices; particularly biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening and monitoring of inhibitors. The present review will highlight the research carried out in the last 9 years (2006-2014) on biosensors based on enzyme inhibition. We underpin the recent advances focused on the investigation in new theoretical approachs and in the evaluation of biosensor performances for reversible and irreversible inhibitors. The use of nanomaterials and microfluidic systems as well as the applications of the various biosensors in real samples is critically reviewed, demonstrating that such biosensors allow the development of useful devices for a fast and reliable alarm system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Análise da variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca em pacientes hipertensos, antes e depois do tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina II Analysis of heart rate variability in hypertensive patients before and after treatment with angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio da Silva Menezes Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a variabilidade de freqüência cardíaca em indivíduos normotensos e hipertensos e observar o comportamento do sistema nervoso autônomo após terapia com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina II. MÉTODO: Estudados 286 pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertensão arterial, pela 1ª vez, e divididos em 4 grupos, conforme a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD: grupo A - PAD110 mmHg. Os pacientes do grupo A (normais e do grupo C (HA moderada, somando 110 e 79 pacientes, respectivamente, submeteram-se ao Holter-ECG 24h com análise de variabilidade de freqüência cardíaca no domínio do tempo (DT e no domínio da freqüência (DF. O grupo C foi tratado com inibidores da ECA durante 3 meses, e após esse período novamente avaliado com Holter-ECG 24h e variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca, e os valores comparados com os normotensos. RESULTADOS: Os parâmetros SDNN, PNN50 (DT e o espectro LF (DF foram significativamente diferentes para os dois grupos, com valores notadamente diminuídos em hipertensos (pOBJECTIVE: To compare heart rate variability in normotensive and hypertensive individuals and to observe the behavior of the autonomic nervous system after treatment with angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitors. METHOD: The study comprised 286 patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension (AH for the first time and divided into 4 groups according to diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels: group A - DBP110 mmHg. Group A (110 healthy individuals and group C (79 patients with moderate AH underwent 24-hour Holter-ECG with analysis of heart rate variability in time domain (TD and frequency domain (FD. The group C patients were treated with ACE inhibitors for 3 months, and, after this period, they underwent a new 24-hour Holter-ECG study for assessing heart rate variability, the values being compared with those of normotensive individuals. RESULTS: The SDNN and PNN50 parameters (TD, and the LF spectrum (FD were

  20. Glutathione S-transferases YcYfetus and YcYc - kinetic and inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... transferase. Enzyme inhibition was measured with cumene hydroperoxide and CONS as enzyme subslrales. Inhibitor. BSP. Rose. Bengal. Acrolein. SAMJ VOL 79 16 MAR 1991. 299. Fig. 1 Inhibition of enzyme activity by varying concentrations of acrolein. Graph shows inhibition of the GSH peroxidase (0).

  1. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  2. Cobalt (III) complexes as novel matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoun [Sungshin Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We have synthesized a series of novel MMP-9 inhibitors containing cobalt(III) complexes. The synthesized cobalt(III) complexes are effective as enzyme inhibitors and the attachment of a biphenyl group enhanced the efficiency of enzyme inhibition up to 6-fold. When compared to the reported non-hydroxamate MMP inhibitors, the synthesized complexes showed comparable in vitro potency. The enzyme assay showed that the cobalt(III) complex can disrupt the zinc binding active site of MMP-9 and is proposed to work via a ligand exchange mechanism. Since histidine residues are essential for the catalytic activity of a large percentage of enzymes and zinc finger proteins, these cobalt(III) complexes can serve as a prototype inhibitor towards various zinc containing enzymes and proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc binding endopeptidases that play crucial roles in various physiological processes and diseases such as embryogenic growth, angiogenesis, arthritis, skin ulceration, liver fibrosis and tumor metastasis. Because of their implications in a wide range of diseases, MMPs are considered as intriguing drug targets. The majority of MMP inhibitors are organic small molecules containing a hydroxamate functionality for the zinc binding group. This hydroxamate group binds to a zinc(II) center in a bidentate fashion and creates a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry.

  3. Enzymes and muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plebani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle disorders may result in release of muscle enzymes into the circulation and give increased serum enzyme activity. A variety of enzymes routinely determined in the clinical laboratory may be elevated, but creatine kinase is the enzyme present in the highest concentration in muscle, and in every variety of muscle disease is the serum enzyme which shows the greatest incidence and degree of elevation. Aspartate aminotransferase is the enzyme associated most significantly with inflammation. A diagnostic algorithm based on the combined measurement of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and aldolase has been found to discriminate muscular distrophies from polymyositis and other myopathies. This combination of laboratory tests has diagnostic application and thus allows the clinician to better select patients who need to have a skeletal muscle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure.

  4. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  5. Profiling the orphan enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing generates an incredible amount of sequence and great potential for new enzyme discovery. Despite this huge amount of data and the profusion of bioinformatic methods for function prediction, a large part of known enzyme activities is still lacking an associated protein sequence. These particular activities are called “orphan enzymes”. The present review proposes an update of previous surveys on orphan enzymes by mining the current content of public databases. While the percentage of orphan enzyme activities has decreased from 38% to 22% in ten years, there are still more than 1,000 orphans among the 5,000 entries of the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification. Taking into account all the reactions present in metabolic databases, this proportion dramatically increases to reach nearly 50% of orphans and many of them are not associated to a known pathway. We extended our survey to “local orphan enzymes” that are activities which have no representative sequence in a given clade, but have at least one in organisms belonging to other clades. We observe an important bias in Archaea and find that in general more than 30% of the EC activities have incomplete sequence information in at least one superkingdom. To estimate if candidate proteins for local orphans could be retrieved by homology search, we applied a simple strategy based on the PRIAM software and noticed that candidates may be proposed for an important fraction of local orphan enzymes. Finally, by studying relation between protein domains and catalyzed activities, it appears that newly discovered enzymes are mostly associated with already known enzyme domains. Thus, the exploration of the promiscuity and the multifunctional aspect of known enzyme families may solve part of the orphan enzyme issue. We conclude this review with a presentation of recent initiatives in finding proteins for orphan enzymes and in extending the enzyme world by the discovery of new

  6. Enzymes in animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition

    2011-01-01

    This report brings overview of endogenous as well as exogenous enzymes and their role and importance in animal nutrition. Enzymes for animal nutrition have been systematically developed since 1980´s. Phytase, xylanase and β-glucanase are used in poultry-rising, pig breeding, aquaculture and begin to push to the ruminant nutrition. Phytase increase availability of P, Ca, Zn, digestibility of proteins and fats. Its positive effect on the environment is well described – enzymes decrease the cont...

  7. Enzyme catalysed tandem reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Oroz-Guinea, Isabel; García-Junceda, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a r...

  8. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  9. Crystallation, X-Ray Structure Determination and Structure-Based Drug Design for Targeted Malarial Enzymes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeLucas, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    .... This structure is currently being used for designing lead inhibitors. We have also purified PFPK-DHPS bifunctional enzyme for structure analysis and are presently screening for crystallization conditions...

  10. Kinetic characterization of 4,4'-biphenylsulfonamides as selective non-zinc binding MMP inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Salvatore; Nuti, Elisa; Cercignani, Giovanni; La Regina, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Romano; Supuran, Claudiu T; Rossello, Armando

    2015-12-01

    We describe the characterisation of a series of 4,4'-biphenylsulfonamides as selective inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases MMP-2 and -13, two enzymes involved in cell invasion and angiogenesis. Double-inhibitor studies in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid show that these molecules do not bind the catalytic zinc. Moreover, two of the characterised inhibitors (11 and 19) act as non-competitive inhibitors, whereas the para-methyl ester derivative 13 behaves as a competitive inhibitor. This finding suggests that this class of molecules binds to a catalytic subsite, possibly the S1'-pocket. Moreover, since these compounds also act as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs), another family of enzymes involved in cell invasion, they could be potentially useful as CA/MMP dual target inhibitors with increased efficacy as anticancer agents.

  11. Structural insight into inhibitors of flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent lysine demethylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hideaki; Umehara, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    Until 2004, many researchers believed that protein methylation in eukaryotic cells was an irreversible reaction. However, the discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 in 2004 drastically changed this view and the concept of chromatin regulation. Since then, the enzymes responsible for lysine demethylation and their cellular substrates, biological significance, and selective regulation have become major research topics in epigenetics and chromatin biology. Many cell-permeable inhibitors for lysine demethylases have been developed, including both target-specific and nonspecific inhibitors. Structural understanding of how these inhibitors bind to lysine demethylases is crucial both for validation of the inhibitors as chemical probes and for the rational design of more potent, target-specific inhibitors. This review focuses on published small-molecule inhibitors targeted at the two flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent lysine demethylases, lysine-specific demethylases 1 and 2, and how the inhibitors interact with the tertiary structures of the enzymes.

  12. Effects of withdrawing vs continuing renin-angiotensin blockers on incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization: Results from the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Receiving Cardiac Catheterization (CAPTAIN) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainey, Kevin R; Rahim, Sherali; Etherington, Krystal; Rokoss, Michael L; Natarajan, Madhu K; Velianou, James L; Brons, Sonya; Mehta, Shamir R

    2015-07-01

    It is unclear if holding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) prior to coronary angiography reduces contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We undertook a randomized trial to investigate the effect of holding ACEI/ARB therapy prior to coronary angiography on the incidence of AKI. We randomly assigned 208 patients with moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine ≥ 1.7mg/dL within 3 months and/or documented creatinine ≥ 1.5mg/dL within 1 week before cardiac catheterization) to hold ACEI/ARB ≥24 hours preprocedure or continue ACEI/ARB. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI defined as an absolute rise in serum creatinine of ≥0.5mg/dL from baseline and/or a relative rise in serum creatinine of ≥25% compared with baseline measured at 48 to 96 hours postcardiac catheterization. All patients were taking an ACEI (72.1%) or ARB (27.9%) prior to randomization. At 48 to 96 hours, the primary outcome occurred in 18.4% of patients who continued ACEI/ARB compared with 10.9% of the patients who held ACEI/ARB (hazard ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.30-1.19, P = .16). In a prespecified secondary outcome, there was a lower rise in mean serum creatinine after the procedure in patients who held ACEI/ARB (0.3 ± 0.5 vs 0.1 ± 0.3mg/dL, P = .03). The clinical composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, rehospitalization for cardiovascular cause, or need for dialysis preprocedure occurred in 3.9% who continued ACEI/ARB compared with 0% who held the ACEI/ARB (hazard ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-2.96, P = .06). In this pilot study of patients with moderate renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization, with-holding ACEI/ARB resulted in a non-significant reduction in contrast-induced AKI and a significant reduction in post-procedural rise of creatinine. This low cost intervention could be considered when referring a patient for cardiac catheterization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amperometric enzyme electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo,E.J.; Danilowicz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances on amperometric enzyme electrodes are reviewed with particular emphasis on biosensors based on Glucose Oxidase and Horseradish Peroxidase. Redox mediation by artificial soluble and polymer attached redox mediators is discussed in terms of recent theoretical developments and experimental verification. The dependence of the amperometric response on substrate and mediator concentration, enzyme concentration, electrode potential and film thickness are analyzed. Possible applicatio...

  15. Enzyme Vs. Extremozyme -32 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    industries, while Taq polymerase T 4 lysozyme, ribonuclease and malate dehydrogenase are enzymes used in research laboratories. A major limitation of most enzymes used in the industries/ research .... pol 1 , (8) Small domain of Klentaq 1 and (C) Superimposed cluster of aromatic residues in K1entaq1. (thick lines) ...

  16. In Silico Design and Evaluation of Carboxylesterase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Stoddard, Shana V.; Yu, Xiaozhen; Potter, Philip M.; Wadkins, Randy M.

    2010-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CEs) are important enzymes that catalyze biological detoxification, hydrolysis of certain pesticides, and metabolism of many esterified drugs. The development of inhibitors for CE has many potential uses, including increasing drug lifetime and altering biodistrubution; reducing or abrogating toxicity of metabolized drugs; and reducing pest resistance to insecticides. In this review, we discuss the major classes of known mammalian CE inhibitors and describe our computational...

  17. Arginase Inhibitor in the Pharmacological Correction of Endothelial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, Mihail V.; Korokin, Mihail V.; Tsepeleva, Svetlana A.; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana G.; Gureev, Vladimir V.; Konovalova, Elena A.; Gudyrev, Oleg S.; Kochkarov, Vladimir I.; Korokina, Liliya V.; Dudina, Eleonora N.; Babko, Anna V.; Terehova, Elena G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about a way of correction of endothelial dysfunction with the inhibitor of arginase: L-norvaline. There is an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation factors of endothelium on the basis of endothelial dysfunction. Among vasodilatation agents, nitrogen oxide plays the basic role. Amino acid L-arginine serves as a source of molecules of nitrogen oxide in an organism. Because of the high activity of arginase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, the bioavailability of nitrogen oxide decreases. The inhibitors of arginase suppress the activity of the given enzyme, raising and production of nitrogen oxide, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction. PMID:21747978

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme induced angioedema: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiotensin converting enzyme induced angioedema: The need for patient education. ... The complication can be life threatening with serious morbidity and mortality if not promptly diagnosed from drug history and properly handled within the emergency unit. Apart from taking drug history concerning ACE inhibitor use in ...

  19. [Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsze, Ankie M; de Boer, Anthonius; Boot, Henk; Deneer, Vera H M; Heringa, Mette; Mol, Peter G M; Schalekamp, Tom; Verduijn, Monique M; Verheugt, Freek W A; le Comte, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel has been the subject of much study in recent years. Contradictory results regarding the effect of proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity and on clinical outcome in clopidogrel-treated patients have been reported in literature. Concomitant use of omeprazole and clopidogrel was found to decrease the exposure (AUC) to clopidogrel's active metabolite by 50% and to sharply increase platelet reactivity, as a result of inhibition by omeprazole of CYP2C19, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme. Pantoprazole has a much weaker effect on clopidogrel's pharmacokinetics and on platelet reactivity during concomitant use. The influence of the other proton pump inhibitors when used simultaneously with clopidogrel has not yet been investigated in adequately randomized studies. Regulatory agencies state that the combination of clopidogrel and the CYP2C19 inhibitors omeprazole and esomeprazole should be avoided. To date, there is no conclusive evidence of a clinically-relevant interaction between any of the proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel.

  20. Strategies and perspectives of assembling multi-enzyme systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Zhen; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ren, Hong; Wang, Ya-Li; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2017-12-01

    Multi-enzyme complexes have the potential to achieve high catalytic efficiency for sequence reactions due to their advantages in eliminating product inhibition, facilitating intermediate transfer and in situ regenerating cofactors. Constructing functional multi-enzyme systems to mimic natural multi-enzyme complexes is of great interest for multi-enzymatic biosynthesis and cell-free synthetic biotransformation, but with many challenges. Currently, various assembly strategies have been developed based on the interaction of biomacromolecules such as DNA, peptide and scaffolding protein. On the other hand, chemical-induced assembly is based on the affinity of enzymes with small molecules including inhibitors, cofactors and metal ions has the advantage of simplicity, site-to-site oriented structure control and economy. This review summarizes advances and progresses employing these strategies. Furthermore, challenges and perspectives in designing multi-enzyme systems are highlighted.

  1. ACE Inhibitor in the treatment of cutaneous and lymphatic sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaura, Vinod; Kaura, Samantha H; Kaura, Claire S

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme is used as a marker for sarcoid activity. We describe a case of remission of cutaneous and lymphatic sarcoidosis in a patient treated with an ACE inhibitor for congestive heart failure and hypertension; the remission has continued over 4 years of follow-up. Because this is a report of only one case, there is a possibility of sampling error. Whether the patient's remission in this case was a serendipitous spontaneous remission that happened to occur during ACE inhibitor therapy or whether ACE inhibitor therapy can play a role in the treatment of sarcoidosis needs to be determined in a large clinical trial.

  2. Patented small molecule inhibitors in the ubiquitin proteasome system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colland Frédéric

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The recent approval of the proteasome inhibitor Velcade® (bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma establishes this system as a valid target for cancer treatment. We review here new patented proteasome inhibitors and patented small molecule inhibitors targeting more specific UPS components, such as E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitylating enzymes. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  3. P3 cap modified Phe*-Ala series BACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hui; Lamar, Jason; Guo, Deqi; Kohn, Todd; Yang, Hsiu-Chiung; McGee, James; Timm, David; Erickson, Jon; Yip, Yvonne; May, Patrick; McCarthy, James

    2004-01-05

    With the aim of reducing molecular weight and adjusting log D value of BACE inhibitors to more favorable range for BBB penetration and better bioavailability, we synthesized and evaluated several series of P3 cap modified BACE inhibitors obtained via replacement of the P3NHBoc moiety as seen in 3 with other polar functional groups such as amino, hydroxyl and fluorine. Several promising inhibitors emerging from this P3 cap SAR study (e.g., 15 and 19) demonstrated good enzyme inhibitory potencies (BACE-1 IC(50) <50 nM) and whole cell activities (IC(50) approximately 1 microM).

  4. The effect of aromatase inhibitors on bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Bjarnason, Nina H; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors increase the disease-free survival in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme complex catalysing the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. These properties cause a significant increase in bone loss. In this MiniReview, we present...... density have shown a significant decrease in bone mineral density of the femoral neck in the aromatase inhibitor groups compared to placebo groups. Placebo-controlled studies lack statistical power to detect changes in fracture incidence; however, aromatase inhibitors increase the incidence of fractures...

  5. INHIBITION OF ENZYME ACTIVITY OF TYROSINASE WITH EDTA, CHITOSAN AND PAPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Cjuno H., J.; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Arroyo C., J.; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of the browning controlling enzymatic in fruits, a sequence of experiments of enzymatic inhibition has been developed based on the system enzyme-sustrato-inhibitor (tyrosinase-pyrocatechol-inhibitor).The enzymatic activity of the tyrosinase has been substantially affected by the chelating inhibitors (EDTA), polymeric (chitosane) and enzymatic (papain). The inhibitory effectiveness of the papain has been attributed to its hydrolitic action on the active places 176G and 182E ...

  6. AZT as a telomerase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Gomez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase is a highly specialized reverse transcriptase and the maintenance of telomeric length is determined by this specific enzyme. The human holoenzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein composed by a catalytic subunit, hTERT, an RNA component, hTR, and a group of associated proteins. Telomerase is normally expressed in embryonic cells and is repressed during adulthood. The enzyme is reexpressed in around 85% of solid tumors. This observation makes it a potential target for developing drugs that could be developed for therapeutic purposes. The identification of the hTERT as a functional catalytic reverse transcriptase prompted studies of inhibiting telomerase with the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT. Previously, we have demonstrated that AZT binds preferentially to telomeres, inhibits telomerase and enhances tumor cell senescence and apoptosis after AZT treatment in breast mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Since then, several studies have considered AZT for telomerase inhibition and have led to potential clinical strategies for anticancer therapy. This review covers present thinking of the inhibition of telomerase by AZT and future treatment protocols using the drug.

  7. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  8. Enzyme catalysed tandem reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroz-Guinea, Isabel; García-Junceda, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a reversible process to become irreversible, to shift the equilibrium reaction in such a way that enantiopure compounds can be obtained from prochiral or racemic substrates, reduce or eliminate problems due to product inhibition or prevent the shortage of substrates by dilution or degradation in the bulk media, etc. In this review we want to illustrate the developments of recent studies involving in vitro multi-enzyme reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  10. 2-Phenylquinazolinones as dual-activity tankyrase-kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkizinkiko, Yves; Desantis, Jenny; Koivunen, Jarkko; Haikarainen, Teemu; Murthy, Sudarshan; Sancineto, Luca; Massari, Serena; Ianni, Federica; Obaji, Ezeogo; Loza, Maria I; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Brea, Jose; Tabarrini, Oriana; Lehtiö, Lari

    2018-01-26

    Tankyrases (TNKSs) are enzymes specialized in catalyzing poly-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins. Several studies have validated TNKSs as anti-cancer drug targets due to their regulatory role in Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Recently a lot of effort has been put into developing more potent and selective TNKS inhibitors and optimizing them towards anti-cancer agents. We noticed that some 2-phenylquinazolinones (2-PQs) reported as CDK9 inhibitors were similar to previously published TNKS inhibitors. In this study, we profiled this series of 2-PQs against TNKS and selected kinases that are involved in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We found that they were much more potent TNKS inhibitors than they were CDK9/kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the compound selectivity to tankyrases over the ARTD enzyme family and solved co-crystal structures of the compounds with TNKS2. Comparative structure-based studies of the catalytic domain of TNKS2 with selected CDK9 inhibitors and docking studies of the inhibitors with two kinases (CDK9 and Akt) revealed important structural features, which could explain the selectivity of the compounds towards either tankyrases or kinases. We also discovered a compound, which was able to inhibit tankyrases, CDK9 and Akt kinases with equal µM potency.

  11. Kynurenine Aminotransferase Isozyme Inhibitors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nematollahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenine aminotransferase isozymes (KATs 1–4 are members of the pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzyme family, which catalyse the permanent conversion of l-kynurenine (l-KYN to kynurenic acid (KYNA, a known neuroactive agent. As KATs are found in the mammalian brain and have key roles in the kynurenine pathway, involved in different categories of central nervous system (CNS diseases, the KATs are prominent targets in the quest to treat neurodegenerative and cognitive impairment disorders. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting these enzymes would produce effects beneficial to patients with these conditions, as abnormally high levels of KYNA are observed. KAT-1 and KAT-3 share the highest sequence similarity of the isozymes in this family, and their active site pockets are also similar. Importantly, KAT-2 has the major role of kynurenic acid production (70% in the human brain, and it is considered therefore that suitable inhibition of this isozyme would be most effective in managing major aspects of CNS diseases. Human KAT-2 inhibitors have been developed, but the most potent of them, chosen for further investigations, did not proceed in clinical studies due to the cross toxicity caused by their irreversible interaction with PLP, the required cofactor of the KAT isozymes, and any other PLP-dependent enzymes. As a consequence of the possibility of extensive undesirable adverse effects, it is also important to pursue KAT inhibitors that reversibly inhibit KATs and to include a strategy that seeks compounds likely to achieve substantial interaction with regions of the active site other than the PLP. The main purpose of this treatise is to review the recent developments with the inhibitors of KAT isozymes. This treatise also includes analyses of their crystallographic structures in complex with this enzyme family, which provides further insight for researchers in this and related studies.

  12. Basic nuclear processes affected by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Strnad, Hynek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Martinet, Nadine; Dekker, Frank J; Franek, Michal; Bártová, Eva

    AIM: The optimal balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation is important for proper gene function. Therefore, we addressed how inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes can modulate nuclear events, including replication, transcription, splicing and DNA repair. MATERIALS & METHODS: Changes

  13. Discovery and Characterization of a Highly Selective FAAH Inhibitor that Reduces Inflammatory Pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahn, Kay; Johnson, Douglas S; Mileni, Mauro; Beidler, David; Long, Jonathan Z; McKinney, Michele K; Weerapana, Eranthie; Sadagopan, Nalini; Liimatta, Marya; Smith, Sarah E; Lazerwith, Scott; Stiff, Cory; Kamtekar, Satwik; Bhattacharya, Keshab; Zhang, Yanhua; Swaney, Stephen; Van Becelaere, Keri; Stevens, Raymond C; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2009-01-01

    .... In contrast, inhibitors of the principal AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) ( Cravatt et al., 1996; McKinney and Cravatt, 2005 ) and FAAH(−/−) mice have been found to displa...

  14. Advances in enzyme immobilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2009-07-10

    Full Text Available substrate to fix the structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases during rigidification by immobilisation, thereby enhancing the synthetic capability of the enzyme relative to its hydrolytic activity. In particular, modulation of enzyme... aggregates for enantioselective nitrile hydrolysis. Adv Synth Catal 349:2167- 2176 Kaulpiboon J, Pongsawasdi P, Zimmermann W (2007) Molecular imprinting of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases from Paenibacillus sp. A11 and Bacillus macerans with γ-cyclodextrin...

  15. Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

    2014-06-17

    Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

  16. Adsorption and inactivation of proteolytic enzymes by Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izvekova G.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The proteolytic activity in washings off the Triaenophorus nodulosus cestode tegument and the ability of the worms to inactivate proteolytic enzymes were studied. It was found that the major proteolytic activity in the washing samples is represented by the easily desorbed fraction most probably characterizing the activity of the host’s enzymes. Serine proteinases are an essential part of these enzymes. It was shown that the worms’ incubation medium and their homogenates can inhibit host proteinases and commercial trypsin samples. Suppressive activity of the incubation medium suggests that the inhibitors are rather spontaneously produced by the worms than induced by the presence of proteinases in the surrounding medium. The inhibitor produced by the cestode is hypothesized to be trypsin-specific.

  17. Diversity of marine bacteria producing beta-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sony; Sree, Ayinampudi; Dash, Soumya Suchismita; Sethi, Dipti Priya; Chowdhury, Lipsa

    2013-04-17

    Beta-glucosidase inhibitors are being extensively studied for use as anti-diabetics, anti-obesity and anti-tumour compounds. So far, these compounds have been reported in large numbers from plants, mushrooms, algae and fungi. There are very few reports of such inhibitors from bacteria in the open literature, particularly marine bacteria; although the best known inhibitor deoxynojirimycin was isolated from bacilli and actinomycete. Through this study, we tried to discover the diversity of microbial associates of marine sponge and sediment producing β-glucosidase inhibitors. We found 41 (22.7%) out of 181 bacteria, produced such inhibitors. The inhibitors are abundant in bacterial associates of marine sponge Aka coralliphaga. When these bacteria were phylogenetically analyzed, it was found that marine bacteria producing glucosidase inhibitors belong to the phylum Firmicutes (23), Actinobacteria (9), Proteobacteria (7) and Bacteroidetes (1). A significant number of marine bacteria belonging to a wide range of bacterial taxa were found to produce β-glucosidase inhibitors. These compounds are abundantly present in bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes followed by the phylum Actinobacteria. The results nurture a hope of finding new compounds, which can inhibit glucosidases, in the bacterial domain of marine organisms. Thus, marine microbial cells can be utilized as producers of pharmacologically essential enzyme inhibitors.

  18. Use of Mushroom Tyrosinase to Introduce Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics to Biochemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    An inexpensive enzyme kinetics laboratory exercise for undergraduate biochemistry students is described utilizing tyrosinase from white button mushrooms. The exercise can be completed in one or two three-hour lab sessions. The optimal amounts of enzyme, substrate (catechol), and inhibitor (kojic acid) are first determined, and then kinetic data is…

  19. Lead inhibition of enzyme synthesis in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M A

    1977-02-01

    Addition of 2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil concident with or after amendment with starch or maltose resulted in 75 and 50% decreases in net synthesis of amylase and alpha-glucosidase, respectively. Invertase synthesis in sucrose-amended soil was transiently reduced after Pb2+ addition. Amylase activity was several times less sensitive to Pb2+ inhibition than was enzyme synthesis. In most cases, the rate of enzyme synthesis returned to control (Pb2+) values 24 to 48 h after the addition of Pb. The decrease in amylase synthesis was paralleled by a decrease in the number of Pb-sensitive, amylase-producing bacteria, whereas recovery of synthesis was associated with an increase in the number of amylase-producing bacteria. The degree of inhibition of enzyme synthesis was related to the quantity of Pb added and to the specific form of lead. PbSO4 decreased amylase synthesis at concentrations of 10.2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or more, whereas PbO did not inhibit amylase synthesis at 13 mg of Pb2+/g of soil. Lead acetate, PbCl2, and PbS reduced amylase synthesis at total Pb2+ concentrations of 0.45 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or higher. The results indicated that lead is a potent but somewhat selective inhibitor of enzyme synthesis in soil, and that highly insoluble lead compounds, such as PbS, may be potent modifiers of soil biological activity.

  20. Análisis del consumo de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angioténsina en el territorio oeste de La Habana, 2005-2009 Analysis of the consumption of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the west side of Havana, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cabrera Cepero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La planificación de los recursos es un problema trascendental en los países en desarrollo y también en Cuba, por lo que hacer el mejor uso de los presupuestos limitados y de las escasas divisas, es de vital importancia. Planificar las cantidades de medicamentos necesarias, para lograr garantizar una disponibilidad adecuada de estos en todos los niveles de asistencia, es una tarea en la cual intervienen un sinnúmero de factores. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar en qué medida la introducción del enalapril tabletas influyó en el consumo del captopril tabletas, mediante el análisis de los patrones de consumo de los medicamentos inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina en el territorio oeste de La Habana entre marzo de 2005 y diciembre de 2009. Para ello se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos de consumo, de tipo descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo. Se calcularon las DHD (dosis por mil habitantes día. Los resultados de este trabajo demuestran cómo en este grupo hay un desplazamiento del consumo hacia el enalapril. Este es un comportamiento lógico por la comodidad de la administración y la menor incidencia de efectos adversos. Sin embargo, el captopril se mantiene en valores entre 20 y 30 DHD x 1 000 habitantes ya que hay un grupo de pacientes que continúan con este tratamiento y es de elección en la crisis hipertensiva.The planning of resources is a pressing problem in the developing nations including Cuba, hence using restricted budgets and dwindling foreign currencies in the best possible way is a must. Planning the amount of required drugs to assure their adequate supply at all medical assistance levels is a vital task in which a number of factors are involved. This paper was aimed at showing to what extent the introduction of enalapril pills into the market influenced the consumption of captopril tablets, through the analysis of the consumption patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme

  1. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of use of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors [LISA-TRACKER® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, TNF-α-Blocker ELISA kits and Promonitor® ELISA kits] versus standard care in patients with Crohn's disease: systematic reviews and economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Karoline; Connock, Martin; Auguste, Peter; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Mistry, Hema; Shyangdan, Deepson; Court, Rachel; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Sutcliffe, Paul; Clarke, Aileen

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews and economic modelling of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors [using LISA-TRACKER(®) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Theradiag, Marne La Vallee, France, or Alpha Laboratories, Heriot, UK), TNF-α-Blocker ELISA kits (Immundiagnostik AG, Bensheim, Germany) and Promonitor(®) ELISA kits (Proteomika, Progenika Biopharma, Bizkaia, Spain)] versus standard care for Crohn's disease (CD). Multiple electronic databases were searched from inception to December 2014 in order to identify primary studies and meta-analyses. Patients with moderate to severe active CD treated with infliximab (IFX) (Remicade(®), Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) or adalimumab (ADA) (Humira(®), AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA). Monitoring of serum anti-TNF-α (IFX or ADA) and/or of anti-drug antibody levels using test assays with a test-treatment algorithm. Standard care. Any patient-related outcome, test agreement and cost-effectiveness estimates. The quality assessments used recognised checklists (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2, Cochrane, Philips and Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards). Evidence was synthesised using narrative review and meta-analysis. A Markov model was built in TreeAge Pro 2013 (TreeAge Software, Inc., Williamstown, MA, USA). The model had a 4-week cycle and a 10-year time horizon, adopted a NHS and Personal Social Services perspective and used a linked evidence approach. Costs were adjusted to 2013/14 prices and discounted at 3.5%. We included 68 out of 2434 and 4 out of 2466 studies for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness reviews, respectively. Twenty-three studies comparing test methods were identified. Evidence on test concordance was sparse and contradictory, offering scant data for a linked evidence approach. Three studies [two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one

  2. Angiotensinkonverterende enzym efter AMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C T; Køber, L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the improvement in life expectancy by treating patients with left ventricular dysfunction after a myocardial infarction with an ACE inhibitor. Life expectancy was estimated as median lifetime and follow up in the TRACE study was prolonged until median li...

  3. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  4. Interaction of the indole class of vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitors with lipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, F.; Loura, L.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Dixon, N.; Kee, T.P.; Hemminga, M.A.; Prieto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The selective inhibitor of osteoclastic V-ATPase (2Z,4E)-5-(5,6-dichloro-2-indolyi)-2-methoxy-N-(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpip eridin-4-yl)-2,4-pentadienamide (SB 242784), member of the indole class of V-ATPase inhibitors, is expected to target the membrane-bound domain of the enzyme. A structural study

  5. Treatment with angiotensin II inhibitors and residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolesnyk, Inna; Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown the renoprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with chronic kidney disease stages I-IV. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed a positive effect of AII inhibitors on residual

  6. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Ballard, Jeanine E; Bennett, David J; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S; Chang, Ronald K; Dubost, David C; Fay, John F; Diamond, Tracy L; Greshock, Thomas J; Hao, Li; Holloway, M Katharine; Felock, Peter J; Gesell, Jennifer J; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J; McKay, Daniel J; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M; Nantermet, Philippe G; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D; Singh, Sanjay K; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M; Vacca, Joseph P; Crane, Sheldon N; McCauley, John A

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of tripeptidyl alpha-ketoamides as human rhinovirus 3C protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hui; Lamar, Jason; Victor, Frantz; Snyder, Nancy; Johnson, Robert; Heinz, Beverly A; Wakulchik, Mark; Wang, Q May

    2003-10-20

    We describe herein the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of tripeptidyl alpha-ketoamides as human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor discussed in this manuscript, 4I, exhibited impressive enzyme inhibitory activity as well as antiviral activity against HRV-14.

  8. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bungard, Christopher J.; Williams, Peter D.; Ballard, Jeanine E.; Bennett, David J.; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S.; Chang, Ronald K.; Dubost, David C.; Fay, John F.; Diamond, Tracy L.; Greshock, Thomas J.; Hao, Li; Holloway, M. Katharine; Felock, Peter J.; Gesell, Jennifer J.; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J.; McKay, Daniel J.; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M.; Nantermet, Philippe G.; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I.; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M.; Vacca, Joseph P.; Crane, Sheldon N.; McCauley, John A. (Merck); (Albany MR)

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

  9. Experimental Approaches Toward Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitors as Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank; Tollefsbol, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    This chapter comprises the most recent developments with respect to the role of human histone acetyltransferases (HATs) in diseases and the potential therapeutic applications of HAT inhibitors. HATs form a diverse group of mainly nuclear enzymes that play an important role in the acetylation of

  10. Determination of activities of human carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (the concentration at which 50 % of the enzyme activity inhibited), which were calculated using. Microsoft Excel 2011 from a dose-response curve obtained using at least five concentrations. (ranging from 1–10 µg/mL) of the inhibitor and carried out in triplicate. Molecular docking. The initial structure of CA-II was obtained ...

  11. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor in paediatric patients with nephrotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathway inhibitor levels in plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The plasma TFPI level was higher in nephrotic patients during relapse (group I) and during remission (group II) (mean 102.53. (standard deviation (SD) 14.23) and 82.93 (SD 3.83) ng/ml, respectively) compared ...

  12. Comparative activity of three inhibitors of the angiotensin converting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, enalapril, lisinopril and captopril were tested in vivo by topical application on growth, development and whole body ecdysteroids in Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), an important pest in stored products worldwide. The compounds were diluted in ...

  13. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  14. Discovery and X-ray crystallographic analysis of a spiropiperidine iminohydantoin inhibitor of beta-secretase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, James C; Stauffer, Shaun R; Rittle, Kenneth E; Ngo, Phung L; Yang, ZhiQiang; Selnick, Harold G; Graham, Samuel L; Munshi, Sanjeev; McGaughey, Georgia B; Holloway, M Katharine; Simon, Adam J; Price, Eric A; Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Colussi, Dennis; Tugusheva, Katherine; Lai, Ming-Tain; Espeseth, Amy S; Xu, Min; Huang, Qian; Wolfe, Abigail; Pietrak, Beth; Zuck, Paul; Levorse, Dorothy A; Hazuda, Daria; Vacca, Joseph P

    2008-10-23

    A high-throughput screen at 100 microM inhibitor concentration for the BACE-1 enzyme revealed a novel spiropiperidine iminohydantoin aspartyl protease inhibitor template. An X-ray cocrystal structure with BACE-1 revealed a novel mode of binding whereby the inhibitor interacts with the catalytic aspartates via bridging water molecules. Using the crystal structure as a guide, potent compounds with good brain penetration were designed.

  15. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M

    2008-01-01

    that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  16. Skin whitening agents: medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Manickam, Manoj; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran

    2017-12-01

    Melanogenesis is a process to synthesize melanin, which is a primary responsible for the pigmentation of human skin, eye and hair. Although numerous enzymatic catalyzed and chemical reactions are involved in melanogenesis process, the enzymes such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 played a major role in melanin synthesis. Specifically, tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of the melanin synthesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent approach for the development of melanogenesis inhibitors. Therefore, numerous inhibitors that target tyrosinase have been developed in recent years. The review focuses on the recent discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors that are directly involved in the inhibition of tyrosinase catalytic activity and functionality from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, natural products, virtual screening and structure-based molecular docking studies.

  17. Heterocyclic inhibitors of AChE acylation and peripheral sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Andrisano, Vincenza; Bartolini, Manuela; Cavalli, Andrea; Minarini, Anna; Recanatini, Maurizio; Rosini, Michela; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Melchiorre, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Notwithstanding the criticism to the so called " cholinergic hypothesis", the therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been mainly centered on the restoration of cholinergic functionality and, until the last year, the only drugs licensed for the management of AD were the acetycholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Target enzyme AChE consists of a narrow gorge with two separate ligand binding sites: an acylation site at the bottom of the gorge containing the catalytic triad and a peripheral site located at the gorge rim, which encompasses binding sites for allosteric ligands. The aim of this short review is to update the knowledge on heterocyclic AChE inhibitors able to interact with the two sites of enzymes, structurally related to the well known inhibitors physostigmine, rivastigmine and propidium. The therapeutic potential of the dual site inhibithors in inhibiting amyloid-beta aggregatrion and deposition is also briefly summarised.

  18. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Global substrate specificity profiling of post-translational modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivry, Sam L; Meyer, Nicole O; Winter, Michael B; Bohn, Markus F; Knudsen, Giselle M; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Craik, Charles S

    2017-11-23

    Enzymes that modify the proteome, referred to as post-translational modifying (PTM) enzymes, are central regulators of cellular signaling. Determining the substrate specificity of PTM enzymes is a critical step in unraveling their biological functions both in normal physiological processes and in disease states. Advances in peptide chemistry over the last century have enabled the rapid generation of peptide libraries for querying substrate recognition by PTM enzymes. In this review, we highlight various peptide-based approaches for analysis of PTM enzyme substrate specificity. We focus on the application of these technologies to proteases but also discuss specific examples in which they have been used to uncover the substrate specificity of other types of PTM enzymes, such as kinases. In particular, we highlight our Multiplex Substrate Profiling by Mass Spectrometry (MSP-MS) assay, which uses a rationally designed, physicochemically diverse library of tetradecapeptides. We show how this method has been applied to PTM enzymes to uncover biological function, as well as guide substrate and inhibitor design. We also briefly discuss how this technique can be combined with other methods to gain a systems-level understanding of PTM enzyme regulation and function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. Inhibition properties of propolis extracts to some clinically important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to envisage inhibition effects of propolis on the crucial enzymes, urease, xanthine oxidase (XO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Some of the antioxidant properties of the propolis samples were determined using the total phenolic content (TPE) and total flavonoids in the eight different ethanolic propolis extracts (EPE) samples. Inhibition values of the enzymes were expressed as inhibition concentration (IC50; mg/mL or μg/mL) causing 50% inhibition of the enzymes with donepezil, acetohydroxamic acid and allopurinol as reference inhibitors. All the propolis extracts exhibited variable inhibition effects on these enzymes, but the higher the phenolic contents the lower the inhibitions values (IC50 = 0.074 to 1.560 mg/mL). IC50 values of the P5 propolis sample having the highest TPE, obtained from Zonguldak, for AChE, urease and XO were 0.081 ± 0.009, 0.080 ± 0.006 and 0.074 ± 0.011 μg/mL, respectively. The EPE proved to be a good source of inhibitor agents that can be used as natural inhibitors to serve human health.

  1. Replacing sulfa drugs with novel DHPS inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Dalia I; Zhao, Ying; White, Stephen W; Lee, Richard E

    2013-07-01

    More research effort needs to be invested in antimicrobial drug development to address the increasing threat of multidrug-resistant organisms. The enzyme DHPS has been a validated drug target for over 70 years as the target for the highly successful sulfa drugs. The use of sulfa drugs has been compromised by the widespread presence of resistant organisms and the adverse side effects associated with their use. Despite the large amount of structural information available for DHPS, few recent publications address the possibility of using this knowledge for novel drug design. This article reviews the relevant papers and patents that report promising new small-molecule inhibitors of DHPS, and discuss these data in light of new insights into the DHPS catalytic mechanism and recently determined crystal structures of DHPS bound to potent small-molecule inhibitors. This new functional understanding confirms that DHPS deserves further consideration as an antimicrobial drug target.

  2. Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarcic, B; Kos, J; Dolenc, I; Lucovnik, P; Krizaj, I; Turk, V

    1988-07-29

    The formation of inactive complexes in excess molar amounts of human cathepsins H and L with their protein inhibitors human stefin A, human stefin B and chicken cystatin at pH 5.6 has been shown by measurement of enzyme activity coupled with reverse-phase HPLC not to involve covalent cleavage of the inhibitors. Inhibition must be the direct result of binding. On the contrary the interaction of cystatins with aspartic proteinase cathepsin D at pH 3.5 for 60 min followed by HPLC resulted in their inactivation accompanied by peptide bond cleavage at several sites, preferentially those involving hydrophobic amino acid residues. The released peptides do not inhibit papain and cathepsin L. These results explain reported elevated levels of cysteine proteinases and lead to the proposal that cathepsin D exerts an important function, through inactivation of cystatins, in the increased activities of cysteine proteinases in human diseases including muscular distrophy.

  3. Acute but not chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition induces enzyme synthesis in the glomerulus of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, G; Makarious, M M; Charlesworth, J A; Duggan, K A

    1997-06-01

    1. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors slows the rate of progression of nephropathy in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Paradoxically, however, chronic ACE inhibitor therapy has been reported to be associated with induction of ACE in the plasma. We sought to determine whether induction also occurred in the glomerulus. 2. Seven days after induction of diabetes rats were randomized to receive perindopril (4 mg/kg per day) in the drinking water or water alone. Blood glucoses were maintained 6-10 mmol/L by daily ultralente insulin. Rats were killed after 1 and 12 weeks of ACE inhibitor therapy and the kidneys were harvested. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity was determined in isolated glomeruli before and after removal of perindopril and reconstitution with zinc sulphate. 3. After 1 week of ACE inhibitor therapy, glomerular ACE was significantly greater after removal of perindopril than either before its removal (P < 0.025) or in the untreated controls (P < 0.025). After 12 weeks of therapy, ACE activity was significantly lower in the perindopril-treated group than in the untreated controls (P < 0.025). There was no increase in ACE activity following removal of perindopril. 4. These studies suggest that short-term ACE inhibition is associated with induction of ACE in the glomerulus. However, there was no increase in ACE activity after removal of perindopril, suggesting that induction of synthesis of this enzyme in the glomerulus does not occur during chronic ACE inhibition.

  4. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function......? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe...... catalysis by enzymes, and in particular the analogies between enzyme catalyzed reactions and surface catalyzed reactions. We do this by discussing two concrete examples of reactions catalyzed both in nature (by enzymes) and in industrial reactors (by inorganic materials), and show that although analogies...

  5. The structures of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase with and without inhibitor reveal conformational flexibility in the inhibitor and substrate binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Björn; Dufe, Veronica Tamu; Svensson, Bo; Fritzson, Ingela; Dahlberg, Leif; Khairoullina, Alfia; Wellmar, Ulf; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2008-08-26

    Inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) have been suggested for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, autoimmune diseases, Plasmodium, and bacterial and fungal infections. Here we present the structures of N-terminally truncated (residues Met30-Arg396) DHODH in complex with two inhibitors: a brequinar analogue (6) and a novel inhibitor (a fenamic acid derivative) (7), as well as the first structure of the enzyme to be characterized without any bound inhibitor. It is shown that 7 uses the "standard" brequinar binding mode and, in addition, interacts with Tyr356, a residue conserved in most class 2 DHODH proteins. Compared to the inhibitor-free structure, some of the amino acid side chains in the tunnel in which brequinar binds and which was suggested to be the binding site of ubiquinone undergo changes in conformation upon inhibitor binding. Using our data, the loop regions of residues Leu68-Arg72 and Asn212-Leu224, which were disordered in previously studied human DHODH structures, could be built into the electron density. The first of these loops, which is located at the entrance to the inhibitor-binding pocket, shows different conformations in the three structures, suggesting that it may interfere with inhibitor/cofactor binding. The second loop has been suggested to control the access of dihydroorotate to the active site of the enzyme and may be an important player in the enzymatic reaction. These observations provide new insights into the dynamic features of the DHODH reaction and suggest new approaches to the design of inhibitors against DHODH.

  6. enzyme-linked

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA MEDIESE TYDSKRIF DEEL 63 29 JANUARIE 1983. B surface antigen in donated screening and confirmation by immunosorbent assay. Hepatitis blood - enzyme-linked. M. O. BUBB, T. ... weeks at weekly intervals. After 6 weeks test blood samples were ... This assay normally takes 3 hours. Results. Fig. 1. Frequency ...

  7. Implantable enzyme amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Carrara, Sandro; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-05-15

    The implantable enzyme amperometric biosensor continues as the dominant in vivo format for the detection, monitoring and reporting of biochemical analytes related to a wide range of pathologies. Widely used in animal studies, there is increasing emphasis on their use in diabetes care and management, the management of trauma-associated hemorrhage and in critical care monitoring by intensivists in the ICU. These frontier opportunities demand continuous indwelling performance for up to several years, well in excess of the currently approved seven days. This review outlines the many challenges to successful deployment of chronically implantable amperometric enzyme biosensors and emphasizes the emerging technological approaches in their continued development. The foreign body response plays a prominent role in implantable biotransducer failure. Topics considering the approaches to mitigate the inflammatory response, use of biomimetic chemistries, nanostructured topographies, drug eluting constructs, and tissue-to-device interface modulus matching are reviewed. Similarly, factors that influence biotransducer performance such as enzyme stability, substrate interference, mediator selection and calibration are reviewed. For the biosensor system, the opportunities and challenges of integration, guided by footprint requirements, the limitations of mixed signal electronics, and power requirements, has produced three systems approaches. The potential is great. However, integration along the multiple length scales needed to address fundamental issues and integration across the diverse disciplines needed to achieve success of these highly integrated systems, continues to be a challenge in the development and deployment of implantable amperometric enzyme biosensor systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Rømer, F K; Cortes, D

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical or radiolog...

  9. Enzymes and fungal virulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be common across a variety of fungal pathogens. Most fungal pathogens and ... Fungi utilize the food substances in their immediate vicinity to .... digestion of the fungal secreted enzymes thereby denying access to the host cell. For a pathogen to be successful, it mttst be able to circumvent or overcome these antifungal ...

  10. [Elevated liver enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Elevated liver enzymes are a frequent finding in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients necessitating further evaluation to clarify the underlying disease. Three different patterns of increased liver enzymes can be defined to allow for a more precise and rational further diagnostic approach. A predominant increase in transaminase activities reflects a disturbance of hepatocellular integrity which can be found in patients with viral hepatitis, genetic liver diseases like Wilson`s disease or hemochromatosis, and drug-induced liver diseases. A second pattern is characterized by high serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activities indicating cholestatic liver diseases. The next important diagnostic measure in this group is an ultrasound study discerning intra- from extrahepatic cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestatic diseases include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, genetic disturbances of canalicular membrane transporters or drug-induced liver dieseases. Extrahepatic cholestasis involves obstruction of the large bile ducts by gall stones or tumors. The third enzym pattern is defined by a predominant rise in γ-glutamyl transpeptidase which is observed in alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and infiltrating liver diseases. A rise in liver enzymes is not necessarily indicative of a primary hepatic origin. Extrahepatic diseases often cause similarly increased serum activities. In addition even higher values can be observed under normal conditions during pregnancy or in adolescens. Lower values in asymptomatic patients should only be controlled since more than 30% of elevated transaminases spontaneously normalize during follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. ISFET based enzyme sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the results that have been reported on ISFET based enzyme sensors. The most important improvement that results from the application of ISFETs instead of glass membrane electrodes is in the method of fabrication. Problems with regard to the pH dependence of the response and the

  12. Enzymes and fungal virulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant pathogenic fungi secrete extracellular enlymes that are capable of degrading the cell walls of their host plants. These CWDES may be necessary for penetration ofthc cell wall harricr. as well as for generation of simple molecules that can he assimilated for growth. Most of these enzymes are substrawinducible and both ...

  13. Purification, partial characterization, and immunological relationships of multiple low molecular weight protease inhibitors of soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D.L.R.; Lin, K.T.D.; Yang, W.K.; Foard, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Five protease inhibitors, I-V, in the molecular weight range 7000-8000 were purified from Tracy soybeans by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and G-75, and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. In common with previously described trypsin inhibitors from legumes, I-V have a high content of half-cystine and lack tryptophan. By contrast with other legume inhibitors, inhibitor II contains 3 methionine residues. Isoelectric points range from 6.2 to 4.2 in order from inhibitor I to V. Molar ratios (inhibitor/enzyme) for 50% trypsin inhibition are I = 4.76, II = 1.32, III = 3.22, IV = 2.17, V = 0.97. Only V inhibits chymotrypsin significantly (molar ratio = 1.33 for 50% inhibition). The sequence of the first 16 N-terminal amino acid residues of inhibitor V is identical to that of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor; all other observations also indicate that inhibitor V and Bowman-Birk are identical. The first 20 N-terminal amino acid residues of inhibitor II show high homology to those of Bowman-Birk inhibitor, differing by 1 deletion and 5 substitutions. Immunological tests show that inhibitors I through IV are fully cross-reactive with each other but are distinct from inhibitor V.

  14. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID

  15. A New Urease Inhibitor from Viola betonicifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urease has attracted much attention, as it is directly involved in the formation of infection stones and contributes to the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic coma and urinary catheter encrustation. Moreover, urease is the major cause of pathologies induced by H. pylori, such as gastritis and peptic ulcer. In the present work, the new natural compound, 3-methoxydalbergione, was isolated from Viola betonicifolia. A mechanistic study of this compound as a natural urease inhibitor was performed by using enzyme kinetics and docking studies. 3-Methoxydalbergione could be considered as a lead molecule for drugs useful in the urease associated diseases.

  16. Monitoring enzyme kinetic behavior of enzyme-quantum dot bioconjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Jonathan C.; Walper, Scott A.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2014-05-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) hold tremendous promise for in vivo biosensing, cellular imaging, theranostics, and smart molecular sensing probes due to their small size and favorable photonic properties such as resistance to photobleaching, size-tunable PL, and large effective Stokes shifts. Herein, we demonstrate how QD-based bioconjugates can be used to enhance enzyme kinetics. Enzyme-substrate kinetics are analyzed for solutions containing both alkaline phosphatase enzymes and QDs with enzyme-to- QD molar ratios of 2, 12, and 24 as well as for a solution containing the same concentration of enzymes but without QDs. The enzyme kinetic paramters Vmax, KM, and Kcat/KM are extracted from the enzyme progress curves via the Lineweaver-Burk plot. Results demonstrate an approximate increase in enzyme efficiency of 5 - 8% for enzymes immobilized on the QD versus free in solution without QD immobilization.

  17. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-induced Angioedema - A Dangerous New Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    to asphyxia has increased. This is mainly due to pharmaceuticals such as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors, which are extensively used worldwide. Some aspects of the pathophysiology have been elucidated and the vasoactive molecule bradykinin is shown to be one of the main causative agents....... The diagnosis is often delayed and traditional treatment usually ineffective. Complement C1 inhibitor concentrate and bradykinin receptor antagonists, normally used to treat patients with hereditary angioedema, have shown good results when used in patients with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. This review...

  18. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  19. Identification of catechols as histone-lysine demethylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders L; Kristensen, Line H; Stephansen, Karen B

    2012-01-01

    Identification of inhibitors of histone-lysine demethylase (HDM) enzymes is important because of their involvement in the development of cancer. An ELISA-based assay was developed for identification of inhibitors of the HDM KDM4C in a natural products library. Based on one of the hits with affinity...... in the low µM range (1, a catechol), a subset of structurally related compounds was selected and tested against a panel of HDMs. In this subset, two inhibitors (2 and 10) had comparable affinities towards KDM4C and KDM6A but no effect on PHF8. One inhibitor restored H3K9me3 levels in KDM4C transfected U2-OS...

  20. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh [Abteilung für Mol