Sample records for enzyme atpases promote

  1. Cell-specific promoter in adenovirus vector for transgenic expression of SERCA1 ATPase in cardiac myocytes.

    Inesi, G; Lewis, D; Sumbilla, C; Nandi, A; Strock, C; Huff, K W; Rogers, T B; Johns, D C; Kessler, P D; Ordahl, C P


    Adenovirus-mediated transfer of cDNA encoding the chicken skeletal muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) yielded selective expression in cultured chick embryo cardiac myocytes under control of a segment (-268 base pair) of the cell-specific cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter or nonselective expression in myocytes and fibroblasts under control of a constitutive viral [cytomegalovirus (CMV)] promoter. Under optimal conditions nearly all cardiac myocytes in culture were shown to express transgenic SERCA1 ATPase. Expression was targeted to intracellular membranes and was recovered in subcellular fractions with a pattern identical to that of the endogenous SERCA2a ATPase. Relative to control myocytes, transgenic SERCA1 expression increased up to four times the rates of ATP-dependent (and thapsigargin-sensitive) Ca2+ transport activity of cell homogenates. Although the CMV promoter was more active than the cTnT promoter, an upper limit for transgenic expression of functional enzyme was reached under control of either promoter by adjustment of the adenovirus plaque-forming unit titer of infection media. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration transients and tension development of whole myocytes were also influenced to a similar limit by transgenic expression of SERCA1 under control of either promoter. Our experiments demonstrate that a cell-specific protein promoter in recombinant adenovirus vectors yields highly efficient and selective transgene expression of a membrane-bound and functional enzyme in cardiac myocytes.

  2. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance.

    Schep, Daniel G; Zhao, Jianhua; Rubinstein, John L


    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in the S. cerevisae V-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases.

  3. Subunit topology in the V type ATPase and related enzymes

    Chaban, Yuriy


    During the last decades impressive progress has been made in understanding of the catalytic mechanism of F-type ATP synthase, which is the key enzyme in the energy metabolism of eukaryotes and most bacteria. This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the process of oxidative phosphorylation in bacteria

  4. Subunit topology in the V type ATPase and related enzymes

    Chaban, Yuriy


    During the last decades impressive progress has been made in understanding of the catalytic mechanism of F-type ATP synthase, which is the key enzyme in the energy metabolism of eukaryotes and most bacteria. This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the process of oxidative phosphorylation in bacteria

  5. Plant lipid environment and membrane enzymes: the case of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

    Morales-Cedillo, Francisco; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gutiérrez-Angoa, Lizbeth; Cano-Ramírez, Dora Luz; Gavilanes-Ruiz, Marina


    Several lipid classes constitute the universal matrix of the biological membranes. With their amphipathic nature, lipids not only build the continuous barrier that confers identity to every cell and organelle, but they are also active actors that modulate the activity of the proteins immersed in the lipid bilayer. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, an enzyme from plant cells, is an excellent example of a transmembrane protein whose activity is influenced by the hydrophilic compartments at both sides of the membrane and by the hydrophobic domains of the lipid bilayer. As a result, an extensive documentation of the effect of numerous amphiphiles in the enzyme activity can be found. Detergents, membrane glycerolipids, and sterols can produce activation or inhibition of the enzyme activity. In some cases, these effects are associated with the lipids of the membrane bulk, but in others, a direct interaction of the lipid with the protein is involved. This review gives an account of reports related to the action of the membrane lipids on the H(+)-ATPase activity.

  6. Activity determination of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase enzymes in the gill of Poecilia vivipara (Osteichthyes, Cyprinodontiformes in different salinities

    Marcelo da Cunha Amaral


    Full Text Available This work aimed to know the tolerance mechanisms through the salinity variation by Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase and enzymes encountered in the gills of Poecilia vivipara. In field, the presence of this species was observed in salinities of 0 and 28‰. In laboratory, these fish were maintained in aquarium with mean salinity of 30‰ and positive responses were obtained. Some adult specimens, collected in a lagoon of the Coqueiros Beach, were utilized as matrixes. In the experiments the specimens used were those born in the test aquarium. For each salinity studied three replicates were made with three specimens for each one. The alevins were maintained in salinities of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35‰ during a month for adaptation. Gills were extracted in appropriate buffer for isolation of plasma membrane and used for specific dosage of the total enzymatic activity of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase. The relation of alevins to their adaptation towards the salinity variation was also studied. The activity of the two enzymes showed a different result. The major expression of Na+ K+ - ATPase was observed in 20‰ (35 µmoles protein.h-1, the best salinity to cultivate P. vivipara.Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer os mecanismos de tolerância às variações de salinidade, pelas enzimas Mg++ - ATPase e Na+ K+ - ATPase, encontrada nas brânquias de Poecilia vivipara. No campo, foi observada a presença desta espécie em salinidades entre 0 e 28‰. No laboratório, os indivíduos foram mantidos em salinidade de 30‰ e responderam positivamente. Os indivíduos adultos, coletados em uma lagoa na praia dos Coqueiros, foram utilizados como matrizes. Nos experimentos foram usados alevinos que nasceram nos aquários testes. Para cada salinidade estudada foram feitas três réplicas com três espécimens em cada uma. Os alevinos foram mantidos em salinidades de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35‰, durante um mês para total adaptação. As br

  7. Role of Na + -K + ATPase enzyme in vascular response of goat ruminal artery

    Kathirvel K


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of Na + , K + - ATPase enzyme in the vascular response of goat ruminal artery. Materials and Methods: Ruminal artery was obtained in chilled aerated modified Krebs-Henseleit solution (KHS from a local slaughterhouse and transported in ice for further processing. The endothelium intact arterial ring was mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37 ± 0.5°C organ bath containing 20 ml of modified KHS (pH 7.4 bubbled with oxygen (95% and CO 2 (5% under 2g tension. An equilibration of 90 min was allowed before addition of drugs into the bath. The responses were recorded isometrically in an automatic organ bath connected to PowerLab data acquisition system. In order to examine intact functional endothelium, ACh (10µM was added on the 5-HT (1.0µM - induced sustained contractile response. Similarly, functional characterization of Na + , K + -ATPase activity was done by K + -induced relaxation (10µM-10mM in the absence and presence of ouabain (0.1µM/ 0.1mM, digoxin (0.1µM and barium (30µM. Results: ACh (10-5 M did not produce any relaxing effect on 5-HT-induced sustained contractile response suggesting that vascular endothelium has no significant influence on the activation of sodium pump by extracellular K + in ruminal artery. Low concentration of Ba 2+ (30 µM (IC 50 : 0.479mM inhibited K + -induced relaxation suggesting K ir (inward rectifier channel in part had role in K + -induced vasodilatation in ruminal artery. Vasorelaxant effect of KCl (10µM-10mM in K + -free medium is also blocked by ouabain (0.1µM and 0.1mM (IC 50 :0.398mM and IC 35 : 1.36mM, but not by digoxin (0.1µM (IC 50 0.234mM suggesting that ouabain sensitive Na + , K + -ATPase isoform is present in the ruminal artery. Conclusion: In the goat ruminal artery functional regulation of sodium pump is partly mediated by K + channel and ouabain sensitive Na + , K + ATPase.

  8. Vacuolar H+-ATPase: An Essential Multitasking Enzyme in Physiology and Pathophysiology

    L. Shannon Holliday


    Full Text Available Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases are large multisubunit proton pumps that are required for housekeeping acidification of membrane-bound compartments in eukaryotic cells. Mammalian V-ATPases are composed of 13 different subunits. Their housekeeping functions include acidifying endosomes, lysosomes, phagosomes, compartments for uncoupling receptors and ligands, autophagosomes, and elements of the Golgi apparatus. Specialized cells, including osteoclasts, intercalated cells in the kidney and pancreatic beta cells, contain both the housekeeping V-ATPases and an additional subset of V-ATPases, which plays a cell type specific role. The specialized V-ATPases are typically marked by the inclusion of cell type specific isoforms of one or more of the subunits. Three human diseases caused by mutations of isoforms of subunits have been identified. Cancer cells utilize V-ATPases in unusual ways; characterization of V-ATPases may lead to new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of cancer. Two accessory proteins to the V-ATPase have been identified that regulate the proton pump. One is the (prorenin receptor and data is emerging that indicates that V-ATPase may be intimately linked to renin/angiotensin signaling both systemically and locally. In summary, V-ATPases play vital housekeeping roles in eukaryotic cells. Specialized versions of the pump are required by specific organ systems and are involved in diseases.

  9. A novel type of replicative enzyme harbouring ATPase, primase and DNA polymerase activity

    Lipps, Georg; Röther, Susanne; Hart, Christina; Krauss, Gerhard


    Although DNA replication is a process common in all domains of life, primase and replicative DNA polymerase appear to have evolved independently in the bacterial domain versus the archaeal/eukaryal branch of life. Here, we report on a new type of replication protein that constitutes the first member of the DNA polymerase family E. The protein ORF904, encoded by the plasmid pRN1 from the thermoacidophile archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus, is a highly compact multifunctional enzyme with ATPase, primase and DNA polymerase activity. Recombinant purified ORF904 hydrolyses ATP in a DNA-dependent manner. Deoxynucleotides are preferentially used for the synthesis of primers ∼8 nucleotides long. The DNA polymerase activity of ORF904 synthesizes replication products of up to several thousand nucleotides in length. The primase and DNA polymerase activity are located in the N-terminal half of the protein, which does not show homology to any known DNA polymerase or primase. ORF904 constitutes a new type of replication enzyme, which could have evolved indepen dently from the eubacterial and archaeal/eukaryal proteins of DNA replication. PMID:12743045

  10. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

    Pardeep Kumar


    Full Text Available Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2. The aged rats (12 and 24 months were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses.

  11. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) promotes the progression of brain glioblastoma via Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    Ono, Yoko; Chiba, Shinsuke; Yano, Hirohito; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Saio, Masanao; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Iwama, Toru; Hara, Hideaki


    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), which is involved in invasion and metastasis, was found to be overexpressed in various cancers. High levels of GPNMB and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits are associated with a poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. We showed that GPNMB interacts with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits to activate PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways. However, it remains unclear whether the interaction of GPNMB and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits is involves in progression of glioma. The tumor size induced by the injection of glioma GL261 cells was larger in transgenic mice overexpressing GPNMB when compared with wild-type mice. Additionally, the interaction of GPNMB and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits was identified in the murine glioma model and in the tumors of glioblastoma patients. Ouabain, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed the glioma growth induced by the injection of glioma cells in the transgenic mice overexpressing GPNMB and blocked the GPNMB-induced migration of glioma cells. These findings indicate that GPNMB promotes glioma growth via Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits. Thus, the interaction between GPNMB and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α subunits represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brain glioblastomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic and mutational dissection of the two ATPase activities of terminase, the DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage Chi.

    Hwang, Y; Catalano, C E; Feiss, M


    Terminase the DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage chi, is a heteromultimer of gpNul (21 kDa) and gpA (74 kDa) subunits, encoded by the chi Nul and A genes, respectively. Sequence comparisons indicate that both gpNu1 and gpA have a match to the P-loop motif of ATPase centers, which is a glycine-rich segment followed by a lysine. By site-specific mutagenesis, we changed the lysines of the putative P-loops of gpNul (k35) and gpA (K497) to arginine, alanine, or aspartic acid, and studied the mutant enzymes by kinetic analysis and photochemical cross-linking with 8-azido-ATP. Both the gpNul and gpA subunits of wild-type terminase were covalently modified with 8-N3[32P] ATP in the presence of UV light. Saturation occurred with apparent dissociation constants of 508 and 3.5 microM for gpNul and gpA, resepctively. ATPase assays showed two activities: a low-affinity activity (Km=469 microM), and a high-affinity activity (Km=4.6 microM). The gpNul K35A and gpNul K35D mutant terminases showed decreased activity in the low-affinity ATPase activity. The reduced activities of these enzymes were recovered when 10 times more DNA was added, suggesting that the primary defect of the enzymes is alteration of the nonspecific, double-stranded DNA binding activity of terminase. ATPase assays and photolabeling of the gpA K497A and gpA K497D mutant terminases showed reduced affinity for ATP at the high-affinity site which was not restored by increased DNA. In summary, the results indicate the presence of a low-affinity, DNA-stimulated ATPase center in gpNul, and a high-affinity site in gpA.

  13. [Effect of the structural integrity of Na,K-ATPase preparations on the ability of lithium to substitute for sodium in enzyme activation].

    Skul'skiĭ, I A; Krestinskaia, T V; Pisareva, L N; Baklanova, S M; Solius, A A


    The ability of Li+ to substitute for Na+ in activating ouabain-sensitive ATPase of the rat kidney was studied on three kinds of the enzyme preparation: a) crude membrane fraction, b) purified enzyme, c) tissue slices. The preparations were free of endogenous Na+ and K+. The ATPase activity of slices was estimated both biochemically and cytochemically. In slices, the extent of Li+--Na+-isomorphism was about 10-fold higher than that in the purified enzyme. It is concluded that the biochemical procedures involved in the enzyme isolation procedure cause the damage of membranes, thus decreasing Li+-affinity to the Na+-dependent site.

  14. Kaempferol ameliorates aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma through modifying metabolizing enzymes, membrane bound ATPases and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes

    Kulanthaivel Langeswaran; Rajendran Revathy; Subbaraj Gowtham Kumar; Shanmugam Vijayaprakash


    Objective: The present study was aimed to scrutinize the anticancer consequence of kaempferol against aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of liver cancer in the population, where dietary aflatoxin exposure is high, have provided much circumstantial evidence for the development of aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver cancer in humans. Methods:In the present investigation, aflatoxin B1 (2 mg/kg body weight i.p) was used as a hepatocarcinogen to induce hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental animals. Results: In the present analysis, on treatment with bioflavonoid kaempferol (100 mg/kg body weight p.o) the nucleic acids levels were brought back to normal and also the altered levels of biological enzymes such as membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes levels (P<0.01).Conclusions:Membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes were modulated by kaempferol evaluated on aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver carcinogenesis.

  15. Thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, discharges intracellular Ca2+ stores by specific inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase

    Thastrup, Ole; Cullen, P J; Drøbak, B K


    Thapsigargin, a tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, discharges intracellular Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes, as it does in many vertebrate cell types. It appears to act intracellularly, as incubation of isolated rat liver microsomes with thapsigargin induces a rapid, dose-dependent release of stored Ca...... isoform of the Ca2(+)-ATPase is highly selective, as thapsigargin has little or no effect on the Ca2(+)-ATPases of hepatocyte or erythrocyte plasma membrane or of cardiac or skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that thapsigargin increases the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2...

  16. ATPase activity tightly regulates RecA nucleofilaments to promote homologous recombination

    Zhao, Bailin; Zhang, Dapeng; Li, Chengmin; Yuan, Zheng; Yu, Fangzhi; Zhong, Shangwei; Jiang, Guibin; Yang, Yun-Gui; Le, X Chris; Weinfeld, Michael; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Hailin


    Homologous recombination (HR), catalyzed in an evolutionarily conserved manner by active RecA/Rad51 nucleofilaments, maintains genomic integrity and promotes biological evolution and diversity. The structures of RecA/Rad51 nucleofilaments provide information critical for the entire HR process. By exploiting a unique capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence polarization assay, we have discovered an active form of RecA nucleofilament, stimulated by ATP hydrolysis, that contains mainly unbound nucleotide sites. This finding was confirmed by a nuclease protection assay and electron microscopy (EM) imaging. We further found that these RecA-unsaturated filaments promote strand exchange in vitro and HR in vivo. RecA mutants (P67D and P67E), which only form RecA-unsaturated nucleofilaments, were able to mediate HR in vitro and in vivo, but mutants favoring the formation of the saturated nucleofilaments failed to support HR. We thus present a new model for RecA-mediated HR in which RecA utilizes its intrinsic DNA binding-dependent ATPase activity to remodel the nucleofilaments to a less saturated form and thereby promote HR. PMID:28101376

  17. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Kazi Md Kamrul Huda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+ from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied. RESULTS: The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs. CONCLUSIONS: The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the

  18. Comparative studies of cardiac and skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPases. Effect of a phospholamban antibody on enzyme activation by Ca2+.

    Cantilina, T; Sagara, Y; Inesi, G; Jones, L R


    Vesicular fragments of skeletal (LSR) and cardiac (CSR) sarcoplasmic reticulum were compared with the aim of defining the effect of a monoclonal phospholamban (Pl) antibody (Ab). The Pl Ab has no effect on LSR, while enhancing the Ca2+ transport rates of CSR at Ca2+ concentrations below saturation. We found no direct effect of the Pl Ab on Ca2+ binding by the ATPase in the absence of ATP. Equilibrium measurements of Ca2+ binding yield positively cooperative isotherms which are best fit with a two-interacting sites equation. LSR and CSR display nearly identical affinities for Ca2+, and no effect of the Pl Ab is observed. Taking advantage of a stable CrATP-enzyme complex, we demonstrated that the stoichiometric ratio of occluded Ca2+ to catalytic sites is 2 in either LSR or CSR and that the addition of Pl Ab does not affect the Ca2+ concentration dependence of Ca2+ occluded after equilibration of the system. Interestingly, the cooperative interaction between the two Ca2+ sites is lost in the occluded state, with only one of the two sites acquiring lumenal exposure. The concentration dependence of Ca2+ inhibition of CSR ATPase phosphorylation with Pi is also unaffected by the Pl Ab. Contrary to the lack of Pl Ab effect on reactions measured at equilibrium, enhancement of phosphorylated intermediate formation by the Pl Ab is obtained in kinetic experiments in which nonsaturating Ca2+ and ATP are added to CSR preincubated with EGTA. Therefore, Ab binding to Pl reduces specifically the activation energy for a slow transition triggered by Ca2+ binding, with consequent enhancement of overall kinetics under conditions enhancing the rate-limiting contribution of this transition.

  19. Cysteine residues 244 and 458-459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions.

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Spirin, Pavel V; Rubtsov, Peter M; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Bogdanov, Nikolay B; Hänggi, Pascal; Fuller, William; Makarov, Alexander A; Bogdanova, Anna


    Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na,K-ATPase

  20. Cysteine residues 244 and 458–459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions

    Irina Yu. Petrushanko


    Full Text Available Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD and nucleotide binding domain (NBD of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines’ thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG. Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459 were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor

  1. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase-mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente;


    , in addition, Na+/K+-ATPase-mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+]i. During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re-absorbed by astrocytic Na+-coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+]i. It thus remains unresolved whether the different Na...... constellations in Xenopus oocytes and determined their apparent Na+ affinity in intact oocytes and isolated membranes. The Na+/K+-ATPase was not fully saturated at basal astrocytic [Na+]i, irrespective of isoform constellation, although the β1 subunit conferred lower apparent Na+ affinity to the α1 and α2...

  2. Thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, discharges intracellular Ca2+ stores by specific inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase

    Thastrup, Ole; Cullen, P J; Drøbak, B K


    Thapsigargin, a tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, discharges intracellular Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes, as it does in many vertebrate cell types. It appears to act intracellularly, as incubation of isolated rat liver microsomes with thapsigargin induces a rapid, dose-dependent release of stored Ca....... This hypothesis is strongly supported by the demonstration that thapsigargin causes a rapid inhibition of the Ca2(+)-activated ATPase activity of rat liver microsomes, with an identical dose dependence to that seen in whole cell or isolated microsome Ca2+ discharge. The inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum...

  3. Transcriptional directionality of the human insulin-degrading enzyme promoter.

    Zhang, Lang; Wang, Pan; Ding, Qingyang; Wang, Zhao


    Unidirectional promoters dominate among mammalian genomes. However, the mechanism through which the transcriptional directionality of promoters is accomplished remains to be clarified. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc metalloprotease, whose promoter contains a CpG island. We previously showed that the basal promoter region of mouse IDE has bidirectional transcriptional activity, but an upstream promoter element blocks its antisense transcription. Therefore, we wonder whether the human IDE promoter contains an analogous element. Similarly, the basal promoter region of human IDE (-102 ~ +173 and -196 ~ +173 relative to the transcription start site) showed bidirectional transcriptional activity. However, the region from -348 to +173 could only be transcribed from the normal orientation, implying that an upstream promoter element between -348 and -196 blocks the antisense transcription of the human IDE promoter. Through promoter deletion and mutagenesis analysis, we mapped this element precisely and found that the upstream promoter element locates between -318 and -304. Furthermore, the transcription-blocking elements in the mouse and human IDE promoters inhibited the transcription of the SV40 promoter when put downstream of it. In conclusion, we identify an upstream promoter element which blocks the antisense transcription of the human IDE promoter. Our studies are helpful to clarify the transcriptional directionality of promoters.

  4. Rotary ATPases

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela


    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  5. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication.

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael


    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant 'Cdc6-E224Q' promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo.

  6. Short-Term Treatment with Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Increases the Activity of the Inositol Phospholipid Kinases and the Vanadate-Sensitive ATPase of Carrot Cells 1

    Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, Wendy F.


    Treating carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension culture cells with a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes, Driselase, resulted in an increase in the percentage of [3H]phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. Analysis of the lipid kinase activities in the isolated plasma membranes after whole cell treatment indicated that treatment with Driselase (2% weight/volume; the equivalent of 340 units per milliliter of hemicellulase and 400 units per milliliter of cellulase activity) or treatment with hemicellulase (31.7% weight/volume, 20.7 units per milliliter) resulted in an increase in the inositol phospholipid kinase activity. However, treatment with cellulase alone had no effect at 0.5% (weight/volume, 17.2 units per milliliter) or inhibited the kinase activity at 1% (weight/volume, 34.4 units per milliliter). The active stimulus in Driselase was heat sensitive. The plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity also increased when the cells were treated with Driselase. A time course study indicated that both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase responded to as little as 5 seconds of treatment with 2% Driselase. However, at the lowest concentration of Driselase (0.04%, weight/volume) that resulted in an increase in inositol phospholipid kinase activity, the ATPase activity was not affected. Because inositol phospholipids have been shown to activate the vanadate-sensitive ATPase from plants (AR Memon, Q Chen, WF Boss [1989] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 162: 1295-1301), a stimulus-response pathway involving both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:16667922

  7. Short-term treatment with cell wall degrading enzymes increases the activity of the inositol phospholipid kinases and the vanadate-sensitive ATPase of carrot cells.

    Chen, Q; Boss, W F


    Treating carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension culture cells with a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes, Driselase, resulted in an increase in the percentage of [(3)H]phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. Analysis of the lipid kinase activities in the isolated plasma membranes after whole cell treatment indicated that treatment with Driselase (2% weight/volume; the equivalent of 340 units per milliliter of hemicellulase and 400 units per milliliter of cellulase activity) or treatment with hemicellulase (31.7% weight/volume, 20.7 units per milliliter) resulted in an increase in the inositol phospholipid kinase activity. However, treatment with cellulase alone had no effect at 0.5% (weight/volume, 17.2 units per milliliter) or inhibited the kinase activity at 1% (weight/volume, 34.4 units per milliliter). The active stimulus in Driselase was heat sensitive. The plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity also increased when the cells were treated with Driselase. A time course study indicated that both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase responded to as little as 5 seconds of treatment with 2% Driselase. However, at the lowest concentration of Driselase (0.04%, weight/volume) that resulted in an increase in inositol phospholipid kinase activity, the ATPase activity was not affected. Because inositol phospholipids have been shown to activate the vanadate-sensitive ATPase from plants (AR Memon, Q Chen, WF Boss [1989] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 162: 1295-1301), a stimulus-response pathway involving both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity is discussed.

  8. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A


    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes.

  9. Alterations of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, cholinergic and antioxidant enzymes activity by protocatechuic acid in cadmium-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Adefegha, Omowunmi M


    This study assessed the possible protective mechanisms of protocatechuic acid (PCA) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in rats. Male wistar strain rats weighing between 150-160g were purchased and acclimatized for two weeks. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven each; NC group received normal saline, CAD group received 6mg/kg of Cd-solution, CAD+PSG group received Cd-solution and prostigmine (5mg/kg), CAD+PCA-10 and CAD+PCA-20 groups received Cd-solution and PCA (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) respectively, PCA-10 and PCA-20 groups received 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg PCA each. Animals were administered normal saline, Cd and PCA daily by oral gavage for 21days. After which the animals were sacrificed, the brain excised, homogenized and centrifuged. The activities of enzymes (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, cholinesterases, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) and levels of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione) linked to neurodegeneration were subsequently assessed. Significant (penzyme activities and levels of oxidative stress markers were observed in CAD group when compared to the NC group. However, the activities of the enzymes were reversed in CAD+PSG and CAD+PCA groups. PCA may protect against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity by altering the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction between V-ATPase B2 and (Pro) renin Receptors in Promoting the progression of Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis.

    Liu, Yun; Zuo, Sujun; Li, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jinjin; Cao, Xueqin; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Qiongqiong


    To investigate the levels of (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR], α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) subunits (B2, E, and c) in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) models and rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) treated with prorenin to elucidate the role of V-ATPase in these processes by activating the (P) RR. UUO significantly upregulated (P) RR, V-ATPase subunits, α-SMA and FN expression in tubulointerstitium or tubular epithelial cells. A marked colocalization of (P) RR and the B2 subunit was also observed. Prorenin treatment upregulated α-SMA, FN, (P) RR, and V-ATPase subunits and activity in NRK52E cell in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 partially blocked prorenin-induced (P) RR, FN, and α-SMA expression. Co-immunoprecipitate and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the V-ATPase B2 subunit bound to the (P) RR, which was upregulated after prorenin stimulation. Either siRNA-mediated (P) RR or B2 subunit knockdown partially reduced V-ATPase activity and attenuated prorenin-induced FN and α-SMA expression. From the data we can assume that activation of (P) RR and V-ATPase may play an important role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis with possible involvement of interaction of V-ATPase B2 subunit and (P)RR.

  11. Low pH-induced changes of antioxidant enzyme and ATPase activities in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. seedlings.

    Yi-Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil acidification is the main problem in the current rice production. Here, the effects of low pH on the root growth, reactive oxygen species metabolism, plasma membrane functions, and the transcript levels of the related genes were investigated in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. in a hydroponic system at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. There were two hybrid rice cultivars in this trial, including Yongyou 12 (YY12, a japonica hybrid and Zhongzheyou 1 (ZZY1, an indica hybrid. Higher H+ activity markedly decreased root length, the proportion of fine roots, and dry matter production, but induced a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and led to serious lipid peroxidation in the roots of the two varieties. The transcript levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn SOD1, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 (Cu/Zn SOD2, catalase A (CATA and catalase B (CATB genes in YY12 and ZZY1 roots were significantly down-regulated after low pH exposure for two weeks. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of the P-type Ca2+-ATPases in roots at pH 3.5. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and plasma membrane (PM Ca2+-ATPase in the two varieties were dramatically inhibited by strong rhizosphere acidification. However, the expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1 and PM H+-ATPase isoform 7 were up-regulated under H+ stress compared with the control. Significantly higher activities of APX and PM H+-ATPase could contribute to the adaptation of rice roots to low pH.

  12. Complete kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the unisite catalytic pathway of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Comparison with mitochondrial F1-ATPase and application to the study of mutant enzymes.

    Al-Shawi, M K; Senior, A E


    A complete analysis is presented of the component rate constants of the "unisite" reaction pathway in normal Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Gibbs free energy profiles of the unisite reaction pathway were constructed for both normal E. coli F1 and bovine-heart mitochondrial F1, and comparison indicated that E. coli F1 is an ancestral form of the mitochondrial enzyme. Similar kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the unisite reaction pathway were done for mutant beta-Asn-242 and beta-Val-242 E. coli F1-ATPases. Both mutations affected unisite binding and hydrolysis of MgATP but had little effect on release of products or binding of MgADP. It was apparent that a primary effect of the mutations was on the interaction between the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain and the substrate MgATP. The catalytic transition state [F1-ATP]++ was the most destabilized step in the reaction sequence. Measurements of delta delta G[F1.ATP]++ and linear free energy plots for the catalytic step were consistent with the view that, in normal enzyme, residue beta-Asp-242 accepts an H-bond from the transition-state substrate in order to facilitate catalysis. Both mutations impaired positive catalytic cooperativity. This was caused by energetic destabilization of the catalytic transition state and was an indirect effect, not a direct effect on signal transmission per se between catalytic nucleotide-binding domains on beta-subunits. Therefore, impairment of unisite catalysis and of positive catalytic cooperativity appeared to be linked. This may provide a unifying explanation as to why a series of other, widely separated mis-sense mutations within the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain on F1-beta-subunit, which have been reported to affect unisite catalysis, also impair positive catalytic cooperativity. Linear free energy plots for the ATP-binding step of unisite catalysis demonstrated that beta-Asn-242 and beta-Val-242 mutant enzymes did not suffer any gross disruptive change in structure of

  13. Mitf is a master regulator of the v-ATPase, forming a control module for cellular homeostasis with v-ATPase and TORC1

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Ogmundsdottir, Margret Helga; Möller, Katrin; Siddaway, Robert; Larue, Lionel; Hsing, Michael; Kong, Sek Won; Goding, Colin Ronald; Palsson, Arnar; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Pignoni, Francesca


    ABSTRACT The v-ATPase is a fundamental eukaryotic enzyme that is central to cellular homeostasis. Although its impact on key metabolic regulators such as TORC1 is well documented, our knowledge of mechanisms that regulate v-ATPase activity is limited. Here, we report that the Drosophila transcription factor Mitf is a master regulator of this holoenzyme. Mitf directly controls transcription of all 15 v-ATPase components through M-box cis-sites and this coordinated regulation affects holoenzyme activity in vivo. In addition, through the v-ATPase, Mitf promotes the activity of TORC1, which in turn negatively regulates Mitf. We provide evidence that Mitf, v-ATPase and TORC1 form a negative regulatory loop that maintains each of these important metabolic regulators in relative balance. Interestingly, direct regulation of v-ATPase genes by human MITF also occurs in cells of the melanocytic lineage, showing mechanistic conservation in the regulation of the v-ATPase by MITF family proteins in fly and mammals. Collectively, this evidence points to an ancient module comprising Mitf, v-ATPase and TORC1 that serves as a dynamic modulator of metabolism for cellular homeostasis. PMID:26092939

  14. SWI/SNF enzymes promote SOX10- mediated activation of myelin gene expression.

    Himangi G Marathe

    Full Text Available SOX10 is a Sry-related high mobility (HMG-box transcriptional regulator that promotes differentiation of neural crest precursors into Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, and melanocytes. Myelin, formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, is essential for propagation of nerve impulses. SWI/SNF complexes are ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes that are critical for cellular differentiation. It was recently demonstrated that the BRG1 subunit of SWI/SNF complexes activates SOX10 expression and also interacts with SOX10 to activate expression of OCT6 and KROX20, two transcriptional regulators of Schwann cell differentiation. To determine the requirement for SWI/SNF enzymes in the regulation of genes that encode components of myelin, which are downstream of these transcriptional regulators, we introduced SOX10 into fibroblasts that inducibly express dominant negative versions of the SWI/SNF ATPases, BRM or BRG1. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 have mutations in the ATP binding site and inhibit gene activation events that require SWI/SNF function. Ectopic expression of SOX10 in cells derived from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts led to the activation of the endogenous Schwann cell specific gene, myelin protein zero (MPZ and the gene that encodes myelin basic protein (MBP. Thus, SOX10 reprogrammed these cells into myelin gene expressing cells. Ectopic expression of KROX20 was not sufficient for activation of these myelin genes. However, KROX20 together with SOX10 synergistically activated MPZ and MBP expression. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 abrogated SOX10 mediated activation of MPZ and MBP and synergistic activation of these genes by SOX10 and KROX20. SOX10 was required to recruit BRG1 to the MPZ locus. Similarly, in immortalized Schwann cells, BRG1 recruitment to SOX10 binding sites at the MPZ locus was dependent on SOX10 and expression of dominant negative BRG1 inhibited expression of MPZ and MBP in these cells. Thus, SWI/SNF enzymes cooperate

  15. SWI/SNF enzymes promote SOX10- mediated activation of myelin gene expression.

    Marathe, Himangi G; Mehta, Gaurav; Zhang, Xiaolu; Datar, Ila; Mehrotra, Aanchal; Yeung, Kam C; de la Serna, Ivana L


    SOX10 is a Sry-related high mobility (HMG)-box transcriptional regulator that promotes differentiation of neural crest precursors into Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, and melanocytes. Myelin, formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, is essential for propagation of nerve impulses. SWI/SNF complexes are ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes that are critical for cellular differentiation. It was recently demonstrated that the BRG1 subunit of SWI/SNF complexes activates SOX10 expression and also interacts with SOX10 to activate expression of OCT6 and KROX20, two transcriptional regulators of Schwann cell differentiation. To determine the requirement for SWI/SNF enzymes in the regulation of genes that encode components of myelin, which are downstream of these transcriptional regulators, we introduced SOX10 into fibroblasts that inducibly express dominant negative versions of the SWI/SNF ATPases, BRM or BRG1. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 have mutations in the ATP binding site and inhibit gene activation events that require SWI/SNF function. Ectopic expression of SOX10 in cells derived from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts led to the activation of the endogenous Schwann cell specific gene, myelin protein zero (MPZ) and the gene that encodes myelin basic protein (MBP). Thus, SOX10 reprogrammed these cells into myelin gene expressing cells. Ectopic expression of KROX20 was not sufficient for activation of these myelin genes. However, KROX20 together with SOX10 synergistically activated MPZ and MBP expression. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 abrogated SOX10 mediated activation of MPZ and MBP and synergistic activation of these genes by SOX10 and KROX20. SOX10 was required to recruit BRG1 to the MPZ locus. Similarly, in immortalized Schwann cells, BRG1 recruitment to SOX10 binding sites at the MPZ locus was dependent on SOX10 and expression of dominant negative BRG1 inhibited expression of MPZ and MBP in these cells. Thus, SWI/SNF enzymes cooperate with SOX10 to

  16. Solubilization, purification and reconstitution of Ca(2+)-ATPase from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle microsomes by different detergents: preservation of native structure and function of the enzyme by DHPC.

    Mandal, Amritlal; Das, Sudip; Chakraborti, Tapati; Kar, Pulak; Ghosh, Biswarup; Chakraborti, Sajal


    The properties of Ca(2+)-ATPase purified and reconstituted from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle microsomes {enriched with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)} were studied using the detergents 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC), poly(oxy-ethylene)8-lauryl ether (C(12)E(8)) and Triton X-100 as the solubilizing agents. Solubilization with DHPC consistently gave higher yields of purified Ca(2+)-ATPase with a greater specific activity than solubilization with C(12)E(8) or Triton X-100. DHPC was determined to be superior to C(12)E(8); while that the C(12)E(8) was determined to be better than Triton X-100 in active enzyme yields and specific activity. DHPC solubilized and purified Ca(2+)-ATPase retained the E1Ca-E1*Ca conformational transition as that observed for native microsomes; whereas the C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 solubilized preparations did not fully retain this transition. The coupling of Ca(2+) transported to ATP hydrolyzed in the DHPC purified enzyme reconstituted in liposomes was similar to that of the native micosomes, whereas that the coupling was much lower for the C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 purified enzyme reconstituted in liposomes. The specific activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase reconstituted into dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles with DHPC was 2.5-fold and 3-fold greater than that achieved with C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100, respectively. Addition of the protonophore, FCCP caused a marked increase in Ca(2+) uptake in the reconstituted proteoliposomes compared with the untreated liposomes. Circular dichroism analysis of the three detergents solubilized and purified enzyme preparations showed that the increased negative ellipticity at 223 nm is well correlated with decreased specific activity. It, therefore, appears that the DHPC purified Ca(2+)-ATPase retained more organized and native secondary conformation compared to C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 solubilized and purified preparations. The size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes measured

  17. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta


    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of porcine Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase isoforms α1, α2, α3 and the ATP1A3 promoter.

    Carina Henriksen

    Full Text Available Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase maintains electrochemical gradients of Na⁺ and K⁺ essential for a variety of cellular functions including neuronal activity. The α-subunit of the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase exists in four different isoforms (α1-α4 encoded by different genes. With a view to future use of pig as an animal model in studies of human diseases caused by Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase mutations, we have determined the porcine coding sequences of the α1-α3 genes, ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3, their chromosomal localization, and expression patterns. Our ATP1A1 sequence accords with the sequences from several species at five positions where the amino acid residue of the previously published porcine ATP1A1 sequence differs. These corrections include replacement of glutamine 841 with arginine. Analysis of the functional consequences of substitution of the arginine revealed its importance for Na⁺ binding, which can be explained by interaction of the arginine with the C-terminus, stabilizing one of the Na⁺ sites. Quantitative real-time PCR expression analyses of porcine ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3 mRNA showed that all three transcripts are expressed in the embryonic brain as early as 60 days of gestation. Expression of α3 is confined to neuronal tissue. Generally, the expression patterns of ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3 transcripts were found similar to their human counterparts, except for lack of α3 expression in porcine heart. These expression patterns were confirmed at the protein level. We also report the sequence of the porcine ATP1A3 promoter, which was found to be closely homologous to its human counterpart. The function and specificity of the porcine ATP1A3 promoter was analyzed in transgenic zebrafish, demonstrating that it is active and drives expression in embryonic brain and spinal cord. The results of the present study provide a sound basis for employing the ATP1A3 promoter in attempts to generate transgenic porcine models of neurological diseases caused by

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Correlation of binding site location with interspecies cross-reactivity and effects on enzyme activity.

    Dunn, S D; Tozer, R G; Antczak, D F; Heppel, L A


    Twenty-one hybridoma cell lines which secret antibodies to the subunits of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase were produced. Included within the set are four antibodies which are specific for alpha, six for beta, three for gamma, four for delta and four for epsilon. The antibodies were divided into binding competition subgroups. Two such competition subgroups are represented for the alpha, beta, and epsilon subunits, one for delta and three for gamma. The ability to bind intact F1-ATPase was demonstrated for some of the antibodies to alpha and beta, and for all of those to delta, while the antibodies to gamma and epsilon gave unclear results. All of the antibodies to alpha and beta which bound ATPase were found to have effects on the ATPase activity of purified E. coli F1-ATPase. One of those to alpha inhibited activity by about 30%. Another anti-alpha was mildly stimulatory. The four antibodies to beta which bound ATPase inhibited activity by 90%. In contrast, membrane-bound ATPase was hardly affected by the antibodies to alpha, but was inhibited by 40-60% by the antibodies to beta. The other antibodies to alpha and beta bound only free subunits, or partially dissociated ATPase, suggesting that their epitopes are buried between subunits in ATPase. These antibodies had no effects on activity. The ability of the antibodies to recognize ATPase subunits present in crude extracts from mitochondria, chloroplasts, and a variety of bacteria was tested using nitrocellulose blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. One anti-beta specifically recognized proteins in the range of 50,000-60,000 daltons in each of the extracts, although the reaction with mitochondrial beta was weak. Some of the other antibodies had limited cross-reaction, but most were specific for the E. coli protein. In some species, those proteins which were recognized by the anti-beta ran with a higher apparent molecular weight than proteins which were recognized by an anti-alpha. All antibodies which

  20. Transcriptional responses of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, HSP70 and Na+/K+ -ATPase in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin.

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Huang, Yan; Li, Shi-Ying; Ip, Kok-Chao


    Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin domoic acid (DA) is a marine neurotoxin that accumulates in fish and shellfish, and has been implicated to be involved in human and marine wildlife mortality. The transcriptional responses of cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase rho (GSTR), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 (ATP1A1) in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with DA, were investigated. Experimental fish were administered with one injection of DA (2 microg/g wet weight) or PBS as control. After 24 h, fish were killed and hepatic RNA was isolated. Partial cDNA of rabbitfish CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, ATP1A1, and beta-actin were obtained by PCR using degenerate primers. Using beta-actin as an external control, the relative liver CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, and ATP1A1 mRNA abundance of rabbitfish were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR within the exponential phase. The ratio CYP1A/beta-actin mRNA (%) of exposure group was determined to be 148.92+/-12.69, whereas the ratio of control group was 82.3+/-8.35, indicating that CYP1A was induced significantly in rabbitfish following DA exposure (P0.05). The induction of hepatic CYP1A in response to DA suggests a potential role for fish phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme in DA metabolism.

  1. Multi-site TBT binding skews the inhibition of oligomycin on the mitochondrial Mg-ATPase in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Nesci, Salvatore; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Pagliarani, Alessandra


    Tributyltin (TBT), a persistent lipophilic contaminant found especially in the aquatic environment, is known to be toxic to mitochondria with the F(1)F(0)-ATPase as main target. Recently our research group pointed out that in mussel digestive gland mitochondria TBT, apart from decreasing the catalytic efficiency of Mg-ATPase activity, at concentrations ≥1.0 μM in the ATPase reaction medium lessens the enzyme inhibition promoted by the specific inhibitor oligomycin. The present work aims at casting light on the mechanisms involved in the TBT-driven enzyme desensitization to inhibitors, a poorly explored field. The mitochondrial Mg-ATPase desensitization is shown to be confined to inhibitors of transmembrane domain F(0), namely oligomycin and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Accordingly, quercetin, which binds to catalytic portion F(1), maintains its inhibitory efficiency in the presence of TBT. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the Mg-ATPase desensitization to oligomycin by ≥1.0 μM TBT concentrations, a structural detachment of the two F(1) and F(0) domains does not occur according to experimental data. On the other hand TBT covalently binds to thiol groups on the enzyme structure, which are apparently only available at TBT concentrations approaching 20 μM. TBT is able to interact with multiple sites on the enzyme structure by bonds of different nature. While electrostatic interactions with F(0) proton channel are likely to be responsible for the ATPase activity inhibition, possible changes in the redox state of thiol groups on the protein structure due to TBT binding may promote structural changes in the enzyme structure leading to the observed F(1)F(0)-ATPase oligomycin sensitivity loss.

  2. The F-ATPase operon from the oral streptococci S. mutans and S. sanguis: How structure relates to function

    Kuhnert, Wendi Lee


    The oral microbe, Streptococcus mutans is known to be a primary contributor to the most common infection in humans, dental caries. In the plaque environment, resident bacteria metabolize dietary sucrose which results in the production of organic acids and a decrease in plaque pH. The proton-translocating ATPase (F-ATPase) protects the bacteria from acidification by extruding protons, at the expense of ATP, to maintain an internal pH which is more neutral than the external environment. Examination of this enzyme will help us to gain insight regarding its contribution to the aciduricity characteristics of oral bacteria. In this work, our goal was to begin the molecular dissection of the mechanism by which streptococcal ATPases are regulated and function enzymatically. Sequence analysis of the F-ATPase from the non-pathogenic S. sanguis revealed that the structural genes are homologous to S. mutans as well as other sequenced F-ATPases. Cloned subunits were functionally similar as shown by complementing E. coli ATPase mutants. S. sanguis/E. coli hybrid enzymes hydrolyzed ATP, but proton conduction was uncoupled as demonstrated with inhibition studies. Transcriptional regulation of the F-ATPase operon from S. mutans was examined using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusions. Fusions containing 136 bp of DNA upstream of the promoter showed higher levels of expression as compared to those with only 16 bp. Similar to ATPase enzymatic activity, CAT expression also increased during growth at low pH. Analysis of RNA demonstrated that ATPase mRNA levels were higher at low pH, which supported the CAT activity data. Therefore, the F-ATPase from S. mutans was regulated, at least partially, by both the DNA located upstream of the promoter as well as by pH. Examination of structural models of the F-ATPase from the pathogenic oral organisms S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei and the non- pathogenic S. sanguis showed that the differences noted in the sequence of the catalytic

  3. Effect of propranolol on rat brain synaptosomal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    Gopalaswamy, U V; Satav, J G; Katyare, S S; Bhattacharya, R K


    The beta blocker drug propranolol (PPL) significantly inhibited Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in a concentration dependent manner in rat brain synaptosomes. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition (IC50) in the activity of these enzymes were 1.5-1.8 mM. The double-reciprocal plot of ATP-stimulated Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the presence of PPL showed apparent decrease in K(m) and Vmax and the inhibition was of an uncompetitive type with respect to ATP. The nature of inhibition by PPL of Na(+)-activated Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was of a mixed type showing an increase in Km and decrease in Vmax. Potassium activation kinetics of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase displayed uncompetitive type of inhibition with PPL since Km and Vmax were decreased. Magnesium activation of Mg(2+)-ATPase showed decrease in Vmax with no apparent change in Km in the presence of PPL. The drug inhibited synaptosomal Ca(2+)-ATPase in an uncompetitive manner. The observed inhibition of synaptosomal ATPases indicates possible alterations in the synaptic transmission by the beta blocker drug PPL.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Porcine Na+/K+-ATPase Isoforms α1, α2, α3 and the ATP1A3 Promoter

    Henriksen, Carina; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper; Einholm, Anja Pernille


    Na+/K+-ATPase maintains electrochemical gradients of Na+ and K+ essential for a variety of cellular functions including neuronal activity. The α-subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase exists in four different isoforms (α1–α4) encoded by different genes. With a view to future use of pig as an animal model...

  5. Role of Mitochondrial Enzymes and Sarcoplasmic ATPase in Cardioprotection Mediated by Aqueous Extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC Root on Ischemic Reperfusion Injury.

    Kurian, G A; Paddikkala, J


    The present study investigate the protective effect of aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum in preserving mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase during ischemia reperfusion injury. The isolated rat hearts in both drug and control group were subjected to warm ischemia (37°), followed by reperfusion with the Langendorff perfusion system. The aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was found to be effective in the rat heart for the management of ischemic reperfusion injury. Physiological parameters were significantly (PDesmodium gangeticum treated rat heart. These results suggest that Desmodium gangeticum aqueous root extract can preserve the mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase in the myocardium, resulting in the improvement of cardiac function after ischemia reperfusion injury.

  6. Properties of F1-ATPase from the uncD412 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    Wise, J G; Duncan, T M; Latchney, L R; Cox, D N; Senior, A E


    Properties of purified F1-ATPase from Escherichia coli mutant strain AN484 (uncD412) have been studied in an attempt to understand why the amino acid substitution in the beta-subunit of this enzyme causes a tenfold reduction from normal MgATP hydrolysis rate. In most properties that were studied, uncD412 F1-ATPase resembled normal E. coli F1-ATPase. Both enzymes were found to contain a total of six adenine-nucleotide-binding sites, of which three were found to be non-exchangeable and three were exchangeable (catalytic) sites. Binding of the non-hydrolysable substrate analogue adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppA) to the three exchangeable sites showed apparent negative co-operativity. The binding affinities for p[NH]ppA, and also ADP, at the exchangeable sites were similar in the two enzymes. Both enzymes were inhibited by efrapeptin, aurovertin and p[NH]ppA, and were inactivated by dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan and p-fluorosulphonyl-benzoyl-5'-adenosine. Km values for CaATP and MgATP were similar in the two enzymes. uncD412 F1-ATPase was abnormally unstable at high pH, and dissociated into subunits readily with consequent loss of activity. The reason for the impairment of catalysis in uncD412 F1-ATPase cannot be stated with certainty from these studies. However we discuss the possibility that the mutation interrupts subunit interaction, thereby causing a partial impairment in the site-site co-operativity which is required for 'promotion' of catalysis in this enzyme.

  7. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.


    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the ..cap alpha..1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat ..cap alpha..1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep ..cap alpha..1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat ..cap alpha..1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding.

  8. Enzyme

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  9. Characterization of the promoter region of biosynthetic enzyme genes involved in berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

    Yasuyuki Yamada


    Full Text Available The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs, a plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4’OMT and CYP719A1 were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4’OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed.

  10. Excess capacity of H+ ATPase and inverse respiratory control in Escherichia coli

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Michelsen, Ole


    the growth rate much less than proportionally; the H+-ATPase controlled growth rate by lt 10%. This lack of control reflected excess capacity: the rate of ATP synthesis per H+-ATPase (the turnover number) increased by 60% when the number of enzymes was decreased by 40%. At 15% H+-ATPase, the enzyme became...

  11. Functional analysis of the human somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene promoter.

    Testut, P; Soubrier, F; Corvol, P; Hubert, C


    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key enzyme in the regulation of systemic blood pressure and plays a major role in the renin-angiotensin and bradykinin-kinin systems, at the luminal surface of the vascular endothelia. To identify the promoter region, the transcription regulatory elements and the cell specificity of the ACE gene, five successive DNA deletions of the 5' upstream region (-1214, -754, -472, -343, -132 bp relative to the start site of transcription) were isolated and fused in sense and antisense orientations to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in the promoterless plasmid pBLCAT3. Promoter activities were measured in transient transfection assays using three different cell lines from rabbit endothelium (RE), human embryocarcinoma (Tera-1) and hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). All five fragments of the ACE promoter region directed expression of the CAT gene when transfected into the endothelial and the embryocarcinoma cells, which contain endogenous ACE mRNA and express ACE activity. In contrast only minimal levels of promoter activity were obtained on transfection into hepatocarcinoma cells in which endogenous ACE mRNA and ACE activity were not detected. Transfection of RE and Tera-1 cells demonstrated that promoter activity was defined by the length of the ACE promoter sequence inserted into the construct. The 132 bases located upstream from the transcription start site were sufficient to confer ACE promoter activity, whereas the sequences upstream from -472 bp and between -343 bp and -132 bp were responsible for a decrease of promoter activity. Furthermore, the minimal 132 bp of the ACE promoter contains elements which direct cell-specific CAT expression. In addition, the DNA transfection study in the presence of dexamethasone suggested that the potential glucocorticoid regulatory elements, located in the sequence of the ACE promoter, are not functional.

  12. Construction of a cellulase hyper-expression system in Trichoderma reesei by promoter and enzyme engineering

    Zou Gen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichoderma reesei is the preferred organism for producing industrial cellulases. However, a more efficient heterologous expression system for enzymes from different organism is needed to further improve its cellulase mixture. The strong cbh1 promoter of T. reesei is frequently used in heterologous expression, however, the carbon catabolite repressor CREI may reduce its strength by binding to the cbh1 promoter at several binding sites. Another crucial point to enhance the production of heterologous enzymes is the stability of recombinant mRNA and the prevention of protein degradation within the endoplasmic reticulum, especially for the bacteria originated enzymes. In this study, the CREI binding sites within the cbh1 promoter were replaced with the binding sites of transcription activator ACEII and the HAP2/3/5 complex to improve the promoter efficiency. To further improve heterologous expression efficiency of bacterial genes within T. reesei, a flexible polyglycine linker and a rigid α-helix linker were tested in the construction of fusion genes between cbh1 from T. reesei and e1, encoding an endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Results The modified promoter resulted in an increased expression level of the green fluorescent protein reporter by 5.5-fold in inducing culture medium and 7.4-fold in repressing culture medium. The fusion genes of cbh1 and e1 were successfully expressed in T. reesei under the control of promoter pcbh1m2. The higher enzyme activities and thermostability of the fusion protein with rigid linker indicated that the rigid linker might be more suitable for the heterologous expression system in T. reesei. Compared to the parent strain RC30-8, the FPase and CMCase activities of the secreted enzyme mixture from the corresponding transformant R1 with the rigid linker increased by 39% and 30% at 60°C, respectively, and the reduced sugar concentration in the hydrolysate of pretreated corn stover

  13. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase -mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    Larsen, Brian R; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente;


    , in addition, Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+ ]i . During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re-absorbed by astrocytic Na+ -coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+ ]i . It thus remains unresolved whether...... astrocytic isoform constellations in Xenopus oocytes and determined their apparent Na+ affinity in intact oocytes and isolated membranes. The Na+ /K+ -ATPase was not fully saturated at basal astrocytic [Na+ ]i , irrespective of isoform constellation, although the β1 subunit conferred lower apparent Na...

  14. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S


    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  15. The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity.

    Hoskisson, Paul A; Sumby, Paul; Smith, Margaret C M


    The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an unusual bacteriophage defence mechanism. Progeny ϕC31 phage from an initial infection are thought to be modified such that subsequent infections are attenuated in a Pgl(+) host but normal in a Pgl(-) strain. Earlier work identified four genes required for phage resistance by Pgl. Here we demonstrate that Pgl is an elaborate and novel phage restriction system that, in part, comprises a toxin/antitoxin system where PglX, a DNA methyltransferase is toxic in the absence of a functional PglZ. In addition, the ATPase activity of PglY and a protein kinase activity in PglW are shown to be essential for phage resistance by Pgl. We conclude that on infection of a Pgl(+) cell by bacteriophage ϕC31, PglW transduces a signal, probably via phosphorylation, to other Pgl proteins resulting in the activation of the DNA methyltransferase, PglX and this leads to phage restriction.

  16. Analysis of F1F0-ATPase from Helicobacter pylori.


    The adaptive mechanisms that permit Helicobacter species to survive within the gastric mucosa are not well understood. The proton-translocating F1F0-ATPase is an important enzyme for regulating intracellular pH or synthesizing ATP in many other enteric bacteria; therefore, we used degenerate primers derived from conserved bacterial F1F0-ATPase sequences to PCR amplify and clone the gene (atpD) encoding the H. pylori F1F0-ATPase beta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the F1F0-ATPase...

  17. Interactions of vanadate oligomers with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    Aureliano, M; Mdeira, V M


    Upon addition of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the line width of tetrameric vanadate signal of 51V-NMR spectra narrowed in the presence of ATP and Ca2+, whereas monomeric vanadate line widths were broadened. Thus, ATP decreases the affinity of the enzyme for tetravanadate whereas it induces the interaction with monomeric vanadate. In the presence of Ca2+ it was observed that tetrameric and decameric vanadate bind to SR ATPase whereas monomeric vanadate only binds to SR when ATP is present. However, decameric vanadate clearly differs from vanadate oligomers present in monovanadate solutions in preventing the accumulation of Ca2+ by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Mg2+ increased the inhibitory effect promoted by decavanadate whereas a slight enhancement of Ca2+ uptake was observed in the presence of monovanadate. For 5 mM Mg2+, a nominal 2 mM vanadium 'decavanadate' solution containing about 190 to 200 microM decameric and less than 100 microM monomeric species depressed the rate of Ca2+ uptake by 50% whereas a nominal 2 mM monovanadate solution containing about 662 microM monomeric, 143 microM dimeric and 252 microM tetrameric species had no effect on the rate of Ca2+ accumulation. However, 2 mM 'decavanadate' inhibits by 75% the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity whereas the presence of 2 mM 'monovanadate' produces an inhibitory effect below 50%. Therefore, the Ca:ATP stoichiometry of Ca2+ transport is enhanced by monovanadate. In the presence of oxalate, inhibition of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by these solutions is enhanced to 97% and 86% whereas in the presence of the ionophore lasalocid, the inhibitory values were 87% and 19% for 2 mM decavanadate and 2 mM monovanadate solutions, respectively. Apparently, the increase of vesicular Ca2+ concentration counteracts monovanadate inhibition of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity but it does not significantly affect decavanadate inhibition.

  18. Inhibition of partially purified K+/H+-ATPase from guinea-pig isolated and enriched parietal cells by substituted benzimidazoles.

    Beil, W.; Sewing, K F


    The cellular and subcellular distributions of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) were examined in guinea-pig gastric mucosal cells. All cell types displayed Mg2+-ATPase and bicarbonate (HCO3-)-stimulated ATPase activity. K+-ATPase was located only in fractions derived from parietal cells. Differential and density-gradient centrifugation of material prepared from parietal cells revealed that K+-ATPase activity was located in a tubulo-vesicular membrane fraction. Enzyme activity was ten fold gr...

  19. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd


    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  20. Enzyme-instructed self-assembly of taxol promotes axonal branching

    Mei, Bin; Miao, Qingqing; Tang, Anming; Liang, Gaolin


    Axonal branching is important for vertebrate neuron signaling. Taxol has a biphasic effect on axonal branching (i.e., high concentration inhibits axonal growth but low concentration restores it). To the best of our knowledge, low concentration of taxol to promote axonal branching has not been reported yet. Herein, we rationally designed a taxol derivative Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(taxol)-Tyr(H2PO4)-OH (1) which could be subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-catalyzed self-assembly to form taxol nanofibers. We found that, at 10 μM, 1 has a microtubule (MT) condensation effect similar to that of taxol on mammalian cells but with more chronic toxicity than taxol on the cells. At a low concentration of 10 nM, 1 not only promoted neurite elongation as taxol did but also promoted axonal branching which was not achieved by using taxol. We propose that self-assembly of 1 along the MTs prohibited their lateral contacts and thus promoted axonal branching. Our strategy of enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) of a taxol derivative provides a new tool for scientists to study the morphology of neurons, as well as their behaviours.Axonal branching is important for vertebrate neuron signaling. Taxol has a biphasic effect on axonal branching (i.e., high concentration inhibits axonal growth but low concentration restores it). To the best of our knowledge, low concentration of taxol to promote axonal branching has not been reported yet. Herein, we rationally designed a taxol derivative Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(taxol)-Tyr(H2PO4)-OH (1) which could be subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-catalyzed self-assembly to form taxol nanofibers. We found that, at 10 μM, 1 has a microtubule (MT) condensation effect similar to that of taxol on mammalian cells but with more chronic toxicity than taxol on the cells. At a low concentration of 10 nM, 1 not only promoted neurite elongation as taxol did but also promoted axonal branching which was not achieved by using taxol. We propose that self-assembly of 1

  1. Experimental determination of control by the H+-ATPase in Escherichia coli

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole; Westerhoff, H. V.


    and oxygen consumption of these mutants was increased compared to the wild-type rates. In order to analyze the importance of the H+-ATPase at its physiological level, the cellular concentration of H+-ATPase was modulated around the wild-type level, using genetically manipulated strains. The control...... coefficient by the H+-ATPase with respect to growth rate and catabolic fluxes was measured. Control on growth rate was absent at the wildtype concentration of H+-ATPase, independent of whether the substrate for growth was glucose or succinate. Control by the H+-ATPase on the catabolic fluxes, including...... respiration, was negative at the wild-type H+-ATPase level. Moreover, the turnover number of the individual H+-ATPase enzymes increased as the H+-ATPase concentration was lowered. The negative control by the H+-ATPase on catabolism may thus be involved in a homeostatic control of ATP synthesis and, to some...

  2. OsACA6, a P-type IIB Ca²⁺ ATPase promotes salinity and drought stress tolerance in tobacco by ROS scavenging and enhancing the expression of stress-responsive genes.

    Huda, Kazi M K; Banu, M Sufara Akhter; Garg, Bharti; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra


    Calcium (Ca²⁺) regulates several signalling pathways involved in growth, development and stress tolerance. Cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis is achieved by the combined action of channels, pumps and antiporters, but direct evidence for a role of Ca²⁺ATPase pumps in stress tolerance is lacking. Here we report the characterization of a Ca²⁺ ATPase gene (OsACA6) from Oryza sativa, and elucidate its functions in stress tolerance. OsACA6 transcript levels are enhanced in response to salt, drought, abscisic acid and heat. In vivo localization identified plasma membranes as an integration site for the OsACA6-GFP fusion protein. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we demonstrate that over-expression of OsACA6 is triggered during salinity and drought stresses. The enhanced tolerance to these stresses was confirmed by changes in several physiological indices, including water loss rate, photosynthetic efficiency, cell membrane stability, germination, survival rate, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and increased proline accumulation. Furthermore, over-expressing lines also showed higher leaf chlorophyll and reduced accumulation of H₂O₂ and Na⁺ ions compared to the wild-type. Reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in transgenic lines. The increased proline accumulation and ROS scavenging enzyme activities in transgenic plants over-expressing OsACA6 efficiently modulate the ROS machinery and proline biosynthesis through an integrative mechanism. Transcriptional profiling of these plants revealed altered expression of genes encoding many transcription factors, stress- and disease-related proteins, as well as signalling components. These results suggest that Ca²⁺ ATPases have diverse roles as regulators of many stress signalling pathways, leading to plant growth, development and stress tolerance.

  3. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga


    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  4. Association between erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and some blood lipids in type 1 diabetic patients from Lagos, Nigeria

    Iwalokun Senapon O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered levels of erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase, atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipid metabolites have been implicated in diabetic complications but their pattern of interactions remains poorly understood. This study evaluated this relationship in Nigerian patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 34 consented Type 1 diabetic patients and age -matched 27 non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically and LDL-cholesterol estimated using Friedewald formula. Total protein content and Na+K+-ATPase activity were also determined spectrophotometrically from ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Results Results indicate significant (P +K+-ATPase activity in the Type 1 diabetic patients (0.38 ± 0.08 vs. 0.59 ± 0.07 uM Pi/mgprotein/h compared to the control but with greater reduction in the diabetic subgroup with poor glycemic control (n = 20 and in whom cases of hypercholesterolemia (8.8%, hypertriglyceridemia (2.9% and elevated LDL-cholesterol (5.9% each were found. Correlation analyses further revealed significant (P +K+-ATPase in this subgroup contrary to group with good glycemic control or non-diabetic subjects in which significant (P +K+-ATPase and HDL-C association were found (r = 0.427 - 0.489. The Na+K+-ATPase from the diabetic patients also exhibited increased sensitivity to digoxin and alterations in kinetic constants Vmax and Km determined by glycemic status of the patients. Conclusion It can be concluded that poor glycemic control evokes greater reduction in erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and promote enzyme-blood atherogenic lipid relationships in Type 1 diabetic Nigerian patients.

  5. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    Ekberg, Kira

      The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded H+-ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. A recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Together with biochemical and structural data presented in this thesis we are now able...... to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H+-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. Moreover, a completely new paradigm for post-translational activation of these proteins is presented. The talk will focus on the following themes...

  6. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    Ekberg, Kira

      The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded H+-ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. A recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Together with biochemical and structural data presented in this thesis we are now able...... to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H+-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. Moreover, a completely new paradigm for post-translational activation of these proteins is presented. The talk will focus on the following themes...

  7. Metal Fluoride Complexes of Na,K-ATPase

    Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Toyoshima, Chikashi


    The Na,K-ATPase belongs to the P-type ATPase family of primary active cation pumps. Metal fluorides like magnesium-, beryllium-, and aluminum fluoride act as phosphate analogues and inhibit P-type ATPases by interacting with the phosphorylation site, stabilizing conformations that are analogous to specific phosphoenzyme intermediates. Cardiotonic steroids like ouabain used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias specifically inhibit the Na,K-ATPase, and the detailed structure of the highly conserved binding site has recently been described by the crystal structure of the shark Na,K-ATPase in a state analogous to E2·2K+·Pi with ouabain bound with apparently low affinity (1). In the present work inhibition, and subsequent reactivation by high Na+, after treatment of shark Na,K-ATPase with various metal fluorides are characterized. Half-maximal inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity by metal fluorides is in the micromolar range. The binding of cardiotonic steroids to the metal fluoride-stabilized enzyme forms was investigated using the fluorescent ouabain derivative 9-anthroyl ouabain and compared with binding to phosphorylated enzyme. The fastest binding was to the Be-fluoride stabilized enzyme suggesting a preformed ouabain binding cavity, in accord with results for Ca-ATPase where Be-fluoride stabilizes the E2-P ground state with an open luminal ion access pathway, which in Na,K-ATPase could be a passage for ouabain. The Be-fluoride stabilized enzyme conformation closely resembles the E2-P ground state according to proteinase K cleavage. Ouabain, but not its aglycone ouabagenin, prevented reactivation of this metal fluoride form by high Na+ demonstrating the pivotal role of the sugar moiety in closing the extracellular cation pathway. PMID:21708939

  8. P4-ATPases

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Theorin, Lisa; Palmgren, Michael Broberg;


    Cellular membranes, notably eukaryotic plasma membranes, are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Among these ATP-driven transporters, the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases......) comprises lipid flippases that catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of cell membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, recent studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4...... to include the regulation of membrane traffic, cytoskeletal dynamics, cell division, lipid metabolism, and lipid signaling. In this review, we will summarize the basic features of P4-ATPases and the physiological implications of their lipid transport activity in the cell. © 2013 The Author(s)....

  9. Evolution of copper transporting ATPases in eukaryotic organisms.

    Gupta, Arnab; Lutsenko, Svetlana


    Copper is an essential nutrient for most life forms, however in excess it can be harmful. The ATP-driven copper pumps (Copper-ATPases) play critical role in living organisms by maintaining appropriate copper levels in cells and tissues. These evolutionary conserved polytopic membrane proteins are present in all phyla from simplest life forms (bacteria) to highly evolved eukaryotes (Homo sapiens). The presumed early function in metal detoxification remains the main function of Copper-ATPases in prokaryotic kingdom. In eukaryotes, in addition to removing excess copper from the cell, Copper-ATPases have another equally important function - to supply copper to copper dependent enzymes within the secretory pathway. This review focuses on the origin and diversification of Copper ATPases in eukaryotic organisms. From a single Copper ATPase in protozoans, a divergence into two functionally distinct ATPases is observed with the evolutionary appearance of chordates. Among the key functional domains of Copper-ATPases, the metal-binding N-terminal domain could be responsible for functional diversification of the copper ATPases during the course of evolution.

  10. Expression of a prokaryotic P-type ATPase in E. coli Plasma Membranes and Purification by Ni2+-affinity chromatography

    Geisler Markus


    Full Text Available In order to characterize the P-type ATPase from Synechocystis 6803 [Geisler (1993 et al. J. Mol. Biol. 234, 1284] and to facilitate its purification, we expressed an N-terminal 6xHis-tagged version of the ATPase in an ATPase deficient E. coli strain. The expressed ATPase was immunodetected as a dominant band of about 97 kDa localized to the E. coli plasma membranes representing about 20-25% of the membrane protein. The purification of the Synecho-cystis 6xHis-ATPase by single-step Ni-affinity chromatography under native and denaturating conditions is described. ATPase activity and the formation of phosphointermediates verify the full function of the enzyme: the ATPase is inhibited by vanadate (IC50= 119 &mgr;M and the formation of phosphorylated enzyme intermediates shown by acidic PAGE depends on calcium, indicating that the Synechocystis P-ATPase functions as a calcium pump.


    Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gupta, Arnab; Burkhead, Jason L.; Zuzel, Vesna


    The human copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases) are essential for dietary copper uptake, normal development and function of the CNS, and regulation of copper homeostasis in the body. In a cell, Cu-ATPases maintain the intracellular concentration of copper by transporting copper into intracellular exocytic vesicles. In addition, these P-type ATPases mediate delivery of copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway and in specialized cell compartments such as secretory granules...

  12. The folate-coupled enzyme MTHFD2 is a nuclear protein and promotes cell proliferation.

    Gustafsson Sheppard, Nina; Jarl, Lisa; Mahadessian, Diana; Strittmatter, Laura; Schmidt, Angelika; Madhusudan, Nikhil; Tegnér, Jesper; Lundberg, Emma K; Asplund, Anna; Jain, Mohit; Nilsson, Roland


    Folate metabolism is central to cell proliferation and a target of commonly used cancer chemotherapeutics. In particular, the mitochondrial folate-coupled metabolism is thought to be important for proliferating cancer cells. The enzyme MTHFD2 in this pathway is highly expressed in human tumors and broadly required for survival of cancer cells. Although the enzymatic activity of the MTHFD2 protein is well understood, little is known about its larger role in cancer cell biology. We here report that MTHFD2 is co-expressed with two distinct gene sets, representing amino acid metabolism and cell proliferation, respectively. Consistent with a role for MTHFD2 in cell proliferation, MTHFD2 expression was repressed in cells rendered quiescent by deprivation of growth signals (serum) and rapidly re-induced by serum stimulation. Overexpression of MTHFD2 alone was sufficient to promote cell proliferation independent of its dehydrogenase activity, even during growth restriction. In addition to its known mitochondrial localization, we found MTHFD2 to have a nuclear localization and co-localize with DNA replication sites. These findings suggest a previously unknown role for MTHFD2 in cancer cell proliferation, adding to its known function in mitochondrial folate metabolism.

  13. A method to measure hydrolytic activity of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases.

    Gianluca Bartolommei

    Full Text Available The detection of small amounts (nanomoles of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases, that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening.

  14. The Role of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant-Microbe Interactions

    James Mitch Elmore; Gitta Coaker


    T Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases are the primary pumps responsible for the establishment of cellular membrane potential in plants. In addition to regulating basic aspects of plant cell function, these enzymes contribute to signaling events in response to diverse environmental stimuli. Here, we focus on the roles of the PM H+-ATPase during plantpathogen interactions. PM H+-ATPases are dynamically regulated during plant immune responses and recent quantitative proteomics studies suggest complex spatial and temporal modulation of PM H+-ATPase activity during early pathogen recognition events. Additional data indicate that PM H+-ATPases cooperate with the plant immune signaling protein RIN4 to regulate stomatal apertures during bacterial invasion of leaf tissue. Furthermore, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to manipulate PM H+-ATPase activity during infection. Thus, these ubiquitous plant enzymes contribute to plant immune responses and are targeted by pathogens to increase plant susceptibility.

  15. The role of added feed enzymes in promoting gut health in swine and poultry.

    Kiarie, Elijah; Romero, Luis F; Nyachoti, Charles M


    The value of added feed enzymes (FE) in promoting growth and efficiency of nutrient utilisation is well recognised in single-stomached animal production. However, the effects of FE on the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are largely unrecognised. A critical role in host nutrition, health, performance and quality of the products produced is played by the intestinal microbiota. FE can make an impact on GIT microbial ecology by reducing undigested substrates and anti-nutritive factors and producing oligosaccharides in situ from dietary NSP with potential prebiotic effects. Investigations with molecular microbiology techniques have demonstrated FE-mediated responses on energy utilisation in broiler chickens that were associated with certain clusters of GIT bacteria. Furthermore, investigations using specific enteric pathogen challenge models have demonstrated the efficacy of FE in modulating gut health. Because FE probably change the substrate characteristics along the GIT, subsequent microbiota responses will vary according to the populations present at the time of administration and their reaction to such changes. Therefore, the microbiota responses to FE administration, rather than being absolute, are a continuum or a population of responses. However, recognition that FE can make an impact on the gut microbiota and thus gut health will probably stimulate development of FE capable of modulating gut microbiota to the benefit of host health under specific production conditions. The present review brings to light opportunities and challenges for the role of major FE (carbohydrases and phytase) on the gut health of poultry and swine species with a specific focus on the impact on GIT microbiota.

  16. P4-ATPases

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Theorin, Lisa; Palmgren, Michael Broberg


    ) comprises lipid flippases that catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of cell membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, recent studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4...

  17. Mechanistic Basis for Differential Inhibition of the F1Fo-ATPase by Aurovertin


    The mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase performs the terminal step of oxidative phosphorylation. Small molecules that modulate this enzyme have been invaluable in helping decipher F1Fo-ATPase structure, function, and mechanism. Aurovertin is an antibiotic that binds to the β subunits in the F1 domain and inhibits F1Fo-ATPase-catalyzed ATP synthesis in preference to ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive study and the existence of crystallographic data, the molecular basis of the differential inhibition and ...

  18. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.


    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  19. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) for anti-fungal therapy

    Hayek, Summer R.; Lee, Samuel A.; Parra, Karlett J.


    Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens. PMID:24478704

  20. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase for anti-fungal therapy

    Summer R. Hayek


    Full Text Available Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans (C. albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens.

  1. Using an Inducible Promoter of a Gene Encoding Penicillium verruculosum Glucoamylase for Production of Enzyme Preparations with Enhanced Cellulase Performance

    Gusakov, Alexander V.; Nemashkalov, Vitaly A.; Satrutdinov, Aidar D.; Sinitsyn, Arkady P.


    Background Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. Results Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P. verruculosum B1-537 strain under the control of the inducible gla1 gene promoter. Content of the heterologous AnBGL in the secreted multienzyme cocktails (hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3) varied from 4 to 10% of the total protein, while the content of TrLPMO in the hLPMO sample was ~3%. The glucose yields in 48-h hydrolysis of Avicel and milled aspen wood by the hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3 preparations increased by up to 99 and 80%, respectively, relative to control enzyme preparations without the heterologous AnBGL (at protein loading 5 mg/g substrate for all enzyme samples). The heterologous TrLPMO in the hLPMO preparation boosted the conversion of the lignocellulosic substrate by 10–43%; however, in hydrolysis of Avicel the hLPMO sample was less effective than the control preparations. The highest product yield in hydrolysis of aspen wood was obtained when the hBGL2 and hLPMO preparations were used at the ratio 1:1. Conclusions The enzyme preparations produced by recombinant P. verruculosum strains, expressing the heterologous AnBGL or TrLPMO under the control of the gla1 gene promoter in a starch-containing medium, proved to be more effective in hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic substrate than control enzyme preparations without the heterologous enzymes. The enzyme composition containing both AnBGL and TrLPMO demonstrated the highest performance in lignocellulose hydrolysis, providing a background for developing a

  2. Probing subunit-subunit interactions in the yeast vacuolar ATPase by peptide arrays.

    Lee S Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vacuolar (H(+-ATPase (V-ATPase; V(1V(o-ATPase is a large multisubunit enzyme complex found in the endomembrane system of all eukaryotic cells where its proton pumping action serves to acidify subcellular organelles. In the plasma membrane of certain specialized tissues, V-ATPase functions to pump protons from the cytoplasm into the extracellular space. The activity of the V-ATPase is regulated by a reversible dissociation mechanism that involves breaking and re-forming of protein-protein interactions in the V(1-ATPase - V(o-proton channel interface. The mechanism responsible for regulated V-ATPase dissociation is poorly understood, largely due to a lack of detailed knowledge of the molecular interactions that are responsible for the structural and functional link between the soluble ATPase and membrane bound proton channel domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insight into where some of the stator subunits of the V-ATPase associate with each other, we have developed peptide arrays from the primary sequences of V-ATPase subunits. By probing the peptide arrays with individually expressed V-ATPase subunits, we have identified several key interactions involving stator subunits E, G, C, H and the N-terminal domain of the membrane bound a subunit. CONCLUSIONS: The subunit-peptide interactions identified from the peptide arrays complement low resolution structural models of the eukaryotic vacuolar ATPase obtained from transmission electron microscopy. The subunit-subunit interaction data are discussed in context of our current model of reversible enzyme dissociation.

  3. Cytoplasmic Hsp70 promotes ubiquitination for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of a misfolded mutant of the yeast plasma membrane ATPase, PMA1.

    Han, Sumin; Liu, Yu; Chang, Amy


    Cells have a variety of strategies for dealing with misfolded proteins. Heat shock response involves transcriptional induction of chaperones to promote and/or correct folding, and also activation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system to degrade defective proteins. In the secretory pathway, it is primarily luminal misfolded or unassembled proteins that trigger the unfolded protein response which, like heat shock, induces chaperones and components of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. To understand cellular response to a misfolded polytopic membrane protein of the secretory pathway, we studied Pma1-D378S, a model ERAD substrate. Expression of misfolded Pma1 induces heat shock response in the absence of increased temperature. Overexpression of HSF1, the transcription factor that mediates heat shock response, increases degradation of Pma1-D378S without temperature upshift. Nevertheless, efficient Pma1-D378S degradation occurs in an hsf1 mutant that maintains basal transcription levels but cannot mediate transcriptional activation. Thus, heat shock protein induction enhances but is not necessary for ERAD. The Ssa group of cytoplasmic Hsp70 chaperones is required for ERAD of both Pma1-D378S and another transmembrane ERAD substrate, Ste6*. In the absence of Ssa chaperones, ubiquitination of both substrates is impaired, resulting in stabilization. We suggest a role for Hsp70 cytoplasmic chaperones in recognition by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated ubiquitination machinery.

  4. Phosphorylation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by the heterologous host S.cerevisiae

    L. Rudashevskaya, Elena; Ye, Juanying; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    +-ATPases are app. 60 amino acid residues longer than their yeast homologous. Yeast is found to phosphorylate at least one residue within the plant C-terminus. At the same time a wide range of investigations on structure, function, regulation and interaction of H+-ATPase is carried out with implication...... It is known, that phosphorylation of both plant and yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase results in enzyme activation or inhibition. Several sites at the regulatory C-terminus of the enzyme have been found to undergo phosphorylation in vivo in both plant and yeast. The C-termini of plant H...... of heterologous system of yeast cells, expressing plant proton pump. Therefore identification of possible regulatory effects by phosphorylation events in plant H+-ATPase in the system is significant. A number of putative phosphorylation sites at regulatory C-domain of H+-ATPase (AHA2) have been point...

  5. Characterization and ATPase activity of human platelet actomyosin

    Lindemans, J.; Bouma, B.N.; Sixma, J.J.


    Platelet actomyosin, partially purified by successive precipitation had a specific viscosity of 0,15 and a sensitivity to ATP of 60 %. The enzyme preparation was separated into the actin and myosin components and some myosin fragments by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The ATPase activity of

  6. Arctigenin promotes degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase through CHIP-associated proteasome pathway and suppresses its enzyme activity.

    Yao, Xiangyang; Li, Guilan; Lü, Chaotian; Xu, Hui; Yin, Zhimin


    Arctigenin, a natural dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Previous works showed that arctigenin decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS at transcription level. However, whether arctigenin could regulate iNOS at the post-translational level is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that arctigenin promoted the degradation of iNOS which is expressed under LPS stimulation in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Such degradation of iNOS protein is due to CHIP-associated ubiquitination and proteasome-dependency. Furthermore, arctigenin decreased iNOS phosphorylation through inhibiting ERK and Src activation, subsequently suppressed iNOS enzyme activity. In conclusion, our research displays a new finding that arctigenin can promote the ubiqitination and degradation of iNOS after LPS stimulation. iNOS activity regulated by arctigenin is likely to involve a multitude of crosstalking mechanisms.

  7. The Rtt107 BRCT scaffold and its partner modification enzymes collaborate to promote replication.

    Hang, Lisa; Zhao, Xiaolan


    Faithful duplication of the entire genome during each cell cycle is key for genome maintenance. Each stage of DNA replication, including initiation, progression, and termination, is tightly regulated. Some of these regulations enable replisomes to overcome tens of thousands of template obstacles that block DNA synthesis. Previous studies have identified a large number of proteins that are dedicated to this mission, including protein modification enzymes and scaffold proteins. Protein modification enzymes can bestow fast and reversible changes on many substrates, and thus are ideal for coordinating multiple events needed to promptly overcome replication impediments. Scaffold proteins can support specific protein-protein interactions that enable protein complex formation, protein recruitment, and partner enzyme functions. Taken together with previous studies, our recent work elucidates that a group of modification and scaffold proteins form several complexes to aid replication progression and are particularly important for synthesizing large replicons. Additionally, our work reveals that the intrinsic plasticity of the replication initiation program can be used to compensate for deficient replication progression. (1).

  8. Construction, expression and characterization of a plasmid-encoded Na(+)-specific ATPase hybrid consisting of Propionigenium modestum F0-ATPase and Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Kaim, G; Dimroth, P


    The Escherichia coli strain DK8, a deletion mutant lacking the complete unc operon, was transformed with a plasmid containing the genes encoding the a, b, c, delta and part of the alpha subunit of the Na(+)-dependent ATPase of Propionigenium modestum and the genes encoding the alpha, gamma, beta and epsilon subunits of the H(+)-dependent E. coli ATPase. The transformants showed Na(+)-dependent growth on succinate as non-fermentable carbon source. The functionally expressed hybrid ATPase was activated 13-fold at pH 7.5 by the addition of Na+ and inhibited by 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, azide and tributyltin chloride. At pH 7.5 and pH 9.0, the hybrid enzyme was protected from inhibition by 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the presence of 50 mM NaCl and 5 mM NaCl, respectively. The hybrid ATPase was reconstituted into proteoliposomes and catalyzed the transport of Na+ upon ATP addition. ATP-dependent fluorescence quenching of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine proved that the ATPase hybrid was able to pump protons in the absence of Na+. Furthermore, ATP synthesis could be measured under conditions where a valinomycin-mediated K+ diffusion potential (delta psi) and a Na+ concentration gradient (delta p Na+) were imposed.

  9. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in human lymphoma cell line DHL-9: another mechanism of enzyme deficiency.

    Ishii, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Keiko; Wada, Hideo; Nishioka, Junji; Nakatani, Kaname; Yamada, Yasuaki; Kamihira, Shimeru; Kusunoki, Masato; Nobori, Tsutomu


    Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) involved in the metabolism of purine and polyamine has been known to be deficient in a variety of tumors. Although this enzyme deficiency was reportedly caused by partial or total deletion of the MTAP gene, human MTAP-deficient lymphoma cell line DHL-9 has the intact MTAP gene. In order to determine the mechanism of MTAP deficiency in DHL-9, we carried out methylation-specific PCR analysis of sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA followed by DNA sequence analysis. Following incubation with various concentrations of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DHL-9 cells were subjected to RT-PCR and an immunoblot analysis for MTAP expression. MTAP promoter in DHL-9 cells was methylated at cytosine of all CpG dinucleotides analyzed. Moreover, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment induced DHL-9 cells to express MTAP mRNA and protein. Taken together, MTAP deficiency in DHL-9 was caused by transcriptional silencing due to promoter methylation. Promoter methylation of the MTAP gene was also found in DNA samples from adult T-cell leukemia patients. These results indicated that promoter hypermethylation is another mechanism of MTAP deficiency in human malignancy. Thus, immunological diagnostics will be needed for an accurate evaluation of MTAP expression at the protein level.

  10. Direct Electrochemistry of Redox Proteins and Enzymes Promoted by Carbon Nanotubes

    Chenxin Cai


    Full Text Available The redox protein and enzyme, such as hemoglobin (Hb, horseradish peroxidase(HRP and glucose oxidase (GOx, was immobilized on the surface of the carbon nanotubemodified glassy carbon (CNT/GC electrode, respectively. The cyclic voltammetric resultsindicated that the redox protein and enzyme underwent effective and stable direct electrontransfer reaction with a pair of nearly symmetrical redox peaks. The formal redox potential,E0’, was almost independent on the scan rates, the average value of E0’ for Hb, HRP andGOx was –0.343 ± 0.001, –0.319 ± 0.002 and –0.456 ± 0.0008 V (vs. SCE,pH 6.9,respectively. The dependence of E0’ on the pH solution indicated that the direct electrontransfer of Hb and HRP was a one-electron-transfer reaction process coupled with oneproton-transfer, while the GOx was a two-electron-transfer coupled with two-protontransfer.The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks was 1.25 ± 0.25,2.07 ± 0.69 and 1.74 ± 0.42 s-1 for Hb, HRP and GOx, respectively. The method presentedhere can be easily extended to immobilize other redox enzymes or proteins and obtain theirdirect electrochemistry.

  11. Vibrio vulnificus Secretes an Insulin-degrading Enzyme That Promotes Bacterial Proliferation in Vivo.

    Kim, In Hwang; Kim, Ik-Jung; Wen, Yancheng; Park, Na-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Lee, Keun-Woo; Koh, Ara; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Kim, Kun-Soo


    We describe a novel insulin-degrading enzyme, SidC, that contributes to the proliferation of the human bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus in a mouse model. SidC is phylogenetically distinct from other known insulin-degrading enzymes and is expressed and secreted specifically during host infection. Purified SidC causes a significant decrease in serum insulin levels and an increase in blood glucose levels in mice. A comparison of mice infected with wild type V. vulnificus or an isogenic sidC-deletion strain showed that wild type bacteria proliferated to higher levels. Additionally, hyperglycemia leads to increased proliferation of V. vulnificus in diabetic mice. Consistent with these observations, the sid operon was up-regulated in response to low glucose levels through binding of the cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) complex to a region upstream of the operon. We conclude that glucose levels are important for the survival of V. vulnificus in the host, and that this pathogen uses SidC to actively manipulate host endocrine signals, making the host environment more favorable for bacterial survival and growth.

  12. Diabetes promotes DMH-induced colorectal cancer by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes in rats.

    Jia, Yanglei; Xu, Gang; Zhou, Wenjing; Wang, Zhenzheng; Meng, Linlin; Zhou, Songnan; Xu, Xia; Yuan, Huiqing; Tian, Keli


    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus and colorectal carcinogenesis as well as the possible mechanism involved in this interaction. Diabetes rat models were induced with a low dose of STZ followed by a low dose of DMH to induce colorectal cancer. The formation of ACF in the colon and the incidence, number and size of tumors were measured. The activity of glycolytic enzymes in colonic tissues was also measured. The results demonstrated that both the total number of ACF and the number of foci that contain a different number of crypts were increased in diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental treatment, the incidence, number and size of tumors were also increased in diabetic rats. Overall, these data indicated that diabetes increased the risk of colorectal cancer. The activity of HK and PK in colonic tissues was increased in diabetic rats, whereas the activity of PDH was decreased. In addition, the activities of these enzymes in intratumor were higher than that of in peritumor. These data indicated that the high rate of glycolysis may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in diabetic rats.

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and different ATPases by a novel phosphorothionate (RPR-II) in rat brain.

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Jamil, K


    A novel phosphorothionate (2-butenoic acid-3-(diethoxy phosphinothioyl)-methyl ester (RPR-II), synthesized at the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, targets its effect on rat brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) ATPases, as evident in this investigation. Three subchronic doses 0.014 (low), 0.028 (medium), and 0.042 (high) mg kg(-1) were administered to rats daily for a period of 90 days RPR-II caused statistically significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition in brain AChE and also in Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) ATPases in both male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment. The low dose was generally insignificant while the medium and high doses were significantly effective. Females were more susceptible than males with regard to brain AChE, Na(+)-K(+), and Mg(2+) ATPases, which indicates sexual dimorphism in the treated rats. Interestingly, after 28 days post-treatment, recovery of these enzymes was observed. The relative sensitivities of these enzymes indicated that brain AChE was more sensitive than any of the ATPases, but among the ATPases Na(+)-K(+) ATPase was more susceptible than Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ATPases. This compound, besides inhibiting the target of organophosphates, AChE, also inhibited different ATPases, suggesting both synaptic transmission and nerve conduction were affected.

  14. Changes in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and alpha 3 subunit expression in CNS after administration of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors.

    Bersier, María Geraldina; Peña, Clara; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores


    The expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity were analyzed after administration of ouabain and endobain E, respectively commercial and endogenous Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors. Wistar rats received intracerebroventricularly ouabain or endobain E dissolved in saline solution or Tris-HCl, respectively or the vehicles (controls). Two days later, animals were decapitated, cerebral cortex and hippocampus removed and crude and synaptosomal membrane fractions were isolated. Western blot analysis showed that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit expression increased roughly 40% after administration of 10 or 100 nmoles ouabain in cerebral cortex but remained unaltered in hippocampus. After administration of 10 μl endobain E (1 μl = 28 mg tissue) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit enhanced 130% in cerebral cortex and 103% in hippocampus. The activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in cortical synaptosomal membranes diminished or increased after administration of ouabain or endobain E, respectively. It is concluded that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors modify differentially the expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and enzyme activity, most likely involving compensatory mechanisms.

  15. Retrieval of the vacuolar H-ATPase from phagosomes revealed by live cell imaging.

    Margaret Clarke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vacuolar H+-ATPase, or V-ATPase, is a highly-conserved multi-subunit enzyme that transports protons across membranes at the expense of ATP. The resulting proton gradient serves many essential functions, among them energizing transport of small molecules such as neurotransmitters, and acidifying organelles such as endosomes. The enzyme is not present in the plasma membrane from which a phagosome is formed, but is rapidly delivered by fusion with endosomes that already bear the V-ATPase in their membranes. Similarly, the enzyme is thought to be retrieved from phagosome membranes prior to exocytosis of indigestible material, although that process has not been directly visualized. METHODOLOGY: To monitor trafficking of the V-ATPase in the phagocytic pathway of Dictyostelium discoideum, we fed the cells yeast, large particles that maintain their shape during trafficking. To track pH changes, we conjugated the yeast with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Cells were labeled with VatM-GFP, a fluorescently-tagged transmembrane subunit of the V-ATPase, in parallel with stage-specific endosomal markers or in combination with mRFP-tagged cytoskeletal proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that the V-ATPase is commonly retrieved from the phagosome membrane by vesiculation shortly before exocytosis. However, if the cells are kept in confined spaces, a bulky phagosome may be exocytosed prematurely. In this event, a large V-ATPase-rich vacuole coated with actin typically separates from the acidic phagosome shortly before exocytosis. This vacuole is propelled by an actin tail and soon acquires the properties of an early endosome, revealing an unexpected mechanism for rapid recycling of the V-ATPase. Any V-ATPase that reaches the plasma membrane is also promptly retrieved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, live cell microscopy has revealed both a usual route and alternative means of recycling the V-ATPase in the endocytic pathway.

  16. Arabidopsis Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) B Subunits Are Involved in Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling via Binding to, Bundling, and Stabilizing F-actin*

    Ma, Binyun; Qian, Dong; Nan, Qiong; Tan, Chang; An, Lizhe; Xiang, Yun


    Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a membrane-bound multisubunit enzyme complex composed of at least 14 different subunits. The complex regulates the physiological processes of a cell by controlling the acidic environment, which is necessary for certain activities and the interaction with the actin cytoskeleton through its B and C subunits in both humans and yeast. Arabidopsis V-ATPase has three B subunits (AtVAB1, AtVAB2, and AtVAB3), which share 97.27% sequence identity and have two potential...

  17. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya


    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression.

  18. Influence of hexavanadates on Na+/K+- ATPase activity

    Zdravković Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great interest in use of polioximetalates in clinical medicine, primary as antibacterial, antiviral and antitumoral agents. Considering the key role of Na+/ K+- ATPase in normal functioning of most animal cells, as well as pivotal roles in cancer cell migration, the aim of this paper was to examine the influence of new synthesized hexavandates [V6-CH3][Na]2, [V6-NO2][TBA]2, [V6-C3][H]2, [V6-C5d][TBA]2 on Na+/K+- ATPase activity. Material and methods: The enzymatic activity of porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+- ATPase was followed in both the absence and presence of increasing concentration of [V6-CH3] [Na]2, [V6-NO2][TBA]2, [V6-C3][H]2, [V6-C5d][TBA]2 (within the range 10-8 - 10-3 mol/L. The released Pi, liberated from the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP, was determined by spectrophotometric method, using Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results: Investigated compounds inhibit the activity of Na+/K+ ATPase in dose-dependent manner within the investigated range. Obtained results indicate that all investigated compounds inhibit the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, but with different inhibiting power. [V6-NO2] [TBA]2 (IC50 = 1,87 × 10-5 mol/L was the most potent inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, while [V6-C5d][TBA]2 showed the least potent inhibiting power (IC50 = 1,31 × 10-4 mol/L . The results are consistent with previously published concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of polyoxometalates (including polioxovandates on ATPase activity from different model syistems. Conclusion: Based on the results, we can conclude that the examined compounds inhibit Na+/K+- ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibiting power of tested hexavanadates are different, and weaker than inhibiting power of decavanadates (tested earlier on Na+/K+- ATPase activity, which is probably due to differences in charge, size and shape of these polioxometalates. Considering the role of this enzymes in the functioning of healthy cells and the

  19. The molecular structure of the Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATPase of Acetobacterium woodii, as revealed by electron microscopy, resembles that of H(+)-translocating ATPases.

    Reidlinger, J; Mayer, F; Müller, V


    The Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATPase of Acetobacterium woodii was examined by electron microscopy. After reconstitution into proteoliposomes, knobs typical for the F1 domain were visible on the outside of the membrane. The F1-part of the isolated enzyme showed a hexagonal symmetry suggesting an alpha 3 beta 3 structure, and the F1F0 complex had molecular dimensions very similar to those of H(+)-translocating ATPases of E. coli, chloroplasts, and mitochondria.

  20. Archazolid and apicularen: Novel specific V-ATPase inhibitors

    Zeeck Axel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background V-ATPases constitute a ubiquitous family of heteromultimeric, proton translocating proteins. According to their localization in a multitude of eukaryotic membranes, they energize many different transport processes. Since their malfunction is correlated with various diseases in humans, the elucidation of the properties of this enzyme for the development of selective inhibitors and drugs is one of the challenges in V-ATPase research. Results Archazolid A and B, two recently discovered cytotoxic macrolactones produced by the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra, and apicularen A and B, two novel benzolactone enamides produced by different species of the myxobacterium Chondromyces, exerted a similar inhibitory efficacy on a wide range of mammalian cell lines as the well established plecomacrolidic type V-ATPase inhibitors concanamycin and bafilomycin. Like the plecomacrolides both new macrolides also prevented the lysosomal acidification in cells and inhibited the V-ATPase purified from the midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, with IC50 values of 20–60 nM. However, they did not influence the activity of mitochondrial F-ATPase or that of the Na+/K+-ATPase. To define the binding sites of these new inhibitors we used a semi-synthetic radioactively labelled derivative of concanamycin which exclusively binds to the membrane Vo subunit c. Whereas archazolid A prevented, like the plecomacrolides concanamycin A, bafilomycin A1 and B1, labelling of subunit c by the radioactive I-concanolide A, the benzolactone enamide apicularen A did not compete with the plecomacrolide derivative. Conclusion The myxobacterial antibiotics archazolid and apicularen are highly efficient and specific novel inhibitors of V-ATPases. While archazolid at least partly shares a common binding site with the plecomacrolides bafilomycin and concanamycin, apicularen adheres to an independent binding site.

  1. The ATPases of cohesin interface with regulators to modulate cohesin-mediated DNA tethering.

    Çamdere, Gamze; Guacci, Vincent; Stricklin, Jeremiah; Koshland, Douglas


    Cohesin tethers together regions of DNA, thereby mediating higher order chromatin organization that is critical for sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Cohesin contains a heterodimeric ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) ATPase comprised of Smc1 and Smc3 ATPase active sites. These ATPases are required for cohesin to bind DNA. Cohesin's DNA binding activity is also promoted by the Eco1 acetyltransferase and inhibited by Wpl1. Recently we showed that after cohesin stably binds DNA, a second step is required for DNA tethering. This second step is also controlled by Eco1 acetylation. Here, we use genetic and biochemical analyses to show that this second DNA tethering step is regulated by cohesin ATPase. Furthermore, our results also suggest that Eco1 promotes cohesion by modulating the ATPase cycle of DNA-bound cohesin in a state that is permissive for DNA tethering and refractory to Wpl1 inhibition.

  2. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter-Containing Retroviral Promoter Conversion Vectors for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy are Functional in Vitro and in Vivo

    Reinhard Klein


    Full Text Available Gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT is an approach for sensitization of tumor cells to an enzymatically activated, otherwise nontoxic, prodrug. Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1 metabolizes the prodrugs cyclophosphamide (CPA and ifosfamide (IFA to produce the cytotoxic substances phosphoramide mustard and isophosphoramide mustard as well as the byproduct acrolein. We have constructed a retroviral promoter conversion (ProCon vector for breast cancer GDEPT. The vector allows expression of CYP2B1 from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter known to be active in the mammary glands of transgenic animals. It is anticipated to be used for the generation of encapsulated viral vector producing cells which, when placed inside or close to a tumor, will act as suppliers of the therapeutic CYP2B1 protein as well as of the therapeutic vector itself. The generated vector was effectively packaged by virus producing cells and allowed the production of high levels of enzymatically active CYP2B1 in infected cells which sensitized them to killing upon treatment with both IFA and CPA. Determination of the respective IC50 values demonstrated that the effective IFA dose was reduced by sixteen folds. Infection efficiencies in vivo were determined using a reporter gene-bearing vector in a mammary cancer cell-derived xenograft tumor mouse model.

  3. The binding site for regulatory 14-3-3 protein in plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: Involvement of a region promoting phosphorylation-independent interaction in addition to the phosphorylation-dependent C-terminal end

    Fuglsang, Anja T; Borch, Jonas; Bych, Katrine


    ) in the extreme C-terminal end of the H+-ATPase interacts with the binding cleft of 14-3-3 protein (Wurtele, M., Jelich-Ottmann, C., Wittinghofer, A., and Oecking, C. (2003) EMBO J. 22, 987-994). We report binding of 14-3-3 protein to a nonphosphorylated peptide representing the 34 C-terminal residues...

  4. Amino acid substitutions of Na,K-ATPase conferring decreased sensitivity to cardenolides in insects compared to mammals

    Dalla, S.; Swarts, H.G.P.; Koenderink, J.B.; Dobler, S.


    Mutagenesis analyses and a recent crystal structure of the mammalian Na,K-ATPase have identified amino acids which are responsible for high affinity binding of cardenolides (such as ouabain) which at higher doses block the enzyme in the phosphorylated state. Genetic analysis of the Na,K-ATPase of in

  5. Arginine substitution of a cysteine in transmembrane helix M8 converts Na+,K+-ATPase to an electroneutral pump similar to H+,K+-ATPase.

    Holm, Rikke; Khandelwal, Jaanki; Einholm, Anja P; Andersen, Jens P; Artigas, Pablo; Vilsen, Bente


    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and H(+),K(+)-ATPase are electrogenic and nonelectrogenic ion pumps, respectively. The underlying structural basis for this difference has not been established, and it has not been revealed how the H(+),K(+)-ATPase avoids binding of Na(+) at the site corresponding to the Na(+)-specific site of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (site III). In this study, we addressed these questions by using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with enzymatic, transport, and electrophysiological functional measurements. Replacement of the cysteine C932 in transmembrane helix M8 of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with arginine, present in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase at the corresponding position, converted the normal 3Na(+):2K(+):1ATP stoichiometry of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to electroneutral 2Na(+):2K(+):1ATP stoichiometry similar to the electroneutral transport mode of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase. The electroneutral C932R mutant of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase retained a wild-type-like enzyme turnover rate for ATP hydrolysis and rate of cellular K(+) uptake. Only a relatively minor reduction of apparent Na(+) affinity for activation of phosphorylation from ATP was observed for C932R, whereas replacement of C932 with leucine or phenylalanine, the latter of a size comparable to arginine, led to spectacular reductions of apparent Na(+) affinity without changing the electrogenicity. From these results, in combination with structural considerations, it appears that the guanidine(+) group of the M8 arginine replaces Na(+) at the third site, thus preventing Na(+) binding there, although allowing Na(+) to bind at the two other sites and become transported. Hence, in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase, the ability of the M8 arginine to donate an internal cation binding at the third site is decisive for the electroneutral transport mode of this pump.

  6. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    Miles, Andrew J. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Fedosova, Natalya U. [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Hoffmann, Søren V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Wallace, B.A. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Esmann, Mikael, E-mail: [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)


    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  7. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum

    Ferguson, Scott A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.


    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a “down” state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an “up” state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual “open” conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  8. Antioxidation and ATPase activity in the gill of mud crab Scylla serrata under cold stress

    KONG Xianghui; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing


    Mud crab (Scylla serrata) is an important commercial crustacean in China. An experiment was designed to study the effect of cold stress on S. serrata. After a one-week adaptation at 28 ℃, the temperature is suddenly reduced to 4 ℃. The crabs were sampled every 2 h for 10 h and dissected immediately to measure the enzyme activity. The crabs at room temperature (28 ℃) were used as the control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of 4 ATPases (Na+, K+-ATPase;Mg2+-ATPase; Ca2+-ATPase; Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase) were measured biochemically. In contrast to the control group, the SOD activity increased significantly from 2 to 6 h after the cold stress, and then decreased. The CAT and GPX activities increased in 2 h, and then decreased gradually. The content of MDA increased gradually in 4 h. The activity ofNa+, K+-ATPase decreased in 2 h, increased up to the top value at Hour 6,then decreased again. The activities of Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase increased significantly in 6 h, insignificantly in any other hours. Under cold stress, the activity of antioxidative enzymes in S. serrata was reduced at first then stabilized, ROS-scavenging weakened, and MDA accumulated gradually in the gill after 6 h. The activity of the 4 ATPases in the crab decreased after 6 h,suggesting that the ability to regulate ion concentration has been paralyzed. Therefore, the maximum period to sustain healthy meat in the crab under cold stress is 6 hours.

  9. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Chinese population.

    Jin, Zhao; Luxiang, Chi; Huadong, Zhou; Yanjiang, Wang; Zhiqiang, Xu; Hongyuan, Cao; Lihua, Huang; Xu, Yi


    Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE-1) is a candidate Alzheimer disease susceptibility gene. It was previously reported that western individuals homozygous for the C-338A polymorphism (AA) within the ECE1 gene promoter region are at reduced risk of developing late onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). A further polymorphism, T-839G, is present within the ECE1 promoter region but a potential association with LOAD has not been studied. We therefore studied possible associations between these ECE1 polymorphisms and LOAD in a Chinese population. Subjects comprised 376 Chinese LOAD patients and 376 age- and sex-matched controls; all subjects were typed for the ECE1 C-338A and the T-839G polymorphisms. We report that the frequency of the 338A allele was decreased in LOAD patients compared to controls (adjusted OR =0.73; 95% CI=0.54-0.98; P=0.03). There was no significant association between T-839G genotype and LOAD, however the combined 839T/338A haplotype was significantly associated with decreased risk of LOAD (OR=0.73; 95% CI=0.57-0.93; P=0.01). This study argues that the ECE1 338A allele is protective against LOAD in a Chinese population.

  10. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion.

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the genes coding for the A and B subunits of vacuolar-type Na(+)-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae. Coexistence of vacuolar- and F0F1-type ATPases in one bacterial cell.

    Takase, K; Yamato, I; Kakinuma, Y


    The eubacterium Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 possesses a H(+)-translocating ATPase, and the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes coding for this enzyme have indicated that it is a typical F0F1-type ATPase (Shibata, C., Ehara, T., Tomura, K., Igarashi, K., and Kobayashi, H. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 6117-6124). We cloned the ntpA and ntpB genes coding for the A and B subunits, respectively, of Na(+)-translocating ATPase from the same bacterium, and the full amino acid sequences of the two subunits were deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The A (593 amino acid residues) and B (458 amino acid residues) subunits were highly homologous (48-60% identical) to the A (large or alpha) and the B (small or beta) subunits, respectively, of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases which have been found in eukaryotic endomembrane systems (Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and carrot) and archaebacterial cell membranes (Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Methanosarcina barkeri). The A and B subunits of Na(+)-ATPase showed about 23-28% identities with the beta and alpha subunits of E. hirae F1-ATPase and of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, respectively. These results indicate that E. hirae Na(+)-ATPase belongs to the vacuolar-type ATPase. This is the first demonstration that both genes for V- and F-type ATPases are functionally expressed in one bacterial cell.

  12. Modulation of FXYD interaction with Na,K-ATPase by anionic phospholipids and protein kinase phosphorylation

    Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed


    with anionic phospholipids. Specifically, the effects of the cytoplasmic domain of FXYD10, which contains the phosphorylation sites for protein kinases, on the kinetics of the Na,K-ATPase reaction were investigated by a comparison of the reconstituted native enzyme and the enzyme where 23 C-terminal amino...... acids of FXYD10 had been cleaved by mild, controlled trypsin treatment. Several kinetic properties of the Na,K-ATPase reaction cycle as well as the FXYD-regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity were found to be affected by acidic phospholipids like PI, PS, and PG. This takes into consideration the Na+ and K......+ activation, the K+-deocclusion reaction, and the poise of the E1/E2 conformational equilibrium, whereas the ATP activation was unchanged. Anionic phospholipids increased the intermolecular cross-linking between the FXYD10 C-terminus (Cys74) and the Cys254 in the Na,K-ATPase A-domain. However, neither...

  13. [Metabolism of Yarrowia lipolytica grown on ethanol under conditions promoting the production of alpha-ketoglutaric and citric acids: a comparative study of the central metabolism enzymes].

    Il'chenko, A P; Cherniavskaia, O G; Shishkanova, N V; Finogenova, T V


    A comparative study of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and glyoxylate cycles in the mutant Yarrowia lipolytica strain N1 capable of producing alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) and citric acid showed that almost all enzymes of the TCA cycle are more active under conditions promoting the production of KGA. The only exception was citrate synthase, whose activity was higher in yeast cells producing citric acid. The production of both acids was accompanied by suppression of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes. The activities of malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, and fumarase were higher in cells producing KGA than in cells producing citric acid.

  14. Local translational diffusion rates of membranous Na+,K(+)-ATPase measured by saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy.

    Esmann, M.; Marsh, D.


    Diffusion-controlled Heisenberg spin exchange between spin-labeled Na+,K(+)-ATPase [ATP phosphohydrolase (Na+/K(+)-transporting), EC] proteins has been studied by saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy in reconstituted membranes. Na+,K(+)-ATPase from the salt gland of Squalus acanthias was solubilized in a polyoxyethylene ether detergent, octa(ethylene glycol) dodecyl monoether. Part of the solubilized enzyme was covalently spin-labeled with a nitroxide derivative of indanedione and re...

  15. Genetic variants of methyl metabolizing enzymes and epigenetic regulators: associations with promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer.

    de Vogel, Stefan; Wouters, Kim A D; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Goeij, Anton F P M; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Goldbohm, Royle A; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P; van Engeland, Manon


    Aberrant DNA methylation affects carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Folate metabolizing enzymes may influence the bioavailability of methyl groups, whereas DNA and histone methyltransferases are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We studied associations of genetic variants of folate metabolizing enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR), DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b, and histone methyltransferases (EHMT1, EHMT2, and PRDM2), with colorectal cancers, with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), MLH1 hypermethylation, or microsatellite instability. Incidence rate ratios were calculated in case-cohort analyses, with common homozygotes as reference, among 659 cases and 1,736 subcohort members of the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (n = 120,852). Men with the MTHFR 677TT genotype were at decreased colorectal cancer risk (incidence rate ratio, 0.49; P = 0.01), but the T allele was associated with increased risk in women (incidence rate ratio, 1.39; P = 0.02). The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (incidence rate ratio, 1.58; P = 0.04), and inverse associations were observed among women carrying DNMT3b C-->T (rs406193; incidence rate ratio, 0.72; P = 0.04) or EHMT2 G-->A (rs535586; incidence rate ratio, 0.76; P = 0.05) polymorphisms. Although significantly correlated (P DNMT3b, and EHMT2 polymorphisms are associated with colorectal cancer, and rare variants of MTR and MTRR may reduce promoter hypermethylation. The incomplete overlap between CIMP, MLH1 hypermethylation, and microsatellite instability indicates that these related "methylation phenotypes" may not be similar and should be investigated separately.

  16. Hydrolysis and Synthesis of ATP by Membrane-Bound ATPase from a Motile Streptococcus

    Drift, C. van der; Janssen, D.B.; Wezenbeek, P.M.G.F. van


    ATPase was detected in the membranes of a motile Streptococcus. Maximal enzymic activity was observed at pH 8 and ATP/Mg2+ ratio of 2. Mn2+ and Ca2+ could replace Mg2+ to some extent. Besides ATP, GTP and ITP were substrates. The enzyme was inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not by sodiu

  17. Hydrolysis and Synthesis of ATP by Membrane-Bound ATPase from a Motile Streptococcus

    Drift, C. van der; Janssen, D.B.; Wezenbeek, P.M.G.F. van


    ATPase was detected in the membranes of a motile Streptococcus. Maximal enzymic activity was observed at pH 8 and ATP/Mg2+ ratio of 2. Mn2+ and Ca2+ could replace Mg2+ to some extent. Besides ATP, GTP and ITP were substrates. The enzyme was inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not by sodiu

  18. Src-independent ERK signaling through the rat α3 isoform of Na/K-ATPase.

    Madan, Namrata; Xu, Yunhui; Duan, Qiming; Banerjee, Moumita; Larre, Isabel; Pierre, Sandrine V; Xie, Zijian


    The Na/K-ATPase α1 polypeptide supports both ion-pumping and signaling functions. The Na/K-ATPase α3 polypeptide differs from α1 in both its primary structure and its tissue distribution. The expression of α3 seems particularly important in neurons, and recent clinical evidence supports a unique role of this isoform in normal brain function. The nature of this specific role of α3 has remained elusive, because the ubiquitous presence of α1 has hindered efforts to characterize α3-specific functions in mammalian cell systems. Using Na/K-ATPase α1 knockdown pig kidney cells (PY-17), we generated the first stable mammalian cell line expressing a ouabain-resistant form of rat Na/K-ATPase α3 in the absence of endogenous pig α1 detectable by Western blotting. In these cells, Na/K-ATPase α3 formed a functional ion-pumping enzyme and rescued the expression of Na/K-ATPase β1 and caveolin-1 to levels comparable with those observed in PY-17 cells rescued with a rat Na/K-ATPase α1 (AAC-19). The α3-containing enzymes had lower Na(+) affinity and lower ouabain-sensitive transport activity than their α1-containing counterparts under basal conditions, but showed a greater capacity to be activated when intracellular Na(+) was increased. In contrast to Na/K-ATPase α1, α3 could not regulate Src. Upon exposure to ouabain, Src activation did not occur, yet ERK was activated through Src-independent pathways involving PI3K and PKC. Hence, α3 expression confers signaling and pumping properties that are clearly distinct from that of cells expressing Na/K-ATPase α1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Mechanistic Insights on the Reductive Dehydroxylation Pathway for the Biosynthesis of Isoprenoids Promoted by the IspH Enzyme

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat


    Here, we report an integrated quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study of the bio-organometallic reaction pathway of the 2H+/2e- reduction of (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) into the so called universal terpenoids precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), promoted by the IspH enzyme. Our results support the viability of the bio-organometallic pathway from rotation of the OH group of HMBPP away from the [Fe4S4] cluster at the core of the catalytic site, to be engaged in a H-bond with Glu126. This rotation is synchronous with π-coordination of the C2=C3 double bond of HMBPP to the apical Fe atom of the [Fe4S4] cluster. Dehydroxylation of HMBPP is triggered by a proton transfer from Glu126 to the OH group of HMBPP. The reaction pathway is completed by competitive proton transfer from the terminal phosphate group to the C2 or C4 atom of HMBPP.

  20. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 promotes trafficking and degradation of the chemokine receptor 4 at the sorting endosome.

    Berlin, Ilana; Higginbotham, Katherine M; Dise, Rebecca S; Sierra, Maria I; Nash, Piers D


    Reversible ubiquitination orchestrated by the opposition of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes mediates endocytic trafficking of cell surface receptors for lysosomal degradation. Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) has previously been implicated in endocytosis of several receptors by virtue of their deubiquitination. The present study explores an indirect role for USP8 in cargo trafficking through its regulation of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Contrary to the effects of USP8 loss on enhanced green fluorescent protein, we find that USP8 depletion stabilizes CXCR4 on the cell surface and attenuates receptor degradation without affecting its ubiquitination status. In the presence of ligand, diminished CXCR4 turnover is accompanied by receptor accumulation on enlarged early endosomes and leads to enhancement of phospho-ERK signaling. Perturbation in CXCR4 trafficking, resulting from USP8 inactivation, occurs at the ESCRT-0 checkpoint, and catalytic mutation of USP8 specifically targeted to the ESCRT-0 complex impairs the spatial and temporal organization of the sorting endosome. USP8 functionally opposes the ubiquitin ligase AIP4 with respect to ESCRT-0 ubiquitination, thereby promoting trafficking of CXCR4. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a functional cooperation between USP8, AIP4, and the ESCRT-0 machinery at the early sorting phase of CXCR4 and underscore the versatility of USP8 in shaping trafficking events at the early-to-late endosome transition.

  1. Ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of mammalian P-type ATPases.

    Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Noël, François


    Ivermectin is a large spectrum antiparasitic drug that is very safe at the doses actually used. However, as it is being studied for new applications that would require higher doses, we should pay attention to its effects at high concentrations. As micromolar concentrations of ivermectin have been reported to inhibit the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), we decided to investigate its putative inhibitory effect on other two important P-type ATPases, namely the Na(+) , K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We first extended the data on SERCA, using preparations from rat enriched in SERCA1a (extensor digitorum longus) and 1b (heart) isoforms. Secondly, we tested the effect of ivermectin in two preparations of rat Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in order to appreciate its putative selectivity towards the alpha(1) isoform (kidney) and the alpha(2)/alpha(3) isoforms (brain), and in an H(+)/K(+)-ATPase preparation from rat stomach. Ivermectin inhibited all these ATPases with similar IC(50) values (6-17 microM). With respect to the inhibition of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, ivermectin acts by a mechanism different from the classical cardiac glycosides, based on selectivity towards the isoforms, sensibility to the antagonistic effect of K(+) and to ionic conditions favoring different conformations of the enzyme. We conclude that ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of three important mammalian P-type ATPases, which is indicative of putative important adverse effects if this drug were used at high doses. As a consequence, we propose that novel analogs of ivermectin should be developed and tested both for their parasitic activity and in vitro effects on P-type ATPases.

  2. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori


    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory.

  3. Roles and mechanisms of copper transporting ATPases in cancer pathogenesis.

    Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Min; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi


    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for cell metabolism as a cofactor to many key metabolic enzymes. Numerous physiological processes rely on the adequate and timely transport of copper ions mediated by copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), which are essential for human cell growth and development. Inherited gene mutations of ATP7A and ATP7B result in clinical diseases related to damage in the multiple organ systems. Increased expression of these genes has been recently observed in some human cancer specimens, and may be associated with tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance. However, underlying mechanisms of Cu-ATPases in human cancer progression and treatment are largely unknown. In this review, we summarize current progress on the copper transport system, the structural and functional properties of the Cu-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, in copper homeostasis, and their roles in anti-tumor drug resistance and cancer metastasis. This review provides valuable information for clinicians and researchers who want to recognize the newest advances in this new field and identify possible lines of investigation in copper transport as important mediators in human physiology and cancer.

  4. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López


    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  5. Activation and inhibition of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase by monoclonal antibodies which recognize the epsilon subunit.

    Dunn, S D; Tozer, R G


    The properties of two monoclonal antibodies which recognize the epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase were studied in detail. The epsilon subunit is a tightly bound but dissociable inhibitor of the ATPase activity of soluble F1-ATPase. Antibody epsilon-1 binds free epsilon with a dissociation constant of 2.4 nM but cannot bind epsilon when it is associated with F1-ATPase. Likewise epsilon cannot associate with F1-ATPase in the presence of high concentrations of epsilon-1. Thus epsilon-1 activates F1-ATPase which contains the epsilon subunit, and prevents added epsilon from inhibiting the enzyme. Epsilon-1 cannot bind to membrane-bound F1-ATPase. The epsilon-4 antibody binds free epsilon with a dissociation constant of 26 nM. Epsilon-4 can bind to the F1-ATPase complex, but, like epsilon-1, it reverses the inhibition of F1-ATPase by the epsilon subunit. The epsilon subunit remains crosslinkable to both the beta and gamma subunits in the presence of epsilon-4, indicating that it is not grossly displaced from its normal position by the antibody. Presumably the activation arises from more subtle conformational effects. Antibodies epsilon-4 and delta-2, which recognizes the delta subunit, both bind to F1F0 in E. coli membrane vesicles, indicating that these subunits are substantially exposed in the membrane-bound complex. Epsilon-4 inhibits the ATPase activity of the membrane-bound enzyme by about 50%, and Fab prepared from epsilon-4 inhibits by about 40%. This inhibition is not associated with any substantial change in the major apparent Km for ATP. These results suggest that inhibition of membrane-bound F1-ATPase arises from steric effects of the antibody.

  6. Phosphorylation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by the heterologous host S.cerevisiae

    L. Rudashevskaya, Elena; Ye, Juanying; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

     It is known, that phosphorylation of both plant and yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase results in enzyme activation or inhibition. Several sites at the regulatory C-terminus of the enzyme have been found to undergo phosphorylation in vivo in both plant and yeast. The C-termini of plant H......+-ATPases are app. 60 amino acid residues longer than their yeast homologous. Yeast is found to phosphorylate at least one residue within the plant C-terminus. At the same time a wide range of investigations on structure, function, regulation and interaction of H+-ATPase is carried out with implication......-mutated to alanine residues (to prevent possible phosphorylation) or aspartate residues (to mimic phosphorylation of residue) and the mutated aha2 enzyme expressed in the yeast strain RS-72. Most of the mutations show positive or negative effect on yeast growth in functional complementation assays. It shows in vivo...

  7. Studies of Relationships among Bile Flow, Liver Plasma Membrane NaK-ATPase, and Membrane Microviscosity in the Rat

    Keeffe, Emmet B.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Blankenship, Nancy M.; Ockner, Robert K.


    Liver plasma membrane (LPM) NaK-ATPase activity, LPM fluidity, and bile acid-independent flow (BAIF) were studied in rats pretreated with one of five experimental agents. Compared with controls, BAIF was increased 24.6% by thyroid hormone and 34.4% by phenobarbital, decreased by ethinyl estradiol, but unchanged by propylene glycol and cortisone acetate. Parallel to the observed changes in BAIF, NaK-ATPase activity also was increased by thyroid hormone (40.8%) and decreased by ethinyl estradiol (26.2%). In contrast, NaK-ATPase activity failed to increase after phenobarbital but did increase 36% after propylene glycol and 34.8% after cortisone acetate. Thus BAIF and NaK-ATPase activity did not always change in parallel. The NaK-ATPase Km for ATP was not affected by any of these agents. LPM fluidity, measured by fluorescence polarization using the probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, was found to be increased by propylene glycol, thyroid hormone, and cortisone acetate, decreased by ethinyl estradiol, and unaffected by phenobarbital. Thus in these cases, induced changes in LPM fluidity paralleled those in NaK-ATPase activity. In no case did Mg-ATPase or 5′-nucleotidase activities change in the same direction as NaK-ATPase, and the activity of neither of these enzymes correlated with LPM fluidity, thus indicating the selective nature of the changes in LPM enzyme activity caused by the agents. These findings indicate that LPM fluidity correlates with NaK-ATPase activity and may influence the activity of this enzyme. However, the nature of the role of LPM NaK-ATPase in bile secretion is uncertain and needs further study. Images PMID:227937

  8. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soon [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143–701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of)


    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  9. Molecular basis for the binding and modulation of V-ATPase by a bacterial effector protein.

    Jianhua Zhao


    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogenic bacteria evade the immune response by replicating within host cells. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, makes use of numerous effector proteins to construct a niche supportive of its replication within phagocytic cells. The L. pneumophila effector SidK was identified in a screen for proteins that reduce the activity of the proton pumping vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. SidK is secreted by L. pneumophila in the early stages of infection and by binding to and inhibiting the V-ATPase, SidK reduces phagosomal acidification and promotes survival of the bacterium inside macrophages. We determined crystal structures of the N-terminal region of SidK at 2.3 Å resolution and used single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM to determine structures of V-ATPase:SidK complexes at ~6.8 Å resolution. SidK is a flexible and elongated protein composed of an α-helical region that interacts with subunit A of the V-ATPase and a second region of unknown function that is flexibly-tethered to the first. SidK binds V-ATPase strongly by interacting via two α-helical bundles at its N terminus with subunit A. In vitro activity assays show that SidK does not inhibit the V-ATPase completely, but reduces its activity by ~40%, consistent with the partial V-ATPase deficiency phenotype its expression causes in yeast. The cryo-EM analysis shows that SidK reduces the flexibility of the A-subunit that is in the 'open' conformation. Fluorescence experiments indicate that SidK binding decreases the affinity of V-ATPase for a fluorescent analogue of ATP. Together, these results reveal the structural basis for the fine-tuning of V-ATPase activity by SidK.

  10. Identification of Fic-1 as an enzyme that inhibits bacterial DNA replication by AMPylating GyrB, promoting filament formation.

    Lu, Canhua; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Zhang, Li-Qun; Luo, Zhao-Qing


    The morphology of bacterial cells is important for virulence, evasion of the host immune system, and coping with environmental stresses. The widely distributed Fic proteins (filamentation induced by cAMP) are annotated as proteins involved in cell division because of the presence of the HPFx[D/E]GN[G/K]R motif. We showed that the presence of Fic-1 from Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly reduced the yield of plasmid DNA when expressed in Escherichia coli or P. fluorescens. Fic-1 interacted with GyrB, a subunit of DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. Fic-1 catalyzed the AMPylation of GyrB at Tyr(109), a residue critical for binding ATP, and exhibited auto-AMPylation activity. Mutation of the Fic-1 auto-AMPylated site greatly reduced AMPylation activity toward itself and toward GyrB. Fic-1-dependent AMPylation of GyrB triggered the SOS response, indicative of DNA replication stress or DNA damage. Fic-1 also promoted the formation of elongated cells when the SOS response was blocked. We identified an α-inhibitor protein that we named anti-Fic-1 (AntF), encoded by a gene immediately upstream of Fic-1. AntF interacted with Fic-1, inhibited the AMPylation activity of Fic-1 for GyrB in vitro, and blocked Fic-1-mediated inhibition of DNA replication in bacteria, suggesting that Fic-1 and AntF comprise a toxin-antitoxin module. Our work establishes Fic-1 as an AMPylating enzyme that targets GyrB to inhibit DNA replication and may target other proteins to regulate bacterial morphology.

  11. Evolution of plant P-type ATPases

    Christian N.S. Pedersen


    Full Text Available Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauria and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a moss, Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant, and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant. Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Our analysis demonstrates when specific subgroups of P-type ATPases disappeared in the evolution of Angiosperms. Na/K-pump related P2C ATPases were lost with the evolution of streptophytes whereas Na+ or K+ pumping P2D ATPases and secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases remained until mosses. An N-terminally located calmodulin binding domain in P2B ATPases can only be detected in pumps from Streptophytae, whereas, like in animals, a C-terminally localized calmodulin binding domain might be present in chlorophyte P2B Ca2+-ATPases. Chlorophyte genomes encode P3A ATPases resembling protist plasma membrane H+-ATPases and a C-terminal regulatory domain is missing. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps.

  12. The oligomeric state of the active Vps4 AAA ATPase

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Eckert, Debra M.; Karren, Mary Anne; Whitby, Frank G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.


    The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits. PMID:24161953

  13. Alteration of aluminium inhibition of synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase by colestipol administration.

    Silva, V S; Oliveira, L; Gonçalves, P P


    The ability of aluminium to inhibit the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity has been observed by several authors. During chronic dietary exposure to AlCl3, brain (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity drops, even if no alterations of catalytic subunit protein expression and of energy charge potential are observed. The aluminium effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase activity seems to implicate the reduction of interacting protomers within the oligomeric ensemble of the membrane-bound (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is altered by the microviscosity of lipid environment. We studied if aluminium inhibitory effect on (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase is modified by alterations in synaptosomal membrane cholesterol content. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to chronic dietary AlCl3 exposure (0.03 g/day of AlCl3) and/or to colestipol, a hypolidaemic drug (0.31 g/day) during 4 months. The activity of (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes with different cholesterol contents. Additionally, we incubate synaptosomes with methyl-β-cyclodextrin for both enrichment and depletion of membrane cholesterol content, with or without 300 μM AlCl3. This enzyme activity was significantly reduced by micromolar AlCl3 added in vitro and when aluminium was orally administered to rats. The oral administration of colestipol reduced the cholesterol content and concomitantly inhibited the (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase. The aluminium inhibitory effect on synaptosomal (Na(+)/K(+))ATPase was reduced by cholesterol depletion both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unexpected promotion of PCDD/F formation by enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching in non-wood pulp and paper mill.

    Fang, Liping; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Liu, Wenbin; Huang, Linyan; Guo, Li


    Enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching is widely considered as promising replacements for conventional Cl2 bleaching in wood pulp and paper mills. However, the effects of using enzyme-aided bleaching on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the non-wood pulp and paper mills are unclear. A field study was performed to investigate PCDD/F formation when enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching was used to replace conventional Cl2 bleaching in non-wood pulp and paper mills. Unexpectedly, the PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQs) in solid samples were higher when using enzyme-aided bleaching (0.49-5.4 pg TEQ/g) than that using conventional Cl2 bleaching (0.15-2.44 pg TEQ/g). Large amounts of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were formed during the enzyme-aided bleaching process. This could have been because enzyme strongly promoted the release of organic molecules bound to lignin and thus accelerated the formation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin through organic molecular precursors. Although enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching was previously considered to be efficient for reducing PCDD/F releases and to be the best available technologies and best environmental practices for wood pulp and paper mills, the results obtained in this study suggested the necessity and urgency to evaluate the suitability of enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching for non-wood pulp and paper mills that intensively practiced in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Reduction of Redox Modifications of Cys-Residues in the Na,K-ATPase α1-Subunit on Its Activity.

    Dergousova, Elena A; Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Klimanova, Elizaveta A; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Lopina, Olga D; Makarov, Alexander A


    Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal glutathionylation and other redox modifications of cysteine residues is not clear. The purpose of this study was to detect oxidized, nitrosylated, or glutathionylated cysteine residues in Na,K-ATPase, evaluate the possibility of removing these modifications and assess their influence on the enzyme activity. To this aim, we have detected such modifications in the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit purified from duck salt glands and tried to eliminate them by chemical reducing agents and the glutaredoxin1/glutathione reductase enzyme system. Detection of cysteine modifications was performed using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. We have found that purified Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit contains glutathionylated, nitrosylated, and oxidized cysteines. Chemical reducing agents partially eliminate these modifications that leads to the slight increase of the enzyme activity. Enzyme system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase, unlike chemical reducing agents, produces significant increase of the enzyme activity. At the same time, the enzyme system deglutathionylates native Na,K-ATPase to a lesser degree than chemical reducing agents. This suggests that the enzymatic reducing system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase specifically affects glutathionylation of the regulatory cysteine residues of Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit.




    In experimental endolymphatic hydrops (EEH) a decrease in the endocochlear potential (EP) has been reported and is thought to be due to decreased activity of the enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase in the stria vascularis. By stimulating Na+/K+-ATPase, the EP, and thereby cochlear function as a whole, might be res

  17. Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine

    Necla Kocak-Toker; Murat Giris; Feti Tülübas; Müjdat Uysal; Gülcin Aykac-Toker


    AIM: Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a powerful oxidant shown to damage membranes. In the present study, the effect of taurine on changes of liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase induced by ONOO- was investigated. METHODS: Liver plasma membrane was exposed toONOO-with or without taurine. Na+, K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured.RESULTS: Different concentrations of ONOO- (100, 200,500, and 1 000 μmol/L) were found to decrease liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly. The depletion of enzyme activity was not concentration dependent. Effects of different concentrations of taurine on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity were also measured. Taurine did not cause any increase in enzyme activity. When plasma membranes were treated with 200 μmol/L ONOO- with different concentrations of taurine, a restoring effect of taurine on enzyme activity was observed. TBARS levels were also measured and taurine was found to decrease the elevated values. CONCLUSION: Taurine is observed to act as an antioxidant of ONOO-to decrease lipid peroxidation and thus affect liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase by restoring its activity.

  18. The ultrastructure and ATPase nature of polar membrane in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Brock, F M; Murray, R G


    Polar membrane in Campylobacter jejuni has been visualized on membrane vesicles. It was composed of doughnut-shaped particles 5-6 nm in diameter, with stalks, arranged in a hexagonal array. This structure was stabilized on the membrane by a high ionic strength buffer in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Histochemical staining indicated localized ATPase activity at the poles of the cells. An ATPase with distinctive properties has been isolated and purified from this organism; it gives a specific activity of approximately 0.3 units/mg of protein. Electron microscopy showed doughnut-shaped particles 5-6 nm in diameter. Nondissociating and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme revealed, respectively, a single band with ATPase activity and a molecular weight of ca. 75,000 Da. The enzyme was cold labile and activity was abolished by trypsin. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibited the membrane-bound form of the enzyme, but did not inhibit the soluble form. Oligomycin had no inhibitory activity on either form of the enzyme. The enzyme specifically hydrolysed ATP, but other nucleotide substrates were not degraded. The enzyme was activated by Mg2+ and inhibited by Ca2+, whereas other ions had no effect on activity. Antibodies prepared to this enzyme bound to the polar regions of whole cells as shown by protein A - colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy. The antibodies to this ATPase cross reacted (shown by Western blotting) with four proteins from a whole-cell extract of this organism, two proteins in Aquaspirillum serpens MW5, and three proteins from Escherichia coli K12. They did not cross-react with any proteins from Spirillum volutans, Methanococcus voltae, Vibrio cholerae, or rat liver mitochondria. Antibodies raised against the F1-ATPase of E. coli K12 cross reacted with six proteins in a whole-cell extract of this organism, and one protein species in each of the whole-cell extracts of V. cholera, A. serpens MW5, S. volutans

  19. Analysis of the Inhibitory Effect of Gypenoside on Na+,K+-ATPase in Rats' Heart and Brain and Its Kinetics

    HAN Xiao-yan; WEI Hong-bo; ZHANG Fu-cheng


    ObjectiYe: To study the effects of gypenoside (Gyp) on the activity of microsomal Na+,K+-ATPase in rat's heart and brain in vitro. Methods: The microsomal Na+, K+-ATPase was prepared from rat's heart and brain by differential centrifugation. The activity of microsomal Na+, K+-ATPase was assayed by colorimetric technique. Enzyme kinetic analysis method was used to analyze the effect of Gyp on the microsomal Na+, K+-ATPase of rats. Results: Gyp reversibly inhibited the brain and heart's microsomal Na+, K+-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, and showed a more potent effect on enzyme in the brain. The IC50 of Gyp for the heart and brain were 58.79± 8.05 mg/L and 52.07 ±6.25 mg/L, respectively. The inhibition was enhanced by lowering the Na+, or K+ concentrations or increasing the ATP concentration. Enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the inhibitory effect of Gyp on the enzyme is like that of competitive antagonist of Na+, the counter-competitive inhibitor for the substrate ATP, and the mixed-type inhibitor for K+. Conclusion: Gyp displays its cardiotonic and central inhibitory effects by way of inhibiting heart and brain's microsomal Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rats.

  20. Functional Analysis of P4-ATPases

    Theorin, Lisa

    studies have identified P4-ATPases as phospholipid transporters that interact and cooperate with cytosolic coat proteins to drive vesicle formation at the trans-Golgi network, endosome compartment and plasma membrane. Our hypothesis is that by flipping a lipid the P4-ATPases either provide essential......Across membranes of the late secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells an asymmetric lipid distribution is maintained, with the lipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine restricted to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the membrane. In recent years a subgroup of P-type ATPases, P4-ATPases, has...... and mammalian P4-ATPases have been studied extensively and the physiological function is mostly known, while the exact biochemistry and specific activity is mostly unknown. Even though the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 12 P4-ATPases, not much is known about their function. In this study, the biochemical...

  1. Genetic variants of methyl metabolizing enzymes and epigenetic regulators: Associations with promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer

    Vogel, S. de; Wouters, K.A.D.; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.; Engeland, M. van


    Aberrant DNA methylation affects carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Folate metabolizing enzymes may influence the bioavailability of methyl groups, whereas DNA and histone methyltransferases are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We studied associations of genetic variants of fo

  2. Solubilization and purification of the ATPase from the tonoplast of Hevea.

    Marin, B; Preisser, J; Komor, E


    The tonoplast-bound ATPase of Hevea brasiliensis (caoutchouc tree) was solubilized with dichloromethan and purified 100-fold with two ammonium sulfate precipitation steps and a G-200 gel filtration step. The resulting ATPase activity eluted according to a molecular mass of approximately 200 kDa and chromatographed at an isoelectric pH of 5.3. Subunits of molecular mass 110 kDa, 68 kDa, 24 kDa and 12 kDa appeared after treatment with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or spontaneously during storage of the solubilized ATPase. Dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yielded four polypeptides of molecular mass 54 kDa, 66 kDa, 23 kDa and 13 kDa. From protein determination by ultraviolet absorption and Coomassie stain it appears that the 54-kDa and the 66-kDa polypeptides exist in multiple copies. No close resemblance to the membrane-bound ATPase of mitochondria, plastids, plasmalemma, chromaffin granules and synaptic vesicles is seen. No antibody cross-reaction to F1 of bacteria is observed. Therefore it is concluded that the vacuolar ATPase represents a novel type of ATPase. Many properties of the tonoplast-bound ATPase such as pH-dependence, substrate specificity, ion-dependence and inhibitor sensitivity did not change when the enzyme had been solubilized and purified. The phosphatase activity was lost during the purification procedure. The stimulation of ATP-hydrolysis in tonoplast vesicles by uncouplers and ionophores was absent in the solubilized ATPase, and also the stimulation by chloride was significantly reduced. Anion channel blockers, such as triphenyltin and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene, which are strong inhibitors of membrane-bound ATPase, fully or partly lost their inhibiting effect after solubilization of the ATPase. These results are interpreted to indicate that ionophores do not directly affect the ATPase molecule, whereas chloride might have a small direct effect on the ATPase besides its effect as a permeating anion.

  3. [Inhibitory action of peruvoside and neriifolin on Na+, K(+)-ATPase].

    Ye, Y X; Yang, X R


    Effects of peruvoside and neriifolin, main components of neriperside, a tevetoside extracted from Thevitia neriifolia Juss, on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities and on [3H] ouabain binding to the Na+, K(+)-ATPase isolated from hearts of guinea pigs, dogs and cats and kidneys of guinea pigs and cats were compared with digoxin and ouabain. It was found that peruvoside and neriifolin inhibited Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities and they showed a strong competitive inhibition on [3H] ouabain binding to the enzymes isolated from various tissues. A marked species difference existed as great as that of digitalis. The mechanism of action of these 2 drugs may be similar to that of digitalis. Their inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity were stronger than their positive inotropic effects, while both actions of digitalis were parallel quantitatively. There may be some differences in the modulation of the intracellular Ca2+ between neripersides and digitalis.

  4. Quaternary structure of V1 and F1 ATPase: significance of structural homologies and diversities.

    Svergun, D I; Konrad, S; Huss, M; Koch, M H; Wieczorek, H; Altendorf, K; Volkov, V V; Grüber, G


    The V1 ATPase from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The radii of gyration (Rg) of the complexes were 6.2 +/- 0.1 and 4.7 +/- 0.02 nm, respectively. The shape of the M. sexta V1 ATPase was determined ab initio from the scattering data showing six masses, presumed to be the A and B subunits, arranged in an alternating manner about a 3-fold axis. A seventh mass with a length of about 11.0 nm extends perpendicularly to the center of the hexameric unit. This central mass is presumed to be the stalk that connects V1 with the membrane domain (V(O)) in the intact V1V(O)-ATPase. In comparison, the shape of the F1 ATPase from E. coli possesses a quasi-3-fold symmetry over the major part of the enzyme. The overall asymmetry of the structure is given by a stem, assumed to include the central stalk subunits. The features of the V1 and F1 ATPase reveal structural homologies and diversities of the key components of the complexes.

  5. Vacuolar ATPase subunit H is essential for the survival and moulting of Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Li, C; Xia, Y


    Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPase (V-ATPase) functions as an electrogenic pump, transporting protons from the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid to generate cell-negative membrane voltage. The V-ATPase subunit H, encoded by Vhasfd, is required for V-ATPase activity. In this study, the gene encoding V-ATPase subunit H from Locusta migratoria manilensis was cloned, and designated as Lm-Vhasfd. The complete cDNA sequence is 2018 bp, with an open reading frame encoding 515 amino acid residues. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) showed that Lm-Vhasfd transcription is high in the haemolymph, midgut, trunk and leg, but relatively low in the fat body and head tissues. Injection with a specific double-strand RNA (dsRNA) led to a significant decrease in Lm-Vhasfd mRNA, V-ATPase enzyme activity and ATP concentration. Bioassays showed that silencing Lm-Vhasfd led to the death of individuals and various moulting defects. The accumulative mortality of the RNA interference (RNAi) mutant 11 days post-injection was 96.7%, which was conspicuously higher than that seen in wild type locusts. These RNAi phenotypes demonstrate that Lm-Vhasfd is essential for the growth and moulting of L. migratoria manilensis.

  6. Rotary ATPases: models, machine elements and technical specifications.

    Stewart, Alastair G; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P; Stock, Daniela


    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual "machine elements" to the requirement of the right "fuel" and "oil" for different types of motors.

  7. Physiological implications of the regulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase by chloride ions

    L.R. Carraro-Lacroix


    Full Text Available Vacuolar H+-ATPase is a large multi-subunit protein that mediates ATP-driven vectorial H+ transport across the membranes. It is widely distributed and present in virtually all eukaryotic cells in intracellular membranes or in the plasma membrane of specialized cells. In subcellular organelles, ATPase is responsible for the acidification of the vesicular interior, which requires an intraorganellar acidic pH to maintain optimal enzyme activity. Control of vacuolar H+-ATPase depends on the potential difference across the membrane in which the proton ATPase is inserted. Since the transport performed by H+-ATPase is electrogenic, translocation of H+-ions across the membranes by the pump creates a lumen-positive voltage in the absence of a neutralizing current, generating an electrochemical potential gradient that limits the activity of H+-ATPase. In many intracellular organelles and cell plasma membranes, this potential difference established by the ATPase gradient is normally dissipated by a parallel and passive Cl- movement, which provides an electric shunt compensating for the positive charge transferred by the pump. The underlying mechanisms for the differences in the requirement for chloride by different tissues have not yet been adequately identified, and there is still some controversy as to the molecular identity of the associated Cl--conducting proteins. Several candidates have been identified: the ClC family members, which may or may not mediate nCl-/H+ exchange, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. In this review, we discuss some tissues where the association between H+-ATPase and chloride channels has been demonstrated and plays a relevant physiologic role.

  8. The V-ATPase a2-subunit as a putative endosomal pH-sensor.

    Marshansky, V


    V-ATPase (vesicular H(+)-ATPase)-driven intravesicular acidification is crucial for vesicular trafficking. Defects in vesicular acidification and trafficking have recently been recognized as essential determinants of various human diseases. An important role of endosomal acidification in receptor-ligand dissociation and in activation of lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms by which luminal pH information is transmitted to the cytosolic small GTPases that control trafficking events such as budding, coat formation and fusion are unknown. Here, we discuss our recent discovery that endosomal V-ATPase is a pH-sensor regulating the degradative pathway. According to our model, V-ATPase is responsible for: (i) the generation of a pH gradient between vesicular membranes; (ii) sensing of intravesicular pH; and (iii) transmitting this information to the cytosolic side of the membrane. We also propose the hypothetical molecular mechanism involved in function of the V-ATPase a2-subunit as a putative pH-sensor. Based on extensive experimental evidence on the crucial role of histidine residues in the function of PSPs (pH-sensing proteins) in eukaryotic cells, we hypothesize that pH-sensitive histidine residues within the intra-endosomal loops and/or C-terminal luminal tail of the a2-subunit could also be involved in the pH-sensing function of V-ATPase. However, in order to identify putative pH-sensitive histidine residues and to test this hypothesis, it is absolutely essential that we increase our understanding of the folding and transmembrane topology of the a-subunit isoforms of V-ATPase. Thus the crucial role of intra-endosomal histidine residues in pH-dependent conformational changes of the V-ATPase a2-isoform, its interaction with cytosolic small GTPases and ultimately in its acidification-dependent regulation of the endosomal/lysosomal protein degradative pathway remain to be determined.

  9. The ntp operon encoding the Na+V-ATPase of the thermophile Caloramator fervidus

    Ubbink-Kok, Trees; Nijland, Jeroen; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Lolkema, Juke S.


    The V-type ATPase of the thermophile Caloramator fervidus is an ATP-driven Na+ pump. The nucleotide sequence of the ntpFIKECGABD operon containing the structural genes coding for the nine subunits of the enzyme complex was determined. The identity of the proteins in two pairs of subunits (D, E and F

  10. In Silico Docking of Small-Molecule Inhibitors to the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System EscN ATPase


    Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Broad-spectrum antibiotic Drug discovery Enzyme inhibitors Enzyme structure Injectosome Molecular modeling Protein...5 3.2 Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Potential ........................................................................... 6 3.3 Structures of...Eagle’s medium (DMEM; Life Technologies; Grand Island, NY) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Life Technologies) that was supplemented with various

  11. Structure and dynamics of an essential transmembrane segment of the proton translocation channel of V-ATPase

    Duarte, A.M.


    In the last decades osteoporosis has become a major subject on the field of drug discovery and design. One of the enzymes recently considered important to use as a target for theses drugs is the enzyme H+-VO-ATPase. This proton pump is located in the osteoclast cells, which are

  12. Inhibition of the ATPase activity of the catalytic portion of ATP synthases by cationic amphiphiles.

    Datiles, Manuel J; Johnson, Eric A; McCarty, Richard E


    Melittin, a cationic, amphiphilic polypeptide, has been reported to inhibit the ATPase activity of the catalytic portions of the mitochondrial (MF1) and chloroplast (CF1) ATP synthases. Gledhill and Walker [J.R. Gledhill, J.E. Walker. Inhibition sites in F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria, Biochem. J. 386 (2005) 591-598.] suggested that melittin bound to the same site on MF1 as IF1, the endogenous inhibitor polypeptide. We have studied the inhibition of the ATPase activity of CF1 and of F1 from Escherichia coli (ECF1) by melittin and the cationic detergent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities of CF1 deficient in its inhibitory epsilon subunit (CF1-epsilon) are sensitive to inhibition by melittin and by CTAB. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity by CTAB is irreversible. The Ca2+-ATPase activity of F1 from E. coli (ECF1) is inhibited by melittin and the detergent, but Mg2+-ATPase activity is much less sensitive to both reagents. The addition of CTAB or melittin to a solution of CF1-epsilon or ECF1 caused a large increase in the fluorescence of the hydrophobic probe, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, indicating that the detergent and melittin cause at least partial dissociation of the enzymes. ATP partially protects CF1-epsilon from inhibition by CTAB. We also show that ATP can cause the aggregation of melittin. This result complicates the interpretation of experiments in which ATP is shown to protect enzyme activity from inhibition by melittin. It is concluded that melittin and CTAB cause at least partial dissociation of the alpha/beta heterohexamer.

  13. Inhibition of ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

    Schachter, Julieta; Delgado, Kelly Valcárcel; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto


    Nucleotides and nucleosides are secreted into extracellular media at different concentrations as a consequence of different physiologic and pathological conditions. Ecto-nucleotidases, enzymes present on the surface of most cells, hydrolyze these extracellular nucleotides and reduce the concentration of them, thus affecting the activation of different nucleotide and nucleoside receptors. Also, ecto-nucleotidases are present in a number of microorganisms and play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we characterized the ecto-ATPase activities present on the surface of HIV-1 particle and human macrophages as well. We found that the kinetic properties of HIV-1 and macrophage ecto-ATPases are similar, suggesting that the enzyme is the same. This ecto-ATPase activity was increased in macrophages infected in vitro with HIV-1. Using three different non-related ecto-ATPase inhibitors-POM-1, ARL67156 and BG0-we showed that the inhibition of these macrophage and viral ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection. In addition, we also found that elevated extracellular concentrations of ATP inhibit HIV-1 production by infected macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A Systematic Study on Structure and Function of ATPase of Wuchereria bancrofti

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Patwary, Noman Ibna Amin; Muzahid, Nazmul Hasan; Shahik, Shah Md.; Sohel, Md.; Hasan, Md. Anayet


    Background: Analyzing the structures and functions of different proteins of Wuchereria bancrofti is very important because till date no effective drug or vaccine has been discovered to treat lymphatic filariasis (LF). ATPase is one of the most important proteins of Wuchereria bancrofti. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) converts into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion by the action of these ATPase enzymes. Energy releases from these dephosphorylation reactions drive the other chemical reactions in the cell. Materials and Methods: In this study we worked on the protein ATPase of Wuchereria bancrofti which has been annotated from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Various computational tools and databases have been used to determine the various characteristics of that enzyme such as physiochemical properties, secondary structure, three-dimensional (3D) structure, conserved domain, epitope, and their molecular evolutionary relationship. Result: Subcellular localization of ATPase was identified and we have found that 55.5% are localized in the cytoplasm. Secondary and 3D structure of this protein was also predicted. Both structure and function analysis of ATPase of Wuchereria bancrofti showed unique nonhomologous epitope sites and nonhomologous antigenicity sites. Moreover, it resulted in 15 ligand drug-binding sites in its tertiary structure. Conclusion: Structure prediction of these proteins and detection of binding sites and antigenicity sites from this study would indicate a potential target aiding docking studies for therapeutic designing against filariasis. PMID:25948965

  15. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice.

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori


    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H(+)-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H(+)-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H(+)-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H(+)-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H(+)-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H(+)-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species.

  16. ATPase Activity Measurements Using Radiolabeled ATP

    Swarts, H.G.; Koenderink, J.B.


    ATP provides the energy that is essential for all P-type ATPases to actively transport their substrates against an existing gradient. This ATP hydrolysis can be measured using different methods. Here, we describe a method that uses radiolabeled [gamma-(32)P]ATP, which is hydrolyzed by P-type ATPases

  17. In vivo synthesis of ATPase complexes of Propionigenium modestum and Escherichia coli and analysis of their function.

    Gerike, U; Kaim, G; Dimroth, P


    Expression studies of Propionigenium modestum ATPase genes in various combinations with Escherichia coli ATPase genes were performed in the unc deletion mutant strain E. coli DK8. Plasmids containing the whole unc operon from P. modestum were unable to complement the E. coli unc deletion mutant. Although all ATPase subunits were expressed from the plasmids, there was no detectable ATP hydrolysing activity, indicating that the F1 part was not functional. Transformants expressing an E. coli F1-P. modestum F0 hybrid exhibited considerable ATPase activities. Binding of the F1 part to the membrane was very weak, however, and the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and Na+ transport was impaired. After combining the genes for E. coli ATPase subunits alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon and the hydrophilic part of subunit b with P. modestum ATPase subunits a and c and the hydrophobic part of subunit b on a plasmid, a non-functional hybrid ATPase was expressed in E. coli. The ATPase was only loosely bound to the membrane, from which it was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purified. Subunit b and a proteolytic degradation product were the only F0 subunits detectable in the purified enzyme. A stable F0 complex is thus not formed with the hybrid b subunit. The absence of a functional F0 complex was in accord with proton-conduction measurements with bacterial vesicles. The only functional Na(+)-translocating ATPase expressed in E. coli thus far consists of E. coli subunits alpha, beta, gamma and epsilon, and P. modestum subunits delta, a, b and c [Kaim, G. & Dimroth, P. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 218, 937-944]. During the cloning conducted in our present study, errors in the sequence entry into the EMBL data bank (accession no. X58461) for the P. modestum ATPase alpha and beta subunits became evident, which are corrected in this paper.

  18. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis has two plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases related to fungi and plants.

    Robles-Martínez, Leobarda; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Miranda, Manuel; Mendez, Tavis L; Matus-Ortega, Macario Genaro; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Guerra-Sánchez, Guadalupe


    The fungal and plant plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases play critical roles in the physiology of yeast, plant and protozoa cells. We identified two genes encoding two plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, one protein with higher identity to fungal (um02581) and the other to plant (um01205) H⁺-ATPases. Proton pumping activity was 5-fold higher when cells were grown in minimal medium with ethanol compared to cells cultured in rich YPD medium, but total vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was the same in both conditions. In contrast, the activity in cells cultured in minimal medium with glucose was 2-fold higher than in YPD or ethanol, implicating mechanisms for the regulation of the plasma membrane ATPase activity in U. maydis. Analysis of gene expression of the H⁺-ATPases from cells grown under different conditions, showed that the transcript expression of um01205 (plant-type) was higher than that of um02581 (fungal-type). The translation of the two proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Unlike baker's yeast and plant H⁺-ATPases, where the activity is increased by a short incubation with glucose or sucrose, respectively, U. maydis H⁺-ATPase activity did not change in response to these sugars. Sequence analysis of the two U. maydis H⁺-ATPases revealed the lack of canonical threonine and serine residues which are targets of protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases, suggesting that phosphorylation of the U. maydis enzymes occurs at different amino acid residues.

  19. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy; (IIT); (Penn)


    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  20. Effects of lithium therapy on Na+-K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation in bipolar disorder.

    Banerjee, Ushasi; Dasgupta, Anindya; Rout, Jayanta Kumar; Singh, Om Prakash


    Oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation along with a reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders (BPD). Although, lithium therapy results in significant improvement in the symptoms of the disease, studies regarding its effect on the altered sodium pump activity and lipid peroxidation status have come out with conflicting results. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the status of lipid peroxidation and analyze the role of lithium and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in its regulation in BPD patients in our region. We measured RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) level in 73 BPD patients and serum lithium, in addition, in 48 patients receiving lithium therapy among them. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum TBARS level were significantly decreased and increased respectively in all BPD patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Same trend was observed in the BPD patients stabilized on lithium therapy compared to the lithium naive ones. Although, the enzyme activity showed a reciprocal relationship with TBARS in all patients of BPD, a significant positive correlation and dependence of the enzyme activity was evident with serum lithium level only in the lithium stabilized BPD group. BPD patients showed significantly compromised Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Lithium induced improvement in the enzyme activity was associated with significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. Enhancement of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by optimum dosage of lithium may be a potential contributing factor for reducing oxidative stress in BPD patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacteriophage lambda terminase: alterations of the high-affinity ATPase affect viral DNA packaging.

    Dhar, Alok; Feiss, Michael


    DNA packaging by large DNA viruses such as the tailed bacteriophages and the herpesviruses involves DNA translocation into a preformed protein shell, called the prohead. Translocation is driven by an ATP hydrolysis-powered DNA packaging motor. The bacteriophages encode a heterodimeric viral DNA packaging protein, called terminase. The terminases have an ATPase center located in the N terminus of the large subunit implicated in DNA translocation. In previous work with phage lambda, lethal mutations that changed ATP-reactive residues 46 and 84 of gpA, the large terminase subunit, were studied. These mutant enzymes retained the terminase endonuclease and helicase activities, but had severe defects in virion assembly, and lacked the terminase high-affinity ATPase activity. Surprisingly, in the work described here, we found that enzymes with the conservative gpA changes Y46F and Y46A had only mild packaging defects. These mild defects contrast with their profound virion assembly defects. Thus, these mutant enzymes have, in addition to the mild DNA packaging defects, a severe post-DNA packaging defect. In contrast, the gpA K84A enzyme had similar virion assembly and DNA packaging defects. The DNA packaging energy budget, i.e. DNA packaged/ATP hydrolyzed, was unchanged for the mutant enzymes, indicating that DNA translocation is tightly coupled to ATP hydrolysis. A model is proposed in which gpA residues 46 and 84 are important for terminase's high-affinity ATPase activity. Assembly of the translocation complex remodels this ATPase so that residues 46 and 84 are not crucial for the activated translocation ATPase. Changing gpA residues 46 and 84 primarily affects assembly, rather than the activity, of the translocation complex.

  2. Vacuolar H+-ATPase in the nuclear membranes regulates nucleo-cytosolic proton gradients.

    Santos, Julianna Maria; Martínez-Zaguilán, Raul; Facanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Hussain, Fazle; Sennoune, Souad R


    The regulation of the luminal pH of each organelle is crucial for its function and must be controlled tightly. Nevertheless, it has been assumed that the nuclear pH is regulated by the cytoplasmic proton transporters via the diffusion of H(+) across the nuclear pores because of their large diameter. However, it has been demonstrated that ion gradients exist between cytosol and nucleus, suggesting that the permeability of ions across the nuclear pores is restricted. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of trans-membrane electrochemical gradient. We hypothesize that V-H(+)-ATPase located in the nuclear membranes functions as the primary mechanism to regulate nuclear pH and generate H(+) gradients across the nuclear envelope. We studied the subcellular heterogeneity of H(+) concentration in the nucleus and cytosol using ratio imaging microscopy and SNARF-1, a pH indicator, in prostate cells. Our results indicate that there are proton gradients across the nuclear membranes that are generated by V-H(+)-ATPase located in the outer and inner nuclear membranes. We demonstrated that these gradients are mostly dissipated by inhibiting V-H(+)-ATPase. Immunoblots and V-H(+)-ATPase activity corroborated the existence of V-H(+)-ATPase in the nuclear membranes. This study demonstrates that V-H(+)-ATPase is functionally expressed in nuclear membranes and is responsible for nuclear H(+) gradients that may promote not only the coupled transport of substrates, but also most electrochemically driven events across the nuclear membranes. This study represents a paradigm shift that the nucleus can regulate its own pH microenvironment, providing new insights into nuclear ion homeostasis and signaling.

  3. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by nuclear respiratory factor 1: implication in the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption.

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T


    NRF-1 regulates mediators of neuronal activity and energy generation. NRF-1 transcriptionally regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits α1 and β1. NRF-1 functionally regulates mediators of energy consumption in neurons. NRF-1 mediates the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption at the molecular level. Energy generation and energy consumption are tightly coupled to neuronal activity at the cellular level. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a major energy-consuming enzyme, is well expressed in neurons rich in cytochrome c oxidase, an important enzyme of the energy-generating machinery, and glutamatergic receptors that are mediators of neuronal activity. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the molecular level, whereby Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits are regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), found recently by our laboratory to regulate all cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and some NMDA and AMPA receptor subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 genes but not of the Atp1a3 gene in neurons. The transcripts of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 subunit genes were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by tetrodotoxin. Atp1b1 is positively regulated by NRF-1, and silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Atp1b1 induced by KCl, whereas overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts from being suppressed by tetrodotoxin. On the other hand, Atp1a1 is negatively regulated by NRF-1. The binding sites of NRF-1 on Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 are conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 regulates key Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits and plays an important role in mediating the tight coupling between

  4. Novel regulation of cell [Na(+)] in macula densa cells: apical Na(+) recycling by H-K-ATPase.

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Bell, P Darwin


    Na-K-ATPase is the nearly ubiquitous enzyme that maintains low-Na(+), high-K(+) concentrations in cells by actively extruding Na(+) in exchange for K(+). The prevailing paradigm in polarized absorbing epithelial cells, including renal nephron segments and intestine, has been that Na-K-ATPase is restricted to the basolateral membrane domain, where it plays a prominent role in Na(+) absorption. We have found, however, that macula densa (MD) cells lack functionally and immunologically detectable amounts of Na-K-ATPase protein. In fact, these cells appear to regulate their cytosolic [Na(+)] via another member of the P-type ATPase family, the colonic form of H-K-ATPase, which is located at the apical membrane in these cells. We now report that this constitutively expressed apical MD colonic H-K-ATPase can function as a Na(H)-K-ATPase and regulate cytosolic [Na(+)] in a novel manner. This apical Na(+)-recycling mechanism may be important as part of the sensor function of MD cells and represents a new paradigm in cell [Na(+)] regulation.

  5. Cellular multitasking: the dual role of human Cu-ATPases in cofactor delivery and intracellular copper balance.

    Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gupta, Arnab; Burkhead, Jason L; Zuzel, Vesna


    The human copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases) are essential for dietary copper uptake, normal development and function of the CNS, and regulation of copper homeostasis in the body. In a cell, Cu-ATPases maintain the intracellular concentration of copper by transporting copper into intracellular exocytic vesicles. In addition, these P-type ATPases mediate delivery of copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway and in specialized cell compartments such as secretory granules or melanosomes. The multiple functions of human Cu-ATPase necessitate complex regulation of these transporters that is mediated through the presence of regulatory domains in their structure, posttranslational modification and intracellular trafficking, as well as interactions with the copper chaperone Atox1 and other regulatory molecules. In this review, we summarize the current information on the function and regulatory mechanisms acting on human Cu-ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B. Brief comparison with the Cu-ATPase orthologs from other species is included.

  6. Structural studies of Ca2+-ATPase ligand and regulatory complexes

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring


    The Ca2+-ATPase (sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA is a part of the vital P-type ATPase family, which was first discovered in 1957 by Professor Jens Christian Skou. He was the first to describe the Na+,K+-ATPase and its role in generating the membrane potential across the axonal...

  7. Inactivation of brain Na+,K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit isoforms by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Kaplya, A; Kravtsova, V V; Kravtsov, A V


    Persistence of the brain and kidney Na+,K(+)-ATPase isozymes to SDS inactivation under different time and temperature conditions of microsome extraction with the detergent was compared. In contrast to enzyme preparations from medulla oblongata the higher sensitivity of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-isoform (in comparison to alpha +) to SDS inactivation accompanied by its, at least, partial removal from the membrane was found in the preparations from cerebral cortex. This difference in the sensitivity to SDS was eliminated after extraction of microsomes with the detergent at 37 degrees C. The interpretation of the results is based on the assumed differences in the structural organization of the boundary lipids of the neuronal Na+,K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit isoforms.

  8. H,K-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase response to chronic systemic rat gastric hypoxia

    Ulfah Lutfiah


    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia may induce gastric ulcer associated with excessive hidrogen chloride (HCl secretion. Synthesis of HCl involves 2 enzymes, H,K-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA. This study aimed to clarify the underlying cause of gastric ulcer in chronic hypoxic condition, by investigating the H,K-ATPase and CA9 response in rats.Methods: This study was an in vivo experiment, to know the relationship between hypoxia to expression of H,K-ATPase and CA9 mRNA, and H,K-ATPase and total CA specific activity of chronic systemic rat gastric hypoxia. The result was compared to control. Data was analyzed by SPSS. If the data distribution was normal and homogeneous, ANOVA and LSD post-hoc test were used. However, if the distribution was not normal and not homogeneous, and still as such after transformation, data was treated in non-parametric using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Twenty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: rats undergoing hypoxia for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days placed in hypoxia chamber (10% O2, 90% N2, and one control group. Following this treatment, stomach of the rats was extracted and homogenized. Expression of H,K-ATPase and CA9 mRNA was measured using real time RT-PCR. Specific activity of H,K-ATPase was measured using phosphate standard solution, and specific activity of total CA was measured using p-nitrophenol solution.Results: The expression of H,K-ATPase mRNA was higher in the first day (2.159, and drastically lowered from the third to seventh day (0.289; 0.108; 0.062. Specific activities of H,K-ATPase was slightly higher in the first day (0.765, then was lowered in the third (0.685 and fifth day (0.655, and was higher in the seventh day (0.884. The expression of CA9 mRNA was lowered progressively from the first to seventh day (0.84; 0.766; 0.736; 0.343. Specific activities of total CA was low in the first day (0.083, and was higher from the third to seventh day (0.111; 0.136; 0.144.Conclusion: In hypoxia

  9. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S


    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  10. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña


    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  11. Distinct α2 Na,K-ATPase membrane pools are differently involved in early skeletal muscle remodeling during disuse.

    Kravtsova, Violetta V; Petrov, Alexey M; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Bouzinova, Elena V; Vasiliev, Alexander N; Benziane, Boubacar; Zefirov, Andrey L; Chibalin, Alexander V; Heiny, Judith A; Krivoi, Igor I


    The Na,K-ATPase is essential for the contractile function of skeletal muscle, which expresses the α1 and α2 subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase. The α2 isozyme is predominant in adult skeletal muscles and makes a greater contribution in working compared with noncontracting muscles. Hindlimb suspension (HS) is a widely used model of muscle disuse that leads to progressive atrophy of postural skeletal muscles. This study examines the consequences of acute (6-12 h) HS on the functioning of the Na,K-ATPase α1 and α2 isozymes in rat soleus (disused) and diaphragm (contracting) muscles. Acute disuse dynamically and isoform-specifically regulates the electrogenic activity, protein, and mRNA content of Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme in rat soleus muscle. Earlier disuse-induced remodeling events also include phospholemman phosphorylation as well as its increased abundance and association with α2 Na,K-ATPase. The loss of α2 Na,K-ATPase activity results in reduced electrogenic pump transport and depolarized resting membrane potential. The decreased α2 Na,K-ATPase activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme activity rather than by altered protein and mRNA content, localization in the sarcolemma, or functional interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The loss of extrajunctional α2 Na,K-ATPase activity depends strongly on muscle use, and even the increased protein and mRNA content as well as enhanced α2 Na,K-ATPase abundance at this membrane region after 12 h of HS cannot counteract this sustained inhibition. In contrast, additional factors may regulate the subset of junctional α2 Na,K-ATPase pool that is able to recover during HS. Notably, acute, low-intensity muscle workload restores functioning of both α2 Na,K-ATPase pools. These results demonstrate that the α2 Na,K-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle is dynamically and acutely regulated by muscle use and provide the first evidence that the junctional and extrajunctional pools of the α2 Na,K-ATPase are regulated

  12. Distinct α2 Na,K-ATPase membrane pools are differently involved in early skeletal muscle remodeling during disuse

    Kravtsova, Violetta V.; Petrov, Alexey M.; Matchkov, Vladimir V.; Bouzinova, Elena V.; Vasiliev, Alexander N.; Benziane, Boubacar; Zefirov, Andrey L.; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Heiny, Judith A.


    The Na,K-ATPase is essential for the contractile function of skeletal muscle, which expresses the α1 and α2 subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase. The α2 isozyme is predominant in adult skeletal muscles and makes a greater contribution in working compared with noncontracting muscles. Hindlimb suspension (HS) is a widely used model of muscle disuse that leads to progressive atrophy of postural skeletal muscles. This study examines the consequences of acute (6–12 h) HS on the functioning of the Na,K-ATPase α1 and α2 isozymes in rat soleus (disused) and diaphragm (contracting) muscles. Acute disuse dynamically and isoform-specifically regulates the electrogenic activity, protein, and mRNA content of Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme in rat soleus muscle. Earlier disuse-induced remodeling events also include phospholemman phosphorylation as well as its increased abundance and association with α2 Na,K-ATPase. The loss of α2 Na,K-ATPase activity results in reduced electrogenic pump transport and depolarized resting membrane potential. The decreased α2 Na,K-ATPase activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme activity rather than by altered protein and mRNA content, localization in the sarcolemma, or functional interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The loss of extrajunctional α2 Na,K-ATPase activity depends strongly on muscle use, and even the increased protein and mRNA content as well as enhanced α2 Na,K-ATPase abundance at this membrane region after 12 h of HS cannot counteract this sustained inhibition. In contrast, additional factors may regulate the subset of junctional α2 Na,K-ATPase pool that is able to recover during HS. Notably, acute, low-intensity muscle workload restores functioning of both α2 Na,K-ATPase pools. These results demonstrate that the α2 Na,K-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle is dynamically and acutely regulated by muscle use and provide the first evidence that the junctional and extrajunctional pools of the α2 Na,K-ATPase are regulated

  13. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing osmolyte glycine betaine synthesizing enzymes from halophilic methanogen promote tolerance to drought and salt stress.

    Lai, Shu-Jung; Lai, Mei-Chin; Lee, Ren-Jye; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie


    Glycine betaine (betaine) has the highest cellular osmoprotective efficiency which does not accumulate in most glycophytes. The biosynthetic pathway for betaine in higher plants is derived from the oxidation of low-accumulating metabolite choline that limiting the ability of most plants to produce betaine. Halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1(T) is a model anaerobic methanogen to study the acclimation of water-deficit stresses which de novo synthesize betaine by the stepwise methylation of glycine, catalyzed by glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase (GSMT) and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase. In this report, genes encoding these betaine biosynthesizing enzymes, Mpgsmt and Mpsdmt, were introduced into Arabidopsis. The homozygous Mpgsmt (G), Mpsdmt (S), and their cross, Mpgsmt and Mpsdmt (G × S) plants showed increased accumulation of betaine. Water loss from detached leaves was slower in G, S, and G × S lines than wild-type (WT). Pot-grown transgenic plants showed better growth than WT after 9 days of withholding water or irrigating with 300 mM NaCl. G, S, G × S lines also maintained higher relative water content and photosystem II activity than WT under salt stress. This suggests heterologously expressed Mpgsmt and Mpsdmt could enhance tolerance to drought and salt stress in Arabidopsis. We also found a twofold increase in quaternary ammonium compounds in salt-stressed leaves of G lines, presumably due to the activation of GSMT activity by high salinity. This study demonstrates that introducing stress-activated enzymes is a way of avoiding the divergence of primary metabolites under normal growing conditions, while also providing protection in stressful environments.

  14. Functional diversity of five homologous Cu+-ATPases present in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Patel, Sarju J; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Collins, Jessica M; Argüello, José M


    Copper is an important element in host-microbe interactions, acting both as a catalyst in enzymes and as a potential toxin. Cu(+)-ATPases drive cytoplasmic Cu(+) efflux and protect bacteria against metal overload. Many pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria contain multiple Cu(+)-ATPase genes within particular genetic environments, suggesting alternative roles for each resulting protein. This hypothesis was tested by characterizing five homologous Cu(+)-ATPases present in the symbiotic organism Sinorhizobium meliloti. Mutation of each gene led to different phenotypes and abnormal nodule development in the alfalfa host. Distinct responses were detected in free-living S. meliloti mutant strains exposed to metal and redox stresses. Differential gene expression was detected under Cu(+), oxygen or nitrosative stress. These observations suggest that CopA1a maintains the cytoplasmic Cu(+) quota and its expression is controlled by Cu(+) levels. CopA1b is also regulated by Cu(+) concentrations and is required during symbiosis for bacteroid maturation. CopA2-like proteins, FixI1 and FixI2, are necessary for the assembly of two different cytochrome c oxidases at different stages of bacterial life. CopA3 is a phylogenetically distinct Cu(+)-ATPase that does not contribute to Cu(+) tolerance. It is regulated by redox stress and required during symbiosis. We postulated a model where non-redundant homologous Cu(+)-ATPases, operating under distinct regulation, transport Cu(+) to different target proteins.

  15. Tributyltin (TBT) inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase activity in mussel mitochondria.

    Pagliarani, Alessandra; Bandiera, Patrizia; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Nesci, Salvatore; Borgatti, Anna Rosa


    Tributyltin (TBT), one of the most toxic lipophilic aquatic pollutants, can be efficiently incorporated from sea water and sediments by filter-feeding molluscs. As far as we are aware TBT effects on the mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase, the enzymatic core of energy production and a known target of TBT toxicity in mammals, have not been yet investigated in molluscs; thus the hydrolytic capability of the mitochondrial complex in the presence of micromolar concentrations of TBT was assayed in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Gill and mantle ATPase activities were progressively depressed by increasing TBT doses up to a maximal inhibition (82% in the gills and 74% in the mantle) at 0.62 microM TBT. Non-cooperative inhibition kinetics (n(H) approximately -1) and a non-competitive mechanism with respect to ATP substrate were pointed out. The mitochondrial Mg-ATPase susceptivity to TBT in the marine mussel was consistent with the formation of a TBT-Mg-ATPase complex, apparently more stable in the gills than in the mantle. The complex shape of the dose-response curve and the partial release of Mg-ATPase inhibition within the 0.6-34.4 microM TBT range suggest multiple interactions of TBT with the enzyme complex putatively related to its molecular mechanism of toxicity.

  16. Chronic nicotine modifies skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activity through its interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and phospholemman.

    Alexander V Chibalin

    Full Text Available Our previous finding that the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR and the Na,K-ATPase interact as a regulatory complex to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity suggested that chronic, circulating nicotine may alter this interaction, with long-term changes in the membrane potential. To test this hypothesis, we chronically exposed rats to nicotine delivered orally for 21-31 days. Chronic nicotine produced a steady membrane depolarization of ∼3 mV in the diaphragm muscle, which resulted from a net change in electrogenic transport by the Na,K-ATPase α2 and α1 isoforms. Electrogenic transport by the α2 isoform increased (+1.8 mV while the activity of the α1 isoform decreased (-4.4 mV. Protein expression of Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 isoforms and the nAChR did not change; however, the content of α2 subunit in the plasma membrane decreased by 25%, indicating that its stimulated electrogenic transport is due to an increase in specific activity. The physical association between the nAChR, the Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 subunits, and the regulatory subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, phospholemman (PLM, measured by co-immuno precipitation, was stable and unchanged. Chronic nicotine treatment activated PKCα/β2 and PKCδ and was accompanied by parallel increases in PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63 and Ser(68. Collectively, these results demonstrate that nicotine at chronic doses, acting through the nAChR-Na,K-ATPase complex, is able to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity in an isoform-specific manner and that the regulatory range includes both stimulation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Cholinergic modulation of Na,K-ATPase activity is achieved, in part, through activation of PKC and phosphorylation of PLM.

  17. [The role of the promoter and leader sequences of extracellular ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in regulation of enzyme biosynthesis].

    Znamenskaia, L V; Kaiumova, A R; Kharitonova, M A; Vershinina, V I


    It is shown that in the medium rich with inorganic phosphate there is a stimulation of biosynthesis of ribonuclease from B. amyloliquefaciens (barnase) by actinomycin D, while biosynthesis of ribonucleases from B. intermedius (binase) and B. pumilus (KNase Bpu) in these conditions was suppressed. Features of biosynthesis of binase and RNase Bpu, directed by the barnase promoter, and also expression of chimeric gene of RNase Bpu with leader peptide of barnase were investigated. It was established that stimulation of synthesis of extracellular ribonuclease from B. amyloliquefaciens in the presence of actinomycin D was defined by structure of leader sequences.

  18. Functional Analysis of P4-ATPases

    Theorin, Lisa

    and mammalian P4-ATPases have been studied extensively and the physiological function is mostly known, while the exact biochemistry and specific activity is mostly unknown. Even though the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has 12 P4-ATPases, not much is known about their function. In this study, the biochemical...... properties, with a focus on the lipid requirements, of the Aminophospholipid ATPase 2 (ALA2), a P4-ATPase from A. thaliana, were characterized. Heterologous expression of ALA2 together with its subunit, the Cdc50 homolog ALA Interacting Subunit 5 (ALIS5), in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed...... is specific for phosphatidylserine and that binding of the lipid to the substrate binding site requires a unique spatial configuration of the lipid head group. Detailed information on the substrate requirements lead the way towards the full function and transport pathway of lipid flippases in plants. Recent...

  19. Protective Effect of Prosopis cineraria Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Liver Tumor by Modulating Membrane Bound Enzymes and Glycoproteins

    Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extract of Prosopis cineraria (MPC against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg/kg induced Phenobarbital promoted experimental liver tumors in male Wistar rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups, each group consisting of six animals. Group 1 served as control animals. Liver tumor was induced in group 2, 3, and 4 and Group 3 animals received MPC 200mg/kg and Group 4 animals received MPC 400mg/kg. Results: Administration of DEN has brought down the levels of membrane bound enzymes like Na+/ K+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and Ca2+ATPase which were later found to be increased by the administration of Prosopis cineraria (200 and 400mg/kg in dose dependent manner. The MPC extract also suppressed the levels of glycoproteins like Hexose, Hexosamine and Sialic acid when compared to liver tumor bearing animals. Conclusions: Our study suggests that MPC may extend its protective role by modulating the levels of membrane bound enzymes and suppressing glycoprotein levels.

  20. Cholesterol-mediated activation of P-glycoprotein: distinct effects on basal and drug-induced ATPase activities.

    Belli, Sara; Elsener, Priska M; Wunderli-Allenspach, Heidi; Krämer, Stefanie D


    Cholesterol promotes basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated whether these effects are related to each other and to the impact of the sterol on bilayer fluidity and verapamil membrane affinity. P-gp was reconstituted in egg-phosphatidylcholine (PhC) liposomes with or without cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) or 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC). Basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activities were studied with an enzymatic assay. Membrane fluidity was characterized with diphenyl-hexatriene anisotropy measurements and membrane affinity by equilibrium dialysis. DPPC (70% mol/mol) decreased the fluidity of PhC bilayers to the same level as 20% cholesterol. PMC (20%) and alpha-Toc (20%) decreased the fluidity to lesser extents. alpha-Toc and PMC, but not DPPC increased the verapamil membrane affinity. While 20% cholesterol strikingly enhanced the basal ATPase activity, none of the other constituents had a similar effect. In contrast, verapamil stimulation of P-gp ATPase activity was not only enabled by cholesterol but also by alpha-Toc and DPPC. PMC had no effect. In conclusion, cholesterol exerts distinct effects on basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity. The influence on basal ATPase activity is sterol-specific while its effect on verapamil-induced ATPase activity is unspecific and not related to its influence on membrane fluidity and on verapamil membrane affinity.

  1. Novel and potential physiological roles of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase in marine organisms.

    Tresguerres, Martin


    The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA) is a multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport H(+) across biological membranes. VHA plays a universal role in essential cellular functions, such as the acidification of lysosomes and endosomes. In addition, the VHA-generated H(+)-motive force can drive the transport of diverse molecules across cell membranes and epithelia for specialized physiological functions. Here, I discuss diverse physiological functions of VHA in marine animals, focusing on recent discoveries about base secretion in shark gills, potential bone dissolution by Osedax bone-eating worms and its participation in a carbon-concentrating mechanism that promotes coral photosynthesis. Because VHA is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes, it is likely to play many other essential physiological roles in diverse marine organisms. Elucidating and characterizing basic VHA-dependent mechanisms could help to determine species responses to environmental stress, including (but not limited to) that resulting from climate change. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Short and long range functions of amino acids in the transmembrane region of the sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase. A mutational study.

    Chen, L; Sumbilla, C; Lewis, D; Zhong, L; Strock, C; Kirtley, M E; Inesi, G


    Mutational analysis of several amino acids in the transmembrane region of the sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase was performed by expressing wild type ATPase and 32 site-directed mutants in COS-1 cells followed by functional characterization of the microsomal fraction. Four different phenotype characteristics were observed in the mutants: (a) functions similar to those sustained by the wild type ATPase; (b) Ca2+ transport inhibited to a greater extent than ATPase hydrolytic activity; (c) inhibition of transport and hydrolytic activity in the presence of high levels of phosphorylated enzyme intermediate; and (d) total inhibition of ATP utilization by the enzyme while retaining the ability to form phosphoenzyme by utilization of P(i). Analysis of experimental observations and molecular models revealed short and long range functions of several amino acids within the transmembrane region. Short range functions include: (a) direct involvement of five amino acids in Ca2+ binding within a channel formed by clustered transmembrane helices M4, M5, M6, and M8; (b) roles of several amino acids in structural stabilization of the helical cluster for optimal channel function; and (c) a specific role of Lys297 in sealing the distal end of the channel, suggesting that the M4 helix rotates to allow vectorial flux of Ca2+ upon enzyme phosphorylation. Long range functions are related to the influence of several transmembrane amino acids on phosphorylation reactions with ATP or P(i), transmitted to the extramembranous region of the ATPase in the presence or in the absence of Ca2+.

  3. The coupling ATPase complex: an evolutionary view.

    Harris, D A


    Phospholipid micelles and vesicles, present in the primordial soup, formed both primitive (surface) catalyst and primitive replicative life forms. With the adoption of a common energy source, ATP, integrated biochemical systems within these vesicles became possible - cells. Fermentation within these primitive cells was favoured by the evolution, first of ion channels allowing protons to leak out, and then of an active ATP-driven pump. In the prokaryotic/mitochondria/chloroplast line, the proton channel was such as to be blocked by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and the adenosine 5' triphosphate phosphohydrolase (ATPase) by 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan (Nbf-C1). The ATPase was initially simple (4 subunits) but later, possibly concomitant with its evolution to an ATP synthetase, became more complex (8 subunits). One of the steps in evolution probably involved gene duplication and divergence of 2 subunits (alpha and beta) from the largest of the ATPase subunits. From this stage, the general form of the ATPase was fixed, although sensitivity to, for example, oligomycin involved later, after divergence of the mitochondrial and chloroplast lines. A regulatory protein, the ATPase inhibitor, is found associated with a wide spectrum of coupling ATPases.

  4. Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    Wang, Kaituo; Sitsel, Oleg; Meloni, Gabriele


    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. It is required for signalling and proper functioning of a range of proteins involved in, for example, DNA binding and enzymatic catalysis1. In prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases of class IB (Znt....... The structures reveal a similar fold to Cu+-ATPases, with an amphipathic helix at the membrane interface. A conserved electronegative funnel connects this region to the intramembranous high-affinity ion-binding site and may promote specific uptake of cellular Zn2+ ions by the transporter. The E2P structure...

  5. Overexpression of TNF-α converting enzyme promotes adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis induced by high fat diet.

    Matsui, Yuki; Tomaru, Utano; Miyoshi, Arina; Ito, Tomoki; Fukaya, Shinji; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Ishizu, Akihiro


    Obesity is a state in which chronic low-grade inflammation persists in adipose tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, produced by adipose tissues have been implicated as active participants in the development of obesity-related diseases. Since TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) is the major factor that induces soluble TNF-α, TACE has been noted as a pivotal regulator in this field. To reveal the role of TACE in adipose tissue inflammation, TACE-transgenic (TACE-Tg) and wild type (WT) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) or control diet for 16 weeks. At 13 weeks after the beginning of the diet, serum TNF-α and macrophage-related cytokine/chemokine levels were elevated in TACE-Tg mice fed with HFD (Tg-HFD mice), and the number of the so-called crown-like adipocyte was significantly increased in adipose tissues of Tg-HFD mice at the end of the experiment. Although macrophage infiltration was not detected in the adipose tissues at this time, fibrosis was observed around the crown-like adipocytes. These findings suggested that TACE overexpression induced macrophage infiltration and subsequent fibrosis in adipose tissues under HFD regimen. The collective evidence suggested that TACE could be a therapeutic target of HFD-induced obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation.

  6. The transcription factor HNF1α induces expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in pancreatic islets from evolutionarily conserved promoter motifs.

    Pedersen, Kim Brint; Chhabra, Kavaljit H; Nguyen, Van K; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric


    Pancreatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has previously been shown to be critical for maintaining glycemia and β-cell function. Efforts to maintain or increase ACE2 expression in pancreatic β-cells might therefore have therapeutic potential for treating diabetes. In our study, we investigated the transcriptional role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) in induction of ACE2 expression in insulin-secreting cells. A deficient allele of HNF1α or HNF1β causes maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) types 3 and 5, respectively, in humans. We found that ACE2 is primarily transcribed from the proximal part of the ACE2 promoter in the pancreas. In the proximal part of the human ACE2 promoter, we further identified three functional HNF1 binding sites, as they have binding affinity for HNF1α and HNF1β and are required for induction of promoter activity by HNF1β in insulinoma cells. These three sites are well-conserved among mammalian species. Both HNF1α and HNF1β induce expression of ACE2 mRNA and lead to elevated levels of ACE2 protein and ACE2 enzymatic activity in insulinoma cells. Furthermore, HNF1α dose-dependently increases ACE2 expression in primary pancreatic islet cells. We conclude that HNF1α can induce the expression of ACE2 in pancreatic islet cells via evolutionarily conserved HNF1 binding sites in the ACE2 promoter. Potential therapeutics aimed at counteracting functional HNF1α depletion in diabetes and MODY3 will thus have ACE2 induction in pancreatic islets as a likely beneficial effect. © 2013.

  7. Characterization of the subunit structure of the maize tonoplast ATPase. Immunological and inhibitor binding studies.

    Mandala, S; Taiz, L


    Gradient purified preparations of the maize 400-kDa tonoplast ATPase are enriched in two major polypeptides, 72 and 62 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against these two putative subunits after elution from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel slices and against the solubilized native enzyme. Antibodies to both the 72- and 62-kDa polypeptides cross-reacted with similar bands on immunoblots of a tonoplast-enriched fraction from barley, while only the 72-kDa antibodies cross-reacted with tonoplast and tonoplast ATPase preparations from Neurospora. Antibodies to the 72-kDa polypeptide and the native enzyme both strongly inhibited enzyme activity, but the 62-kDa antibody was without effect. The identity and function of the subunits was further probed using radiolabeled covalent inhibitors of the tonoplast ATPase, 7-chloro-4-nitro[14C]benzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole ([14C]NBD-Cl) and N,N'-[14C]dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ([14C]DCCD). [14C]NBD-Cl preferentially labeled the 72-kDa polypeptide, and labeling was prevented by ATP. [14C]DCCD, an inhibitor of the proton channel portion of the mitochondrial ATPase, bound to a 16-kDa polypeptide. Venturicidin blocked binding to the mitochondrial 8-kDa polypeptide but did not affect binding to the tonoplast 16-kDa polypeptide. Taken together, the results implicate the 72-kDa polypeptide as the catalytic subunit of the tonoplast ATPase. The DCCD-binding 16-kDa polypeptide may comprise the proton channel. The presence of nucleotide-binding sites on the 62-kDa polypeptide suggests that it may function as a regulatory subunit.

  8. Hydrolysis of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids by a preparation of phospholipase C from Clostridium Welchii. Deactivation of (Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase and its reactivation by added lipids.

    Coleman, R; Bramley, T A


    1. Haemoglobin-free erythrocyte ghosts were prepared in 40 imosM bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 1 mM EDTA (40 imosM/l mM EDTA). The ghost preparation was highly permeable on preparation but partially resealed on incubation in media containing Ca-2+. 2. A partially purified preparation of phospholipase C from Clostridum welchii caused an increase in observed Mg-2+-ATPase activity, reflecting a change in the permeability of the ghost to substrate. The phospholipase did not decrease Mg-2+-ATPase even at the highest levels tested. Mg-2+-ATPase activity could therefore be used as a permeability indicatior in these experiments. 3. Both (Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase activities of the ghosts were progressively lost as a result of the phospholipid hydrolysis induced by phospholipase C. 4. When a haemolysin in the commercial preparation was destroyed by heat-treatment, deactivation of the (Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase and (Na+, K+, Mg-2+)-ATPases were still observed but permeability changes were greatly reduced. 5. The products of phospholipase action were not inhibitory to the Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase. 6. Lysolecithin brought about a reactivation of the (Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase which was superimposed upon permeability changes in the preparation. 7. Reactivation of the (Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase was brought about by a nonlytic, mixed lipid preparation without significant effect upon permeability. 8. Human erythrocyte (Ca-2+, Mg-2+)-ATPase therefore appears to be an enzyme which responds to perturbation of the lipid environment in the membrane and is a "lipid-dependant" enzyme.

  9. Effect of LED photobiomodulation on fluorescent light induced changes in cellular ATPases and Cytochrome c oxidase activity in Wistar rat.

    A, Ahamed Basha; C, Mathangi D; R, Shyamala


    Fluorescent light exposure at night alters cellular enzyme activities resulting in health defects. Studies have demonstrated that light emitting diode photobiomodulation enhances cellular enzyme activities. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of fluorescent light induced changes in cellular enzymes and to assess the protective role of pre exposure to 670 nm LED in rat model. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 10 groups of 6 animals each based on duration of exposure (1, 15, and 30 days) and exposure regimen (cage control, exposure to fluorescent light [1800 lx], LED preexposure followed by fluorescent light exposure and only LED exposure). Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and cytochrome c oxidase of the brain, heart, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle were assayed. Animals of the fluorescent light exposure group showed a significant reduction in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Ca(2+) ATPase activities in 1 and 15 days and their increase in animals of 30-day group in most of the regions studied. Cytochrome c oxidase showed increase in their level at all the time points assessed in most of the tissues. LED light preexposure showed a significant enhancement in the degree of increase in the enzyme activities in almost all the tissues and at all the time points assessed. This study demonstrates the protective effect of 670 nm LED pre exposure on cellular enzymes against fluorescent light induced change.

  10. The Contribution of Candida albicans Vacuolar ATPase Subunit V1B, Encoded by VMA2, to Stress Response, Autophagy, and Virulence Is Independent of Environmental pH

    Rane, Hallie S.; Bernardo, Stella M.; Hayek, Summer R.; Binder, Jessica L.; Parra, Karlett J.


    Candida albicans vacuoles are central to many critical biological processes, including filamentation and in vivo virulence. The V-ATPase proton pump is a multisubunit complex responsible for organellar acidification and is essential for vacuolar biogenesis and function. To study the function of the V1B subunit of C. albicans V-ATPase, we constructed a tetracycline-regulatable VMA2 mutant, tetR-VMA2. Inhibition of VMA2 expression resulted in the inability to grow at alkaline pH and altered resistance to calcium, cold temperature, antifungal drugs, and growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, V-ATPase was unable to fully assemble at the vacuolar membrane and was impaired in proton transport and ATPase-specific activity. VMA2 repression led to vacuolar alkalinization in addition to abnormal vacuolar morphology and biogenesis. Key virulence-related traits, including filamentation and secretion of degradative enzymes, were markedly inhibited. These results are consistent with previous studies of C. albicans V-ATPase; however, differential contributions of the V-ATPase Vo and V1 subunits to filamentation and secretion are observed. We also make the novel observation that inhibition of C. albicans V-ATPase results in increased susceptibility to osmotic stress. Notably, V-ATPase inhibition under conditions of nitrogen starvation results in defects in autophagy. Lastly, we show the first evidence that V-ATPase contributes to virulence in an acidic in vivo system by demonstrating that the tetR-VMA2 mutant is avirulent in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. This study illustrates the fundamental requirement of V-ATPase for numerous key virulence-related traits in C. albicans and demonstrates that the contribution of V-ATPase to virulence is independent of host pH. PMID:25038082

  11. Immobilization of Na,K-ATPase isolated from rat brain synaptic plasma membranes



    Full Text Available Rat brain Na,K-ATPase partially purified by SDS from synaptic plasma membranes (SPM was immobilized by adsorption on nitrocellulose (NC, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and glass fiber (GF membranes. Partial SDS solubilization increased the enzyme activity by 40 %. With regard to the preservation of the enzyme activity, nitrocellulose was shown to be the optimal support for the immobilization. The enzyme showed the highest percentage activity (14 % after 30 min of SPM adsorption, at 20°C under the vaccum, with 25 mg of proteins per NC disc filter. In addition, adsorption on NC stabilizes the Na,K-ATPase, since the activity was substantial 72 h after adsorption at 20°C. After adsorption, the sensitivity of the enzyme to HgCl2and CdCll2 inhibition was higher. The results show that immobilized Na,K-ATPase SPM can be used as a practical model for the detection of metal ions in different samples.

  12. Control analysis of the dependence of Escherichia coli physiology on the H+ -ATPase

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole; Westerhoff, Hans V.


    The H+-ATPase plays a central role in Escherichia coli free-energy transduction and hence in E. coli physiology. We here investigate the extent to which this enzyme also controls the growth rate, growth yield, and respiratory rate of E. coli. We modulate the expression of the atp operon and deter......The H+-ATPase plays a central role in Escherichia coli free-energy transduction and hence in E. coli physiology. We here investigate the extent to which this enzyme also controls the growth rate, growth yield, and respiratory rate of E. coli. We modulate the expression of the atp operon...... and determine the effect on said properties. When quantified in terms of control coefficients, we find that, in the wild-type cell growing on glucose in minimal medium, this key enzyme (H+-ATPase) exerts virtually no control on growth rate ( VBRC VBR lt 0.01), a minor positive control on growth yield (C = 0.......15), and a small but negative control on respiration rate (C = -0.25). The control the enzyme exerts on the consumption rate of the carbon and free-energy substrate is negative (C = -0.15). We also studied how the control coefficients themselves vary with the expression of the atp operon. As the level...

  13. Inhibition of the erythrocyte (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase by nonheme iron.

    Leclerc, L; Marden, M; Poyart, C


    The erythrocyte calmodulin-stimulated (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase (CaM-ATPase), an integral membrane protein, is inhibited in different types of congenital hemolytic anemias for which oxidative processes appear as a common feature. The oxidation of hemoglobin and its degradation lead to the accumulation of ferric heme (hemin) and nonheme iron in the red cell. We have shown previously that hemin inhibits the activity of the enzyme of normal erythrocyte (Leclerc et al. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 946, 49-56) involving an oxidation of thiol groups. The present study demonstrates that nonheme iron also inhibits the CaM-ATPase activity. In contrast with hemin, the inhibition of the enzyme induced by the nonheme treatment is prevented by butylated hydroxytoluene, a protecting agent of unsaturated phospholipid peroxidations, while dithiothreitol, a reducing agent of protein disulfide bridges, does not restore the activity of the enzyme. We conclude that nonheme iron inhibits the enzyme at least in part, through the peroxidation of phospholipids of the membrane bilayer.

  14. Relationship between plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and acrosome reaction in guinea pig sperm

    李明文; 陈大元


    The results obtained by biochemical measurement demonstrated for the first time that significant decrease of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity occurred during capacitation and acrosome reaction of guinea pig sperm. Ethaorynic acid, one kind of Ca2+-ATPase antagonists, inhibited the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity, but calmodulin (50μg/mL) and trifluoperazine (200- 500μmol/L) did not, suggesting that calmodulin is not involved in ATP-driven Ca2+ efflux from sperm. However, calmodulin is involved in the control of Ca2+ influx. TFP, one kind of calmodulin antagonists, accelerated the acrosome reaction and Ca2+ uptake into sperm cells significantly. Ca2+-ATPase antagonists, quercetin, sodium orthovandate, furosemide and ethacrynic acid promoted the acrosome reaction, but inhibited Ca2+ uptake, which cannot be explained by their inhibitory effects on the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity. It is speculated that this phenomenon might be caused by simultaneous inhibitions of the activities of C

  15. The influence of transition and heavy metal ions on ATP-ases activity in rat synaptic plasma membranes



    Full Text Available The influence of transition metal (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and Co2+ and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ on the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase isolated from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM was investigated. The aim of the study was to elucidate the inhibition of both ATPase activities by exposure to the considered metal ions as a function of their affinity to bind to the –SH containing ligand L-cysteine, as a model system. The half-maximum inhibitory activities (IC50 of the enzymes were determined as parameters of rectangular hyperbolas and correlated with the stability constant (Ks of the respective metal-ion-L-cysteine complex. The linear Dixon plots indicate equilibrium binding of the investigated ions to both enzymes.

  16. Regulation of Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit in TGF-β2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    Mony, Sridevi; Lee, Seung Joon; Harper, Jeffrey F; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A


    Proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR) is associated with extracellular matrix membrane (ECM) formation on the neural retina and disruption of the multilayered retinal architecture leading to distorted vision and blindness. During disease progression in PVR, retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) lose cell-cell adhesion, undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and deposit ECM leading to tissue fibrosis. The EMT process is mediated via exposure to vitreous cytokines and growth factors such as TGF-β2. Previous studies have shown that Na,K-ATPase is required for maintaining a normal polarized epithelial phenotype and that decreased Na,K-ATPase function and subunit levels are associated with TGF-β1-mediated EMT in kidney cells. In contrast to the basolateral localization of Na,K-ATPase in most epithelia, including kidney, Na,K-ATPase is found on the apical membrane in RPE cells. We now show that EMT is also associated with altered Na,K-ATPase expression in RPE cells. TGF-β2 treatment of ARPE-19 cells resulted in a time-dependent decrease in Na,K-ATPase β1 mRNA and protein levels while Na,K-ATPase α1 levels, Na,K-ATPase activity, and intracellular sodium levels remained largely unchanged. In TGF-β2-treated cells reduced Na,K-ATPase β1 mRNA inversely correlated with HIF-1α levels and analysis of the Na,K-ATPase β1 promoter revealed a putative hypoxia response element (HRE). HIF-1α bound to the Na,K-ATPase β1 promoter and inhibiting the activity of HIF-1α blocked the TGF-β2 mediated Na,K-ATPase β1 decrease suggesting that HIF-1α plays a potential role in Na,K-ATPase β1 regulation during EMT in RPE cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Na,K-ATPase β1 in ARPE-19 cells was associated with a change in cell morphology from epithelial to mesenchymal and induction of EMT markers such as α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, suggesting that loss of Na,K-ATPase β1 is a potential contributor to TGF-β2-mediated EMT in RPE cells.

  17. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness.

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael


    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  18. Inhibition of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase may explain how aspartame promotes glucose intolerance and obesity in mice.

    Gul, Sarah S; Hamilton, A Rebecca L; Munoz, Alexander R; Phupitakphol, Tanit; Liu, Wei; Hyoju, Sanjiv K; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Morrison, Sara; Hu, Dong; Zhang, Weifeng; Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Huo, Haizhong; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A


    Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured. For the acute model, a closed bowel loop was created in mice. ASP or water was instilled into it and IAP activity was measured. For the chronic model, mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without ASP in the drinking water for 18 weeks. The results were that for the in vitro study, IAP activity was lower (p < 0.05) in solutions containing ASP compared with controls. For the acute model, endogenous IAP activity was reduced by 50% in the ASP group compared with controls (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.4 ± 0.24) (p = 0.02). For the chronic model, mice in the HFD + ASP group gained more weight compared with the HFD + water group (48.1 ± 1.6 vs 42.4 ± 3.1, p = 0.0001). Significant difference in glucose intolerance between the HFD ± ASP groups (53 913 ± 4000.58 (mg·min)/dL vs 42 003.75 ± 5331.61 (mg·min)/dL, respectively, p = 0.02). Fasting glucose and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were significantly higher in the HFD + ASP group (1.23- and 0.87-fold increases, respectively, p = 0.006 and p = 0.01). In conclusion, endogenous IAP's protective effects in regard to the metabolic syndrome may be inhibited by PHE, a metabolite of ASP, perhaps explaining the lack of expected weight loss and metabolic improvements associated with diet drinks.

  19. “Oxygen sensing” by Na,K-ATPase: these miraculous thiols

    Anna Bogdanova


    Full Text Available Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its oxygen-sensitivity is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidised glutathione are the signalling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase oxygen-sensitive. This very ancient signalling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the optimal level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterise the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summery on (i the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii localisation of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzymes to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors’ activation control of the enzyme activity (iii redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate

  20. Specific labelling of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase of Escherichia coli with 8-azido-ATP and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan.

    Verheijen, J H; Postma, P W; van Dam, K


    1. 8-Azido-ATP is a substrate for Escherichia coli (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase (E. coli F1). 2. Illumination of E. coli F1 in the presence of 8-azido-ATP causes inhibition of ATPase activity. The presence of ATP during illumination prevents inhibition. 3. 8-Azido-ATP and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NbfCl) bind predominantly to the alpha subunit of the enzyme, but also significantly to the beta subunit. 4. The alpha subunit of E. coli F1 seems to have some properties that in other F1-ATPases are associated with the beta subunit.

  1. Directed mutagenesis of the strongly conserved aspartate 242 in the beta-subunit of Escherichia coli proton-ATPase.

    Al-Shawi, M K; Parsonage, D; Senior, A E


    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute Asn or Val for residue Asp-242 in the beta-subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Asp-242 is strongly conserved in beta-subunits of F1-ATPase enzymes, in a region of sequence which shows homology with numerous nucleotide-binding proteins. By analogy with adenylate kinase (Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., and Mildvan, A.S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 907-911), beta-Asp-242 of F1-ATPase might participate in catalysis through electrostatic effects on the substrate Mg2+ or through hydrogen bonding to the substrate(s); an acid-base catalytic role is also plausible. The substitutions Asn and Val were chosen to affect the charge, hydrogen-bonding ability, and hydrophobicity of residue beta-Asp-242. Both mutations significantly impaired oxidative phosphorylation rates in vivo and membrane ATPase and ATP-driven proton-pumping activities in vitro. Asn-242 was more detrimental than Val-242. Purified soluble mutant F1-ATPases had normal molecular size and subunit composition, and displayed 7% (beta-Asn-242) and 17% (beta-Val-242) of normal specific Mg-ATPase activity. The relative MgATPase activities of both mutant enzymes showed similar pH dependence to normal. Relative MgATPase and CaATPase activities of normal and mutant enzymes were compared at widely varied pMg and pCa. The mutations had little effect on KM MgATP, but KM CaATP was reduced. The data showed that the carboxyl side-chain of beta-Asp-242 is not involved in catalysis either as a general acid-base catalyst or through direct involvement in any protonation/deprotonation-linked mechanism, nor is it likely to be directly involved in liganding to substrate Mg2+ during the reaction. Specificity constants (kcat/KM) for MgATP and CaATP were reduced in both mutant enzymes, showing that the mutations destabilized interactions between the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain and the transition state.

  2. Kinetic properties of the mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase activity elicited by Ca(2+) in replacement of Mg(2).

    Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Ventrella, Vittoria; Pirini, Maurizio; Pagliarani, Alessandra


    The mitochondrial F-ATPase can be activated either by the classical cofactor Mg(2+) or, with lower efficiency, by Ca(2+). The latter may play a role when calcium concentration rises in mitochondria, a condition associated with cascade events leading to cell death. Common and distinctive features of these differently activated mitochondrial ATPases were pointed out in swine heart mitochondria. When Ca(2+) replaces the natural cofactor Mg(2+), the enzyme responsiveness to the transmembrane electrochemical gradient and to the classical F-ATPase inhibitors DCCD and oligomycin as well as the oligomycin sensitivity loss by thiol oxidation, are maintained. Consistently, the two mitochondrial ATPases apparently share the F1FO complex basic structure and mechanism. Peculiar cation-dependent properties, which may affect the F1 catalytic mechanism and/or the FO proton binding site features, may be linked to a different physiological role of the mitochondrial Ca-activated F-ATPase with respect to the Mg-activated F-ATPase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. A tomato ER-type Ca2+-ATPase, LCA1, has a low thapsigargin-sensitivity and can transport manganese.

    Johnson, Neil A; Liu, Fengli; Weeks, Phillip D; Hentzen, Audrey E; Kruse, Hilary P; Parker, Jennifer J; Laursen, Mette; Nissen, Poul; Costa, Charles J; Gatto, Craig


    Recombinant Ca(2+)-ATPase from tomato (i.e. LCA1 for Lycopersicon esculentum [Since the identification and naming of LCA1, the scientific name for the tomato has been changed to Solanum lycopersicum.] Ca-ATPase) was heterologously expressed in yeast for structure-function characterization. We investigate the differences between plant and animal Ca pumps utilizing comparisons between chicken and rabbit SERCA-type pumps with Arabidopsis (ECA1) and tomato plant (LCA1) Ca(2+)-ATPases. Enzyme function was confirmed by the ability of each Ca(2+)-ATPase to rescue K616 growth on EGTA-containing agar and directly via in vitro ATP hydrolysis. We found LCA1 to be approximately 300-fold less sensitive to thapsigargin than animal SERCAs, whereas ECA1 was thapsigargin-resistant. LCA1 showed typical pharmacological sensitivities to cyclopiazonic acid, vanadate, and eosin, consistent with it being a P(IIA)-type Ca(2+)-ATPase. Possible amino acid changes responsible for the reduced plant thapsigargin-sensitivity are discussed. We found that LCA1 also complemented K616 yeast growth in the presence of Mn(2+), consistent with moving Mn(2+) into the secretory pathway and functionally compensating for the lack of secretory pathway Ca-ATPases (SPCAs) in plants.

  4. Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano


    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  5. Tightly bound nucleotides of the energy-transducing ATPase, and their role in oxidative phosphorylation. I. The Paracoccus denitrificans system.

    Harris, D A; John, P; Radda, G K


    1. The coupling ATPase of Paracoccus denitrificans can be removed from the membrane by washing coupled membrane fragments at low salt concentrations. 2. This ATPase resembles coupling ATPases of mitochondria, chloroplasts and other bacteria. It is a negatively charged protein of molecular weight about 300,000. An inhibitor protein in bound tightly to the ATPase in vivo, and can be destroyed by trypsin treatment. 3. ATP and ADP are found tightly bound to the coupling ATPase of P. denitrificans, both in its membrane-bound and isolated state. The ATP/ADP ratio on the enzyme is greater than one. 4. Under de-energised condtions, the bound nucleotides are not available to the suspending medium. When the membrane is energised however, the bound nucleotides can exchange with added nucleotides and incorporate 32Pi. 32Ppi is incorporated into the beta and gamma positions of the bound nucleotides, but beta-labelling probably does not occur on the coupling ATPase. 5. Uncouplers inhibit the exchange of the free nucleotides or 32Pi into the bound nucleotides, while venturicidin (an energy transfer inhibitor) and aurovertin stimulate the exchange. 6. The response of the bound nucleotides to energisation is consistent with their being involved directly in the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. The Chromatin Remodelling Enzymes SNF2H and SNF2L Position Nucleosomes adjacent to CTCF and Other Transcription Factors.

    Nicola Wiechens


    Full Text Available Within the genomes of metazoans, nucleosomes are highly organised adjacent to the binding sites for a subset of transcription factors. Here we have sought to investigate which chromatin remodelling enzymes are responsible for this. We find that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzyme SNF2H plays a major role organising arrays of nucleosomes adjacent to the binding sites for the architectural transcription factor CTCF sites and acts to promote CTCF binding. At many other factor binding sites SNF2H and the related enzyme SNF2L contribute to nucleosome organisation. The action of SNF2H at CTCF sites is functionally important as depletion of CTCF or SNF2H affects transcription of a common group of genes. This suggests that chromatin remodelling ATPase's most closely related to the Drosophila ISWI protein contribute to the function of many human gene regulatory elements.

  7. The Chromatin Remodelling Enzymes SNF2H and SNF2L Position Nucleosomes adjacent to CTCF and Other Transcription Factors.

    Wiechens, Nicola; Singh, Vijender; Gkikopoulos, Triantaffyllos; Schofield, Pieta; Rocha, Sonia; Owen-Hughes, Tom


    Within the genomes of metazoans, nucleosomes are highly organised adjacent to the binding sites for a subset of transcription factors. Here we have sought to investigate which chromatin remodelling enzymes are responsible for this. We find that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzyme SNF2H plays a major role organising arrays of nucleosomes adjacent to the binding sites for the architectural transcription factor CTCF sites and acts to promote CTCF binding. At many other factor binding sites SNF2H and the related enzyme SNF2L contribute to nucleosome organisation. The action of SNF2H at CTCF sites is functionally important as depletion of CTCF or SNF2H affects transcription of a common group of genes. This suggests that chromatin remodelling ATPase's most closely related to the Drosophila ISWI protein contribute to the function of many human gene regulatory elements.

  8. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots.

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzynski, Marek


    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H(+)-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H(+)-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H(2)O(2) in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants.

  9. Directed mutagenesis of the dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-reactive carboxyl residues in beta-subunit of F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli.

    Parsonage, D; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E


    Previous studies in which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was used to inactivate F1-ATPase enzymes have suggested that two glutamate residues in the beta-subunit are essential for catalysis. In the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, these are residues beta-Glu-181 and beta-Glu-192. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change these residues to beta-Gln-181 and beta-Gln-192. The beta-Gln-181 mutation produced strong impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and also of ATPase and ATP-driven proton-pumping activities in membranes assayed in vitro. A low level of each activity was detected and an F1-ATPase appeared to be assembled normally on the membranes. Therefore, it is suggested that the carboxyl side chain at residue beta-181 is important, although not absolutely required, for catalysis in both directions on E. coli F1-ATPase. The beta-Gln-192 mutation produced partial inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and membrane ATPase activity was reduced by 78%. These results contrast with the complete or near-complete inactivation seen when E. coli F1-ATPase is reacted with DCCD and imply that DCCD-inactivation is attributable more to the attachment of the bulky DCCD molecule than to the derivatization of the carboxyl side chain of residue beta-Glu-192. M. Ohtsubo and colleagues (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) 146, 705-710) described mutagenesis of the F1-beta-subunit of thermophilic bacterium PS3. Mutations (Glu----Gln) of the residues homologous to Glu-181 and Glu-192 of E. coli F1-beta-subunit both caused total inhibition of ATPase activity. Therefore, there was a marked difference in results obtained when the same residues were modified in the PS3 and E. coli F1-beta-subunits.

  10. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)


    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  11. 按摩增强琥珀酸脱氢酶和钾—钠ATP酶活性促进兔股四头肌的损伤修复%Massage promotes repairing of injured quadriceps femoris muscle of rabbit through enhancing activity of SDH and K +-Na + -ATPase

    侯懿烜; 郑元义; 张萍; 刘祖丽; 郜婕; 唐成林


    given from the 8 d after the model establishment with the aid of a massager at 3 000 to 3 100 r/min, for 15 min once per day for 7 or 14 d. In the end of experiment, the animals were killed and muscle samples of 1.5 cm × 1.0 cm × 0. 5 cm were removed from quadriceps femoris. H&E staining was used to detect the pathologic change. Nachlas dyeing or Wachstein-Meisel was used to detect the activity of succinate dehydrogenase ( SDH ) or K+ -Na+ -ATPase of quadriceps femoris tissue from massage therapeutic and unmassaged rabbits. Results Obvious broken muscular fibers, muscle atrophy, and tortuosity of muscle fibers were observed in self-repairing tissue. The non-homogenous and diffusive echoes were detected in the unmassaged quadriceps femoris with disappearing muscular texture. And the homogenous and weak diffusive echoes were tested in the massaged recovery quadriceps femoris. Comparing with its controls, the activity of SDH was increased in massaged 7 d rabbits (0.0033 ± 0.0002 vs 0.0022 ±0.0002, P<0.01) and massaged 14 d rabbits (0.0039 ±0.0002 vs 0.0032 ±0.0001, P< 0. 01). More I-type muscular fibers were found in the massaged rabbits than in the control rabbits [7 d group:(38.6±2.6)% vs (25. 1 ±1.7)%, P<0.01; 14 d group: (56.2±4.5)% vs (30.3 ±2.1)%, P<0.01]. The activity of K+ -Na + -ATPase was also increased by 47% (P <0. 01) and 72% (P <0.01) respectively in massaged 7 d and 14 d rabbits when compared with corresponding self-repairing groups. Conclusion Massage promotes the recovery of injured muscle through stimulating activity of SDH and K+ -Na+ -ATPase.

  12. Effect of bacoside A on membrane-bound ATPases in the brain of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Anbarasi, K; Vani, G; Balakrishna, K; Devi, C S Shyamala


    Membrane-bound enzymes play a vital role in neuronal function through maintenance of membrane potential and impulse propagation. We have evaluated the harmful effects of chronic cigarette smoking on membrane-bound ATPases and the protective effect of Bacoside A in rat brain. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 12 weeks and simultaneously administered with Bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera) at a dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w/day, p.o. The levels of lipid peroxides as marker for evaluating the extent of membrane damage, the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase, and associated cations sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) were investigated in the brain. Neuronal membrane damage was evident from the elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of membrane-bound enzymes. Disturbances in the electrolyte balance with accumulation of Na+ and Ca2+ and depletion of K+ and Mg2+ were also observed. Administration of Bacoside A inhibited lipid peroxidation, improved the activities of ATPases, and maintained the ionic equilibrium. The results of our study indicate that Bacoside A protects the brain from cigarette smoking induced membrane damage.

  13. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae.

    Francisco A Leone

    Full Text Available We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+ plus NH4 (+ of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+ and NH4 (+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+, K(+-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+ and NH4 (+ of gill (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  14. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.


    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P increased during hibernation (P increased oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanistic Basis for Inflammation and Tumor Promotion in Lungs of BHT-Treated Mice: Electrophilic Metabolites Alkylate and Inactivate Antioxidant Enzymes

    Meier, Brent W.; Gomez, Jose D.; Kirichenko, Oleg V.; Thompson, John A.


    An established model for mechanistic analysis of lung carcinogenesis involves administration of 3-methylcholanthrene to mice followed by several weekly injections of the tumor promoter 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). BHT is metabolized to quinone methides (QMs) responsible for promoting tumor formation. QMs are strongly electrophilic and readily form adducts with proteins. The goal of the present study was to identify adducted proteins in the lungs of mice injected with BHT and to assess the potential impact of these modifications on tumorigenesis. Cytosolic proteins from treated mouse lungs were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, adducts detected by immunoblotting, and proteins identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Eight adducts were detected in the lungs of most, or all, of 6 experimental groups of BALB mice. Of these adducts, several were structural proteins but others, namely peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), carbonyl reductase, and selenium-binding protein 1, have direct or indirect antioxidant functions. When the 9000 g supernatant fraction of mouse lung was treated with BHT-QM (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone), substantial lipid peroxidation and increases in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide formation were observed. Studies with human Prx6 and bovine SOD1 demonstrated inhibition of enzyme activity concomitant with adduct formation. LC-MS/MS analysis of digests of adducted Prx6 demonstrated adduction of both Cys 91 and Cys 47; the latter residue is essential for peroxidatic activity. Analysis of QM-treated bovine SOD1 by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight MS demonstrated predominance of a mono-adduct at His 78. This study provides evidence that indicates Prx6, SOD1 and possibly other antioxidant enzymes in mouse lung are inhibited by BHT-derived QMs leading to enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, and providing a

  16. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica stimulates the expression of nitrate reductase and the starch-degrading enzyme glucan-water dikinase in tobacco and Arabidopsis roots through a homeodomain transcription factor that binds to a conserved motif in their promoters.

    Sherameti, Irena; Shahollari, Bationa; Venus, Yvonne; Altschmied, Lothar; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf


    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of the Sebacinaceae family, promotes growth of Arabidopsis and tobacco seedlings and stimulates nitrogen accumulation and the expression of the genes for nitrate reductase and the starch-degrading enzyme glucan-water dikinase (SEX1) in roots. Neither growth promotion nor stimulation of the two enzymes requires heterotrimeric G proteins. P. indica also stimulates the expression of the uidA gene under the control of the Arabidopsis nitrate reductase (Nia2) promoter in transgenic tobacco seedlings. At least two regions (-470/-439 and -103/-89) are important for Nia2 promoter activity in tobacco roots. One of the regions contains an element, ATGATAGATAAT, that binds to a homeodomain transcription factor in vitro. The message for this transcription factor is up-regulated by P. indica. The transcription factor also binds to a CTGATAGATCT segment in the SEX1 promoter in vitro. We propose that the growth-promoting effect initiated by P. indica is accompanied by a co-regulated stimulation of enzymes involved in nitrate and starch metabolisms.

  17. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and the proton ATPase Pma1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Baron, J. Allen; Chen, Janice S.; Culotta, Valeria C., E-mail:


    In eukaryotes, the Cu/Zn containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1) plays a critical role in oxidative stress protection as well as in signaling. We recently demonstrated a function for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sod1p in signaling through CK1γ casein kinases and identified the essential proton ATPase Pma1p as one likely target. The connection between Sod1p and Pma1p was explored further by testing the impact of sod1Δ mutations on cells expressing mutant alleles of Pma1p that alter activity and/or post-translational regulation of this ATPase. We report here that sod1Δ mutations are lethal when combined with the T912D allele of Pma1p in the C-terminal regulatory domain. This “synthetic lethality” was reversed by intragenic suppressor mutations in Pma1p, including an A906G substitution that lies within the C-terminal regulatory domain and hyper-activates Pma1p. Surprisingly the effect of sod1Δ mutations on Pma1-T912D is not mediated through the Sod1p signaling pathway involving the CK1γ casein kinases. Rather, Sod1p sustains life of cells expressing Pma1-T912D through oxidative stress protection. The synthetic lethality of sod1Δ Pma1-T912D cells is suppressed by growing cells under low oxygen conditions or by treatments with manganese-based antioxidants. We now propose a model in which Sod1p maximizes Pma1p activity in two ways: one involving signaling through CK1γ casein kinases and an independent role for Sod1p in oxidative stress protection. - Highlights: • In yeast, the anti-oxidant enzyme SOD1 promotes activity of the proton ATPase Pma1p. • Cells expressing a T912D variant of Pma1p are not viable without SOD1. • SOD1 is needed to protect Pma1-T912D expressing cells from severe oxidative damage. • SOD1 activates Pma1p through casein kinase signaling and oxidative stress protection.

  18. Characterization and solubilization of nucleotide-specific, Mg/sup 2 +/-ATPase and Mg/sup 2 +/-pyrophosphatase of tonoplast

    Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.


    Nucleotide-specific, Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent ATPase and Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent pyrophosphatase were recovered with purified tonoplast obtained from isolated Tulipa petal vacuoles. Relative Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent hydrolysis of ATP, GTP and pyrophosphate, the only substrates hydrolyzed to a substantial degree, was 1.0, 0.3, and 0.6, respectively. Tonoplast ATPase required Mg/sup 2 +/, and essentially no Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent or Mg/sup 2 +/-independent p-nitrophenylphosphatase (which was associated with intact vacuoles) occurred with the membrane. Tonoplast ATPase was stimulated 10 to 30% by KCl, but was little effected by other cations (other than NH/sub 4//sup +/) or anions. No activity was observed with CaATP as substrate. The enzyme was cold stable and was inhibited by DCCD and Dio-9, but not by oligomycin. Its pH optimum was 7.0 and its specific activity was about 50 P/sub i//mg protein per h at 37/sup 0/C. Properties of membrane-bound and Polidocanol (polyoxyethylene ether, 9 lauryl ether) solubilized enzyme were similar. Reduced activity of solubilized enzyme was partially restored with phospholipids. Tonoplast ATPase appears to be an integral membrane component which requires phospholipids for maximal activity. Tonoplast Mg/sup 2 +/-pyrophosphatase had a pH optimum of greater than or equal to 8.5, was stimulated 2.5-fold by 50 mM KCl, and was largely lost upon detergent treatment. Properties of tonoplast ATPase observed are consistent with the characteristics of proton transport exhibited by isolated, intact Tulipa vacuoles. These observations suggest that tonoplast ATPase functions in proton transport. 34 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Further examination of seventeen mutations in Escherichia coli F1-ATPase beta-subunit.

    Senior, A E; al-Shawi, M K


    Seventeen mutations in beta-subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase which had previously been characterized in strain AN1272 (Mu-induced mutant) were expressed in strain JP17 (beta-subunit gene deletion). Six showed unchanged behavior, namely: C137Y; G142D; G146S; G207D; Y297F; and Y354F. Five failed to assemble F1F0 correctly, namely: G149I; G154I; G149I,G154I; G223D; and P403S,G415D. Six assembled F1F0 correctly, but with membrane ATPase lower than in AN1272, namely: K155Q; K155E; E181Q; E192Q; D242N; and D242V. AN1272 was shown to unexpectedly produce a small amount of wild-type beta-subunit; F1-ATPase activities reported previously in AN1272 were referable to hybrid enzymes containing both mutant and wild-type beta-subunits. Purified F1 was obtained from K155Q; K155E; E181Q; E192Q; and D242N mutants in JP17. Vmax ATPase values were lower, and unisite catalysis rate and equilibrium constants were perturbed to greater extent, than in AN1272. However, general patterns of perturbation revealed by difference energy diagrams were similar to those seen previously, and the new data correlated well in linear free energy relationships for reaction steps of unisite catalysis. Correlation between multisite and unisite ATPase activity was seen in the new enzymes. Overall, the data give strong support to previously proposed mechanisms of unisite catalysis, steady-state catalysis, and energy coupling in F1-ATPases (Al-Shawi, M. K., Parsonage, D. and Senior, A. E. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4402-4410). The K155Q, K155E, D242N, and E181Q mutations caused 5000-fold, 4000-fold, 1800-fold, and 700-fold decrease, respectively, in Vmax ATPase, implying possibly direct roles for these residues in catalysis. Experiments with the D242N mutant suggested a role for residue beta D242 in catalytic site Mg2+ binding.

  20. Roles of transmembrane segment M1 of Na(+),K (+)-ATPase and Ca (2+)-ATPase, the gatekeeper and the pivot

    Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens Peter; Vilsen, Bente


    In this review we summarize mutagenesis work on the structure-function relationship of transmembrane segment M1 in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. The original hypothesis that charged residues in the N-terminal part of M1 interact with the transported...... cations can be rejected. On the other hand hydrophobic residues in the middle part of M1 turned out to play crucial roles in Ca(2+) interaction/occlusion in Ca(2+)-ATPase and K(+) interaction/occlusion in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Leu(65) of the Ca(2+)-ATPase and Leu(99) of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, located...... of the extracytoplasmic gate in both the Ca(2+)-ATPase and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  1. Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Maize Roots Induced for NO3- Uptake.

    Santi, S.; Locci, G.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.; Varanini, Z.


    Plasma membrane H+-ATPase was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) roots induced for NO3- uptake. Membrane vesicles were isolated by means of Suc density gradient from roots exposed for 24 h either to 1.5 mM NO3- or 1.5 mM SO4-. The two populations of vesicles had similar composition as shown by diagnostic inhibitors of membrane-associated ATPases. However, both ATP-dependent intravesicular H+ accumulation and ATP hydrolysis were considerably enhanced (60-100%) in vesicles isolated from NO3--induced roots. Km for Mg:ATP and pH dependency were not influenced by NO3- treatment of the roots. ATP hydrolysis in plasma membrane vesicles for both control and NO3--induced roots was not affected by 10 to 150 mM NO3- or Cl-. On the other hand, kinetics of NO3-- or Cl--stimulated ATP-dependent intravesicular H+ accumulation were modified in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from NO3-- induced roots. Immunoassays carried out with polyclonal antibodies against plasma membrane H+-ATPase revealed an increased steady-state level of the enzyme in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from NO3--induced roots. Results are consistent with the idea of an involvement of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the overall response of roots to NO3-.

  2. Atomic model for the membrane-embedded VO motor of a eukaryotic V-ATPase.

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rohou, Alexis; Schmidt, Carla; Bueler, Stephanie A; Benlekbir, Samir; Robinson, Carol V; Rubinstein, John L


    Vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-powered proton pumps involved in processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal degradation, secondary transport, TOR signalling, and osteoclast and kidney function. ATP hydrolysis in the soluble catalytic V1 region drives proton translocation through the membrane-embedded VO region via rotation of a rotor subcomplex. Variability in the structure of the intact enzyme has prevented construction of an atomic model for the membrane-embedded motor of any rotary ATPase. We induced dissociation and auto-inhibition of the V1 and VO regions of the V-ATPase by starving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing us to obtain a ~3.9-Å resolution electron cryomicroscopy map of the VO complex and build atomic models for the majority of its subunits. The analysis reveals the structures of subunits ac8c'c″de and a protein that we identify and propose to be a new subunit (subunit f). A large cavity between subunit a and the c-ring creates a cytoplasmic half-channel for protons. The c-ring has an asymmetric distribution of proton-carrying Glu residues, with the Glu residue of subunit c″ interacting with Arg735 of subunit a. The structure suggests sequential protonation and deprotonation of the c-ring, with ATP-hydrolysis-driven rotation causing protonation of a Glu residue at the cytoplasmic half-channel and subsequent deprotonation of a Glu residue at a luminal half-channel.

  3. Structure of a catalytic dimer of the α- and β-subunits of the F-ATPase from Paracoccus denitrificans at 2.3 Å resolution

    Morales-Ríos, Edgar; Montgomery, Martin G. [The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Leslie, Andrew G. W. [The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); García-Trejo, José J. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Walker, John E., E-mail: [The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom)


    The structure of the αβ heterodimer of the F-ATPase from the α-proteobacterium P. denitrificans has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution. It corresponds to the ‘open’ or ‘empty’ catalytic interface found in other F-ATPases. The structures of F-ATPases have predominantly been determined from mitochondrial enzymes, and those of the enzymes in eubacteria have been less studied. Paracoccus denitrificans is a member of the α-proteobacteria and is related to the extinct protomitochondrion that became engulfed by the ancestor of eukaryotic cells. The P. denitrificans F-ATPase is an example of a eubacterial F-ATPase that can carry out ATP synthesis only, whereas many others can catalyse both the synthesis and the hydrolysis of ATP. Inhibition of the ATP hydrolytic activity of the P. denitrificans F-ATPase involves the ζ inhibitor protein, an α-helical protein that binds to the catalytic F{sub 1} domain of the enzyme. This domain is a complex of three α-subunits and three β-subunits, and one copy of each of the γ-, δ- and ∊-subunits. Attempts to crystallize the F{sub 1}–ζ inhibitor complex yielded crystals of a subcomplex of the catalytic domain containing the α- and β-subunits only. Its structure was determined to 2.3 Å resolution and consists of a heterodimer of one α-subunit and one β-subunit. It has no bound nucleotides, and it corresponds to the ‘open’ or ‘empty’ catalytic interface found in other F-ATPases. The main significance of this structure is that it aids in the determination of the structure of the intact membrane-bound F-ATPase, which has been crystallized.

  4. Trinucleotide repeat variants in the promoter of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene of patients exhibiting ultra-high enzyme activity.

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Gearry, Richard B; Bland, Michael V; Sies, Christiaan W; George, Peter M; Burt, Michael; Marinaki, Anthony M; Arenas, Monica; Barclay, Murray L; Kennedy, Martin A


    Thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyses the S-methylation of the thiopurine immunosuppressants. To date, 22 variants have been identified that are predictive of decreased TPMT activity. In contrast, no molecular explanation has been found for the 1-2% of Caucasians who exhibit ultra-high TPMT activity. Here, we report the characterization of polymorphisms within a trinucleotide (GCC) repeat element of the TPMT promoter in two patients with inflammatory bowel disease exhibiting the highest TPMT activity from two testing centres. The first patient was heterozygous for a variant allele carrying seven GCC repeats [(GCC)7], whereas the second patient was heterozygous for a variant allele containing five GCC repeats [(GCC)5]. Fifty patients with inflammatory bowel disease with normal TPMT activity were all homozygous for six GCC repeats [(GCC)6]. Of 200 healthy controls, five were found to be heterozygous for the (GCC)7 variant. Within in vitro reporter gene assays, the mean luciferase activities of the (GCC)6, (GCC)7, and (GCC)5 constructs were 8.0+/-0.26, 13.2+/-0.10 and 12.3+/-0.12, respectively. The significant increase in activity observed for (GCC)5 and (GCC)7 compared with (GCC)6 (P-value

  5. Spliceosome discards intermediates via the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p.

    Mayas, Rabiah M; Maita, Hiroshi; Semlow, Daniel R; Staley, Jonathan P


    To promote fidelity in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing, the spliceosome rejects and discards suboptimal substrates that have engaged the spliceosome. Whereas DExD/H box ATPases have been implicated in rejecting suboptimal substrates, the mechanism for discarding suboptimal substrates has remained obscure. Corroborating evidence that suboptimal, mutated lariat intermediates can be exported to the cytoplasm for turnover, we have found that the ribosome can translate mutated lariat intermediates. By glycerol gradient analysis, we have found that the spliceosome can dissociate mutated lariat intermediates in vivo in a manner that requires the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p. Through an in vitro assay, we demonstrate that Prp43p promotes the discard of suboptimal and optimal 5' exon and lariat intermediates indiscriminately. Finally, we demonstrate a requirement for Prp43p in repressing splicing at a cryptic splice site. We propose a model for the fidelity of exon ligation in which the DEAH box ATPase Prp22p slows the flow of suboptimal intermediates through exon ligation and Prp43p generally promotes discard of intermediates, thereby establishing a pathway for turnover of stalled intermediates. Because Prp43p also promotes spliceosome disassembly after exon ligation, this work establishes a parallel between the discard of suboptimal intermediates and the dissociation of a genuine excised intron product.

  6. Obstacle Effects on One-Dimensional Translocation of ATPase

    WANG Xian-Ju; AI Bao-Quan; LIU Liang-Gang


    We apply a general random walk model to the study of the ATPase's one-dimensional translocation along obstacle biological environment, and show the effects of random obstacles on the ATPase translocation along single stranded DNA. We find that the obstacle environment can reduce the lifetime of ATPase lattice-bound state which results in the inhibition of ATPase activity. We also carry out the ranges of rate constant of ATPase unidirectonal translocation and bidirectional translocation. Our results are consistent with the experiments and relevant theoretical consideration, and can be used to explain some physiological phenomena.

  7. Targeting the chromatin remodeling enzyme BRG1 increases the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in breast cancer cells

    Wu, Qiong; Sharma, Soni; Cui, Hang; LeBlanc, Scott E.; Zhang, Hong; Muthuswami, Rohini; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.


    Brahma related gene product 1 (BRG1) is an ATPase that drives the catalytic activity of a subset of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes. BRG1 is overexpressed in most human breast cancer tumors without evidence of mutation and is required for breast cancer cell proliferation. We demonstrate that knockdown of BRG1 sensitized triple negative breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat breast cancer. An inhibitor of the BRG1 bromodomain had no effect on breast cancer cell viability, but an inhibitory molecule that targets the BRG1 ATPase activity recapitulated the increased drug efficacy observed in the presence of BRG1 knockdown. We further demonstrate that inhibition of BRG1 ATPase activity blocks the induction of ABC transporter genes by these chemotherapeutic drugs and that BRG1 binds to ABC transporter gene promoters. This inhibition increased intracellular concentrations of the drugs, providing a likely mechanism for the increased chemosensitivity. Since ABC transporters and their induction by chemotherapy drugs are a major cause of chemoresistance and treatment failure, these results support the idea that targeting the enzymatic activity of BRG1 would be an effective adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. PMID:27029062

  8. Photosynthesis performance, antioxidant enzymes, and ultrastructural analyses of rice seedlings under chromium stress.

    Ma, Jing; Lv, Chunfang; Xu, Minli; Chen, Guoxiang; Lv, Chuangen; Gao, Zhiping


    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium (Cr(6+)) (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphological traits, photosynthesis performance, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in the leaves of hydroponically cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) seedlings was analyzed. Plant fresh and dry weights, height, root length, and photosynthetic pigments were decreased by Cr-induced toxicity (200 μM), and the growth of rice seedlings was starkly inhibited compared with that of the control. In addition, the decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) might be ascribed to the decreased the number of active photosystem II reaction centers. These results were confirmed by inhibited photophosphorylation, reduced ATP content and its coupling factor Ca(2+)-ATPase, and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, overtly increased activities of antioxidative enzymes were observed under Cr(6+) toxicity. Malondialdehyde and the generation rates of superoxide (O2̄) also increased with Cr(6+) concentration, while hydrogen peroxide content first increased at a low Cr(6+) concentration of 25 μM and then decreased. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that Cr(6+) exposure resulted in significant chloroplast damage. Taken together, these findings indicate that high Cr(6+)concentrations stimulate the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and promote lipid peroxidation in plants, causing severe damage to cell membranes, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, and inhibition of photosynthesis.

  9. Cloning and preliminary functional analysis of ATPase alpha subunit gene promoter from Dunaliella salina%杜氏盐藻叶绿体ATP合酶α亚单位基因启动子的克隆及初步功能分析

    谷辉辉; 冯书营; 潘卫东; 李杰; 薛乐勋


    采用DraⅠ,EcoRⅤ,PvuⅡ,ScaⅠ,SmaⅠ和StuⅠ六种内切酶消化杜氏盐藻(Dunaliella salina)叶绿体基因组DNA,与相应DNA接头连接,构建成无载体连接的盐藻叶绿体Genome Walker DNA文库。利用长距离PCR(long distance-polymerase chain reaction,LD-PCR)技术从该文库中克隆得到ATP合酶α亚单位(atpA)基因上游序列1347bp。启动子特征分析显示该序列具有一般启动子的保守序列特征,根据这些特征设计引物,扩增4个5’端系列缺失的启动子片段,并用绿色荧光蛋白基因作为报告基因,构建启动子5’端系列缺失重组质粒,以期鉴定不同启动子片段的驱动报告基因转录的活性。基因枪转化结果显示,启动子长度约1000bp的重组载体转化盐藻后,其转化株中有黄绿色的盐藻细胞出现。说明克隆的序列具有启动子活性,能驱动绿色荧光蛋白基因在杜氏盐藻中有效表达,为建立盐藻叶绿体转化系统奠定了工作基础。%To clone and identify the function of the promoter of the ATPase alpha subunit (atpA) gene from Dunaliella salina, a chloroplast GenomeWalker DNA Library from D. salina was constructed, from which the 1 347 bp upstream fragment of atpA gene was cloned by long distance-polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR). According to the positions of the different promoter elements predicted by bioinformatics tools, 5'-deleted series primers were designed to amplify different promoter fragments. Series 5'-deleted expression vector containing the GFP gene was constructed and then transformed to cells of D. salina by particle bombardment. The transformed cells with p 1000 recombinant vector produced green fluorescence, but not in other transformation groups, suggesting that the cloned region had the activity of the promoter and may drive the effective expression of the GFP gene in D.salina. Our results have layed a foundation for the chloroplast

  10. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase interactions with decaniobate, decavanadate, vanadate, tungstate and molybdate.

    Fraqueza, Gil; Ohlin, C André; Casey, William H; Aureliano, Manuel


    Over the last few decades there has been increasing interest in oxometalate and polyoxometalate applications to medicine and pharmacology. This interest arose, at least in part, due to the properties of these classes of compounds as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic agents, and also for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, among others. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action would be improved if biological models could be used to clarify potential toxicological effects in main cellular processes. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, containing a large amount of Ca(2+)-ATPase, an enzyme that accumulates calcium by active transport using ATP, have been suggested as a useful model to study the effects of oxometalates on calcium homeostasis. In the present article, it is shown that decavanadate, decaniobate, vanadate, tungstate and molybdate, all inhibited SR Ca(2+)-ATPase, with the following IC(50) values: 15, 35, 50, 400 μM and 45 mM, respectively. Decaniobate (Nb(10)), is the strongest P-type enzyme inhibitor, after decavanadate (V(10)). Atomic-absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis, indicates that decavanadate binds to the protein with a 1:1 decavanadate:Ca(2+)-ATPase stoichiometry. Furthermore, V(10) binds with similar extension to all the protein conformations, which occur during calcium translocation by active transport, namely E1, E1P, E2 and E2P, as analysed by AAS. In contrast, it was confirmed that the binding of monomeric vanadate (H(2)VO(4)(2-); V(1)) to the calcium pump is favoured only for the E2 and E2P conformations of the ATPase, whereas no significant amount of vanadate is bound to the E1 and E1P conformations. Scatchard plot analysis, confirmed a 1:1 ratio for decavanadate-Ca(2+)-ATPase, with a dissociation constant, k(d) of 1 μM(-1). The interaction of decavanadate V(10)O(28)(6-) (V(10)) with Ca(2+)-ATPase is prevented by the isostructural and isoelectronic decaniobate Nb(10)O(28)(6-) (Nb(10)), whereas no significant effects were

  11. Nitric Oxide Modulates the Activities of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase and PPase in Wheat Seedling Roots and Promotes the Salt Tolerance Against Salt Stress%一氧化氮调节盐胁迫下小麦幼苗根部质膜H+-ATPase和焦磷酸酶活性提高耐盐性

    阮海华; 沈文飚; 徐朗莱


    采用外源一氧化氮(NO)供体硝普钠(SNP)研究了NO对盐胁迫下小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)幼苗耐盐性的影响.结果表明,0.1 mmol/L SNP处理显著缓解了1 50 mmol/L NaCl胁迫对小麦幼苗生长的抑制效应,包括水分丧失以及叶绿素降解,从而提高了小麦幼苗的耐盐性.进一步结合1 mg/mL血红蛋白处理则显著逆转了SNP诱导的上述效应;利用亚硝酸钠和铁氰化钾作为对照也证实了NO对小麦幼苗耐盐性的专一性调节作用,并可能与NO对小麦幼苗根部质膜H+-ATPase和焦磷酸酶活性诱导有关.此外,尽管NO显著提高了盐胁迫下小麦幼苗根部细胞质膜H+-ATPase和焦磷酸酶的ATP水解活性,但是对跨膜H+转运则没有明显影响.应用外源CaSO4和EGTA处理也证实,Ca2+可能在NO诱导的质膜H+-ATPase和焦磷酸酶活性的提高过程中起信号作用.另外,分析盐胁迫下小麦幼苗根部Na+和K+含量的变化也发现,NO对Na+含量没有明显影响,但是却显著提高了K+水平和K+/Na+比,这可能也是NO提高小麦幼苗耐盐性的原因之一.%Effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on the salt tolerance of wheat ( Triticurn aestivurn L.) seedlings indicated that NO donor significantly alleviated the growth inhibition, water loss and the decay of chlorophyll in wheat seedlings caused by 150 mmol/L NaCl salt stress, thus led to the promotion of salt tolerance against salt stress. Combined with 1 mg/mL hemoglobin treatment reverted the above SNP actions by restoring the growth of wheat seedlings and chlorophyll content to the level found in untreated wheat seedlings under salt stress. The specific role of NO in regulating the salt tolerance of wheat seedlings under salt stress was confirmed by using NaNO2 and K3[Fe(CN)6] as control. Further investigation showed that the effect of both which might be related to the induction of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and H+-PPase (H

  12. Abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide induce modification of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase from Cucumis sativus L. roots under heat shock.

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna


    We examined the effect of heat shock (HS), for 2 h at 48°C, on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM-H(+)-ATPase) measured as the hydrolytic and H(+)-pumping activity. Some of the plants were transferred after 2 h HS to control temperature for another 24 h, as post-stressed (PS) plants. A significant increase of PM-H(+)-ATPase in plants subjected to HS was observed. The stimulation of PM-H(+)-ATPase was higher in PS plants. Estimation of transcript levels of cucumber PM-H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of HS affected gene expression levels. Transcript levels of two isoforms, CsHA4 and CsHA8, in PS plants were elevated. The expression of PM-H(+)-ATPase genes was not affected in plants treated for 2 h with HS. HS elevated the endogenous level of abscisic acid (ABA) both in plants treated for 2 h with HS and in PS plants. Moreover, in PS plants, a distinctly higher level of H(2)O(2) was observed. It was also demonstrated that transcript levels of PM-H(+)-ATPase were elevated in cucumber roots after 24-h treatment of plants with ABA or H(2)O(2). Both of these compounds seem to play an important role in increasing ATPase activity during heat stress, because the use of the inhibitors tungstate and DPI restrained stimulation of PM-H(+)-ATPase activity by heat. Moreover, protein blot analysis with an antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM-H(+)-ATPase under HS resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that, under post-heat stress conditions, abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide are involved in PM-ATPase modification, through stimulation of gene expression of that PM proton pump. Moreover, heat treatment of cucumber plants results in increased phosphorylation of PM-ATPase and thus fast post-translational modification, leading to activation of the enzyme protein.

  13. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Devi B


    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  14. Erythrocytes may contain a ouabain-insensitive K+-ATPase which plays a role in internal K+ balance

    Seguro L.F.B.C.


    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are useful in evaluating K+ transport pathways involved in internal K+ balance. Several forms of H+,K+-ATPase have been described in nephron segments active in K+ transport. Furthermore, the activity of a ouabain-insensitive isoform of H+,K+-ATPase expressed in collecting duct cells may be modulated by acid-base status. Various assays were performed to determine if a ouabain-insensitive K+-ATPase is present in rat erythrocytes and, if so, whether it plays a role in internal K+ balance. Kinetic studies demonstrated that maximal stimulation of enzyme activity was achieved with 2.5 mM K+ at pH 7.4. Subsequent experiments were performed on erythrocyte membranes collected from animals submitted to varying degrees of K+ homeostasis: control rats, K+-depleted rats, K+-loaded rats, and rats rendered hyperkalemic due to acute renal failure. As observed in the collecting duct cell studies, there was a significant decrease in the activity of ouabain-insensitive K+-ATPase in the erythrocytes of both K+-loaded and metabolically alkalotic K+-depleted rats. However, this enzyme activity in erythrocyte membranes of rats with metabolic acidosis-related hyperkalemia was similar to that of control animals. This finding may be interpreted as resulting from two potentially modulating factors: the stimulating effect that metabolic acidosis has on K+-ATPase and the counteracting effect that hyperkalemia and uremia have on metabolic acidosis. In summary, we present evidence of a ouabain-insensitive K+-ATPase in erythrocytes, whose activity is modulated by acid-base status and K+ levels.

  15. Regulation of the V-ATPase along the endocytic pathway occurs through reversible subunit association and membrane localization.

    Céline Lafourcade

    Full Text Available The lumen of endosomal organelles becomes increasingly acidic when going from the cell surface to lysosomes. Luminal pH thereby regulates important processes such as the release of internalized ligands from their receptor or the activation of lysosomal enzymes. The main player in endosomal acidification is the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase, a multi-subunit transmembrane complex that pumps protons from the cytoplasm to the lumen of organelles, or to the outside of the cell. The active V-ATPase is composed of two multi-subunit domains, the transmembrane V(0 and the cytoplasmic V(1. Here we found that the ratio of membrane associated V(1/Vo varies along the endocytic pathway, the relative abundance of V(1 being higher on late endosomes than on early endosomes, providing an explanation for the higher acidity of late endosomes. We also found that all membrane-bound V-ATPase subunits were associated with detergent resistant membranes (DRM isolated from late endosomes, raising the possibility that association with lipid-raft like domains also plays a role in regulating the activity of the proton pump. In support of this, we found that treatment of cells with U18666A, a drug that leads to the accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes, affected acidification of late endosome. Altogether our findings indicate that the activity of the vATPase in the endocytic pathway is regulated both by reversible association/dissociation and the interaction with specific lipid environments.

  16. Expression of genes encoding F-1-ATPase results in uncoupling of glycolysis from biomass production in Lactococcus lactis

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian; Pedersen, M.B.


    We studied how the introduction of an additional ATP-consuming reaction affects the metabolic fluxes in Lactococcus lactis. Genes encoding the hydrolytic part of the F-1 domain of the membrane-bound (F1F0) H+-ATPase were expressed from a range of synthetic constitutive promoters. Expression...

  17. Characterization of the anion sensitive ATPase in intact vacuoles of Kalanchoe diagremontiana

    Kobza, J.; Uribe, E.G.


    A method for the isolation of intact vacuoles from K. daigremontiana was developed which produced high yields of relatively pure vacuoles as determined by marker enzyme contamination. Upon isolation, the vacuoles were stabilized by the inclusion of 5% (w/v) ficoll. Enzyme activity was insensitive to vanadate and azide but was strongly inhibited by DCCD. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the inclusion of Mg/sup 2 +/ and was stimulated by anions as depicted by the series, NO/sub 3//sup -/ < Br/sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup -/ < HCO/sub 3//sup -/ < Cl/sup -/. It was found that in intact vacuoles the ATPase activity was stimulated by phosphate to a level equivalent to that found with the chloride. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for Mg-ATP complex of 0.51 mM.

  18. Biochemical and cytochemical localization of ATPases on the membranes of the electrocyte of Electrophorus electricus.

    Somló, C; de Souza, W; Machado, R D; Hassón-Voloch, A


    The localization of (Na+-K+) ATPase in the intact electrocyte of the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (L.) and its subcellular fractions was investigated by biochemical and cytochemical methods. The distribution of AChE activity in the subcellular fractions was also comparatively analysed with this enzyme serving as a marker of the innervated membranes of the electrocyte. After application of cytochemical method of Farquhar and Palade to glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue, reaction was observed only at the membranes of vesicles localized at the periphery of the electrocyte. Previously fixed electrocytes, incubated in Ernst's medium showed reaction only at the vesicles whereas in unfixed tissue reaction also appeared at other membranes (surface and invaginations) of the anterior and posterior faces. This reaction was significantly inhibited in the presence of ouabain or in the absence of K+. Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase by glutaraldehyde fixation was also confirmed by biochemical analysis.

  19. Structure and function of Cu(I)- and Zn(II)-ATPases

    Sitsel, Oleg; Grønberg, Christina; Autzen, Henriette


    membranes at the expense of ATP. Recent biochemical studies and crystal structures have significantly improved our understanding of the transport mechanisms of these proteins, but many details about their structure and function remain elusive. Here we compare the Cu(I)- and Zn(II)-ATPases, scrutinizing......Copper and zinc are micronutrients essential for the function of many enzymes while also being toxic at elevated concentrations. Cu(I)- and Zn(II)-transporting P-type ATPases of subclass 1B are of key importance for the homeostasis of these transition metals, allowing ion transport across cellular...... the molecular differences that allow transport of these two distinct metal types, and discuss possible future directions of research in the field....

  20. Regulation of Na/K-ATPase gene expression by thyroid hormone and hyperkalemia in the heart.

    Yalcin, Y; Carman, D; Shao, Y; Ismail-Beigi, F; Klein, I; Ojamaa, K


    Hypothermic hyperkalemic circulatory arrest has been widely used for myocardial protection during heart surgery. Recent data showed that administration of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) postoperatively enhanced ventricular function. The effect of hyperkalemic arrest in conjunction with thyroid hormone on the plasma membrane enzyme sodium/potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), was determined in cultured neonatal rat atrial and ventricular myocytes. Exposure of ventricular myocytes to hyperkalemic medium (50 mM KCl) in the absence of T3 increased expression of the Na/K-ATPase catalytic subunit mRNAs, alpha1 and alpha3 isoforms, by 1.9- and 1.5-fold, respectively (pplasma membrane ion function.

  1. Involvement of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Adaption of Rice to Ammonium Nutrient

    ZHU Yi-yong; LIAN Juan; ZENG Hou-qing; LIU GAN; DI Ting-jun; SHEN Qi-rong; XU Guo-hua


    The preference of paddy rice for NH4+ rather than NO3- is associated with its tolerance to low pH since a rhizosphere acidification occurs during NH4+ absorption.However,the adaptation of rice root to low pH has not been fully elucidated.The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a universal electronic H+ pump,which uses ATP as energy source to pump H+ across the plasma membranes into the apoplast.The key function of this enzyme is to keep pH homeostasis of plant cells and generate a H+ electrochemical gradient,thereby providing the driving force for the active influx and efflux of ions and metabolites across the plasma membrane.This study investigated the acclimation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase of rice root to low pH.This mechanism might be partly responsible for the preference of rice plants to NH4+ nutrition.

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of GhDET3, a vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit C gene, from cotton

    Zhongyi Xiao; Kunling Tan; Mingyu Hu; Peng Liao; Kuijun Chen; Ming Luo


    Vacuolar H+-ATPase was regarded as a key enzyme promoting the fiber cell elongation in cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.) through regulating turgot-driven pressure involved in polarity expansion of single cell fiber. The DET3, a V-ATPase subunit C, plays an impor-tant role in assembling subunits and regulating the enzyme activity, and is involved in Brassinosteroid-induced cell elongation. To ana-lyze the function of GhDET3 on the elongation of cotton fibers, seven candidates of ESTs were screened and contigged for a 5'-upstream sequence, and the 3'-RACE technique was used to clone the 3'-downstream sequence for the full length of GhDET3 gene. The full length of the target clone was 1,340 bp, including a 10 bp 5'-UTR, an ORF of 1,134 bp, and a 196 bp 3'-UTR. This cDNA sequence encoded a polypepide of 377 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 43 kDa and a basic isoelectric point of 5.58. Furthermore, a length of 3,410 bp sequence from genomic DNA of GhDET3 was also cloned by PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence had a high ho-mology with DET3 from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the GhDET3 expres-sion pattern was ubiquitous in all the tissues and organs detected. The result also revealed that the accumulation of GhDET3 mRNA reached the highest profile at the fiber elongation stage in 12 DPA (days post anthesis) fibers, compared with the lowest level at the fiber initiation stage in 0 DPA ovules (with fibers). The transcript accumulation in fibers and ovules shared the similar variation tendency. In addition, in vitro ovule culture experiment demonstrated that exogenous 24-EBL treatment to 4 DPA ovules (with fibers) was capable of increasing the expression level of GhDET3, and the mRNA accumulation of GhDET3 increased in transgenic FBP7::GhDET2 cotton fibers in vivo. These results indicate that GhDET3 gene plays a crucial role in cotton fiber elongation.

  3. In vivo and in vitro effect of imipramine and fluoxetine on Na+,K+-ATPase activity in synaptic plasma membranes from the cerebral cortex of rats

    L.M. Zanatta


    Full Text Available The effects of in vivo chronic treatment and in vitro addition of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, or fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the cortical membrane-bound Na+,K+-ATPase activity were studied. Adult Wistar rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of imipramine or fluoxetine for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last injection rats were decapitated and synaptic plasma membranes (SPM from cerebral cortex were prepared to determine Na+,K+-ATPase activity. There was a significant decrease (10% in enzyme activity after imipramine but fluoxetine treatment caused a significant increase (27% in Na+,K+-ATPase activity compared to control (P<0.05, ANOVA; N = 7 for each group. When assayed in vitro, the addition of both drugs to SPM of naive rats caused a dose-dependent decrease in enzyme activity, with the maximal inhibition (60-80% occurring at 0.5 mM. We suggest that a imipramine might decrease Na+,K+-ATPase activity by altering membrane fluidity, as previously proposed, and b stimulation of this enzyme might contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of fluoxetine, since brain Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in bipolar patients.

  4. Identification of a crab gill FXYD2 protein and regulation of crab microsomal Na,K-ATPase activity by mammalian FXYD2 peptide.

    Silva, Elias C C; Masui, Douglas C; Furriel, Rosa P; McNamara, John C; Barrabin, Hector; Scofano, Helena M; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Leone, Francisco A; Fontes, Carlos Frederico L


    This investigation discloses the recognition of an FXYD2 protein in a microsomal Na,K-ATPase preparation from the posterior gills of the blue crab, Callinectes danae, by a mammalian (rabbit) FXYD2 peptide specific antibody (γC(33)) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry techniques. This is the first demonstration of an invertebrate FXYD2 protein. The addition of exogenous pig FXYD2 peptide to the crab gill microsomal fraction stimulated Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous pig FXYD2 also considerably increased enzyme affinity for K(+), ATP and NH(4)(+). K(0.5) for Na(+) was unaffected. Exogenous pig FXYD2 increased the V(max) for stimulation of gill Na,K-ATPase activity by Na(+), K(+) and ATP, by 30% to 40%. The crab gill FXYD2 is phosphorylated by PKA, suggesting a regulatory function similar to that known for the mammalian enzyme. The PKA-phosphorylated pig FXYD2 peptide stimulated the crab gill Na,K-ATPase activity by 80%, about 2-fold greater than did the non-phosphorylated peptide. Stimulation by the PKC-phosphorylated pig FXYD2 peptide was minimal. These findings confirm the presence of an FXYD2 peptide in the crab gill Na,K-ATPase and demonstrate that this peptide plays an important role in regulating enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Overproduction of PIB-Type ATPases

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sitsel, Oleg; Wang, Kaituo


    Understanding of the functions and mechanisms of fundamental processes in the cell requires structural information. Structural studies of membrane proteins typically necessitate large amounts of purified and preferably homogenous target protein. Here, we describe a rapid overproduction and purifi...... and purification strategy of a bacterial PIB-type ATPase for isolation of milligrams of target protein per liter Escherichia coli cell culture, with a final quality of the sample which is sufficient for generating high-resolution crystals....

  6. Overproduction of PIB-Type ATPases.

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sitsel, Oleg; Wang, Kaituo; Gourdon, Pontus


    Understanding of the functions and mechanisms of fundamental processes in the cell requires structural information. Structural studies of membrane proteins typically necessitate large amounts of purified and preferably homogenous target protein. Here, we describe a rapid overproduction and purification strategy of a bacterial PIB-type ATPase for isolation of milligrams of target protein per liter Escherichia coli cell culture, with a final quality of the sample which is sufficient for generating high-resolution crystals.

  7. Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A


    The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single α-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (≈25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme.

  8. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) Mediates Progesterone-Induced Uterine Fluid Acidification in Rats.

    Karim, Kamarulzaman; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib


    We hypothesized that progesterone-induced decrease in uterine fluid pH involves V-ATPase. In this study, expression and functional activity of V-ATPase in uterus were investigated under progesterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received subcutaneous injection of estradiol-17β (1 µg/kg/day) or progesterone (20 mg/kg/day) for 3 days or 3 days estradiol-17β followed by 3 days vehicle, progesterone, or estradiol-17β plus progesterone. Mifepristone, a progesterone receptor blocker, was concomitantly given to the rats which received progesterone. A day after last injection, rate of uterine fluid secretion, its HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were determined via in vivo uterine perfusion in rats under anesthesia. V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, was introduced into the perfusion buffer, and changes in these parameters were observed. Expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs in uterus were quantified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Distribution of these proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. Our findings showed that under progesterone influence, uterine fluid secretion rate, HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were significantly reduced. Administration of bafilomycin did not cause significant changes in fluid secretion rate; however, HCO3 (-) concentration and pH were significantly elevated. In parallel with these changes, expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly increased with these proteins highly distributed in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia. In conclusion, increased expression and functional activity of V-ATPase were most likely responsible for the decreased in uterine fluid pH observed under progesterone influence.

  9. The Administration of Levocabastine, a NTS2 Receptor Antagonist, Modifies Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Properties.

    Gutnisky, Alicia; López Ordieres, María Graciela; Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina


    Neurotensin behaves as a neuromodulator or as a neurotransmitter interacting with NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Neurotensin in vitro inhibits synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. This effect is prevented by administration of SR 48692 (antagonist for NTS1 receptor). The administration of levocabastine (antagonist for NTS2 receptor) does not prevent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition by neurotensin when the enzyme is assayed with ATP as substrate. Herein levocabastine effect on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase K(+) site was explored. For this purpose, levocabastine was administered to rats and K(+)-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K(+)-p-NPPase) activity in synaptosomal membranes and [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes were assayed in the absence (basal) and in the presence of neurotensin. Male Wistar rats were administered with levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p., 30 min) or the vehicle (saline solution). Synaptosomal membranes were obtained from cerebral cortex by differential and gradient centrifugation. The activity of K(+)-p-NPPase was determined in media laking or containing ATP plus NaCl. In such phosphorylating condition enzyme behaviour resembles that observed when ATP hydrolyses is recorded. In the absence of ATP plus NaCl, K(+)-p-NPPase activity was similar for levocabastine or vehicle injected (roughly 11 μmole hydrolyzed substrate per mg protein per hour). Such value remained unaltered by the presence of 3.5 × 10(-6) M neurotensin. In the phosphorylating medium, neurotensin decreased (32 %) the enzyme activity in membranes obtained from rats injected with the vehicle but failed to alter those obtained from rats injected with levocabastine. Levocabastine administration enhanced (50 %) basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes but failed to modify neurotensin inhibitory effect on this ligand binding. It is concluded that NTS2 receptor blockade modifies the properties of neuronal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and that neurotensin effect on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase

  10. Regulation of hepatic Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in obese female and male rats: involvement of ERK1/2, AMPK, and Rho/ROCK.

    Stanimirovic, Julijana; Obradovic, Milan; Panic, Anastasija; Petrovic, Voin; Alavantic, Dragan; Melih, Irena; Isenovic, Esma R


    In this study, we assessed whether the disturbed regulation of sodium/potassium-adenosine-triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) occurs as a consequence of obesity-induced IR in sex-specific manner. We also assessed whether alterations of IRS/PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, AMPKα, and RhoA/ROCK signaling cascades have an important role in this pathology. Female and male Wistar rats (150-200 g, 8 weeks old) were fed a standard laboratory diet or a high-fat (HF) diet (42% fat) for 10 weeks. The activity of hepatic Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Rho, and the association of IRS-1/p85 were assessed in liver. Furthermore, the protein level of α1 Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in plasma membrane fractions, and protein levels of IRS-1, PI3K-p85, -p110, RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, ERK1/2, AMPKα, ERα, and ERβ in liver lysates were assessed. The expression of hepatic α1 Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase mRNA was also analyzed by qRT-PCR. The results show that HF-fed female rats exhibited an increase in hepatic ERK1/2 (p K(+)-ATPase α1 mRNA, decreased level of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity (p K(+)-ATPase protein expression (p K(+)-ATPase activity (p K(+)-ATPase mRNA expression and activation of ERK1/2, AMPKα, and Rho in the liver. Exploring the sex-specific factors and pathways that promote obesity-related diseases may lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and discovering new therapeutic targets.

  11. Chronic and selective inhibition of basolateral membrane Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates brush border membrane Na absorption in intestinal epithelial cells

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Gayam, Swapna; Arthur, Subha; Palaniappan, Balasubramanian; Singh, Soudamani; Dick, Gregory M.


    Na-K-ATPase, an integral membrane protein in mammalian cells, is responsible for maintaining the favorable intracellular Na gradient necessary to promote Na-coupled solute cotransport processes [e.g., Na-glucose cotransport (SGLT1)]. Inhibition of brush border membrane (BBM) SGLT1 is, at least in part, due to the diminished Na-K-ATPase in villus cells from chronically inflamed rabbit intestine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Na-K-ATPase inhibition on the two major BBM Na absorptive pathways, specifically Na-glucose cotransport and Na/H exchange (NHE), in intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) cells. Na-K-ATPase was inhibited using 1 mM ouabain or siRNA for Na-K-ATPase-α1 in IEC-18 cells. SGLT1 activity was determined as 3-O-methyl-d-[3H]glucose uptake. Na-K-ATPase activity was measured as the amount of inorganic phosphate released. Treatment with ouabain resulted in SGLT1 inhibition at 1 h but stimulation at 24 h. To further characterize this unexpected stimulation of SGLT1, siRNA silencing was utilized to inhibit Na-K-ATPase-α1. SGLT1 activity was significantly upregulated by Na-K-ATPase silencing, while NHE3 activity remained unaltered. Kinetics showed that the mechanism of stimulation of SGLT1 activity was secondary to an increase in affinity of the cotransporter for glucose without a change in the number of cotransporters. Molecular studies demonstrated that the mechanism of stimulation was not secondary to altered BBM SGLT1 protein levels. Chronic and direct silencing of basolateral Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates BBM Na absorptive pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Specifically, while BBM NHE3 is unaffected, SGLT1 is stimulated secondary to enhanced affinity of the cotransporter. PMID:25652450

  12. Pectic enzymes

    Benen, J.A.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Visser, J.


    The pectic enzymes comprise a diverse group of enzymes. They consist of main-chain depolymerases and esterases active on methyl- and acetylesters of galacturonosyl uronic acid residues. The depolymerizing enzymes comprise hydrolases as wel as lyases

  13. Pectic enzymes

    Benen, J.A.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Visser, J.


    The pectic enzymes comprise a diverse group of enzymes. They consist of main-chain depolymerases and esterases active on methyl- and acetylesters of galacturonosyl uronic acid residues. The depolymerizing enzymes comprise hydrolases as wel as lyases

  14. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by neuron-specific transcription factor Sp4: implication in the tight coupling of energy production, neuronal activity and energy consumption in neurons.

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T


    A major source of energy demand in neurons is the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump that restores the ionic gradient across the plasma membrane subsequent to depolarizing neuronal activity. The energy comes primarily from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, of which cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key enzyme. Recently, we found that all 13 subunits of COX are regulated by specificity (Sp) factors, and that the neuron-specific Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the expression of key glutamatergic receptor subunits as well. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that Sp4 also regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit genes in neurons. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, over-expression, and RNA interference studies, we found that Sp4, with minor contributions from Sp1 and Sp3, functionally regulate the Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1 subunit genes of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in neurons. Transcripts of all three genes were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl stimulation and down-regulated by the impulse blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that their expression was activity-dependent. Silencing of Sp4 blocked the up-regulation of these genes induced by KCl, whereas over-expression of Sp4 rescued them from TTX-induced suppression. The effect of silencing or over-expressing Sp4 on primary neurons was much greater than those of Sp1 or Sp3. The binding sites of Sp factors on these genes are conserved among mice, rats and humans. Thus, Sp4 plays an important role in the transcriptional coupling of energy generation and energy consumption in neurons.

  15. Enzyme assays.

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie


    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  16. Transcriptional regulators of Na, K-ATPase subunits

    Zhiqin eLi


    Full Text Available The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic alpha-subunit, the beta-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits have been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease.

  17. Membrane fluidization by ether, other anesthetics, and certain agents abolishes P-glycoprotein ATPase activity and modulates efflux from multidrug-resistant cells.

    Regev, R; Assaraf, Y G; Eytan, G D


    The anesthetics benzyl alcohol and the nonaromatic chloroform and diethyl ether, abolish P-glycoprotein (Pgp) ATPase activity in a mode that does not fit classical competitive, noncompetitive, or uncompetitive inhibition. At concentrations similar to those required for inhibition of ATPase activity, these anesthetics fluidize membranes leading to twofold acceleration of doxorubicin flip-flop across lipid membranes and prevent photoaffinity labeling of Pgp with [125I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin. Similar concentrations of ether proved nontoxic and modulated efflux from Pgp-overexpressing cells. A similar twofold acceleration of doxorubicin flip-flop rate across membranes was observed with neutral mild detergents, including Tween 20, Nonidet P-40 and Triton X-100, and certain Pgp modulators, such as verapamil and progesterone. Concentrations of these agents, similar to those required for membrane fluidization, inhibited Pgp ATPase activity in a mode similar to that observed with the anesthetics. The mode of inhibition, i.e. lack of evidence for classical enzyme inhibition and the correlation of Pgp ATPase inhibition with membrane fluidization over a wide range of concentrations and structures of drugs favors the direct inhibition of Pgp ATPase activity by membrane fluidization. The unusual sensitivity of Pgp to membrane fluidization, as opposed to acceleration of ATPase activity of ion transporters, could fit the proposed function of Pgp as a 'flippase', which is in close contact with the membrane core.

  18. Diversity of proton pumps in osteoclasts: V-ATPase with a3 and d2 isoforms is a major form in osteoclasts.

    Matsumoto, Naomi; Daido, Shun; Sun-Wada, Ge-Hong; Wada, Yoh; Futai, Masamitsu; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi


    Osteoclasts acidify bone resorption lacunae through proton translocation by plasma membrane V-ATPase (vacuolar-type ATPase) which has an a3 isoform, one of the four isoforms of the trans-membrane a subunit (Toyomura et al., J. Biol. Chem., 278, 22023-22030, 2003). d2, a kidney- and epididymis-specific isoform of the d subunit, was also induced in osteoclast-like cells derived from the RAW264.7 line, and formed V-ATPase with a3. The amount of d2 in osteoclasts was 4-fold higher than that of d1, a ubiquitous isoform. These results indicate that V-ATPase with d2/a3 is a major osteoclast proton pump. Essentially the same results were obtained with osteoclasts derived from mouse spleen macrophages. Macrophages from a3-knock-out mice could differentiate into multi-nuclear cells with osteoclast-specific enzymes. In these cells, the d2 isoform was also induced and assembled in V-ATPase with the a1 or a2 isoform. However, they did not absorb calcium phosphate, indicating that V-ATPase with d2/a1 or d2/a2 could not perform the function of that with d2/a3.

  19. The vacuolar-ATPase complex and assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, control HIF1α prolyl hydroxylation by regulating cellular iron levels.

    Miles, Anna L; Burr, Stephen P; Grice, Guinevere L; Nathan, James A


    Hypoxia Inducible transcription Factors (HIFs) are principally regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate and Iron(II) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes, which hydroxylate the HIFα subunit, facilitating its proteasome-mediated degradation. Observations that HIFα hydroxylation can be impaired even when oxygen is sufficient emphasise the importance of understanding the complex nature of PHD regulation. Here, we use an unbiased genome-wide genetic screen in near-haploid human cells to uncover cellular processes that regulate HIF1α. We identify that genetic disruption of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), the key proton pump for endo-lysosomal acidification, and two previously uncharacterised V-ATPase assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, stabilise HIF1α in aerobic conditions. Rather than preventing the lysosomal degradation of HIF1α, disrupting the V-ATPase results in intracellular iron depletion, thereby impairing PHD activity and leading to HIF activation. Iron supplementation directly restores PHD catalytic activity following V-ATPase inhibition, revealing important links between the V-ATPase, iron metabolism and HIFs.

  20. Trypanosoma brucei TbIF1 inhibits the essential F1-ATPase in the infectious form of the parasite.

    Brian Panicucci


    Full Text Available The mitochondrial (mt FoF1-ATP synthase of the digenetic parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, generates ATP during the insect procyclic form (PF, but becomes a perpetual consumer of ATP in the mammalian bloodstream form (BF, which lacks a canonical respiratory chain. This unconventional dependence on FoF1-ATPase is required to maintain the essential mt membrane potential (Δψm. Normally, ATP hydrolysis by this rotary molecular motor is restricted to when eukaryotic cells experience sporadic hypoxic conditions, during which this compulsory function quickly depletes the cellular ATP pool. To protect against this cellular treason, the highly conserved inhibitory factor 1 (IF1 binds the enzyme in a manner that solely inhibits the hydrolytic activity. Intriguingly, we were able to identify the IF1 homolog in T. brucei (TbIF1, but determined that its expression in the mitochondrion is tightly regulated throughout the life cycle as it is only detected in PF cells. TbIF1 appears to primarily function as an emergency brake in PF cells, where it prevented the restoration of the Δψm by FoF1-ATPase when respiration was chemically inhibited. In vitro, TbIF1 overexpression specifically inhibits the hydrolytic activity but not the synthetic capability of the FoF1-ATP synthase in PF mitochondria. Furthermore, low μM amounts of recombinant TbIF1 achieve the same inhibition of total mt ATPase activity as the FoF1-ATPase specific inhibitors, azide and oligomycin. Therefore, even minimal ectopic expression of TbIF1 in BF cells proved lethal as the indispensable Δψm collapsed due to inhibited FoF1-ATPase. In summary, we provide evidence that T. brucei harbors a natural and potent unidirectional inhibitor of the vital FoF1-ATPase activity that can be exploited for future structure-based drug design.

  1. Structural studies of the vacuolar membrane ATPase from Neurospora crassa and comparison with the tonoplast membrane ATPase and Zea mays

    Bowman, E.J.; Mandala, S.; Taiz, L.; Bowman, B.J.


    The H translocating ATPase located on vacuolar membranes of Neurospora crassa was partially purified by solubilization in two detergents, Triton X-100 and N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, followed by centrifugation on sucrose density gradients. Two polypeptides of M/sub r/ approx. = 70,000 and approx. = 62,000 consistently migrated with activity, along with several minor bands of lower molecular weight. Radioactively labeled inhibitors of ATPase activity, N-( UC)ethylmaleimide and 7-chloro-4-nitro( UC)benzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, labeled the M/sub r/ approx. = 70,000 polypeptide; this labeling was reduced in the presence of ATP. N,N'-( UC)dicyclohexylcarbodiimide labeled a polypeptide of M/sub r/ approx. = 15,000. Estimation of the functional size of the vacuolar membrane ATPase by radiation inactivation gave a value of M/sub r/ 5.2 x 10V, 10-15% larger than the mitochondrial ATPase. The Neurospora vacuolar ATPase showed no crossreactivity with antiserum to plasma membrane or mitochrondrial ATPase but stongly crossreacted with antiserum against a polypeptide of M/sub r/ approx. = 70,000 associated with the tonoplast ATPase of corn coleoptiles. These results suggest that fungal and plant vacuolar ATPases may be large multisubunit complexes, somewhat similar to, but immunologically distinct from, known F0F1 ATPases.

  2. Purification and characterization of Rad3 ATPase/DNA helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Harosh, I; Naumovski, L; Friedberg, E C


    The Rad3 ATPase/DNA helicase was purified to physical homogeneity from extracts of yeast cells containing overexpressed Rad3 protein. The DNA helicase can unwind duplex regions as short as 11 base pairs in a partially duplex circular DNA substrate and does so by a strictly processive mechanism. On partially duplex linear substrates, the enzyme has a strict 5'----3' polarity with respect to the single strand to which it binds. Nicked circular DNA is not utilized as a substrate, and the enzyme requires single-stranded gaps between 5 and 21 nucleotides long to unwind oligonucleotide fragments from partially duplex linear molecules. The enzyme also requires duplex regions at least 11 base pairs long when these are present at the ends of linear molecules. Rad3 DNA helicase activity is inhibited by the presence of ultraviolet-induced photoproducts in duplex regions of partially duplex circular molecules.

  3. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  4. Phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+,K+-ATPase

    Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben; Jensen, Jan Egebjerg;


    Phosphorylation is a widely used, reversible means of regulating enzymatic activity. Among the important phosphorylation targets are the Na(+),K(+)- and H(+),K(+)-ATPases that pump ions against their chemical gradients to uphold ionic concentration differences over the plasma membrane. The two...... as supported by electrophysiological results presented here. We further review the other proposed pump phosphorylations....

  5. O2 free radicals: cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury to cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase

    Kim, M.S.; Akera, T.


    The role of O2 free radicals in the reduction of sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase, which occurs during reperfusion of ischemic heart, was examined in isolated guinea pig heart using exogenous scavengers of O2 radicals and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Ischemia and reperfusion reduced Na+-K+-ATPase activity and specific (3H)ouabain binding to the enzyme in ventricular muscle homogenates and also markedly lowered sodium pump activity estimated from ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by ventricular muscle slices. These effects of ischemia and reperfusion were prevented to various degrees by O2-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl-sulfoxide, histidine, or vitamin E or by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. The degree of protection afforded by these agents paralleled that of reduction in enhanced lipid peroxidation of myocardial tissue as estimated from malondialdehyde production. These results strongly suggest that O2 radicals play a crucial role in the injury to sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase during reperfusion of ischemic heart.

  6. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities in winter wheat root plasma membranes as affected by NaCl stress during growth

    Mansour, MMF; van Hasselt, PR; Kuiper, PJC


    Winter wheat seedlings were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution with or without 100 mmol/L NaCl added. Plasma membranes from root cells were prepared by aqueous polymer two phase partitioning and the stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity by Mg2+ and Ca2+ was investigated. The enzyme was act

  7. Nucleotide occupancy of F1-ATPase catalytic sites under crystallization conditions.

    Löbau, S; Weber, J; Senior, A E


    Using site-directed tryptophan fluorescence we studied nucleotide occupancy of the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, under conditions used previously for crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of the bovine mitochondrial enzyme [Abrahams et al. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628]. We found that only two of the three catalytic sites were filled in the E. coli enzyme under these conditions (250 microM MgAMPPNP plus 5 microM MgADP), consistent with what was reported in the bovine F1 X-ray structure. However, subsequent addition of a physiological concentration of MgATP readily filled the third catalytic site. Therefore the enzyme form seen in the X-ray structure results from the fact that it is obtained under sub-saturating nucleotide conditions. The data show that the X-ray structure is compatible with a catalytic mechanism in which all three F1-ATPase catalytic sites must fill with MgATP to initiate steady-state hydrolysis [e.g. Weber and Senior (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1275, 101-104]. The data further demonstrate that the site-directed tryptophan fluorescence technique can provide valuable support for F1 crystallography studies.

  8. Gill microsomal (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the blue crab Callinectes danae: Interactions at cationic sites.

    Masui, D C; Furriel, R P M; Silva, E C C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L; Leone, F A


    Euryhaline crustaceans tolerate exposure to a wide range of dilute media, using compensatory, ion regulatory mechanisms. However, data on molecular interactions occurring at cationic sites on the crustacean gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase, a key enzyme in this hyperosmoregulatory process, are unavailable. We report that Na+ binding at the activating site leads to cooperative, heterotropic interactions that are insensitive to K+. The binding of K+ ions to their high affinity sites displaces Na+ ions from their sites. The increase in Na+ ion concentrations increases heterotropic interactions with the K+ ions, with no changes in K0.5 for K+ ion activation at the extracellular sites. Differently from mammalian (Na+,K+)-ATPases, that from C. danae exhibits additional NH4+ ion binding sites that synergistically activate the enzyme at saturating concentrations of Na+ and K+ ions. NH4+ binding is cooperative, and heterotropic NH4+ ion interactions are insensitive to Na+ ions, but Na+ ions displace NH4+ ions from their sites. NH4+ ions also displace Na+ ions from their sites. Mg2+ ions modulate enzyme stimulation by NH4+ ions, displacing NH4+ ion from its sites. These interactions may modulate NH4+ ion excretion and Na+ ion uptake by the gill epithelium in euryhaline crustaceans that confront hyposmotic media.

  9. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M


    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  10. REM sleep deprivation-induced noradrenaline stimulates neuronal and inhibits glial Na-K ATPase in rat brain: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Baskey, Ganesh; Singh, Abhishek; Sharma, Rakhi; Mallick, Birendra Nath


    Increased noradrenaline, induced by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, stimulates Na-K ATPase activity in the rat brain. The brain contains neurons as well as glia and both possess Na-K ATPase, however, it was not known if REM sleep deprivation affects the enzyme in both types of cells identically. Rats were REM sleep deprived by the flowerpot method and free moving, large platform and recovery controls were carried out. Na-K ATPase activity was measured in membranes prepared from whole brain as well as from neuronal and glial fractions separated from REM sleep-deprived and control rats. The effects of noradrenaline (NA) in different fractions were studied with or without in vivo i.p. treatment of prazosin, an alpha1-adrenpceptor antagonist, as well as in vitro membranes prepared from neurons and glia separated from normal rat brain. Further, to confirm the findings, membranes were prepared from neuro2a and C6 cell lines treated with NA in the presence and absence of prazosin and Na-K ATPase activity was estimated. The results showed that neuron and neuro2a as well as glia and C6 possess comparable Na-K ATPase activity. After REM sleep deprivation the neuronal Na-K ATPase activity increased, while the glial enzyme activity decreased and these changes were mediated by NA acting on alpha1-adrenoceptor; comparable results were obtained by treating the neuro2a and C6 cell lines with NA. The opposite actions of NA on neuronal and glial Na-K ATPase activity probably help maintain neuronal homeostasis.

  11. Seed ageing-induced inhibition of germination and post-germination root growth is related to lower activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in maize roots.

    Sveinsdóttir, Hólmfrídur; Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Peiter-Volk, Tina; Schubert, Sven


    Seeds of most crops can be severely damaged and lose vigor when stored under conditions of high humidity and temperature. The aged seeds are characterized by delayed germination and slow post-germination growth. To date, little is known about the physiological mechanisms responsible for slow root growth of seedlings derived from aged seeds. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a universal H(+) pump in plant cells and is involved in various physiological processes including the elongation growth of plant cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a mild seed ageing treatment on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of seedling roots. Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds with 17% water content were aged at 45 degrees C for 30h. The aged seeds showed a 20% reduction in germination. Seedlings from aged seeds grew slowly during an experimental period of 120h after imbibition. Plasma membranes of maize seedling roots were isolated for investigation in vitro. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (EC activity was 14% lower for seedling roots developed from aged seeds as compared to control seeds. Protein gel immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the reduced activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase was attributed to a decrease in steady-state protein concentration of this enzyme. In conclusion, seed ageing causes a lower steady-state enzyme concentration of the H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane, which is related to slow germination and post-germination growth of seedling roots.

  12. Outside of the box: recent news about phospholipid translocation by P4 ATPases.

    Stone, Alex; Williamson, Patrick


    The P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases includes phospholipid transporters. Moving such bulky amphipathic substrate molecules across the membrane poses unique mechanistic problems. Recently, three papers from three different laboratories have offered insights into some of these problems. One effect of these experiments will be to ignite a healthy debate about the path through the enzyme taken by the substrate. A second effect is to suggest a counterintuitive model for the critical substrate-binding site. By putting concrete hypotheses into play, these papers finally provide a foundation for investigations of mechanism for these proteins.

  13. Mg2+ coordination in catalytic sites of F1-ATPase.

    Weber, J; Hammond, S T; Wilke-Mounts, S; Senior, A E


    Coordination of the Mg2+ ion in Mg-nucleotide substrates by amino acid residue side chains in the catalytic site of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase was investigated. From the X-ray structure of the mitochondrial enzyme [Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G. W., Lutter, R., and Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628], it may be inferred that the hydroxyl of betaThr-156 is a direct ligand of Mg2+, whereas the carboxyls of betaGlu-181, betaGlu-185, and betaAsp-242 might contribute via intervening water molecules. Elimination of each respective functional group by site-directed mutagenesis, followed by determination of Mg-nucleotide and uncomplexed nucleotide binding affinities using a tryptophan probe, showed that betaThr-156, betaGlu-185, and betaAsp-242 are all involved in Mg2+ coordination, whereas betaGlu-181 is not. A derived structural model for the octahedral coordination around the Mg2+ ion is presented. The results indicate that the ADP-containing site in the X-ray structure is the catalytic site of highest affinity. Correct Mg2+ coordination is required for catalytic activity at physiological rates. Elimination of any one of the Mg2+-coordinating residues led to complete loss of Mg2+-dependent nucleotide binding cooperativity of the catalytic sites.

  14. Detailed search for protein kinase(s) involved in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity regulation of yeast cells.

    Pereira, Renata R; Castanheira, Diogo; Teixeira, Janaina A; Bouillet, Leoneide E M; Ribeiro, Erica M C; Trópia, Maria M J; Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia F M; Mota, Bruno E F; Conceição, Luis Eduardo F R; Castro, Ieso M; Brandão, Rogelio L


    This study displays a screening using yeast strains deficient in protein kinases known to exist in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 95 viable single mutants, 20 mutants appear to be affected in the glucose-induced extracellular acidification. The mutants that are unaffected in calcium signaling were tested for their sensitivity to hygromycin B. Furthermore, we verified whether the remaining mutants produced enzymes that are appropriately incorporated at plasma membrane. Finally, we measure the kinetic properties of the enzyme in purified plasma membranes from glucose-starved as well as glucose-fermenting cells. We confirmed the kinase Ptk2 involvement in H(+)-ATPase regulation (increase of affinity for ATP). However, the identification of the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylation that leads to an increase in Vmax appears to be more complex. Complementary experiments were performed to check how those protein kinases could be related to the control of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and/or the potential membrane. In summary, our results did not permit us to identify the protein kinase(s) involved in regulating the catalytic efficiency of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Therefore, our results indicate that the current regulatory model based on the phosphorylation of two different sites located in the C-terminus tail of the enzyme could be inappropriate.

  15. Tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) differently inhibit the mitochondrial Mg-ATPase activity in mussel digestive gland.

    Nesci, Salvatore; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Borgatti, Anna Rosa; Pagliarani, Alessandra


    Tri-n-butyltin (TBT) has long been considered as the most toxic among organotins, especially to membrane systems. The partially dealkylated derivative di-n-butyltin (DBT) has up to now received poor attention and, whenever considered, shown to be less toxic than TBT except on the immune system. The present kinetic approach evidences that both TBT and DBT in vitro inhibit the Mg-ATPase in mussel digestive gland mitochondria by a different mechanism. DBT even displays a higher efficiency than TBT (IC(50)=0.32 μM for TBT vs. 0.19 μM for DBT) in inhibiting the enzyme hydrolytic activity. Differently from TBT which at high concentrations (>1 μM) apparently decreases the oligomycin-sensitivity of the Mg-ATPase, DBT at any concentration tested does not affect the oligomycin sensitivity. TBT probably binds to F(0), either in the form of free enzyme or of enzyme-substrate complex (Ki=K'i), acting as non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the ATP substrate. Conversely DBT, which acts as uncompetitive inhibitor of ATP and as competitive inhibitor of Mg(2+) cofactor, may bind strongly to F(1) subunit, thus preventing ATP hydrolysis. The Mg-ATPase inhibition by both organotins warns against a potential threat to crucial cell energy metabolism processes even after years from contamination and partial TBT debutylation.

  16. Regulation of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    Falhof, Janus

    The plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is responsible for generating the electrochemical gradientthat drives the secondary transport of nutrients across the cellular membrane. It belongs to a familyof cation and lipid transporters that are vital to many organisms. PM H+-ATPases are Type P3AATPases...

  17. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca2+-ATPase

    Clausen, Johannes D.; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand Jean-Paul;


    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca2+. Vanadate is bound...

  18. The Vacuolar ATPase from Entamoeba histolytica: Molecular cloning of the gene encoding for the B subunit and subcellular localization of the protein

    Luna-Arias Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica is a professional phagocytic cell where the vacuolar ATPase plays a key role. This enzyme is a multisubunit complex that regulates pH in many subcellular compartments, even in those that are not measurably acidic. It participates in a wide variety of cellular processes such as endocytosis, intracellular transport and membrane fusion. The presence of a vacuolar type H+-ATPase in E. histolytica trophozoites has been inferred previously from inhibition assays of its activity, the isolation of the Ehvma1 and Ehvma3 genes, and by proteomic analysis of purified phagosomes. Results We report the isolation and characterization of the Ehvma2 gene, which encodes for the subunit B of the vacuolar ATPase. This polypeptide is a 55.3 kDa highly conserved protein with 34 to 80% identity to orthologous proteins from other species. Particularly, in silico studies showed that EhV-ATPase subunit B displays 78% identity and 90% similarity to its Dictyostelium ortholog. A 462 bp DNA fragment of the Ehvma2 gene was expressed in bacteria and recombinant polypeptide was used to raise mouse polyclonal antibodies. EhV-ATPase subunit B antibodies detected a 55 kDa band in whole cell extracts and in an enriched fraction of DNA-containing organelles named EhkOs. The V-ATPase subunit B was located by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in many vesicles, in phagosomes, plasma membrane and in EhkOs. We also identified the genes encoding for the majority of the V-ATPase subunits in the E. histolytica genome, and proposed a putative model for this proton pump. Conclusion We have isolated the Ehvma2 gene which encodes for the V-ATPase subunit B from the E. histolytica clone A. This gene has a 154 bp intron and encodes for a highly conserved polypeptide. Specific antibodies localized EhV-ATPase subunit B in many vesicles, phagosomes, plasma membrane and in EhkOs. Most of the orthologous genes encoding for the EhV-ATPase subunits

  19. Transmembrane carboxyl residues are essential for cation-dependent function in the gastric H,K-ATPase.

    Rabon, E C; Hoggatt, M; Smillie, K


    The K+-dependent ATPase activity of the H,K-ATPase was irreversibly inhibited by the carboxyl activating reagent, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). The inhibition was first order and displayed a concentration dependence with the K0.5 (DCCD) = 0.65 +/- 0.04 mM. KCl protected 70% of the ATPase activity from DCCD-dependent inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner with a K0.5 (K+) = 0.58 +/- 0.1 mM KCl. DCCD modification selectively inhibited the K+-dependent rather than ATP-dependent partial reactions including eosin fluorescence responses and ligand-stabilized initial tryptic cleavage patterns of the membrane-associated enzyme. DCCD modification also inhibited the binding of 86Rb+ and the fluorescent responses of the K+-competitive, fluorescent inhibitor 1-(2-methylphenyl)-4-methylamino-6-methyl-2, 3-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-c]quinoline. [14C]DCCD was incorporated into the H,K-ATPase in a time course identical to that describing the inactivation of the K+-dependent ATPase activity of the H,K-ATPase. A component of the [14C]DCCD incorporated into the H,K-ATPase was K+-sensitive where K+ reduced the [14C]DCCD incorporated into the enzyme by 1.6 nmol of [14C]DCCD/mg of protein. Membrane-associated tryptic peptides resolved from the [14C]DCCD-modified H,K-ATPase exhibited various K+ sensitivities with peptides at 23, 9.6, 8.2, 7.1, and 6.1 kDa containing 10-78%, 23-52%, 24-36%, 2%, and 3-4% K+-sensitivity, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of the K+-sensitive, approximately 23- and 9.6-kDa peptides was LVNE857, a C-terminal fragment of the ATPase alpha-subunit. The mass of the smaller peptide limited the residue assignment to the transmembrane M7/M8 domains and an intervening extracytoplasmic loop. An N-terminal sequence, SD840IM, was obtained from a 3.3-kDa, [14C]DCCD-labeled peptide resolved from a V8 digest of the partially purified alpha-subunit. This mass was sufficient to include LVNE but would exclude M8 and the intervening loop between M7 and M8. Glu857 is a

  20. Using antibodies against ATPase and microarray immunoassays for the search for potential extraterrestrial life in saline environments on Mars.

    Weigl, Andreas; Gruber, Claudia; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor; Stan-Lotter, Helga


    For the search for extraterrestrial life it is proposed to use receptors such as labelled antibodies for the detection of organic biomarkers. One of these organic molecules to be tested is the universal enzyme ATP synthase which is present in highly conserved forms in all organisms on earth. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate antibodies against ATPase respectively ATP synthase and their subunits. As it is known, that there are halite deposits on Mars the experiments in this study have been carried out with regard to halophile microorganisms and saline environments. Standard F1F0 ATPase from Escherichia coli LE 392 and Bacillus megaterium as well as haloarchaeal A-ATPase from Halorubrum saccharovorum and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 were used. The cultivated cells, except Bacillus, were broken by passage through a French Pressure Cell. Separation of enzyme subunits was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western Blotting with antisera produced in rabbit against A-ATPase subunits A (85 kD) and subunits B (60 kD) from Halorubrrum saccharovorum (1) showed positive reactions with the membrane fraction, which should be enriched with ATPase from Halorubrum saccharovorum, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 and Escherichia coli LE 392. Particular attention was given to the question if ATPase subunits can be detected in whole cells. Therefore whole cell preparations of all cells and spore suspensions from Geobacillus stearothermophilus were tested against the antiserum as well as against protein-A-purified antibody against A-ATPase subunit A from Halorubrum saccharovorum. A positive immuno reaction of all cell preparations with the antiserum as well as with the purified antibody was detected. The spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus reacted positively with the antiserum against subunit A of the A-ATPase from Hrr. saccharovorum. A commercial antibody Rabbit Anti-V-ATPase subunit A polyclonal antibody from the GenScript Corporation reacted positively with

  1. Association of H-Translocating ATPase in the Golgi Membrane System from Suspension-Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Ali, M S; Akazawa, T


    The Golgi complex and the disrupted vesicular membranes were prepared from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using protoplasts as the starting material and employing linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by osmolysis (Ali et al. [1985] Plant Cell Physiol 26: 1119-1133). The isolated Golgi fraction was found to be enriched with marker enzyme activities and depleted of the activity of a typical mitochondrial marker enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. Golgi complex, and vesicular membranes derived thereof were found to contain the specific ATPase (specific activity of about 0.5 to 0.7 micromoles per minute per milligram protein). Inhibitor studies suggested that the ATPase of Golgi was different from plasma membrane, tonoplast and mitochondrial ATPases as it was not inhibited by sodium vanadate, potassium nitrate, oligomycin and sodium azide. The sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide further distinguished the Golgi ATPase from F(0) to F(1) ATPase of mitochondria. The internal acidification was measured by monitoring the difference in absorbance at 550 nanometers minus 600 nanometers using neutral red as a probe. The maximum rate detected with Golgi and disrupted membrane system was 0.49 and 0.61 optical density unit per minute per milligram protein, at pH 7.5, respectively, indicating that the proton pump activity was tightly associated with the Golgi membranes. In both cases, the acidification was inhibited 70 to 90% by various ionophores, indicating that the proton pump was electrogenic in nature. Both the Golgi ATPase activity and ATP-dependent acidification were profoundly inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which also indicate that the two activities are catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  2. Measuring Solution Viscosity and its Effect on Enzyme Activity

    Uribe Salvador


    Full Text Available In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes undergo large conformational changes as they progress through the catalytic cycle. According to Kramers theory, solvent viscosity results in friction against proteins in solution, and this should result in decreased motion, inhibiting catalysis in motile enzymes. Solution viscosity was increased by adding increasing concentrations of glycerol, sucrose and trehalose, resulting in a decrease in the reaction rate of the H+-ATPase from the plasma membrane of Kluyveromyces lactis. A direct correlation was found between viscosity (&eegr; and the inhibition of the maximum rate of catalysis (V max. The protocol used to measure viscosity by means of a falling ball type viscometer is described, together with the determination of enzyme kinetics and the application of Kramers’ equation to evaluate the effect of viscosity on the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the H+-ATPase.

  3. Application of quantitative targeted absolute proteomics to profile protein expression changes of hepatic transporters and metabolizing enzymes during cholic acid-promoted liver regeneration.

    Miura, Takayuki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Fukase, Koji; Nakayama, Shun; Sakata, Naoaki; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Naitoh, Takeshi; Katayose, Yu; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Unno, Michiaki


    Preoperative administration of cholic acid (CA) may be an option to increase the liver volume before elective liver resection surgery, so it is important to understand its effects on liver functionality for drug transport and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to clarify the absolute protein expression dynamics of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the liver of mice fed CA-containing diet for 5 days (CA1) and mice fed CA-containing diet for 5 days followed by diet without CA for 7 days (CA2), in comparison with non CA-fed control mice. The CA1 group showed the increased liver weight, cell proliferation index, and oxidative stress, but no increase of apoptosis. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics revealed (i) decreases in basolateral bile acid transporters ntcp, oatp1a1, oatp1b2, bile acid synthesis-related enzymes cyp7a1 and cyp8b1, and drug transporters bcrp, mrp6, ent1, oatp2b1, and (ii) increases in glutathione biosynthetic enzymes and drug-metabolizing enzyme cyp3a11. Liver concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione were both increased. In the CA2 group, the increased liver weight was maintained, while the biochemical features and protein profiles were restored to the non-CA-fed control levels. These findings suggest that CA administration alters liver functionality per body during liver regeneration and restoration.

  4. OTUB1 de-ubiquitinating enzyme promotes prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin-Choy; Jiang, Ning


    BackgroundUbiquitination is a highly dynamic and reversible process with a central role in cell homeostasis. Deregulation of several deubiquitinating enzymes has been linked to tumor development but their specific role in prostate cancer progression remains unexplored.MethodsRNAi screening was us...

  5. Effects of strictosamide on mouse brain and kidney Na+, K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities.

    Candeias, M F; Abreu, P; Pereira, A; Cruz-Morais, J


    Present study reports on the general bioactivity of strictosamide and on its effects on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities of Charles River male mouse. Strictosamide is the main glycoalkaloid of Sarcocephalus latifolius (Rubiaceae) leaves and roots, used as medicinal plant in folk medicine. In this work, we studied the in vitro effects of various concentrations of strictosamide (0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/mL) and the in vivo effects of single doses (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p.) of this compound on kidney and brain Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities. Results of general study showed that strictosamide is slightly toxic to Charles River mouse (LD(50)=723.17 mg/kg), producing CNS depression and kidney toxicity, but the exact mechanism of these effects could not be defined. Strictosamide inhibited the in vitro and in vivo Mg(2+)-ATPase activity on kidney but had nonsignificant effect on brain. Furthermore, strictosamide had nonsignificant in vitro and in vivo effect on kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity but produced an in vivo increase of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of brain, these findings suggesting that strictosamine may be related to the induction of alpha(2) isoform of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and may account for the folk use of Sarcocephalus latifolius root infusion on hypertension.

  6. Drug action of benzocaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase from fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

    Di Croce, D; Trinks, P W; Grifo, M B; Takara, D; Sánchez, G A


    The effect of the local anesthetic benzocaine on sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from fast-twitch muscles was tested. The effects on Ca-ATPase activity, calcium binding and uptake, phosphoenzyme accumulation and decomposition were assessed using radioisotopic methods. The calcium binding to the Ca-ATPase was noncompetitively inhibited, and the enzymatic activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 47.1 mM). The inhibition of the activity depended on the presence of the calcium ionophore calcimycin and the membrane protein concentration. The pre-exposure of the membranes to benzocaine enhanced the enzymatic activity in the absence of calcimycin, supporting the benzocaine permeabilizing effect, which was prevented by calcium. Benzocaine also interfered with the calcium transport capability by decreasing the maximal uptake (IC50 40.3 mM) without modification of the calcium affinity for the ATPase. It inhibited the phosphorylation of the enzyme, and at high benzocaine concentration, the dephosphorylation step became rate-limiting as suggested by the biphasic profile of phosphoenzyme accumulation at different benzocaine concentrations. The data reported in this paper revealed a complex pattern of inhibition involving two sites for interaction with low and high benzocaine concentrations. It is concluded that benzocaine not only exerts an indirect action on the membrane permeability to calcium but also affects key steps of the Ca-ATPase enzymatic cycle.

  7. The Relationship Between Senescence and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Microsomal Membrane and Lipid Peroxidation in Harvested Peach Fruit

    GUAN Jun-feng; FAN Xiu-cai; DOU Shi-juan; ZHANG Ji-shu; LI Guang-min


    Peach fruit easily soften and have a short storage time at normal temperature. In this study, peach fruit (Prunus persica sieb et Zucc cv. Yingqing) were picked and stored at 25 and 4℃ to investigate the senescence in correlation with Ca2+- ATPase activity of microsomal membrane and lipid peroxidation during ripening and senescence. In comparison with that stored at 25℃, the fruit stored at 4℃ exhibited a higher flesh firmness, lower respiration rate, and generated the late bigger peak value of Ca2+-ATPase activity as well as maintained the higher activity of the enzyme. Meanwhile, the lower levels of super oxygen radical (O2-) production and content of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation were observed. Sodium orthovanadate (SO) and erythrosin B (EB), as Ca2+-ATPase inhibitors, could stimulate the respiration rate. The results suggested that the slower senescence rate of peach fruit was closely related to the higher peak value and longer duration of Ca2+-ATPase activity in microsomal membrane, with the slighter membrane lipid peroxidation and lower O2(-) production rate.

  8. Hyperacidification of Vacuoles by the Combined Action of Two Different P-ATPases in the Tonoplast Determines Flower Color

    Marianna Faraco


    Full Text Available The acidification of endomembrane compartments is essential for enzyme activities, sorting, trafficking, and trans-membrane transport of various compounds. Vacuoles are mildly acidic in most plant cells because of the action of V-ATPase and/or pyrophosphatase proton pumps but are hyperacidified in specific cells by mechanisms that remained unclear. Here, we show that the blue petal color of petunia ph mutants is due to a failure to hyperacidify vacuoles. We report that PH1 encodes a P3B-ATPase, hitherto known as Mg2+ transporters in bacteria only, that resides in the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and genetic data show that PH1 is required and, together with the tonoplast H+ P3A-ATPase PH5, sufficient to hyperacidify vacuoles. PH1 has no H+ transport activity on its own but can physically interact with PH5 and boost PH5 H+ transport activity. Hence, the hyperacidification of vacuoles in petals, and possibly other tissues, relies on a heteromeric P-ATPase pump.

  9. Nucleotide-induced asymmetry within ATPase activator ring drives σ54-RNAP interaction and ATP hydrolysis

    Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B. Tracy [IIT; (Penn)


    It is largely unknown how the typical homomeric ring geometry of ATPases associated with various cellular activities enables them to perform mechanical work. Small-angle solution X-ray scattering, crystallography, and electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions revealed that partial ATP occupancy caused the heptameric closed ring of the bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) NtrC1 to rearrange into a hexameric split ring of striking asymmetry. The highly conserved and functionally crucial GAFTGA loops responsible for interacting with σ54–RNA polymerase formed a spiral staircase. We propose that splitting of the ensemble directs ATP hydrolysis within the oligomer, and the ring's asymmetry guides interaction between ATPase and the complex of σ54 and promoter DNA. Similarity between the structure of the transcriptional activator NtrC1 and those of distantly related helicases Rho and E1 reveals a general mechanism in homomeric ATPases whereby complex allostery within the ring geometry forms asymmetric functional states that allow these biological motors to exert directional forces on their target macromolecules.

  10. Architecture and Molecular Mechanism of PAN, the Archaeal Proteasome Regulatory ATPase*

    Medalia, Noa; Beer, Avital; Zwickl, Peter; Mihalache, Oana; Beck, Martin; Medalia, Ohad; Navon, Ami


    In Archaea, an hexameric ATPase complex termed PAN promotes proteins unfolding and translocation into the 20 S proteasome. PAN is highly homologous to the six ATPases of the eukaryotic 19 S proteasome regulatory complex. Thus, insight into the mechanism of PAN function may reveal a general mode of action mutual to the eukaryotic 19 S proteasome regulatory complex. In this study we generated a three-dimensional model of PAN from tomographic reconstruction of negatively stained particles. Surprisingly, this reconstruction indicated that the hexameric complex assumes a two-ring structure enclosing a large cavity. Assessment of distinct three-dimensional functional states of PAN in the presence of adenosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) and ADP and in the absence of nucleotides outlined a possible mechanism linking nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to substrate recognition, unfolding, and translocation. A novel feature of the ATPase complex revealed in this study is a gate controlling the “exit port” of the regulatory complex and, presumably, translocation into the 20 S proteasome. Based on our structural and biochemical findings, we propose a possible model in which substrate binding and unfolding are linked to structural transitions driven by nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, whereas translocation into the proteasome only depends upon the presence of an unfolded substrate and binding but not hydrolysis of nucleotide. PMID:19363223

  11. Engineering another class of anti-tubercular lead: Hit to lead optimization of an intriguing class of gyrase ATPase inhibitors.

    Jeankumar, Variam Ullas; Reshma, Rudraraju Srilakshmi; Vats, Rahul; Janupally, Renuka; Saxena, Shalini; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan


    A structure based medium throughput virtual screening campaign of BITS-Pilani in house chemical library to identify novel binders of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase ATPase domain led to the discovery of a quinoline scaffold. Further medicinal chemistry explorations on the right hand core of the early hit, engendered a potent lead demonstrating superior efficacy both in the enzyme and whole cell screening assay. The binding affinity shown at the enzyme level was further corroborated by biophysical characterization techniques. Early pharmacokinetic evaluation of the optimized analogue was encouraging and provides interesting potential for further optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Nature of membrane ATPase inactivation in an Escherichia coli mutant with genetically impaired ATPase].

    Chetkauskaĭte, A V; Planutis, D L; Zimkus, A Z; Akimenko, V K; Grinius, L L


    Homogeneous preparations of F1 possessing identical subunit composition have been isolated from the mutant strain of E. coli AN 120 with genetically impaired membrane ATPase and from the wild strain of AN 180. Using ion-exchange chromatography, the subunits alpha and beta of F1 were isolated. It was shown that the alpha- and beta-subunits of both active and genetically impaired F1 have similar molecular weights and total electrical charges.

  13. Association between mitochondrial ATPase-6 gene polymorphism with male sperm motility%线粒体ATPase-6基因多态性与男性精子活力的关系

    莫毅; 梁方方; 谢伟; 王娟; 叶健; 谢丹尼


    目的 探讨线粒体ATP合成酶6亚基(ATPase-6)基因多态性与男性精子活力的关系.方法 选择弱精子症患者319例(观察组)及精子活力正常者344例(对照组),采用聚合酶链式反应—限制性片段长度多态性分析技术检测其线粒体ATPase-6基因(+9 052 bp)的HaeⅡ酶切位点多态性,并对两组的基因型分布及等位基因频率进行Hardy-Weinberg平衡检测,分忻ATPase-6突变基因频率与精子活力的关系.结果 观察组的hh、Hh、HH基因型分布分别为19.74%、1.25%、79.01%,对照组分别为4.94%、0.58%、94.45%,两组基因型分布均处于Hardy-Weinberg平衡范围;但观察组的突变型基因(h)频率明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 ATPase-6基因(+9 052bp) HaeⅡ酶切位点突变可能影响ATPase-6基因的翻译效率,进而影响男性精子活力,引起弱精子症.%Objective To investigate the association between mitochondrial ATPase-6 gene polymorphism with male sperm motility.Methods There were 319 cases of patients with asthenozoospermia (observation group) and 344 cases of normal sperm mobility people (control group).The mitochondrial ATPase-6 gene (+9 052 bp) Hae Ⅱ restriction enzyme cutting site polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis technique.Then the genotype distribution and allele frequency of each group were detected by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test,and the association between ATPase-6 gene mutation frequency and sperm motility was analyzed.Results The hh,Hh and HH genotype distributions in observation group were 19.74%,1.25% and 79.01%,while they were 4.94%,0.58% and 94.45% in control group,both the genotype frequency distributions were within the range of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; but the mutant gene (h) frequency in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.01).Conclusion ATPase-6 (+ 9 052 bp)gene Hae Ⅱ restriction enzyme cutting site mutation may affect the efficiency of

  14. Effective use of heterologous hosts for characterization of biosynthetic enzymes allows production of natural products and promotes new natural product discovery.

    Watanabe, Kenji


    In the past few years, there has been impressive progress in elucidating the mechanism of biosynthesis of various natural products accomplished through the use of genetic, molecular biological and biochemical techniques. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of the current results from our studies on fungal natural product biosynthetic enzymes, including nonribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrid synthetase, as well as auxiliary enzymes, such as methyltransferases and oxygenases. Specifically, biosynthesis of the following compounds is described in detail: (i) Sch210972, potentially involving a Diels-Alder reaction that may be catalyzed by CghA, a functionally unknown protein identified by targeted gene disruption in the wild type fungus; (ii) chaetoglobosin A, formed via multi-step oxidations catalyzed by three redox enzymes, one flavin-containing monooxygenase and two cytochrome P450 oxygenases as characterized by in vivo biotransformation of relevant intermediates in our engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (iii) (-)-ditryptophenaline, formed by a cytochrome P450, revealing the dimerization mechanism for the biosynthesis of diketopiperazine alkaloids; (iv) pseurotins, whose variations in the C- and O-methylations and the degree of oxidation are introduced combinatorially by multiple redox enzymes; and (v) spirotryprostatins, whose spiro-carbon moiety is formed by a flavin-containing monooxygenase or a cytochrome P450 as determined by heterologous de novo production of the biosynthetic intermediates and final products in Aspergillus niger. We close our discussion by summarizing some of the key techniques that have facilitated the discovery of new natural products, production of their analogs and identification of biosynthetic mechanisms in our study.

  15. Regulation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in microglia by RANKL.

    Serrano, Eric M; Ricofort, Ryan D; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F; Holliday, L Shannon


    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  16. Regulation of Vacuolar H+-ATPase in Microglia by RANKL

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon


    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPase play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B -ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia. PMID:19715671

  17. Kinetic characterization of the ATPase and actin-activated ATPase activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin-2.

    Heissler, Sarah M; Liu, Xiong; Korn, Edward D; Sellers, James R


    Phosphorylation of Ser-639 in loop-2 of the catalytic motor domain of the heavy chain of Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin-2 and the phosphomimetic mutation S639D have been shown previously to down-regulate the actin-activated ATPase activity of both the full-length myosin and single-headed subfragment-1 (Liu, X., Lee, D. Y., Cai, S., Yu, S., Shu, S., Levine, R. L., and Korn, E. D. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, E23-E32). In the present study we determined the kinetic constants for each step in the myosin and actomyosin ATPase cycles of recombinant wild-type S1 and S1-S639D. The kinetic parameter predominantly affected by the S639D mutation is the actin-activated release of inorganic phosphate from the acto myosin·ADP·Pi complex, which is the rate-limiting step in the steady-state actomyosin ATPase cycle. As consequence of this change, the duty ratio of this conventional myosin decreases. We speculate on the effect of Ser-639 phosphorylation on the processive behavior of myosin-2 filaments.

  18. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway represses the transcription of the β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) via binding of T-cell factor-4 to BACE1 promoter.

    Parr, Callum; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Christian, Mark; Sastre, Magdalena


    Alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease; however, its role in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein remains unknown. In this study, activation of the Wnt pathway by overexpression of the agonist Wnt3a or β-catenin or by inhibition of glycogen kinase synthase-3 in N2a cells resulted in a reduction in Aβ levels and in the activity and expression of BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme). Conversely, inhibition of the pathway by transfection of the antagonists secreted frizzled receptor protein-1 or dickkopf-1 produced the opposite effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that β-catenin binds specifically to regions within the promoter of BACE1 containing putative T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-1 (TCF/LEF) motifs, consistent with canonical Wnt target regulation. Furthermore, cells transfected with β-catenin mutants incapable of binding to TCF/LEF increased BACE1 gene promoter activity. Interestingly, TCF4 knockdown reversed the effects of Wnt3a activation on BACE1 transcription. We found that TCF4 binds to the same region on BACE1 promoter following Wnt3a stimulation, indicating that TCF4 functions as a transcriptional repressor of BACE1 gene. In conclusion, Wnt/β-catenin stimulation may repress BACE1 transcription via binding of TCF4 to BACE1 gene, and therefore, activation of the Wnt pathway may hold the key to new treatments of Alzheimer disease.-Parr, C., Mirzaei, N., Christian, M., and Sastre, M. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway represses the transcription of the β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) via binding of T-cell factor-4 to BACE1 promoter.

  19. Kinetic Studies on Na+/K+-ATPase by Using Thermokinetic Method

    LI, Xia(李霞); LI, Jie(李杰); WANG, Zhi-Yong(王志勇); XIE, Xiu-Yin(谢修银); YANG, Xi(杨洗); WANG, Cun-Xin(汪存信)


    Na+/K+-ATPase (EC is an important membrane-bound enzyme. By using microcalorimetry, the thermokinetic method was developed to kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase for the first time. Compared with other ones, the method provided accurate measurements of not only thermodynamic data but also the kinetic data. At 310.15 K and pH=7.4, the molar reaction enthalpy ΔrHm was measured as (-40.408±1.9) kJ·mol-1. The Michaelis constant Km was determined to be (0.479±0.020)×10-3 mol·L-1 and consistent with literature figure which is about 0.5×10-3 mol·L-1. The maximum velocity Vmax obtained was (0.681±0.026) μmol Pi·min-1·mg protein-1. All of the data have good repeatability and self-consistency. The reliability of thermokinetic method was verified by the experimental results and further confirmed by colorimetric studies. Moreover, the effect of enzyme pre-dilution on its activities was also investigated.

  20. Is the Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum also a heat pump?

    Kjelstrup, Signe; de Meis, Leopoldo; Bedeaux, Dick; Simon, Jean-Marc


    We calculate, using the first law of thermodynamics, the membrane heat fluxes during active transport of Ca(2+) in the Ca(2+)-ATPase in leaky and intact vesicles, during ATP hydrolysis or synthesis conditions. The results show that the vesicle interior may cool down during hydrolysis and Ca(2+)-uptake, and heat up during ATP synthesis and Ca(2+)-efflux. The heat flux varies with the SERCA isoform. Electroneutral processes and rapid equilibration of water were assumed. The results are consistent with the second law of thermodynamics for the overall processes. The expression for the heat flux and experimental data, show that important contributions come from the enthalpy of hydrolysis for the medium in question, and from proton transport between the vesicle interior and exterior. The analysis give quantitative support to earlier proposals that certain, but not all, Ca(2+)-ATPases, not only act as Ca(2+)-pumps, but also as heat pumps. It can thus help explain why SERCA 1 type enzymes dominate in tissues where thermal regulation is important, while SERCA 2 type enzymes, with their lower activity and better ability to use the energy from the reaction to pump ions, dominate in tissues where this is not an issue.

  1. Characterizing plasma membrane H+-ATPase in two varieties of coffee leaf (Coffea arabica L.) and its interaction with an elicitor fraction from the orange rust fungus (H. vastatrix Berk and Br.) race II.

    Osses, Luis R; Godoy, César A


    Early intercellular signaling in Coffea arabica L.-Hemileia vastatrix host-pathogen interaction was studied, using inside-out plasma membrane from two varieties of coffee leaf and a fungal fraction to determine the plant's biochemical responses. Microsomal pellets (100,000 x g) from the susceptible (Caturra) and resistant (Colombia) coffee leaf varieties were purified by partitioning in two-polymer DEX (6.3% w/w) and PEG (6.3% w/w) system aqueous phase. Fungal material was obtained from orange rust Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Br. race II urediospore germ tubes. Plasma membrane vesicles were preferentially localized to PEG phase, as indicated by its enzyme marker distribution. Both H(+)-ATPase activities displayed similar kinetic and biochemical characteristics, comparable to those described for P-type ATPases. Several enzymes may play pivotal roles in plants regarding early interaction with fungal elicitors. Studies of fungal fractions' effects on H(+)-ATPase and both varieties' proton pumping activities were thus carried out. Concentration as low as 0.1 Gluc eq. ml(-1) fungal fraction induced specific inhibition of H(+)-ATPase and the resistant variety's proton pumping activities. The present work describes characterizing the H(+)-ATPase plasma membrane from two Coffea arabica L. varieties (Caturra and Colombia) for the first time and the race specific inhibitory effect of a crude fungal fraction on both H(+)-ATPase and the resistant variety's proton pumping activities.

  2. Reduced sensitivity of red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase to ethanol in vitro in male alcoholic patients: relationship to clinical characteristics.

    Swann, A C; Reilly, E; Overall, J E


    We examined red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase, its sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol in vitro, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and history in 41 newly admitted alcoholic patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Sensitivity to ethanol was significantly lower in the alcoholic patients and correlated negatively with ethanol intake. In addition, sensitivity of enzyme to ethanol was lower in patients with high agitation-anxiety ratings and correlated negatively with agitation and anxiety scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no relationships between (Na+,K+)-ATPase measures and depressive symptoms, history of treatment for depression, or family history of depression. These data suggest that tolerance to the effects of ethanol on (Na+,K+)-ATPase occurs in man and may be related to the severity of ethanol dependence or withdrawal.

  3. Fast activation of Ca2+-ATPases in plasma membranes from cardiac muscle and from ascites carcinoma cells: a possible function of endogenous calmodulin.

    Wetzker, R; Klinger, R; Haase, H; Vetter, R; Böhmer, F D


    Content of endogenous calmodulin, binding of calmodulin to, and Ca2+-ATPase activity in plasma membranes of cardiac muscle. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and erythrocytes were examined. The content of endogenous calmodulin in cardiac and EAC cells was shown to be considerably higher than in erythrocyte membranes. Ca2+-independent binding of calmodulin to cardiac and EAC cell membranes was found to be realized by some low molecular weight proteins. Ca2+-ATPases in cardiac and EAC cell membranes differ from those in erythrocytes with respect to their activation by Ca2+ and calmodulin. The erythrocyte enzyme is strongly stimulated by exogenous calmodulin and reaches its maximum activity about 2 min after Ca2+-addition. In contrast, the Ca2+-ATPases in cardiac and EAC cell plasma membranes cannot be considerably stimulated by exogenous calmodulin and are instantaneously activated by Ca2+.

  4. A triple mutation in the a subunit of the Escherichia coli/Propionigenium modestum F1Fo ATPase hybrid causes a switch from Na+ stimulation to Na+ inhibition.

    Kaim, G; Dimroth, P


    Previously we have shown that the Na+-translocating Escherichia coli (F1-delta)/Propionigenium modestum (Fo+delta) hybrid ATPase acquires a Na+-independent phenotype by the c subunit double mutation F84L, L87V that is reflected by Na+-independent growth of the mutant strain MPC8487 on succinate [Kaim, G., and Dimroth, P. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 253, 726-738]. Here we describe a new class of mutants that were obtained by random mutagenesis and screening for Na+-independent growth on succinate. All six mutants of the new class contained four mutations in the a subunit (S89P, K220R, V264E, I278N). Results from site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the substitutions K220R, V264E, and I278N were sufficient to create the new phenotype. The resulting E. coli mutant strain MPA762 could only grow in the absence but not in the presence of Na+ ions on succinate minimal medium. This effect of Na+ ions on growth correlated with a Na+-specific inhibition of the mutant ATPase. The Ki for NaCl was 1. 5 mM at pH 6.5, similar to the Km for NaCl in activating the parent hybrid ATPase at this pH. On the other hand, activation by Li+ ions was retained in the new mutant ATPase. In the absence of Na+ or Li+, the mutant enzyme had the same pH optimum at pH 6.5 and twice the specific activity as the parent hybrid ATPase. In accordance with the kinetic data, the reconstituted mutant ATPase catalyzed H+ or Li+ transport but no Na+ transport. These results show for the first time that the coupling ion selectivity of F1Fo ATPases is determined by structural elements not only of the c subunit but also of the a subunit.

  5. Oxidative stress and damage to erythrocytes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--changes in ATPase and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Bukowska, Bożena; Sicińska, Paulina; Pająk, Aneta; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta; Pietras, Tadeusz; Pszczółkowska, Anna; Górski, Paweł; Koter-Michalak, Maria


    The study indicates, for the first time, the changes in both ATPase and AChE activities in the membrane of red blood cells of patients diagnosed with COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common and severe lung disorders. We examined the impact of COPD on redox balance and properties of the membrane of red blood cells. The study involved 30 patients with COPD and 18 healthy subjects. An increase in lipid peroxidation products and a decrease in the content of -SH groups in the membrane of red blood cells in patients with COPD were observed. Moreover, an increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase and a decrease in superoxide dismutase, but not in catalase activity, were found as well. Significant changes in activities of erythrocyte membrane enzymes in COPD patients were also evident demonstrated by a considerably lowered ATPase activity and elevated AChE activity. Changes in the structure and function of red blood cells observed in COPD patients, together with changes in the activity of the key membrane enzymes (ATPases and AChE), can result from the imbalance of redox status of these cells due to extensive oxidative stress induced by COPD disease.

  6. Phospholamban Modulates the Functional Coupling between Nucleotide Domains in Ca-ATPase Oligomeric Complexes in Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    Chen, L.; Yao, Qing; Soares, Thereza A.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.


    Oligomeric interactions between Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains and their modulation by phospholamban (PLB) were measured in native cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) microsomes. Progressive modification of Lys514 with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), which physically blocks access to the nucleotide binding site by ATP, demonstrates that Ca-ATPase active sites function independently of one another prior to the phosphorylation of PLB. However, upon PKA-dependent phosphorylation of PLB, a second-order dependence between enzyme activity and the fraction of active sites is observed, consistent with a dimeric functional complex. Complementary distance measurements were made using FITC or 5-iodoacetamido-fluorescein (IAF) bound to Cys674 within the N- or P-domains respectively, to detect structural coupling within oligomeric complexes. Accompanying the phosphorylation of PLB, neighboring Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains exhibit a 4 ± 2 Å decrease in the proximity between FITC sites within the N-domain and a 9 ± 3 Å increase in the proximity between IAF sites within P-domains. Thus, the phosphorylation of PLB induces spatial rearrangements between the N- and P-domain elements of proximal Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains which restore functional interactions between neighboring polypeptide chains and, in turn, result in increased rates of catalytic turnover. These results are interpreted in terms of a structural model, calculated through optimization of shape complementarity, desolvation, and electrostatic energies, which suggests a dimeric arrangement of Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains through the proximal association of N-domains. We suggest that the phosphorylation of PLB acts to release constraints involving interdomain subunit interactions that enhance catalytically important N-domain motions.

  7. Depression of membrane-bound Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity induced by free radicals and by ischemia of kidney

    Kako, K.; Kato, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Mustapha, A. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))


    A partially purified, membrane-bound Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase fraction, prepared from the outer medulla of porcine kidney, was incubated in the presence of 0.1-100 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for either 15 or 30 min at 37{degree}C. The activity of ouabain-sensitive Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase was reduced proportionally to the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the duration of incubation. There were decreases in SH contents and turnover rates of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase preparation, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes were generated from the membrane lipids in the course of the incubation. The concentrations of ethanolamine (E) plasmalogen and of arachidonic acid in the E glycerophospholipid molecules were reduced by the free radical reaction. Similarly, a reduction in Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase activity and the formation of MDA and conjugated dienes, together with a decrease in E glycerophospholipids, were observed when the membrane fraction was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) for 30 min at 4{degree}C. Microsomal fractions, prepared from the outer medulla of canine kidney after 1 h of unilateral ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion, showed a decreased Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity, a reduced amount of SH groups, and an increased MDA. These changes were normalized by the infusion of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. These results support the view (1) that free radical generation affects the enzyme protein as well as membrane lipids, and (2) that free radicals may be formed in the ischemic reperfused kidney.

  8. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression

    Khatua, Tarak N.; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mohammed, Soheb A.; Dinda, Amit K.; Srinivas, R.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.


    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na+/K+-ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28194108

  9. Dietary methyl donors, methyl metabolizing enzymes, and epigenetic regulators: diet-gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer.

    de Vogel, Stefan; Wouters, Kim A D; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Goeij, Anton F P M; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; van Engeland, Manon; Weijenberg, Matty P


    Dietary methyl donors might influence DNA methylation during carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Among 609 CRC cases and 1,663 subcohort members of the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (n = 120,852), we estimated CRC risk according to methyl donor intake across genotypes of folate metabolizing enzymes and methyltransferases.Although diet-gene interactions were not statistically significant, methionine intake was inversely associated with CRC among subjects having both common rs2424913 and rs406193 DNMT3B C > T genotypes (highest versus lowest tertile: RR = 0.44; p (trend) = 0.05). Likewise, vitamin B2 was modestly inversely associated among individuals with the MTHFR c.665CC (rs1801133) genotype (RR = 0.66; p (trend) = 0.08), but with a significant reduced risk when ≤ 1 rare allele occurred in the combination of folate metabolizing enzymes MTHFR, MTRR and MTR (RR = 0.30; p (trend) = 0.005). Folate or vitamin B6 were neither inversely associated with CRC nor was methyl donor intake associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP).Despite the absence of heterogeneity across genotypes, might an effect of methyl donors on CRC be more pronounced among individuals carrying common variants of folate metabolizing enzymes or DNA methyltransferases. Combining genotypes may assist to reveal diet associations with CRC, possibly because rare variants of related genes may collectively affect specific metabolic pathways or enzymatic functions.

  10. Conserved V-ATPase c subunit plays a role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

    Zhou, Aimin; Bu, Yuanyuan; Takano, Tetsuo; Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Shenkui


    In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPase) are localized in the tonoplast, Golgi, trans-Golgi network and endosome. However, little is known about how V-ATPase influences plant growth, particularly with regard to the V-ATPase c subunit (VHA-c). Here, we characterized the function of a VHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora (PutVHA-c) in plant growth. Compared to the wild-type, transgenic plants overexpressing PutVHA-c in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit better growth phenotypes in root length, fresh weight, plant height and silique number under the normal and salt stress conditions due to noticeably higher V-ATPase activity. Consistently, the Arabidopsis atvha-c5 mutant shows reduced V-ATPase activity and retarded plant growth. Furthermore, confocal and immunogold electron microscopy assays demonstrate that PutVHA-c is mainly localized to endosomal compartments. The treatment of concanamycin A (ConcA), a specific inhibitor of V-ATPases, leads to obvious aggregation of the endosomal compartments labelled with PutVHA-c-GFP. Moreover, ConcA treatment results in the abnormal localization of two plasma membrane (PM) marker proteins Pinformed 1 (AtPIN1) and regulator of G protein signalling-1 (AtRGS1). These findings suggest that the decrease in V-ATPase activity blocks endosomal trafficking. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the PutVHA-c plays an important role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

  11. Combination of DFP and Taurine Counteracts the Aluminum-Induced Alterations in Oxidative Stress and ATPase in Cortex and Blood of Rats.

    Feng, Tong; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Jinyu; Kong, Zhengqiao


    The study investigated the combined effect of 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (DFP) and taurine on aluminum (Al) toxicity in cortex and blood of rats. The control group received 1 ml/kg/day saline solution for 8 weeks. Other animals were exposed to Al at a dose of 281.40 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks. Then, they were administered with 1 ml/kg/day saline solution, 400 mg/(kg·day) taurine, 13.82 mg/(kg·day) DFP, 27.44 mg/(kg·day) DFP, 400 mg/(kg·day) taurine +13.82 mg/(kg·day) DFP, and 400 mg/(kg·day) taurine +27.44 mg/(kg·day) DFP for 4 weeks. The changes in markers of oxidative stress, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and triphosphatase (ATPase) in the cortex and blood were determined. Administration of Al led to significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the cortex and blood, compared with the control group. DFP was observed to reverse alteration of these parameters except for Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Treatment with taurine caused significant increase of GSH-Px activity and decrease of the MDA level in the cortex and serum and rise of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in the blood. Effects of DFP combined with taurine were investigated and found to provide a more significant benefit than either drug alone. Combined intake of taurine and DFP could achieve an optimum effect of therapy for Al exposure.

  12. Effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate on concentration of calcium and activities of sarcoplosnic Ca2+-ATPase in cardiomyocytes of Adriamycin-treated rats

    CAI Wei; CHEN Jun-zhu; RUAN Li-ming; WANG Yi-na


    Objective: To observe the effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) on serum levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), as well as the concentration of calcium in cardiomyocytes (Myo[Ca2+]) and activity of sarcoplosnic Ca2+-ATPase (SRCa2+-ATPase) in Adriamycin (ADR)-treated rats. Methods: Rats were intraperitoneally injected with ADR (2.5mg/kg every other day for 6 times) and then with different dosages of FDP (every other day for twenty-one times). Bi-antibodies sandwich Enzyme linked immune absorption assay (ELISA) was performed to detect serum level of cTnI. CK-MB was detected by monoclonal antibody, Myo[Ca2+] was detected by fluorescent spectrophotometry and the activity of SRCa2+-ATPase was detected by inorganic phosphate method. Results: FDP (300, 600, 1200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum levels of cTnI and CK-MB, while at the same time decreased calcium concentration and increased SRCa2+-ATPase activity in cardiomyocytes of ADR-treated rats (P<0.01). Conclusions: FDP might alleviate the cardiotoxic effects induced by ADR through decreasing calcium level as well as increasing SRCa2+-ATPase activity in cardiomyocytes.

  13. [Kinetics of inhibitory effect of calix[4]arene C-90 on activity of transporting plasma membrane Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase of smooth muscle cells].

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Mazur, Iu Iu; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O


    In experiments on the suspension of myometrium cell plasma membrane, processed by 0.1% digitonin, the inhibitory action of calix[4]arene C-90 (5,11,17,23-tetra(threeftor)methyl(phenilsulphonilimino)-methylamino-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxy-calix[4]arene) on the activity of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase was investigated. The authors also examined the influence of calix[4]arene in different concentration on affinity of enzyme (Ca2,Mg2+-ATPase) for the ATP and ions of Mg and Ca, and its influence on cooperative effect and maximum velocity of ATP hydrolysis. It is shown that calix[4]arene does not influence the affinity of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase for the ATP, which means that these two compounds have different binding centers. Also calix[4]arene has no influence on affinity and cooperative effect of Ca ions, if it is used in concentration lower than 50 μM. Calix[4]arene slightly increases coefficient of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activation by magnesium chloride. In all three cases, where ATP, Mg and Ca ions are used to test the impact of calix[4]arene, maximum velocity of ATP hydrolysis significantly decreases. All these results clarify that calix[4]arene implements its inhibitory action through mechanism of uncompetitive inhibition of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity.

  14. The interaction of the bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 subunit b) with the insect V-ATPase triggers apoptosis.

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Balmand, Séverine; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Delmas, Agnès F; Royer, Corinne; Rahbé, Yvan; Da Silva, Pedro; Gressent, Frédéric


    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin, extracted from Legume seeds, with a lethal activity towards several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This toxin acts by binding to the subunits c and e of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the insect midgut. In this study, two cereal weevils, the sensitive Sitophilus oryzae strain WAA42, the resistance Sitophilus oryzae strain ISOR3 and the insensitive red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, were used in biochemical and histological experiments to demonstrate that a PA1b/V-ATPase interaction triggers the apoptosis mechanism, resulting in insect death. Upon intoxication with PA1b, apoptotic bodies are formed in the cells of the insect midgut. In addition, caspase-3 enzyme activity occurs in the midgut of sensitive weevils after intoxication with active PA1b, but not in the midgut of resistant weevils. These biochemical data were confirmed by immuno-histochemical detection of the caspase-3 active form in the midgut of sensitive weevils. Immuno-labelling experiments also revealed that the caspase-3 active form and V-ATPase are close-localized in the insect midgut. The results concerning this unique peptidic V-ATPase inhibitor pave the way for the utilization of PA1b as a promising, more selective and eco-friendly insecticide.

  15. Exogenous calcium induces tolerance to atrazine stress in Pennisetum seedlings and promotes photosynthetic activity, antioxidant enzymes and psbA gene transcripts.

    Erinle, Kehinde Olajide; Jiang, Zhao; Ma, Bingbing; Li, Jinmei; Chen, Yukun; Ur-Rehman, Khalil; Shahla, Andleeb; Zhang, Ying


    Calcium (Ca) has been reported to lessen oxidative damages in plants by upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, atrazine mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction by Ca is limited. This study therefore investigated the effect of exogenously applied Ca on ROS, antioxidants activity and gene transcripts, the D1 protein (psbA gene), and chlorophyll contents in Pennisetum seedlings pre-treated with atrazine. Atrazine toxicity increased ROS production and enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase APX, peroxidase POD, Superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione-S-transferase GST); but decreased antioxidants (APX, POD, and Cu/Zn SOD) and psbA gene transcripts. Atrazine also decreased the chlorophyll contents, but increased chlorophyll (a/b) ratio. Contrarily, Ca application to atrazine pre-treated seedlings lowered the harmful effects of atrazine by reducing ROS levels, but enhancing the accumulation of total chlorophyll contents. Ca-protected seedlings in the presence of atrazine manifested reduced APX and POD activity, whereas SOD and GST activity was further increased with Ca application. Antioxidant gene transcripts that were down-regulated by atrazine toxicity were up-regulated with the application of Ca. Calcium application also resulted in up-regulation of the D1 protein. In conclusion, ability of calcium to reverse atrazine-induced oxidative damage and calcium regulatory role on GST in Pennisetum was presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abundance of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate via single-molecule microscopy with gold nanorod probes.

    York, Justin; Spetzler, David; Hornung, Tassilo; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Martin, James; Frasch, Wayne D


    The abundance of E. coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate using gold nanorods attached to the gamma-subunit was quantitated. Individual F1 molecules were determined to be rotating based upon time dependent fluctuations of red and green light scattered from the nanorods when viewed through a polarizing filter. The average number of F1 molecules observed to rotate in the presence of GTP, ATP, and without nucleotide was approximately 50, approximately 25, and approximately 4% respectively. In some experiments, the fraction of molecules observed to rotate in the presence of GTP was as high as 65%. These data indicate that rotational measurements made using gold nanorods provide information of the F1-ATPase mechanism that is representative of the characteristics of the enzyme population as a whole.

  17. Electrostatic Stabilization Plays a Central Role in Autoinhibitory Regulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    Jiang, Qiucen; Garcia, Alvaro; Han, Minwoo


    The Na+,K+-ATPase is present in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the Na+ and K+ electrochemical potential gradients across the membrane, which are essential in numerous physiological processes, e.g., nerve, muscle, and kidney function. Its cellular...... activity must, therefore, be under tight metabolic control. Consideration of eosin fluorescence and stopped-flow kinetic data indicates that the enzyme's E2 conformation is stabilized by electrostatic interactions, most likely between the N-terminus of the protein's catalytic α-subunit and the adjacent...... membrane. The electrostatic interactions can be screened by increasing ionic strength, leading to a more evenly balanced equilibrium between the E1 and E2 conformations. This represents an ideal situation for effective regulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase's enzymatic activity, because protein modifications...

  18. Evolution of Copper Transporting ATPases in Eukaryotic Organisms

    Gupta, Arnab; Lutsenko, Svetlana


    Copper is an essential nutrient for most life forms, however in excess it can be harmful. The ATP-driven copper pumps (Copper-ATPases) play critical role in living organisms by maintaining appropriate copper levels in cells and tissues. These evolutionary conserved polytopic membrane proteins are present in all phyla from simplest life forms (bacteria) to highly evolved eukaryotes (Homo sapiens). The presumed early function in metal detoxification remains the main function of Copper-ATPases i...

  19. Structural divergence between the two subgroups of P5 ATPases

    Sørensen, Danny Mollerup; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael Broberg


    been identified in the endoplasmic reticulum and seem to have basic functions in protein maturation and secretion. P5B ATPases localize to vacuolar/lysosomal or apical membranes and in animals play a role in hereditary neuronal diseases. Here we have used a bioinformatical approach to identify....... Together these findings indicate that P5A and P5B ATPases are structurally and functionally different....

  20. HRG-1 enhances cancer cell invasive potential and couples glucose metabolism to cytosolic/extracellular pH gradient regulation by the vacuolar-H(+) ATPase.

    Fogarty, F M; O'Keeffe, J; Zhadanov, A; Papkovsky, D; Ayllon, V; O'Connor, R


    Haeme-responsive gene (HRG)-1 encodes a 16-kDa transmembrane protein that is induced by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and associates with the vacuolar-(H(+)) ATPase (V-ATPase). We previously reported that HRG-1 is essential for V-ATPase activity in endosomal acidification and receptor trafficking. Here, we show that in highly invasive and migratory cancer cell lines, HRG-1 and the V-ATPase are co-expressed at the plasma membrane, whereas in less invasive cell lines and non-transformed cells HRG-1 over-expression remains confined to intracellular compartments. Stable suppression of HRG-1 in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells decreases extracellular pH, cell growth, migration and invasion. Ectopic expression of HRG-1 in non-invasive MCF-7 cells enhances V-ATPase activity, lowers the extracellular pH and increases the pH-dependent activity of MMP2 and MMP9 matrix metalloproteinases. HRG-1 enhances trafficking of the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) with a concomitant increase in glucose uptake and lactate production. HRG-1 also promotes trafficking of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), β1-integrin and IGF-1 signalling. Taken together, our findings indicate that HRG-1 expression at the plasma membrane enhances V-ATPase activity, drives glycolytic flux and facilitates cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. Thus, HRG-1 may represent a novel target for selectively disrupting V-ATPase activity and the metastatic potential of cancer cells.

  1. A comparison of an ATPase from the archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum with the F1 moiety from the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.


    A purified ATPase associated with membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum was compared with the F sub 1 moiety from the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. The halobacterial enzyme was composed of two major (I and II) and two minor subunits (III and IV), whose molecular masses were 87 kDa, 60 kDa, 29 kDa, and 20 kDa, respectively. The isoelectric points of these subunits ranged from 4.1 to 4.8, which in the case of the subunits I and II was consistent with the presence of an excess of acidic amino acids (20 to 22 Mol percent). Peptide mapping of sodium dodecylsulfate-denatured subunits I and II showed no relationship between the primary structures of the individual halobacterial subunits or similarities to the subunits of the F sub 1 ATPase (EC from E. coli. Trypsin inactivation of the halobacterial ATPase was accompanied by the partial degradation of the major subunits. This observation, taken in conjunction with molecular masses of the subunits and the native enzyme, was consistent with the previously proposed stoichiometry of 2:2:1:1. These results suggest that H. saccharovorum, and possibly, Halobacteria in general, possess an ATPase which is unlike the ubiquitous F sub o F sub 1 - ATP Synthase.

  2. An azide-insensitive low-affinity ATPase stimulated by Ca2+ or Mg2+ in basal-lateral and brush border membranes of kidney cortex.

    Ilsbroux, I; Vanduffel, L; Teuchy, H; De Cuyper, M


    Basal-lateral and brush border membranes from pig kidney cortex were prepared by differential centrifugation followed by free-flow electrophoresis. In each type of membrane, azide-insensitive, low-affinity Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities are demonstrated. A comparative study for both membranes further reveals the following analogies between these ATPases: (a) they show maximal activity between pH 8 and 8.5; (b) they exhibit Km values for Ca-ATP or Mg-ATP in the millimolar range and have a comparable low substrate specificity; (c) they are insensitive to 10 microM of vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, e diethylstilbestrol, quercetin, harmaline and amiloride. The partial inhibition by 1 mM of the various compounds is rather aspecific. In view of these similarities it is concluded that only one enzyme entity is responsible for the activity which is measured in both membrane types. The HCO3-stimulated Mg2+-ATPase activity in pig kidney cortex was also studied. This enzyme, however, is clearly of mitochondrial origin since the HCO3-stimulation coincides with the distribution profile of succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial marker; and since it is inhibited by azide.

  3. Gene duplications circumvent trade-offs in enzyme function: Insect adaptation to toxic host plants.

    Dalla, Safaa; Dobler, Susanne


    Herbivorous insects and their adaptations against plant toxins provide striking opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of traits involved in coevolutionary interactions. Target site insensitivity to cardenolides has evolved convergently across six orders of insects, involving identical substitutions in the Na,K-ATPase gene and repeated convergent gene duplications. The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, has three copies of the Na,K-ATPase α-subunit gene that bear differing numbers of amino acid substitutions in the binding pocket for cardenolides. To analyze the effect of these substitutions on cardenolide resistance and to infer possible trade-offs in gene function, we expressed the cardenolide-sensitive Na,K-ATPase of Drosophila melanogaster in vitro and introduced four distinct combinations of substitutions observed in the three gene copies of O. fasciatus. With an increasing number of substitutions, the sensitivity of the Na,K-ATPase to a standard cardenolide decreased in a stepwise manner. At the same time, the enzyme's overall activity decreased significantly with increasing cardenolide resistance and only the least substituted mimic of the Na,K-ATPase α1C copy maintained activity similar to the wild-type enzyme. Our results suggest that the Na,K-ATPase copies in O. fasciatus have diverged in function, enabling specific adaptations to dietary cardenolides while maintaining the functionality of this critical ion carrier. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. A structural overview of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase ion pumps

    Morth, Jens Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe


    Plasma membrane ATPases are primary active transporters of cations that maintain steep concentration gradients. The ion gradients and membrane potentials derived from them form the basis for a range of essential cellular processes, in particular Na(+)-dependent and proton-dependent secondary tran......(+),K(+)-ATPase maintains a Na(+) and K(+) gradient in animal cells. Structural information provides insight into the function of these two distinct but related P-type pumps....

  5. Modulation by ammonium ions of gill microsomal (Na+,K+)-ATPase in the swimming crab Callinectes danae: a possible mechanism for regulation of ammonia excretion.

    Masui, D C; Furriel, R P M; McNamara, J C; Mantelatto, F L M; Leone, F A


    The modulation by Na(+), K(+), NH(4)(+) and ATP of the (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase in a microsomal fraction from Callinectes danae gills was analyzed. ATP was hydrolyzed at high-affinity binding sites at a maximal rate of V=35.4+/-2.1 Umg(-1) and K(0.5)=54.0+/-3.6 nM, obeying cooperative kinetics (n(H)=3.6). At low-affinity sites, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics with K(M)=55.0+/-3.0 microM and V=271.5+/-17.2 Umg(-1). This is the first demonstration of a crustacean (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase with two ATP hydrolyzing sites. Stimulation by sodium (K(0.5)=5.80+/-0.30 mM), magnesium (K(0.5)=0.48+/-0.02 mM) and potassium ions (K(0.5)=1.61+/-0.06 mM) exhibited site-site interactions, while that by ammonium ions obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(M)=4.61+/-0.27 mM). Ouabain (K(I)=147.2+/-7.microM) and orthovanadate (K(I)=11.2+/-0.6 microM) completely inhibited ATPase activity, indicating the absence of contaminating ATPase and/or neutral phosphatase activities. Ammonium and potassium ions synergistically stimulated the enzyme, increasing specific activities up to 90%, suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. The presence of each ion modulates enzyme stimulation by the other. The modulation of (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase activity by ammonium ions, and the excretion of NH(4)(+) in benthic crabs are discussed.

  6. Pre-steady-state charge translocation in NaK-ATPase from eel electric organ


    Time-resolved measurements of charge translocation and phosphorylation kinetics during the pre-steady state of the NaK-ATPase reaction cycle are presented. NaK-ATPase-containing microsomes prepared from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus were adsorbed to planar lipid bilayers for investigation of charge translocation, while rapid acid quenching was used to study the concomitant enzymatic partial reactions involved in phosphoenzyme formation. To facilitate comparison of these data, conditions were standardized with respect to pH (6.2), ionic composition, and temperature (24 degrees C). The different phases of the current generated by the enzyme are analyzed under various conditions and compared with the kinetics of phosphoenzyme formation. The slowest time constant (tau 3(-1) approximately 8 s-1) is related to the influence of the capacitive coupling of the adsorbed membrane fragments on the electrical signal. The relaxation time associated with the decaying phase of the electrical signal (tau 2(-1) = 10-70 s-1) depends on ATP and caged ATP concentration. It is assigned to the ATP and caged ATP binding and exchange reaction. A kinetic model is proposed that explains the behavior of the relaxation time at different ATP and caged ATP concentrations. Control measurements with the rapid mixing technique confirm this assignment. The rising phase of the electrical signal was analyzed with a kinetic model based on a condensed Albers-Post cycle. Together with kinetic information obtained from rapid mixing studies, the analysis suggests that electroneutral ATP release, ATP and caged ATP binding, and exchange and phosphorylation are followed by a fast electrogenic E1P-->E2P transition. At 24 degrees C and pH 6.2, the rate constant for the E1P-- >E2P transition in NaK-ATPase from eel electric organ is > or = 1,000 s- 1. PMID:8270908

  7. FTIR study of ATP-induced changes in Na+/K+-ATPase from duck supraorbital glands.

    Pratap, Promod R; Dediu, Oana; Nienhaus, G Ulrich


    The Na+/K+-ATPase uses energy from the hydrolysis of ATP to pump Na+ ions out of and K+ ions into the cell. ATP-induced conformational changes in the protein have been examined in the Na+/K+-ATPase isolated from duck supraorbital salt glands using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both standard transmission and attenuated total internal reflection sample geometries have been employed. Under transmission conditions, enzyme at 75 mg/ml was incubated with dimethoxybenzoin-caged ATP. ATP was released by flashing with a UV laser pulse at 355 nm, which resulted in a large change in the amide I band. The absorbance at 1659 cm(-1) decreased with a concomitant increase in the absorbance at 1620 cm(-1). These changes are consistent with a partial conversion of protein secondary structure from alpha-helix to beta-sheet. The changes were approximately 8% of the total absorbance, much larger than those seen with other P-type ATPases. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the decrease in absorbance at approximately 1650 cm(-1) was titrated with ATP, and the titration midpoint K0.5 was determined under different ionic conditions. In the presence of metal ions (Na+, Na+ and K+, or Mg2+), K0.5 was on the order of a few microM. In the absence of these ions, K0.5 was an order of magnitude lower (0.1 microM), indicating a higher apparent affinity. This effect suggests that the equilibrium for the ATP-induced conformational changes is dependent on the presence of metal ions.

  8. Binding and hydrolysis of TNP-ATP by Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Weber, J; Senior, A E


    It had previously been suggested that Vmax hydrolysis rate of 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP) by F1-ATPase required filling of only two catalytic sites on the enzyme (Grubmeyer, C., and Penefsky, H. S. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3718-3727), whereas recently it was shown that Vmax rate of ATP hydrolysis requires that all three catalytic sites are filled (Weber, J., Wilke-Mounts, S., Lee, R. S. F., Grell, E., and Senior, A. E. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 20126-20133). To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we measured equilibrium binding and hydrolysis of MgTNP-ATP under identical conditions, using betaY331W mutant Escherichia coli F1-ATPase, in which the genetically engineered tryptophan provides a direct fluorescent probe of catalytic site occupancy. We found that MgTNP-ATP hydrolysis at Vmax rate did require filling of all three catalytic sites, but in contrast to the situation with MgATP, "bisite hydrolysis" of MgTNP-ATP amounted to a substantial fraction (approximately 40%) of Vmax. Binding of MgTNP-ATP to the three catalytic sites showed strong binding cooperativity (Kd1 e. in presence of EDTA) bound to all three catalytic sites with lower affinity but was not hydrolyzed. These data emphasize that the presence of Mg2+ is critical for cooperativity of substrate binding, formation of the very high affinity first catalytic site, and hydrolytic activity in F1-ATPases and that these three properties are strongly correlated.

  9. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R


    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  10. Regulation of chlamydial infection by host autophagy and vacuolar ATPase-bearing organelles.

    Yasir, Muhammad; Pachikara, Niseema D; Bao, Xiaofeng; Pan, Zui; Fan, Huizhou


    As arguably the most successful parasite, Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium replicating inside a vacuole of eukaryotic host cells. The chlamydial vacuole does not fuse with the defense cell organelle lysosome. We previously showed that chlamydial infection increases markers of autophagy, an innate antimicrobial activity requiring lysosomal function. However, the work presented here demonstrates that p62, an autophagy protein that is degraded in lysosomes, either remained unchanged or increased in chlamydia-infected human epithelial, mouse fibroblast, and mouse macrophage cell lines. In addition, the activities of three lysosomal enzymes analyzed were diminished in chlamydia-infected macrophages. Bafilomycin A1 (BafA), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) required for lysosomal function, increased the growth of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (L2) in wild-type murine fibroblasts and macrophages but inhibited growth in the autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) fibroblasts. BafA exhibited only slight inhibition or no effect on L2 growth in multiple human genital epithelial cell lines. In contrast to L2, the mouse pathogen Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn) was consistently inhibited by BafA in all cell lines examined, regardless of species origin and autophagy status. Finally, L2 but not MoPn grew more efficiently in the ATG5(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. These results suggest that there are two types of vATPase-bearing organelles that regulate chlamydial infection: one supports chlamydial infection, while the other plays a defensive role through autophagy when cells are artificially infected with certain chlamydiae that have not been adapted to the host species.

  11. Roles of astrocytic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and glycogenolysis for K(+) homeostasis in mammalian brain.

    Hertz, Leif; Gerkau, Niklas J; Xu, Junnan; Durry, Simone; Song, Dan; Rose, Christine R; Peng, Liang


    Neuronal excitation increases extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]o) in vivo and in incubated brain tissue by stimulation of postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors and by channel-mediated K(+) release during action potentials. Convincing evidence exists that subsequent cellular K(+) reuptake occurs by active transport, normally mediated by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. This enzyme is expressed both in neurons and in astrocytes but is stimulated by elevated [K(+)]o only in astrocytes. This might lead to an initial K(+) uptake in astrocytes, followed by Kir4.1-mediated release and neuronal reuptake. In cell culture experiments, K(+)-stimulated glycogenolysis is essential for operation of the astrocytic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase resulting from the requirement for glycogenolysis in a pathway leading to uptake of Na(+) for costimulation of its intracellular sodium-binding site. The astrocytic but not the neuronal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is additionally stimulated by isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist, but only at nonelevated [K(+)]o. This effect is also glycogenolysis dependent and might play a role during poststimulatory undershoots. Attempts to replicate dependence on glycogenolysis for K(+) reuptake in glutamate-stimulated brain slices showed similar [K(+)]o recovery half-lives in the absence and presence of the glycogenolysis inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol. The undershoot was decreased, but to the same extent as an unexpected reduction of peak [K(+)]o increase. A potential explanation for this difference from the cell culture experiments is that astrocytic glutamate uptake might supply the cells with sufficient Na(+). Inhibition of action potential generation by tetrodotoxin caused only a marginal, nonsignificant decrease in stimulated [K(+)]o in brain slices, hindering the evaluation if K(+) reaccumulation after action potential propagation requires glycogenolysis in this preparation.

  12. V-type ATPase proton pump expression during enamel formation.

    Sarkar, Juni; Wen, Xin; Simanian, Emil J; Paine, Michael L


    Several diseases such as proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis and osteoporosis are related to intracellular pH dysregulation resulting from mutations in genes coding for ion channels, including proteins comprising the proton-pumping V-type ATPase. V-type ATPase is a multi-subunit protein complex expressed in enamel forming cells. V-type ATPase plays a key role in enamel development, specifically lysosomal acidification, yet our understanding of the relationship between the endocytotic activities and dental health and disease is limited. The objective of this study is to better understand the ameloblast-associated pH regulatory networks essential for amelogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on tissues from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel organs to determine which of the V-type ATPase subunits are most highly upregulated during maturation-stage amelogenesis: a time when ameloblast endocytotic activity is highest. Western blot analyses, using specific antibodies to four of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v0d2, Atp6v1b2, Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), were then applied to validate much of the qPCR data. Immunohistochemistry using these same four antibodies was also performed to identify the spatiotemporal expression profiles of individual V-type ATPase subunits. Our data show that cytoplasmic V-type ATPase is significantly upregulated in enamel organ cells during maturation-stage when compared to secretory-stage. These data likely relate to the higher endocytotic activities, and the greater need for lysosomal acidification, during maturation-stage amelogenesis. It is also apparent from our immunolocalization data, using antibodies against two of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), that significant expression is seen at the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. Others have also identified this V-type ATPase expression profile at the apical membrane of maturation ameloblasts. Collectively, these data better define the

  13. Effect of respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis on renal transport enzymes.

    Eiam-ong, S; Laski, M E; Kurtzman, N A; Sabatini, S


    We studied the effect of respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis on acid-base composition and on microdissected renal adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. Rats were subjected to hypercapnia or hypocapnia of 6, 24, and 72 h duration. After 6 h of hypercapnia, collecting tubule (CT) ATPases were not changed. At 24 h, plasma bicarbonate was 35 +/- 1 meq/l (P respiratory acidosis stimulates activity of both renal proton ATPases. By contrast, both acute and chronic respiratory alkalosis decrease the two renal proton pumps. The stimulatory effect of hypercapnia and the inhibitory effect of hypocapnia on the renal ATPases appear to be potassium and aldosterone independent. Although the precise mechanisms for these results are not known, a direct effect of PCO2, pH, or changes in bicarbonate delivery may be involved.

  14. [Effect of point substitutions of Asp-714 and Asp-720 residues on the structure and function of the H+ -ATPase of the yeast plasma membrane].

    Petrov, V V; Ibragimov, R I


    Membrane-spanning M5 and M6 segments, which play a role in the formation of cation transport sites in H(+)-, Ca2(+)-, K(+)-, Na(+)-, and other P2-ATPases, are connected by a short extracytoplasmic loop. In the yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which belongs to a family of P2-ATPases, the loop is connected to M5 and M6 through the Asp-714 and Asp-720 residues. In this work, the effect of point amino, acidreplacements of Asp-714 and Asp-720 by Ala, Val, Asn, and Glu residues on the function of the enzyme was studied. The Asp714Asn point mutant possessed activities similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, whereas the replacement of Asp-714 by other amino acid residues disrupted biogenesis and led to a loss of activity. All mutants with substitution of Asp-720 were expressed and possessed relatively high activity. The D720V mutant displayed significantly reduced expression levels, activity, H+ transport, and ATP hydrolyzing activity. Thus, substitutions of Asp-714, except for the D714N mutant, led to significant defects in biogenesis and/or function of the enzyme. The results indicate the important role for the Asp-714 residue in biogenesis, structure stability, and enzyme function.

  15. Mutations affecting the high affinity ATPase center of gpA, the large subunit of bacteriophage lambda terminase, inactivate the endonuclease activity of terminase.

    Hwang, Y; Feiss, M


    Phage lambda terminase carries out the cos cleavage reaction that generates mature chromosomes from immature concatemeric DNA. The ATP-stimulated endonuclease activity of terminase is located in gpA, the large terminase subunit. There is a high affinity ATPase center in gpA, and a match to the conserved P-loop of known ATPases is found starting near residue 490. Changing the conserved P-loop lysine at residue 497 of gpA affects the high affinity ATPase activity of terminase. In the present work, mutations causing the gpA changes K497A and K497D were found to be lethal, and phages carrying these mutations were defective in cos cleavage, in vivo. Purified K497A and K497D enzymes cleaved cos in vitro at rates reduced from the wild-type rate by factors of 1000 and 2000, respectively. The strong defects in cos cleavage are sufficient to explain the lethality of the K497A and K497D defects. In in vitro packaging studies using mature (cleaved) phage DNA, the K497A enzyme was indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme, and the K497D enzyme showed a mild packaging defect under limiting terminase conditions. In a purified DNA packaging system, the wild-type and K497D enzymes showed similar packaging activities that were stimulated to half-maximal levels at about 3 microM ATP, indicating that the K497D change does not affect DNA translocation. In sum, the work indicates that the high affinity ATPase center of gpA is involved in stimulation of the endonuclease activity of terminase.

  16. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.


    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  17. Ascorbate protects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide inhibition of erythrocyte membrane Ca2+ + Mg2(+)-ATPase.

    Moore, R B; Bamberg, A D; Wilson, L C; Jenkins, L D; Mankad, V N


    The incubation of erythrocyte suspensions or isolated membranes containing a residual amount of hemoglobin (0.04% of original cellular hemoglobin) with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP, 0.5 mM) caused significant inhibition of basal and calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ + Mg2(+)-ATPase activities and the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products measured as malondialdehyde. In contrast, the treatment of white ghosts (membranes not containing hemoglobin) with tBHP (0.5 mM) did not lead to appreciable enzyme inhibition within the first 20 min and did not result in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. However, the addition of either 10 microM hemin or 100 microM ferrous chloride + 1 mM ADP to white ghosts produced hydroperoxide effects similar to those in pink ghosts (membranes with 0.04% hemoglobin). The concentrations of hemin and ferrous chloride which caused half-maximal inhibition of Ca2+ + Mg2(+)-ATPase activity at 10 min were 0.5 and 30 microM, respectively. The effects of several antioxidants (mannitol, thiourea, hydroxyurea, butylated hydroxytoluene, and ascorbate) were investigated for their protective effects against oxidative changes resulting from tBHP treatment. Over a 30-min incubation period only ascorbate significantly reduced the enzyme inhibition, MDA formation, and protein polymerization. Thiourea and hydroxyurea decreased MDA formation and protein polymerization but failed to protect against the enzyme inhibition. Butylated hydroxytoluene was similar to thiourea and hydroxyurea but with better protection at 10 min. Mannitol, under these conditions, was an ineffective antioxidant for all parameters tested.

  18. Proteasome Inhibition Contributed to the Cytotoxicity of Arenobufagin after Its Binding with Na, K-ATPase in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells.

    Qingxi Yue

    Full Text Available Although the possibility of developing cardiac steroids/cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents has been recognized, the mechanism of their anticancer activity is still not clear enough. Toad venom extract containing bufadienolides, which belong to cardiac steroids, has actually long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for cancer therapy in China. The cytotoxicity of arenobufagin, a bufadienolide isolated from toad venom, on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was checked. And, the protein expression profile of control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin for 48 h was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. Differently expressed proteins in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin were identified and the pathways related to these proteins were mapped from KEGG database. Computational molecular docking was performed to verify the binding of arenobufagin and Na, K-ATPase. The effects of arenobufagin on Na, K-ATPase activity and proteasome activity of HeLa cells were checked. The protein-protein interaction network between Na, K-ATPase and proteasome was constructed and the expression of possible intermediate proteins ataxin-1 and translationally-controlled tumor protein in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin was then checked. Arenobufagin induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic effect of arenobufagin was associated with 25 differently expressed proteins including proteasome-related proteins, calcium ion binding-related proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, metabolism-related enzymes and others. The results of computational molecular docking revealed that arenobufagin was bound in the cavity formed by the transmembrane alpha subunits of Na, K-ATPase, which blocked the pathway of extracellular Na+/K+ cation exchange and inhibited the function of ion exchange. Arenobufagin inhibited the activity of Na, K-ATPase and proteasome, decreased the

  19. Proteasome Inhibition Contributed to the Cytotoxicity of Arenobufagin after Its Binding with Na, K-ATPase in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells.

    Yue, Qingxi; Zhen, Hong; Huang, Ming; Zheng, Xi; Feng, Lixing; Jiang, Baohong; Yang, Min; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Dean


    Although the possibility of developing cardiac steroids/cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents has been recognized, the mechanism of their anticancer activity is still not clear enough. Toad venom extract containing bufadienolides, which belong to cardiac steroids, has actually long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for cancer therapy in China. The cytotoxicity of arenobufagin, a bufadienolide isolated from toad venom, on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was checked. And, the protein expression profile of control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin for 48 h was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. Differently expressed proteins in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin were identified and the pathways related to these proteins were mapped from KEGG database. Computational molecular docking was performed to verify the binding of arenobufagin and Na, K-ATPase. The effects of arenobufagin on Na, K-ATPase activity and proteasome activity of HeLa cells were checked. The protein-protein interaction network between Na, K-ATPase and proteasome was constructed and the expression of possible intermediate proteins ataxin-1 and translationally-controlled tumor protein in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin was then checked. Arenobufagin induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic effect of arenobufagin was associated with 25 differently expressed proteins including proteasome-related proteins, calcium ion binding-related proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, metabolism-related enzymes and others. The results of computational molecular docking revealed that arenobufagin was bound in the cavity formed by the transmembrane alpha subunits of Na, K-ATPase, which blocked the pathway of extracellular Na+/K+ cation exchange and inhibited the function of ion exchange. Arenobufagin inhibited the activity of Na, K-ATPase and proteasome, decreased the expression of Na, K-ATPase

  20. ATP-ases of synaptic plasma membranes in striatum: enzymatic systems for synapses functionality by in vivo administration of L-acetylcarnitine in relation to Parkinson's Disease.

    Villa, R F; Ferrari, F; Gorini, A


    The maximum rate (Vmax) of some enzymatic activities related to energy consumption was evaluated in synaptic plasma membranes from rat brain striatum, the synaptic energy state being a crucial factor in neurodegenerative diseases etiopathogenesis. Two types of synaptic plasma membranes were isolated from rats subjected to in vivo treatment with L-acetylcarnitine at two different doses (30 and 60 mg × kg(-1) i.p., 28 days, 5 days/week). The following enzyme activities were evaluated: acetylcholinesterase (AChE); Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase; ouabain insensitive Mg(2+)-ATP-ase; Na(+), K(+)-ATP-ase; direct Mg(2+)-ATP-ase; Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase; and low- and high-affinity Ca(2+)-ATP-ase. In control (vehicle-treated) animals, enzymatic activities are differently expressed in synaptic plasma membranes type I (SPM1) with respect to synaptic plasma membranes type II (SPM2), the evaluated enzymatic activities being higher in SPM2. Subchronic treatment with L-acetylcarnitine decreased AChE on SPM1 and SPM2 at the dose of 30 mg × kg(-1). Pharmacological treatment decreased ouabain insensitive Mg(2+)-ATP-ase activity and high affinity Ca(2+)-ATP-ase activity at the doses of 30 and 60 mg × kg(-1) respectively on SPM1, while it decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATP-ase, direct Mg(2+)-ATP-ase and Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase activities at the dose of 30 mg × kg(-1) on SPM2. These results suggest that the sensitivity to drug treatment is different between these two populations of synaptic plasma membranes from the striatum, confirming the micro-heterogeneity of these subfractions, possessing different metabolic machinery with respect to energy consumption and utilization and the regional selective effect of L-acetylcarnitine on cerebral tissue, depending on the considered area. The drug potential effect at the synaptic level in Parkinson's Disease neuroprotection is also discussed with respect to acetylcholine and energy metabolism.

  1. Sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor promotes endothelial cell survival through nitric-oxide synthase, fibroblast growth factor-2, and telomerase cross-talk.

    Donnini, Sandra; Terzuoli, Erika; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia


    The protective effect exerted by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) in cardiovascular diseases caused by endothelial injury and aging has been attributed to the restoration of endothelial cell functions. Recently, we demonstrated a central role of the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)/FGF receptor-1 system in mediating the acquisition of an angiogenic phenotype in coronary microvascular endothelium exposed to ACEI. Here, we report on the rescuing effect of ACEI on impaired endothelium and the intracellular signaling mechanisms that lead endothelial cells to enter apoptosis and to senesce. Conditions mimicking pathological cell damage (serum deprivation) lead to endothelial apoptosis as evidenced by increased caspase-3 activity. ACEI enhanced cell survival through activation of prosurvival and antiaging signals involving Akt phosphorylation, endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activation, FGF-2 and telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT) up-regulation, and delayed senescence. In microvascular endothelial cells exposed to ACEI, Akt/eNOS pathway-dependent FGF-2 was necessary for gene transcription of TERT. These protective effects were particularly evident for sulfhydryl-containing ACEI (zofenoprilat), which were reported to exhibit potent antioxidant effects. In conclusion, ACEI with antioxidant properties up-regulate eNOS, FGF-2, and TERT mRNA, which favor endothelial cell survival and prolong their lifespan, thus restoring endothelial cell functions after vascular damage. These effects could explain the beneficial effects of these drugs in various cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial injury and aging.

  2. The E2-like conjugation enzyme Atg3 promotes binding of IRG and Gbp proteins to Chlamydia- and Toxoplasma-containing vacuoles and host resistance.

    Arun K Haldar

    Full Text Available Cell-autonomous immunity to the bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is controlled by two families of Interferon (IFN-inducible GTPases: Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs and Guanylate binding proteins (Gbps. Members of these two GTPase families associate with pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs and solicit antimicrobial resistance pathways specifically to the intracellular site of infection. The proper delivery of IRG and Gbp proteins to PVs requires the autophagy factor Atg5. Atg5 is part of a protein complex that facilitates the transfer of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 from the E2-like conjugation enzyme Atg3 to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine. Here, we show that Atg3 expression, similar to Atg5 expression, is required for IRG and Gbp proteins to dock to PVs. We further demonstrate that expression of a dominant-active, GTP-locked IRG protein variant rescues the PV targeting defect of Atg3- and Atg5-deficient cells, suggesting a possible role for Atg proteins in the activation of IRG proteins. Lastly, we show that IFN-induced cell-autonomous resistance to C. trachomatis infections in mouse cells depends not only on Atg5 and IRG proteins, as previously demonstrated, but also requires the expression of Atg3 and Gbp proteins. These findings provide a foundation for a better understanding of IRG- and Gbp-dependent cell-autonomous resistance and its regulation by Atg proteins.

  3. A simplified model for V-ATPase H+ extrusion.

    Luo, Chuan; Clark, John W; Heming, Thomas A; Bidani, Akhil


    An analytical model of V-type H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) was developed based on an approximation to the mechanochemical model of Grabe et al. (Biophys. J., pp. 2798-2813, vol. 78, 2000). Grabe's work utilizes structural information and physiological assumptions to construct a detailed mechanochemical model of the V-ATPase. Due to the complexity of their model, it does not give a readily usable mathematical expression for the V-ATPase current. Based on their analysis of the structure of the proton pump, we develop a two-compartment model of the V-ATPase, which contains a membrane "half-channel" for proton translocation separated by a hydrophilic strip and a hydrophobic wall from the cytoplasm. Using the Langevin equation to describe proton transport across the membrane, we simplify the model based on their assumptions on the molecular structure of the pump and arrive at a general form of solution to the proton pump flux driven by ATP hydrolysis based on assumptions on the physiological properties of the strip and the wall, as well as the two fluid compartments. In this process of simplification, we explicitly relate V-ATPase structure, stoichiometry, pump efficiency, and ATP hydrolysis energy to the active pump current. The simplified model is used to provide model-generated approximations to measured data from a variety of laboratories. In addition, it provides a very compact characterization of V-ATPase, which can be used as a proton extruder in a variety of different cell membranes, as well as in the membranes of intracellular organelles. Index Terms-Electrophysiology, mechanochemstry, molecular motors, proton extrusion

  4. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.

    Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S


    Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions.

  5. A universally conserved ATPase regulates the oxidative stress response in Escherichia coli.

    Wenk, Meike; Ba, Qiaorui; Erichsen, Veronika; MacInnes, Katherine; Wiese, Heike; Warscheid, Bettina; Koch, Hans-Georg


    YchF is an evolutionarily conserved ATPase of unknown function. In humans, the YchF homologue hOla1 appears to influence cell proliferation and was found to be up-regulated in many tumors. A possible involvement in regulating the oxidative stress response was also suggested, but details on the underlying mechanism are lacking. For gaining insight into YchF function, we used Escherichia coli as a model organism and found that YchF overexpression resulted in H(2)O(2) hypersensitivity. This was not caused by transcriptional or translational down-regulation of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes. Instead, we observed YchF-dependent inhibition of catalase activity and a direct interaction with the major E. coli catalase KatG. KatG inhibition was dependent on the ATPase activity of YchF and was regulated by post-translational modifications, most likely including an H(2)O(2)-dependent dephosphorylation. We furthermore showed that YchF expression is repressed by the transcription factor OxyR and further post-translationally modified in response to H(2)O(2). In summary, our data show that YchF functions as a novel negative regulator of the oxidative stress response in E. coli. Considering the available data on hOla1, YchF/Ola1 most likely execute similar functions in bacteria and humans, and their up-regulation inhibits the ability of the cells to scavenge damaging reactive oxygen species.

  6. Gastro protective and H(+), K(+)-ATPase/H. pylori inhibitory properties of pectic polysaccharides from potato.

    Badanavalu Chandrashekar, Kavitha; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah


    Polysaccharide is one among the important classes of biological polymers that is reported to exhibit disease preventive properties. The present study describes the isolation of galactans and confirmation of the same by sugar analysis and determination of anti-ulcer effect of Potato Galactan Polysaccharide (PGP). Data indicated that PGP possessed sugar composition of rhamnose (2%), arabinose (3%), mannose (3%), galactose (94%) and uronic acid (17%) confirming that PGP thus isolated is a galactan. PGP exhibited potent H(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity (IC50 420 μg/mL) in vitro as opposed to lansoprazole, a known antiulcer drug with IC50 19.3 μg/mL. The antiulcer potency of PGP was evaluated in ethanol stress induced gastric ulcer model in vivo. About 84% reduction in ulcer index; enhanced mucosal recovery, normalization of H(+), K(+)-ATPase, antioxidant and antioxidant enzymes substantiated the antiulcer potentials of PGP. Mucosal recovery could be attributed to cytoprotective and DNA protective ability of PGP that can help in mucosal layer regeneration. Further, PGP was also effective in inhibiting Helicobacter pylori as per growth inhibition assay followed by scanning electron microscopic studies suggesting that PGP is effective in curbing the growth of H. pylori, which is responsible for ∼70% of gastric ulcer/cancer incidences.

  7. Simple mechanism whereby the F1-ATPase motor rotates with near-perfect chemomechanical energy conversion.

    Saita, Ei-ichiro; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke


    F1-ATPase is a motor enzyme in which a central shaft γ subunit rotates 120° per ATP in the cylinder made of α3β3 subunits. During rotation, the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP) is converted almost entirely into mechanical work by an elusive mechanism. We measured the force for rotation (torque) under various ΔGATP conditions as a function of rotation angles of the γ subunit with quasi-static, single-molecule manipulation and estimated mechanical work (torque × traveled angle) from the area of the function. The torque functions show three sawtooth-like repeats of a steep jump and linear descent in one catalytic turnover, indicating a simple physical model in which the motor is driven by three springs aligned along a 120° rotation angle. Although the second spring is unaffected by ΔGATP, activation of the first spring (timing of the torque jump) delays at low [ATP] (or high [ADP]) and activation of the third spring delays at high [Pi]. These shifts decrease the size and area of the sawtooth (magnitude of the work). Thus, F1-ATPase responds to the change of ΔGATP by shifting the torque jump timing and uses ΔGATP for the mechanical work with near-perfect efficiency.

  8. Complementation of Escherichia coli unc mutant strains by chloroplast and cyanobacterial F1-ATPase subunits.

    Lill, H; Burkovski, A; Altendorf, K; Junge, W; Engelbrecht, S


    The genes encoding the five subunits of the F1 portion of the ATPases from both spinach chloroplasts and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were cloned into expression vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant subunits formed inclusion bodies within the cells. Each particular subunit was expressed in the respective unc mutant, each unable to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources. The following subunits restored growth under conditions of oxidative phosphorylation: alpha (both sources, cyanobacterial subunit more than spinach subunit), beta (cyanobacterial subunit only), delta (both spinach and Synechocystis), and epsilon (both sources), whereas no growth was achieved with the gamma subunits from both sources. Despite a high degree of sequence homology the large subunits alpha and beta of spinach and cyanobacterial F1 were not as effective in the substitution of their E. coli counterparts. On the other hand, the two smallest subunits of the E. coli ATPase could be more effectively replaced by their cyanobacterial or chloroplast counterparts, although the sequence identity or even similarity is very low. We attribute these findings to the different roles of these subunits in F1: The large alpha and beta subunits contribute to the catalytic centers of the enzyme, a function rendering them very sensitive to even minor changes. For the smaller delta and epsilon subunits it was sufficient to maintain a certain tertiary structure during evolution, with little emphasis on the conservation of particular amino acids.

  9. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the hypothalamus, pons and cerebellum of the offspring rat due to experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism.

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Tsela, Smaragda; Zissis, Konstantinos M; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Skandali, Nikolina; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Carageorgiou, Haris; Tsakiris, Stylianos


    Neurodevelopment is known to be particularly susceptible to thyroid hormone insufficiency and can result in extensive structural and functional deficits within the central nervous system (CNS), subsequently leading to the establishment of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The current study evaluated the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism (as a suggestive multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes that has been developed and characterized by the authors) on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a CNS region-specific manner. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in the offspring hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons were assessed. The study demonstrated that maternal exposure to PTU (0.05% w/v in the drinking water) during the critical periods of neurodevelopment can result in an inhibition of hypothalamic, pontine and cerebellar Na(+),K(+)-ATPase; a major marker of neuronal excitability and metabolic energy production as well as an important regulator of important systems of neurotransmission. On the other hand, no significant changes in the activities of the herein offspring CNS regions' AChE and Mg(2+)-ATPase were recorded. The observed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibition: (i) is region-specific (and non-detectable in whole brain homogenetes), (ii) could constitute a central event in the pathophysiology of clinically-relevant hypothyroidism-associated developmental neurotoxicity, (iii) occurs under all examined experimental schemes, and (iv) certainly deserves further clarification at a molecular and histopathological level. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they also underline the need for the adoption and further study of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity as a consistent neurochemical marker within the context of a systematic

  10. Hydrolytic and pumping activity of H+-ATPase from leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) as affected by salt stress.

    Wakeel, Abdul; Hanstein, Stefan; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven


    Cell wall extensibility plays an important role in plant growth. According to the acid-growth theory, lower apoplastic pH allows extension growth by affecting cell wall extensibility. A lowered apoplastic pH is presumed to activate wall-loosening enzymes that control plant growth. Plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases play a major role in the apoplastic acidification by H(+) transport from cytosol to the apoplast. A salt-induced decrease in H(+)-pumping activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases in salt-sensitive maize plants has previously been found. This led us to formulate the hypothesis that salt-resistant plant species such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) may have a mechanism to eliminate the effect of higher salt concentrations on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. In the present study, sugar beet plants were grown in 1mM NaCl (control) or 150 mM NaCl in hydroponics. H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were measured in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet shoots. We found that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were not affected by application of 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, apoplastic pH was also not affected under salt stress. However, a decrease in plant growth was observed. We assume that growth reduction was not due to a decrease in PM-H(+)-ATPase activity, but that other factors may be responsible for growth inhibition of sugar beet plants under salt stress.

  11. The effects of rivastigmine plus selegiline on brain acetylcholinesterase, (Na+, K+-, Mg2+-ATPase activities, antioxidant status, and learning performance of aged rats

    Haris Carageorgiou


    Full Text Available Haris Carageorgiou1, Antonios C Sideris1, Ioanna Messari1, Chrissoula I Liakou1, Stylianos Tsakiris21Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Physiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: We investigated the effects of rivastigmine (a cholinesterase inhibitor and selegiline ((-deprenyl, an irreversible inhibitor of monoamineoxidase-B, alone and in combination, on brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE, (Na+, K+-, Mg2+-ATPase activities, total antioxidant status (TAS, and learning performance, after long-term drug administration in aged male rats. The possible relationship between the biochemical and behavioral parameters was evaluated.Methods: Aged rats were treated (for 36 days with rivastigmine (0.3 mg/kg rat/day ip, selegiline (0.25 mg/kg rat/day im, rivastigmine plus selegiline in the same doses and way of administration as separately. Aged and adult control groups received NaCl 0.9% 0.5 ml ip.Results: TAS was lower in aged than in adult rats, rivastigmine alone does not affect TAS, decreases AChE activity, increases (Na+, K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activity of aged rat brain and improves cognitive performance. Selegiline alone decreases free radical production and increases AChE activity and (Na+, K+-ATPase activity, improving cognitive performance as well. In the combination: rivastigmine seems to cancel selegiline action on TAS and AChE activity, while it has additive effect on (Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In the case of Mg2+-ATPase selegiline appears to attenuate rivastigmine activity. No statistically significant difference was observed in the cognitive performance.Conclusion: Reduced TAS, AChE activity and learning performance was observed in old rats. Both rivastigmine and selesiline alone improved performance, although they influenced the biochemical parameters in a different way. The combination of the two drugs did not affect learning performance.Keywords: aged rat, brain enzymes, TAS, learning, rivastigmine

  12. Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester, a conjugated ivermectin derivative with leishmanicidal activity but without inhibitory effect on mammalian P-type ATPases.

    Noël, François; Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Dos Santos, Anderson Rouge; Tomaz, Erick Carlos Loureiro; Quintas, Luis Eduardo Menezes; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Férézou, Jean-Pierre


    Looking at a new putative target for the large spectrum antiparasitic drug ivermectin, we recently showed that avermectin-derived drugs are active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis at low micromolar concentrations. However, we then reported that at this concentration range ivermectin is also able to inhibit three important mammalian P-type ATPases so that unacceptable adverse effects could occur if this drug were used at such high doses therapeutically. The present work aimed to test the activity of ten ivermectin analogs on these rat ATPases in search of a compound with similar leishmanicidal activity but with no effect on the mammalian (host) ATPases at effective concentrations. We synthesized three new ivermectin analogs for testing on rat SERCA (1a and 1b), Na+, K+-ATPase (α₁ and α₂/α₃ isoforms) and H+/K+-ATPase activity, along with seven analogs already characterized for their leishmanicidal activity. Our main finding is that one of the prepared derivatives, Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester 8, is equipotent to ivermectin 1 for the in vitro leishmanicidal effects but is nearly without effect on the rat ATPases, indicating that it could have a better therapeutic index in vivo and could serve as a candidate for hit-to-lead progression. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that compound 8 produced only 6% (vs 77% for ivermectin) inhibition of the human kidney enzyme at 5 μM, a concentration corresponding to the IC₅₀ for the activity against L. amazonensis amastigotes.

  13. The lipid requirement of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase in the human erythrocyte membrane, as studied by various highly purified phospholipases.

    Roelofsen, B; Schatzmann, H J


    1. When complete hydrolysis of glycerophosphlipids and sphingomyelin in the outer membrane leaflet is brought about by treatment of intact red blood cells with phospholipase A2 and sphingomyelinase C, the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity is not affected. 2. Complete hydrolysis of sphingomyelin, by treatment of leaky ghosts with spingomyelinase C, does not lead to an inactivation of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase. 3. Treatment of ghosts with phospholipase A2 (from either procine pancreas of Naja naja venom), under conditions causing an essentially complete hydrolysis of the total glycerophospholipid fraction of the membrane, results in inactivation of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase by some 80--85%. The residual activity is lost when the produced lyso-compounds (and fatty acids) are removed by subsequent treatment of the ghosts with bovine serum albumin. 4. The degree of inactivation of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, caused by treatment of ghosts with phospholipase C, is directly proportional to the percentage by which the glycerophospholipid fraction in the inner membrane layer is degraded. 5. After essentially complete inactivation of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase by treatment of ghosts with phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, the enzyme is reactivated by the addition of any of the glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine or lysophosphatidylcholine, but not by addition of sphingomyeline, free fatty acids or the detergent Triton X-100. 6. It is concluded that only the glycerophospholipids in the human erythrocyte membrane are involved in the maintenance of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity, and in particular that fraction of these phospholipids located in the inner half of the membrane.

  14. Lipids associated with the (Na+ - K+)ATPase of normal and denervated electric organs of Electrophorus electricus (L.).

    Barriviera, M L; Hasson-Voloch, A


    The effect of denervation on the lipid metabolism and on the activity of (Na+ - K+)ATPase isoforms from the membrane fraction P3, which corresponds to the innervated electrocyte membrane, was evaluated. On a discontinuous sucrose gradient, normal P3 membranes exhibit a bimodal ("a" and "b bands) distribution of the (Na+ - K+)ATPase activity, which upon denervation changes to an unimodal ("c" band) distribution. Using these fractions, which have a higher (Na+ - K+)ATPase activity, we characterized the lipids at the hydrophobic protein surface boundary, (i.e., the bulk lipids that surround the protein). The results confirm that these lipids consist of phospholipids and cholesterol. The quantitative composition of the phospholipids is similar for both isoform fractions obtained from the discontinuous gradient of normal membranes, with phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine representing about 90% of the total phospholipids. Sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid were in the minority. However, in the single band obtained after denervation, the three major phospholipid components decreased to 70% of the total, and a significant increase in the other phospholipids and in cholesterol was observed. The high cholesterol content of the denervated fraction may confer membrane stabilization, as it is likely to cause a decrease in the membrane fluidity and consequently in the enzyme activity.

  15. Development of Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots: involvement of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Dell'Orto, M; Santi, S; De Nisi, P; Cesco, S; Varanini, Z; Zocchi, G; Pinton, R


    One of the mechanisms through which some strategy I plants respond to Fe-deficiency is an enhanced acidification of the rhizosphere due to proton extrusion. It was previously demonstrated that under Fe-deficiency, a strong increase in the H(+)-ATPase activity of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from cucumber roots occurred. This result was confirmed in the present work and supported by measurement of ATP-dependent proton pumping in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. There was also an attempt to clarify the regulatory mechanism(s) which lead to the activation of the H(+)-ATPase under Fe-deficiency conditions. Plasma membrane proteins from Fe-deficient roots submitted to immunoblotting using polyclonal antibodies showed an increased level in the 100 kDa polypeptide. When the plasma membrane proteins were treated with trypsin a 90 kDa band appeared. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the enzyme activity, both in the Fe-deficient and in the Fe-sufficient extracts. These results suggest that the increase in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity seen under Fe-deficiency is due, at least in part, to an increased steady-state level of the 100 kDa polypeptide.

  16. Protective and inhibitory effects of various types of amphipols on the Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum: a comparative study.

    Picard, Martin; Dahmane, Tassadite; Garrigos, Manuel; Gauron, Carole; Giusti, Fabrice; le Maire, Marc; Popot, Jean-Luc; Champeil, Philippe


    Amphipols are amphipathic polymers designed to replace or supplement detergents in membrane protein solution studies. Previous work has suggested both advantages and disadvantages to the use of a polyacrylate-based amphipol, A8-35, for studying the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1a). We investigated this issue further using a set of four amphipols with different chemical structures. Previous size exclusion chromatography experiments had shown that A8-35 and SERCA1a/A8-35 complexes aggregate under certain conditions. We show here that aggregation can be prevented by omitting calcium from buffers or by using a sulfonated version of A8-35. A8-35 had previously been shown to protect Ca2+-ATPase from irreversible denaturation, while inhibiting its activity in a reversible manner. We show here that the other three amphipols tested also display these properties and that all four amphipols slow down backward calcium dissociation from the nonphosphorylated solubilized enzyme, a priori an unrelated step. As this calcium dissociation involves the opening up of the bundle of transmembrane ATPase segments, the slowing of this process may indicate that multipoint attachment of the polymers to the hydrophobic transmembrane surface damps protein dynamics ("Gulliver" effect). Damping might be the reason why amphipols also simultaneously protect membrane proteins against irreversible denaturation and may inhibit the activity of those of them that display large rearrangements of their transmembrane surface during their catalytic cycle.

  17. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A


    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F1F0ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development.

  18. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase is inhibited by organic vanadium coordination compounds: pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatodioxovanadium(V), BMOV, and an amavadine analogue.

    Aureliano, Manuel; Henao, Fernando; Tiago, Teresa; Duarte, Rui O; Moura, J J G; Baruah, Bharat; Crans, Debbie C


    The general affinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca (2+)-ATPase was examined for three different classes of vanadium coordination complexes including a vanadium(V) compound, pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatodioxovanadium(V) (PDC-V(V)), and two vanadium(IV) compounds, bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), and an analogue of amavadine, bis( N-hydroxylamidoiminodiacetato)vanadium(IV) (HAIDA-V(IV)). The ability of vanadate to act either as a phosphate analogue or as a transition-state analogue with enzymes' catalysis phosphoryl group transfer suggests that vanadium coordination compounds may reveal mechanistic preferences in these classes of enzymes. Two of these compounds investigated, PDC-V(V) and BMOV, were hydrolytically and oxidatively reactive at neutral pH, and one, HAIDA-V(IV), does not hydrolyze, oxidize, or otherwise decompose to a measurable extent during the enzyme assay. The SR Ca (2+)-ATPase was inhibited by all three of these complexes. The relative order of inhibition was PDC-V(V) > BMOV > vanadate > HAIDA-V(IV), and the IC 50 values were 25, 40, 80, and 325 microM, respectively. Because the observed inhibition is more potent for PDC-V(V) and BMOV than that of oxovanadates, the inhibition cannot be explained by oxovanadate formation during enzyme assays. Furthermore, the hydrolytically and redox stable amavadine analogue HAIDA-V(IV) inhibited the Ca (2+)-ATPase less than oxovanadates. To gauge the importance of the lipid environment, studies of oxidized BMOV in microemulsions were performed and showed that this system remained in the aqueous pool even though PDC-V(V) is able to penetrate lipid interfaces. These findings suggest that the hydrolytic properties of these complexes may be important in the inhibition of the calcium pump. Our results show that two simple coordination complexes with known insulin enhancing effects can invoke a response in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of muscle contraction through the SR Ca (2+)-ATPase.

  19. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming


    in the enzyme or its membrane lipid environment is still a matter of discussion. In this study we compared the temperature dependence and Ca2+-dependence of SR Ca2+-ATPase in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), salmon (Salmo, salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma...... nigrofasciatum). The Arrhenius plot of zebra cichlid showed a break point at 20 degreesC, and the haddock Arrhenius plot was non-linear with pronounced changes in slope in the. temperature area, 6-14 degreesC. In Arrhenius plot from both salmon and rainbow trout a plateau exists with an almost constant SR Ca2...

  20. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of ATP binding to an isolated domain of Na+, K(+)-ATPase.

    Kubala, M; Plásek, J; Amler, E


    An equation allowing estimation of the dissociation constant for binding of a non-fluorescent ligand to the enzyme is presented that is based on the competitive replacement of the ligand by its fluorescent analog. We derived an explicit formula for the probe fluorescence intensity, which is suitable for nonlinear least-squares analysis. We used this formula to evaluate the binding of ATP to the large cytoplasmic loop of Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The estimated value of KD (6.2+/- 0.7 mM) is comparable with the results from other laboratories for similar constructs obtained by a different method.

  1. Forced Treadmill Exercise Prevents Spatial Memory Deficits in Aged Rats Probably Through the Activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the Hippocampus.

    Vanzella, Cláudia; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Odorcyk, Felipe Kawa; Nicola, Fabrício; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza; Netto, Carlos Alexandre


    Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training. Animals of all ages were assigned to naïve (with no behavioral or exercise training), sedentary (non-exercised, with cognitive training) and exercised (20 min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks and with cognitive training) groups. Cognition was assessed by reference and working memory tasks run in the Morris Water maze; 24 h after last session of behavioral testing, hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrated that: (a) a moderate treadmill running exercise prevented spatial learning and memory deficits in aged rats; (b) training in the Water maze increased both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus of mature and aged rats; (c) aged exercised rats displayed an even further increase of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, (d) enzyme activity correlated with memory performance in aged rats. It is suggested that exercise prevents spatial memory deficits in aged rats probably through the activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hippocampus.

  2. Regulatory Mechanisms in the P4-ATPase Complex

    Costa, Sara

    Eukaryotic cell membranes are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Several relevant physiological processes depend on trans-bilayer phospholipid asymmetry, including vesiculation...... of their activity and regulation remain to be elucidated. Therefore, these studies focus on the role of the catalytic and CDC50 β-subunit in the phospholipid translocation and the regulation processes behind it. Recent studies suggested that P4-ATPase complex functionality is highly dependent on the conformation...... autoinhibitory domains in both N- and C-terminus of the P4-ATPase catalytic subunit from yeast. They regulate flippase activity in a coordinated manner which suggests the presence of a cross-talk between both protein termini. Furthermore, characterizing P4-ATPase activity is not a trivial task...

  3. Characterization of ATPase Activity of Recombinant Human Pif1

    Yu HUANG; Deng-Hong ZHANG; Jin-Qiu ZHOU


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1p helicase is the founding member of the Pif1 subfamily that is conserved from yeast to human. The potential human homolog of the yeast PIF1 gene has been cloned from the cDNA library of the Hek293 cell line. Here, we described a purification procedure of glutathione Stransferase (GST)-fused N terminal truncated human Pif1 protein (hPif1△N) from yeast and characterized the enzymatic kinetics of its ATP hydrolysis activity. The ATPase activity of human Pif1 is dependent on divalent cation, such as Mg2+, Ca2+ and single-stranded DNA. Km for ATP for the ATPase activity is approximately 200 μM. As the ATPase activity is essential for hPif1's helicase activity, these results will facilitate the further investigation on hPif1.

  4. Vacuolar ATPase in phago(lyso)some biology.

    Kissing, Sandra; Saftig, Paul; Haas, Albert


    Many eukaryotic cells ingest extracellular particles in a process termed phagocytosis which entails the generation of a new intracellular compartment, the phagosome. Phagosomes change their composition over time and this maturation process culminates in their fusion with acidic, hydrolase-rich lysosomes. During the maturation process, degradation and, when applicable, killing of the cargo may ensue. Many of the events that are pathologically relevant depend on strong acidification of phagosomes by the 'vacuolar' ATPase (V-ATPase). This protein complex acidifies the lumen of some intracellular compartments at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. We discuss here the roles and importance of V-ATPase in intracellular trafficking, its distribution, inhibition and activities, its role in the defense against microorganisms and the counteractivities of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuning of the Na,K-ATPase by the beta subunit

    Hilbers, Florian; Kopec, Wojciech; Isaksen, Toke Jost;


    The vital gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells are maintained by the Na,K-ATPase, an αβ enzyme complex, whose α subunit carries out the ion transport and ATP hydrolysis. The specific roles of the β subunit isoforms are less clear, though β2 is essential for motor...... physiology in mammals. Here, we show that compared to β1 and β3, β2 stabilizes the Na(+)-occluded E1P state relative to the outward-open E2P state, and that the effect is mediated by its transmembrane domain. Molecular dynamics simulations further demonstrate that the tilt angle of the β transmembrane helix...

  6. The nucleosome-remodeling ATPase ISWI is regulated by poly-ADP-ribosylation.

    Anna Sala


    Full Text Available ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodeling enzymes and covalent modifiers of chromatin set the functional state of chromatin. However, how these enzymatic activities are coordinated in the nucleus is largely unknown. We found that the evolutionary conserved nucleosome-remodeling ATPase ISWI and the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP genetically interact. We present evidence showing that ISWI is target of poly-ADP-ribosylation. Poly-ADP-ribosylation counteracts ISWI function in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that ISWI is a physiological target of PARP and that poly-ADP-ribosylation can be a new, important post-translational modification regulating the activity of ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelers.

  7. Tuning of the Na,K-ATPase by the beta subunit

    Hilbers, Florian; Kopec, Wojciech; Isaksen, Toke Jost


    The vital gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells are maintained by the Na,K-ATPase, an αβ enzyme complex, whose α subunit carries out the ion transport and ATP hydrolysis. The specific roles of the β subunit isoforms are less clear, though β2 is essential for motor...... physiology in mammals. Here, we show that compared to β1 and β3, β2 stabilizes the Na(+)-occluded E1P state relative to the outward-open E2P state, and that the effect is mediated by its transmembrane domain. Molecular dynamics simulations further demonstrate that the tilt angle of the β transmembrane helix...... correlates with its functional effect, suggesting that the relative orientation of β modulates ion binding at the α subunit. β2 is primarily expressed in granule neurons and glomeruli in the cerebellum, and we propose that its unique functional characteristics are important to respond appropriately...

  8. Rubidium occlusion within tryptic peptides of the H,K-ATPase.

    Rabon, E C; Smillie, K; Seru, V; Rabon, R


    86Rb+ binding to the H,K-ATPase was measured in the Mg(2+)-vanadate-inhibited enzyme at 4 degrees C. The concentration dependence of 86Rb+ binding in detergent-free preparations exhibited two components, one saturable with a K0.5 (Rb+) of 0.76 +/- 0.3 mM and a binding capacity of 2626 +/- 690 pmol of Rb+/mg of protein and the second nonsaturable, but linearly dependent, upon the 86Rb+ concentration. The concentration dependence of 86Rb+ binding was unaffected by digitonin treatment with a K0.5 (Rb+) of 0.63 +/- 0.09 mM and a binding capacity of 2824 +/- 152 pmol of Rb+/mg of protein, but the amplitude of the nonsaturable component was eliminated. The level of 86Rb+ binding was optimized by vanadate and decreased by ADP and ATP, suggesting that cation binding is stabilized in the E2-like conformation and antagonized in the E1 conformation. The Rb(+)-dependent stabilization of the E2 enzyme conformation was confirmed from the fluorescent quench response of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled enzyme, where 86Rb+ bound to the FITC-labeled enzyme with a K0.5 = 0.85 +/- 0.3 mM and a saturable binding capacity of 2121 pmol of 86Rb+/mg of protein and quenched the FITC fluorescence with a K0.5(Rb+) of 3.6 +/- 0.3 mM. The K(+)-competitive inhibitor, 1-(2-methylphenyl)-4-methylamino-6-methyl-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-c ]quinoline (MDPQ), also quenched FITC fluorescence with a K0.5(MDPQ) of 24.5 +/- 0.6 microM and competitively inhibited 86Rb+ binding with a K*0.5 = 35.8 microM (MDPQ). The MDPQ-induced quench of FITC fluorescence at Lys517 within the cytoplasmic M4/M5 nucleotide domain and displacement of 86Rb+ from a functionally defined extracytoplasmic binding domain indicate that structural determinants of the E2 conformational state exist within both cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic domains of the H,K-ATPase and thus provide evidence of concerted conformational changes between the nucleotide and cation binding domains within the FITC-labeled H,K-ATPase. Membrane

  9. Cytotoxic isolates of Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Diseases decrease K+-dependent ATPase Activity in HeLa cells

    Archana Ayyagari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacterium that plays a central role in the etiology of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer diseases. However, not all H. pylori positive cases develop advanced disease. This discriminatory behavior has been attributed to the difference in virulence of the bacteria. Among all virulence factors, cytotoxin released by H. pylori is the most important factor. In this work, we studied variation in H. pylori isolates from Indian dyspeptic patients on the basis of cytotoxin production and associated changes in K+-dependent ATPase (one of its targets enzyme activity in HeLa cells. Methods The patients were retrospectively grouped on the basis of endoscopic and histopathological observation as having gastritis or peptic ulcer. The HeLa cells were incubated with the broth culture filtrates (BCFs of H. pylori isolates from patients of both groups and observed for the cytopathic effects: morphological changes and viability. In addition, the K+-dependent ATPase activity was measured in HeLa cells extracts. Results The cytotoxin production was observed in 3/7 (gastritis and 4/4 (peptic ulcer H. pylori isolates. The BCFs of cytotoxin producing H. pylori strains reduced the ATPase activity of HeLa cells to 40% of that measured with non-cytotoxin producing H. pylori strains (1.33 μmole Pi/mg protein and 3.36 μmole Pi/mg protein, respectively, p Conclusions Our results suggest that the isolation of cytotoxic H. pylori is more common in severe form of acid peptic diseases (peptic ulcer than in gastritis patients from India. Also the cytotoxin released by H. pylori impairs the ion-transporting ATPase and is a measure of cytotoxicity.

  10. Response of Ca2+-ATPase to clinorotaion of pea seedlings. O. M. Nedukha and E. L. Kordyum

    Nedukha, Olena


    The present study was aimed to reveal of response of Ca2+-ATPase activity of cortex cells in distal elongation zone of Pisum sativum root to slow clinorotation. Pea seedlings were grown on a horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in the stationary control for 6 days. The electron-cytochemical method was used to examine the effects of imitated microgravity on the distribution of Ca2+-ATPase in outer layers of root cortex. The quantitative analysis of the density of cytochemical reaction products was measured using the Image J program. Electron microscopy showed the presence of electron-dense lead phosphate precipitated grains, the enzymatic activity reaction products on the plasma membrane, membranes of vesicular structures, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and on organelles envelope in both of samples of the stationary control and clinorotated seedlings. We revealed the sensitivity of Ca2+-ATPase to clinorotation. The quantitative analysis of the area and density of enzymatic activity reaction products revealed that clinorotation led to the decrease of 3.4 times the density of reaction products on the plasma membrane and the increase of reaction products density on endomembranes and organelles membranes, in particular: in 2.2 times on mitochondria membranes; in 1.3 times - on membranes of ER; in 2.5 times - on tonoplast; by an order of magnitude greater - on contacting membranes of organelles with plasma membrane in comparison with such in cells of control samples. The data analysis can indicate an intensification of calcium pump on endomembranes, on envelopes of cytoplasmic organelles and nucleus. The obtained data suggest that the redistribution of Ca2+-ATPase activity in cells can be mediated by the activation of certain isoforms of enzyme or/and by an activation of Ca2+/H+ antiporter in plasma membrane that helps to maintain optimal calcium balance in plant cells under imitated microgravity.

  11. Study on the changes in the levels of membrane-bound ATPases ...


    Significant (p<0.05) decline in the activities of membrane-bound ATPases and mineral status was observed .... important to cell function and integrity. λ cyhalothrin- induced .... of plasma membrane magnesium ion ATPase activities in normal.

  12. Ultracytochemical Localization and Functional Analysis of ATPase During the Endosperm Development in Oryza sativa L.

    WEI Cun-xu; LAN Sheng-yin; XU Zhen-xiu


    Ultracytochemical localization of ATPase during development of rice endosperm was performed using a lead phosphate precipitation technique. The results indicated that, at the coenocyte and ceilularization stages, active ATPase was mainly distributed in an embryo sac wall, nucleus, and plasma membrane. At the early stage of development and differentiation, active ATPase was observed in the plasma membrane. At the grain filling stage, ATPase was highly active in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, and plasmodesmata in aleurone, moderately active on the plasma membrane in subaleurone. In starchy endosperm, ATPase was localized in the plasma membrane and degenerated nucleus. ATPase activity also appeared around vacuole and protein body in endosperm cell. The relationships between the ultracytochemical localization of ATPase and its function during the development of rice endosperm were discussed. Overall, ATPase was involved in the process of nutrition absorption and protein synthesis.

  13. Lack of conventional ATPase properties in CFTR chloride channel gating.

    Schultz, B D; Bridges, R J; Frizzell, R A


    CFTR shares structural homology with the ABC transporter superfamily of proteins which hydrolyze ATP to effect the transport of compounds across cell membranes. Some superfamily members are characterized as P-type ATPases because ATP-dependent transport is sensitive to the presence of vanadate. It has been widely postulated that CFTR hydrolyzes ATP to gate its chloride channel. However, direct evidence of CFTR hydrolytic activity in channel gating is lacking and existing circumstantial evidence is contradictory. Therefore, we evaluated CFTR chloride channel activity under conditions known to inhibit the activity of ATPases; i.e., in the absence of divalent cations and in the presence of a variety of ATPase inhibitors. Removal of the cytosolic cofactor, Mg2+, reduced both the opening and closing rates of CFTR suggesting that Mg2+ plays a modulatory role in channel gating. However, channels continued to both open and close showing that Mg2+ is not an absolute requirement for channel activity. The nonselective P-type ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, did not alter the gating of CFTR when used at concentrations which completely inhibit the activity of other ABC transporters (1 mM). Higher concentrations of vanadate (10 mM) blocked the closing of CFTR, but did not affect the opening of the channel. As expected, more selective P-type (Sch28080, ouabain), V-type (bafilomycin A1, SCN-) and F-type (oligomycin) ATPase inhibitors did not affect either the opening or closing of CFTR. Thus, CFTR does not share a pharmacological inhibition profile with other ATPases and channel gating occurs in the apparent absence of hydrolysis, although with altered kinetics. Vanadate inhibition of channel closure might suggest that a hydrolytic step is involved although the requirement for a high concentration raises the possibility of previously uncharacterized effects of this compound. Most conservatively, the requirement for high concentrations of vanadate demonstrates that the binding site for

  14. Autoinhibitory Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPases

    Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl

    Electrochemical gradients across cell membranes are essential for nutrient uptake. In plant and fungal cells the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane (PM) can build much higher than in mammalian cells. The protein responsible for this gradient is the essential PM H+-ATPase that uses...... in mammalian cells and it has been speculated if they have a similar function in plants. In this thesis we show, that plant PM H+-ATPases are receptors for lysophospholipids and the autoinhibitory terminal inhibition is released upon lysophospholipid binding. Finally, we have used a group of stabilizing...

  15. Regulation of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    Falhof, Janus

    and that their green algae ancestor does not have this mechanism of regulation. Thisindicates that with the development of more complex organisms the need for a tighter regulation ofthe H+- ATPase activity has also evolved.Since the late 1980`s it have been known that lysophospholipids upregulate the activity...... and are generally perceived to be present in Archaea, algae, fungi and plants. The everexpanding sequence databases give us an opportunity to reevaluate our current knowledge of theevolutionary origin of PM H+-ATPases. In a phylogenetic study we found that a number of bacterialsequences grouped together with known...

  16. Inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ Atpase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags.

    Dhanya, C R; Indu, A R; Deepadevi, K V; Kurup, P A


    Significant amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leach out into blood stored in DEHP plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags resulting in the exposure of recipients of blood transfusion to this compound. The aim of this study was to find out whether DEHP at these low levels has any effect on the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase, since a decrease in this enzyme activity has been reported to take place in a number of disorders like neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, coronary artery disease and stroke, syndrome-X, tumours etc. DEHP was administered (ip) at a low dose of 750 microg/100 g body weight to rats and the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in liver, brain and RBC was estimated. Histopathology of brain, activity of HMG CoA reductase (a major rate limiting enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway of which digoxin, the physiological inhibitor of Na(+)-K+ ATPase is a product), intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in RBC (which is altered as a result of inhibition of Na(+)-K+ ATPase) were also studied. (In the light of the observation of increase of intracellular Ca2+ load and intracellular depletion of Mg2+ when Na(+)-K+ ATPase is inhibited). Histopathology of brain revealed areas of degeneration in the rats administered DEHP. There was significant inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in brain, liver and RBC. Intracellular Ca2+ increased in the RBC while intracellular Mg2+ decreased. However activity of hepatic HMG CoA reductase decreased. Activity of Na(+)-K+ ATPase and HMG CoA reductase, however returned to normal levels within 7 days of stopping administration of DEHP. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity by DEHP may indicate the possibility of predisposing recipients of transfusion of blood or hemodialysis to the various disorders mentioned above. However since this effect is reversed when DEHP administration is stopped, it may not be a serious problem in the case of a few transfusion; but in patients receiving

  17. Structure determination using poorly diffracting membrane-protein crystals: the H+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase case history.

    Pedersen, Bjørn P; Morth, J Preben; Nissen, Poul


    An approach is presented for the structure determination of membrane proteins on the basis of poorly diffracting crystals which exploits molecular replacement for heavy-atom site identification at 6-9 A maximum resolution and improvement of the heavy-atom-derived phases by multi-crystal averaging using quasi-isomorphous data sets. The multi-crystal averaging procedure allows real-space density averaging followed by phase combination between non-isomorphous native data sets to exploit crystal-to-crystal nonisomorphism despite the crystals belonging to the same space group. This approach has been used in the structure determination of H(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase using Ca(2+)-ATPase models and its successful application to the Mhp1 symporter using LeuT as a search model is demonstrated.

  18. Antagonism of the Sodium-Potassium ATPase Impairs Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Alison W. Ashbrook


    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging alphavirus that has caused epidemics of fever, arthralgia, and rash worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease. We conducted a high-throughput, chemical compound screen that identified digoxin, a cardiac glycoside that blocks the sodium-potassium ATPase, as a potent inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Treatment of human cells with digoxin or a related cardiac glycoside, ouabain, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in infection by CHIKV. Inhibition by digoxin was cell type-specific, as digoxin treatment of either murine or mosquito cells did not diminish CHIKV infection. Digoxin displayed antiviral activity against other alphaviruses, including Ross River virus and Sindbis virus, as well as mammalian reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The digoxin-mediated block to CHIKV and reovirus infection occurred at one or more postentry steps, as digoxin inhibition was not bypassed by fusion of CHIKV at the plasma membrane or infection with cell surface-penetrating reovirus entry intermediates. Selection of digoxin-resistant CHIKV variants identified multiple mutations in the nonstructural proteins required for replication complex formation and synthesis of viral RNA. These data suggest a role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in promoting postentry steps of CHIKV replication and provide rationale for modulation of this pathway as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy.

  19. The p97 ATPase associates with EEA1 to regulate the size of early endosomes

    Harish N Ramanathan; Yihong Ye


    The AAA ((A)TPase-(a)ssociated with various cellular (a)ctivities) ATPase p97 acts on diverse substrate proteins to partake in various cellular processes such as membrane fusion and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD).In membrane fusion,p97 is thought to function in analogy to the related ATPase NSF (N-ethylmaleimidesensitive fusion protein),which promotes membrane fusion by disassembling a SNARE complex.In ERAD,p97 dislocates misfolded proteins from the ER membrane to facilitate their turnover by the proteasome.Here,we identify a novel function of p97 in endocytic trafficking by establishing the early endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1) as a new p97 substrate.We demonstrate that a fraction of p97 is localized to the early endosome membrane,where it binds EEA1 via the N-terminal C2H2 zinc finger domain.Inhibition of p97 either by siRNA or a pharmacological inhibitor results in clustering and enlargement of early endosomes,which is associated with an altered trafficking pattern for an endocytic cargo.Mechanistically,we show that p97 inhibition causes increased EEA1 self-association at the endosome membrane.We propose that p97 may regulate the size of early endosomes by governing the oligomeric state of EEA1.

  20. Effect of glandular kallikrein on distal bicarbonate transport. Role of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    Manucha, W; Vallés, P


    The luminal membrane of collecting duct cells, specially the intercalated cells, is normally exposed to active kallikrein. This is due to the specific localization of renal kallikrein in the connecting tubule cells. We have previously reported inhibition of distal bicarbonate secretion by renal kallikrein. The present study was performed to evaluate the participation of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and luminal H(+)-ATPase activity of cortical collecting duct segments (CCD) in the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bicarbonate secretion induced by the enzyme. The effect of orthograde injections of 1 microgram/ml (250 U/6.3 mg) pig pancreatic kallikrein, in the absence and presence of 1 mM DIDS (stilbene-disulfonic acid) in the renal tubule system, was evaluated. Urine fractions were collected after two-minutes stop-flow. Changes in the urine fraction (Fr) related to those in free-flow urine samples (Ff) were related to the respective polyfructosan (Inutest) ratio. Renal kallikrein activity (Fr:Ff kallikrein/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) increased significantly in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein, P Bicarbonate secretion rate (Fr:Ff HCO3-/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) of collecting ducts was significantly reduced in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected, related to control, during the first and second stop-flow periods. No difference was shown in bicarbonate excretion between the first 120 microliters urine fractions collected after administration of glandular kallikrein and glandular kallikrein plus DIDS. To measure H(+)-ATPase activity, rat microdissected cortical collector tubules (CCD) were incubated in the presence of increasing glandular kallikrein doses (A: 93, B: 187 and C: 375 mU/200 microL) in the presence of ouabain (4 microM) and omeprazole (100 microM) to inhibit Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-K(+)-ATPase, respectively. In CCD, bafilomycin-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activity (pmol/mm/min) after

  1. Thapsigargin affinity purification of intracellular P(2A)-type Ca(2+) ATPases

    Vandecaetsbeek, Ilse; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Liu, Huizhen


    The ubiquitous sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2b) and secretory-pathway Ca(2+) ATPase (SPCA1a) belong both to the P(2A)-type ATPase subgroup of Ca(2+) transporters and play a crucial role in the Ca(2+) homeostasis of respectively the ER and Golgi apparatus...

  2. Na+,K+-ATPase Na+ affinity in rat skeletal muscle fiber types

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten


    Previous studies in expression systems have found different ion activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isozymes, which suggest that different muscles have different ion affinities. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was used to quantify Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and the Na(+) affinity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...

  3. Subunit composition, structure, and distribution of bacterial V-type ATPases

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Chaban, Yuriy; Boekema, Egbert J.

    The overall structure of V-ATPase complexes resembles that of F-type ATPases, but the stalk region is different and more complex. Database searches followed by sequence analysis of the five water-soluble stalk region subunits C-G revealed that (i) to date V-ATPases are found in 16 bacterial species,

  4. Structural and functional studies of a Cu+-ATPase from Legionella pneumophila

    Mattle, Daniel

    During his studies, Daniel Mattle explored the copper(I) export mechanism of a P-type Cu+ ATPase from Legionella pneumophila – a homologue to the human Cu+ ATPases. Cu+ ATPases are responsible for the homeostatic control of the physiological relevant – but toxic – copper(I) cations. To assess...

  5. Food Enzymes

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.


    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  6. Food Enzymes

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.


    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  7. Enzyme immunoassay

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Dinesen, B; Deckert, M


    An enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay for urinary albumin using commercially available reagents is described. The assay range is 2.5-120 micrograms/l. When samples are analysed in two standard dilutions, the assayable albumin concentration range is 2.5-240 mg/l, covering the clinical range from...

  8. Characterization of a beta-actinin-like protein in purified non-muscle cell membranes. Its activity on (Na+ + K+)-ATPase.

    Geny, B; Paraf, A; Fedon, Y; Charlemagne, D


    Treatment by EDTA of purified plasma membranes from MF2S cells (a variant of the murine plasmacytoma MOPC 173) solubilized proteins and increased by a 1000-fold the sensitivity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase to ouabain. When added back with Ca2+ to treated plasma membranes, these EDTA-solubilized proteins restored the initial sensitivity of the enzyme to its inhibitor. We report the purification of a protein of Mr 32000, isolated from the EDTA-treated membrane supernatant. This protein was purified by a one-step procedure involving a preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis without detergent. In the presence of Ca2+ it was able to restore the original sensitivity to ouabain of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase from EDTA-treated membrane. This protein was shown to be similar to the beta-actinin described by Maruyama by the following criteria: (1) molecular weight and amino acid composition; (2) cross-reactivity with their respective antisera; (3) in the presence of Ca2+ the same quantitative biological activity on ouabain sensitivity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. A possible interaction between beta-actinin, calmodulin and membrane-bound (Na+ + K+)-ATPase is discussed.

  9. Regulation by the exogenous polyamine spermidine of Na,K-ATPase activity from the gills of the euryhaline swimming crab Callinectes danae (Brachyura, Portunidae).

    Silva, E C C; Masui, D C; Furriel, R P M; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Leone, F A; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L


    Euryhaline crustaceans rarely hyporegulates and employ the driving force of the Na,K-ATPase, located at the basal surface of the gill epithelium, to maintain their hemolymph osmolality within a range compatible with cell function during hyper-regulation. Since polyamine levels increase during the adaptation of crustaceans to hyperosmotic media, we investigate the effect of exogenous polyamines on Na,K-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of Callinectes danae, a euryhaline swimming crab. Polyamine inhibition was dependent on cation concentration, charge and size in the following order: spermine>spermidine>putrescine. Spermidine affected K(0.5) values for Na(+) with minor alterations in K(0.5) values for K(+) and NH(4)(+), causing a decrease in maximal velocities under saturating Na(+), K(+) and NH(4)(+) concentrations. Phosphorylation measurements in the presence of 20 microM ATP revealed that the Na,K-ATPase possesses a high affinity site for this substrate. In the presence of 10 mM Na(+), both spermidine and spermine inhibited formation of the phosphoenzyme; however, in the presence of 100 mM Na(+), the addition of these polyamines allowed accumulation of the phosphoenzyme. The polyamines inhibited pumping activity, both by competing with Na(+) at the Na(+)-binding site, and by inhibiting enzyme dephosphorylation. These findings suggest that polyamine-induced inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity may be physiologically relevant during migration to fully marine environments.

  10. Microtubule-dependent relocation of branchial V-H+-ATPase to the basolateral membrane in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): a role in base secretion.

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Katoh, Fumi; Goss, Greg G


    We have previously shown that continuous intravenous infusion of NaHCO3 for 24 h ( approximately 1000 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) results in the relocation of V-H+-ATPase from the cytoplasm to the basolateral membrane in the gills of the Pacific dogfish. To further investigate this putative base-secretive process we performed similar experiments with the addition of colchicine, an inhibitor of cytoskeleton-dependent cellular trafficking processes. Blood pH and plasma total CO2 were significantly higher in the colchicines-treated, HCO3- -infused fish compared with fish infused with HCO3- alone. The effect of colchicine was highest after 24 h of infusion (8.33+/-0.06 vs 8.02+/-0.03 pH units, 15.72+/-3.29 vs 6.74+/-1.34 mmol CO2 l(-1), N=5). Immunohistochemistry and western blotting confirmed that colchicine blocked the transit of V-H+-ATPase to the basolateral membrane. Furthermore, western blotting analyses from whole gill and cell membrane samples suggest that the short-term (6 h) response to alkaline stress consists of relocation of V-H+-ATPases already present in the cell to the basolateral membrane, while in the longer term (24 h) there is both relocation of preexistent enzyme and upregulation in the synthesis of new units. Our results strongly suggest that cellular relocation of V-H+-ATPase is necessary for enhanced HCO3- secretion across the gills of the Pacific dogfish.

  11. Evidence that a lipolytic enzyme--hematopoietic-specific phospholipase C-β2--promotes mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells by decreasing their lipid raft-mediated bone marrow retention and increasing the promobilizing effects of granulocytes.

    Adamiak, M; Poniewierska-Baran, A; Borkowska, S; Schneider, G; Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Suszynska, M; Abdel-Latif, A; Kucia, M; Ratajczak, J; Ratajczak, M Z


    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and are retained there by the interaction of membrane lipid raft-associated receptors, such as the α-chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the α4β1-integrin (VLA-4, very late antigen 4 receptor) receptor, with their respective specific ligands, stromal-derived factor 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, expressed in BM stem cell niches. The integrity of the lipid rafts containing these receptors is maintained by the glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-A). It has been reported that a cleavage fragment of the fifth component of the activated complement cascade, C5a, has an important role in mobilizing HSPCs into the peripheral blood (PB) by (i) inducing degranulation of BM-residing granulocytes and (ii) promoting their egress from the BM into the PB so that they permeabilize the endothelial barrier for subsequent egress of HSPCs. We report here that hematopoietic cell-specific phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2) has a crucial role in pharmacological mobilization of HSPCs. On the one hand, when released during degranulation of granulocytes, it digests GPI-A, thereby disrupting membrane lipid rafts and impairing retention of HSPCs in BM niches. On the other hand, it is an intracellular enzyme required for degranulation of granulocytes and their egress from BM. In support of this dual role, we demonstrate that PLC-β2-knockout mice are poor mobilizers and provide, for the first time, evidence for the involvement of this lipolytic enzyme in the mobilization of HSPCs.

  12. A structural overview of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase ion pumps

    Morth, Jens Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe


    Plasma membrane ATPases are primary active transporters of cations that maintain steep concentration gradients. The ion gradients and membrane potentials derived from them form the basis for a range of essential cellular processes, in particular Na(+)-dependent and proton-dependent secondary...... transport systems that are responsible for uptake and extrusion of metabolites and other ions. The ion gradients are also both directly and indirectly used to control pH homeostasis and to regulate cell volume. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase maintains a proton gradient in plants and fungi and the Na...

  13. Detailed characterization of the cooperative mechanism of Ca(2+) binding and catalytic activation in the Ca(2+) transport (SERCA) ATPase.

    Zhang, Z; Lewis, D; Strock, C; Inesi, G; Nakasako, M; Nomura, H; Toyoshima, C


    Expression of heterologous SERCA1a ATPase in Cos-1 cells was optimized to yield levels that account for 10-15% of the microsomal protein, as revealed by protein staining on electrophoretic gels. This high level of expression significantly improved our characterization of mutants, including direct measurements of Ca(2+) binding by the ATPase in the absence of ATP, and measurements of various enzyme functions in the presence of ATP or P(i). Mutational analysis distinguished two groups of amino acids within the transmembrane domain: The first group includes Glu771 (M5), Thr799 (M6), Asp800 (M6), and Glu908 (M8), whose individual mutations totally inhibit binding of the two Ca(2+) required for activation of one ATPase molecule. The second group includes Glu309 (M4) and Asn796 (M6), whose individual or combined mutations inhibit binding of only one and the same Ca(2+). The effects of mutations of these amino acids were interpreted in the light of recent information on the ATPase high-resolution structure, explaining the mechanism of Ca(2+) binding and catalytic activation in terms of two cooperative sites. The Glu771, Thr799, and Asp800 side chains contribute prominently to site 1, together with less prominent contributions by Asn768 and Glu908. The Glu309, Asn796, and Asp800 side chains, as well as the Ala305 (and possibly Val304 and Ile307) carbonyl oxygen, contribute to site 2. Sequential binding begins with Ca(2+) occupancy of site 1, followed by transition to a conformation (E') sensitive to Ca(2+) inhibition of enzyme phosphorylation by P(i), but still unable to utilize ATP. The E' conformation accepts the second Ca(2+) on site 2, producing then a conformation (E' ') which is able to utilize ATP. Mutations of residues (Asp813 and Asp818) in the M6/M7 loop reduce Ca(2+) affinity and catalytic turnover, suggesting a strong influence of this loop on the correct positioning of the M6 helix. Mutation of Asp351 (at the catalytic site within the cytosolic domain

  14. Rad54 protein promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions.

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V


    Homologous recombination has a crucial function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in faithful chromosome segregation. The mechanism of homologous recombination involves the search for homology and invasion of the ends of a broken DNA molecule into homologous duplex DNA to form a cross-stranded structure, a Holliday junction (HJ). A HJ is able to undergo branch migration along DNA, generating increasing or decreasing lengths of heteroduplex. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the physical evidence for HJs, the key intermediate in homologous recombination, was provided by electron microscopy. In bacteria there are specialized enzymes that promote branch migration of HJs. However, in eukaryotes the identity of homologous recombination branch-migration protein(s) has remained elusive. Here we show that Rad54, a Swi2/Snf2 protein, binds HJ-like structures with high specificity and promotes their bidirectional branch migration in an ATPase-dependent manner. The activity seemed to be conserved in human and yeast Rad54 orthologues. In vitro, Rad54 has been shown to stimulate DNA pairing of Rad51, a key homologous recombination protein. However, genetic data indicate that Rad54 protein might also act at later stages of homologous recombination, after Rad51 (ref. 13). Novel DNA branch-migration activity is fully consistent with this late homologous recombination function of Rad54 protein.

  15. Transcription without XPB Establishes a Unified Helicase-Independent Mechanism of Promoter Opening in Eukaryotic Gene Expression.

    Alekseev, Sergey; Nagy, Zita; Sandoz, Jérémy; Weiss, Amélie; Egly, Jean-Marc; Le May, Nicolas; Coin, Frederic


    Transcription starts with the assembly of pre-initiation complexes on promoters followed by their opening. Current models suggest that class II gene transcription requires ATP and the TFIIH XPB subunit to open a promoter. Here, we observe that XPB depletion surprisingly leaves transcription virtually intact. In contrast, inhibition of XPB ATPase activity affects transcription, revealing that mRNA expression paradoxically accommodates the absence of XPB while being sensitive to the inhibition of its ATPase activity. The XPB-depleted TFIIH complex is recruited to active promoters and contributes to transcription. We finally demonstrate that the XPB ATPase activity is only used to relieve a transcription initiation block imposed by XPB itself. In the absence of this block, transcription initiation can take place without XPB ATPase activity. These results suggest that a helicase is dispensable for mRNA transcription, thereby unifying the mechanism of promoter DNA opening for the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

  16. Structural changes of CF 1-ATPase in solution

    Calmettes, P.; Pezennec, S.; Berger, G.; Girault, G.


    Small changes in neutron scattering spectra were observed when spinach CF 1-ATPase is activated by dithiothreitol or allowed to bind to a nucleotide. It is shown that activation induces a significant conformation change whereas substrate binding does not. In solution, MgATP or MgAMP mainly modifies the interactions between the solute molecules.

  17. On the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Ca2+-ATPase Molecular Machines

    Lervik, A.; Bresme, F.; Kjelstrup, S.H.; Rubi, J.M.


    Experimental studies have shown that the activity of the reconstituted molecular pump Ca2+-ATPase strongly depends on the thickness of the supporting bilayer. It is thus expected that the bilayer structure will have an impact on the thermodynamic efficiency of this nanomachine. Here, we introduce a

  18. Autoinhibitory Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPases

    Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl

    Electrochemical gradients across cell membranes are essential for nutrient uptake. In plant and fungal cells the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane (PM) can build much higher than in mammalian cells. The protein responsible for this gradient is the essential PM H+-ATPase that uses...

  19. V-ATPase, ScNhxlp and Yeast Vacuole Fusion

    Quan-Sheng Qiu


    Membrane fusion is the last step in trafficking pathways during which membrane vesicles fuse with target organelles to deliver cargos.It is a central cellular reaction that plays important roles in signal transduction,protein sorting and subcellular compartmentation.Recent progress in understanding the roles of ion transporters in vacuole fusion in yeast is summanzed in this article.It is becoming increasingly evident that the vacuolar proton pump V-ATPase and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter ScNhxlp are key components of the vacuole fusion machinery in yeast.Yeast ScNhxlp regulates vacuole fusion by controlling the luminal pH.V-ATPases serve a dual role in vacuolar integrity in which they regulate both vacuole fusion and fission reactions in yeast.Fission defects are epistatic to fusion defects.Vacuole fission depends on the proton translocation activity of the V-ATPase; by contrast,the fusion reaction does not need the transport activity but requires the physical presence of the proton pump.Vo,the membrane-integral sector of the V-ATPase,forms trans-complexes between the opposing vacuoles in the terminal phase of vacuole fusion where the Vo trans-complexes build a continuous proteolipid channel at the fusion site to mediate the bilayer fusion.

  20. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    Clausen, Johannes D; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand; Olesen, Claus; Andersen, Jens Peter; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul


    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca(2+). Vanadate is bound at the catalytic site as a planar VO3(-) in complex with water and Mg(2+) in a dephosphorylation transition-state-like conformation. Validating bound VO3(-) by anomalous difference Fourier maps using long-wavelength data we also identify a hitherto undescribed Cl(-) site near the dephosphorylation site. Crystallization was facilitated by trinitrophenyl (TNP)-derivatized nucleotides that bind with the TNP moiety occupying the binding pocket that normally accommodates the adenine of ATP, rationalizing their remarkably high affinity for E2P-like conformations of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the configurations of bound nucleotide analogs in the E2·VO3(-) structure with that in E2·BeF3(-) (E2P ground state analog) reveals multiple binding modes to the Ca(2+)-ATPase.

  1. Solubilization, purification, and reconstitution of alpha 2 beta 1 isozyme of Na+/K+ -ATPase from caveolae of pulmonary smooth muscle plasma membrane: comparative studies with DHPC, C12E8, and Triton X-100.

    Ghosh, Biswarup; Chakraborti, Tapati; Kar, Pulak; Dey, Kuntal; Chakraborti, Sajal


    We identified alpha(2), alpha(1), and beta(1) isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in caveolae vesicles of bovine pulmonary smooth muscle plasma membrane. The biochemical and biophysical characteristics of the alpha(2)beta(1) isozyme of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase from caveolae vesicles were studied during solubilization and purification using the detergents 1,2-heptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC), poly(oxy-ethylene)8-lauryl ether (C(12)E(8)), and Triton X-100, and reconstitution with the phospholipid dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). DHPC was determined to be superior to C(12)E(8), whereas C(12)E(8) was better than Triton X-100 in the active enzyme yields and specific activity. Fluorescence studies with DHPC-purified alpha(2)beta(1) isozyme of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase elicited higher E1Na-E2 K transition compared with that of the C(12)E(8)- and Triton X-100-purified enzyme. The rate of Na(+) efflux in DHPC-DOPC-reconstituted isozyme was higher compared to the C(12)E(8)-DOPC- and Triton X100-DOPC-reconstituted enzyme. Circular dichroism analysis suggests that the DHPC-purified alpha(2)beta(1) isozyme of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase possessed more organized secondary structure compared to the C(12)E(8)- and Triton X-100-purified isozyme.

  2. Functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5

    Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji


    Dent’s disease is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and progressive renal failure. Disease aetiology is associated with mutations in the CLCN5 gene coding for the electrogenic 2Cl-/H+ antiporter chloride channel 5 (CLC-5), which is expressed in the apical endosomes of renal proximal tubules with the vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Initially identified as a member of the CLC family of Cl- channels, CLC-5 was presumed to provide Cl- shunt into the endosomal lumen to dissipate H+ accumulation by V-ATPase, thereby facilitating efficient endosomal acidification. However, recent findings showing that CLC-5 is in fact not a Cl- channel but a 2Cl-/H+ antiporter challenged this classical shunt model, leading to a renewed and intense debate on its physiological roles. Cl- accumulation via CLC-5 is predicted to play a critical role in endocytosis, as illustrated in mice carrying an artificial Cl- channel mutation E211A that developed defective endocytosis but normal endosomal acidification. Conversely, a recent functional analysis of a newly identified disease-causing Cl- channel mutation E211Q in a patient with typical Dent’s disease confirmed the functional coupling between V-ATPase and CLC-5 in endosomal acidification, lending support to the classical shunt model. In this editorial, we will address the current recognition of the physiological role of CLC-5 with a specific focus on the functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5. PMID:28101447

  3. Review: P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases-Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    Andersen, Jens P; Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A


    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood...... is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P......-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase by exoplasmic K+. How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms...

  4. Demethoxycurcumin is a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPases from diverse kingdoms of life

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Thanh Tung, Truong;


    the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site......P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used...... as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among...

  5. Structure of the vacuolar H+-ATPase rotary motor reveals new mechanistic insights.

    Rawson, Shaun; Phillips, Clair; Huss, Markus; Tiburcy, Felix; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A; Muench, Stephen P


    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases are multisubunit complexes that operate with rotary mechanics and are essential for membrane proton transport throughout eukaryotes. Here we report a ∼ 1 nm resolution reconstruction of a V-ATPase in a different conformational state from that previously reported for a lower-resolution yeast model. The stator network of the V-ATPase (and by implication that of other rotary ATPases) does not change conformation in different catalytic states, and hence must be relatively rigid. We also demonstrate that a conserved bearing in the catalytic domain is electrostatic, contributing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of rotary ATPases. Analysis of the rotor axle/membrane pump interface suggests how rotary ATPases accommodate different c ring stoichiometries while maintaining high efficiency. The model provides evidence for a half channel in the proton pump, supporting theoretical models of ion translocation. Our refined model therefore provides new insights into the structure and mechanics of the V-ATPases.

  6. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D


    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  7. Thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein.

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao


    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31(comet). Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31(comet)-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development.

  8. In vitro evidence that phytanic acid compromises Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the electron flow through the respiratory chain in brain cortex from young rats.

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Grings, Mateus; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir


    Phytanic acid (Phyt) tissue concentrations are increased in Refsum disease and other peroxisomal disorders characterized by neurologic damage and brain abnormalities. The present work investigated the in vitro effects of Phyt, at concentrations found in these peroxisomal disorders, on important parameters of energy metabolism in brain cortex of young rats. The parameters analyzed were CO(2) production from labeled acetate and glucose, the activities of the citric acid cycle enzymes citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase and malate dehydrogenase, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, creatine kinase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our results show that Phyt did not alter citric acid cycle enzyme activities, or CO(2) production from acetate, reflecting no impairment of the functionality of the citric acid cycle. In contrast, respiratory chain activities were reduced at complexes I, II, I-III, II-III and IV. Membrane synaptical Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was also reduced by Phyt, with no alteration of creatine kinase activity. Considering the importance of the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation) and of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity for maintaining membrane potential necessary for neurotransmission, the data indicate that Phyt impairs brain bioenergetics at the level of energy formation, as well as neurotransmission. It is presumed that Phyt-induced impairment of these important systems may be involved at least in part in the neurological damage found in patients affected by disorders in which brain Phyt concentrations are increased.

  9. Mutation of aspartic acid-351, lysine-352, and lysine-515 alters the Ca2+ transport activity of the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in COS-1 cells.

    Maruyama, K; MacLennan, D H


    Full-length cDNAs encoding neonatal and adult isoforms of the Ca2+-ATPase of rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum were expressed transiently in COS-1 cells. The microsomal fraction isolated from transfected COS-1 cells contained immunoreactive Ca2+-ATPase and catalyzed Ca2+ transport at rates at least 15-fold above controls. No differences were observed in either the rates or Ca2+ dependency of Ca2+ transport catalyzed by the two isoforms. Aspartic acid-351, the site of formation of the catalytic acyl phosphate in the enzyme, was mutated to asparagine, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, histidine, or alanine. In every case, Ca2+ transport activity and Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation were eliminated. Ca2+ transport was also eliminated by mutation of lysine-352 to arginine, glutamine, or glutamic acid or by mutation of Asp351-Lys352 to Lys351-Asp352. Mutation of lysine-515, the site of fluorescein isothiocyanate modification in the enzyme, resulted in diminished Ca2+ transport activity as follows: arginine, 60%; glutamine, 25%; glutamic acid, 5%. These results demonstrate the absolute requirement of acylphosphate formation for the Ca2+ transport function and define a residue important for ATP binding. They also demonstrate the feasibility of a thorough analysis of active sites in the Ca2+-ATPase by expression and site-specific mutagenesis. Images PMID:2966962

  10. The crustacean gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase: allosteric modulation of high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites by sodium and potassium.

    Masui, D C; Silva, E C C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A


    The blue crab, Callinectes danae, tolerates exposure to a wide salinity range employing mechanisms of compensatory ion uptake when in dilute media. Although the gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase is vital to hyperosmoregulatory ability, the interactions occurring at the sites of ATP binding on the molecule itself are unknown. Here, we investigate the modulation by Na+ and K+ of homotropic interactions between the ATP-binding sites, and of phosphoenzyme formation of the (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the posterior gills of this euryhaline crab. The contribution of the high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites to maximum velocity was similar for both Na+ and K+. However, in contrast to Na+, a threshold K+ concentration triggers the appearance of the high-affinity binding sites, displacing the saturation curve to lower ATP concentrations.Further, a low-affinity site for phosphorylation is present on the enzyme. These findings reveal notable differences in the catalytic mechanism of the crustacean (Na+,K+)-ATPase compared to the vertebrate enzyme.

  11. Sarco(endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase-2 Gene: Structure and Transcriptional Regulation of the Human Gene

    Angel Zarain-Herzberg


    Full Text Available The sarco(endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs belong to a family of active calcium transport enzymes encoded by the SERCA1, 2, and 3 genes. In this study, we describe the complete structure of the human SERCA2 gene and its 5’ -regulatory region. The hSERCA2 gene is located in chromosome 12 position q24.1 in Contig NT_009770.8, spans 70 kb, and is organized in 21 exons intervened by 20 introns. The last two exons of the pre-mRNA produce by alternatively splicing the cardiac/slow-twitch muscle-specific SERCA2a isoform and the ubiquitous SERCA2b isoform. The sequence of the proximal 225-bp regulatory region of the SERCA2 genes is 80% G+C-rich and is conserved among human, rabbit, rat, and mouse species. It contains a TATA-like-box, an E-box/USF sequence, a CAAT-box, four Sp1 binding sites, and a thyroid hormone responsive element (TRE. There are two other conserved regulatory regions located between positions -410 to -661 bp and from -919 to -1410 bp. Among the DNA cis-elements present in these two regulatory regions there are potential binding sites for: GATA-4, -5, -6, Nkx-2.5/Csx, OTF-1, USF, MEF-2, SRF, PPAR/RXR, AP-2, and TREs. Upstream from position -1.5 kb, there is no significant homology among the SERCA2 genes cloned. In addition, the human gene has several repeated sequences mainly of the Alu and L2 type located upstream from position -1.7 kb, spanning in a continuous fashion for more than 40 kb. In this study, we report the cloning of 2.4 kb of 5’-regulatory region and demonstrate that the proximal promoter region is sufficient for expression in cardiac myocytes, and the region from -225 to -1232 bp contains regulatory DNA elements which down-regulate the expression of the SERCA2 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

  12. Inhibition of skeletal muscle S1-myosin ATPase by peroxynitrite.

    Tiago, Teresa; Simão, Sónia; Aureliano, Manuel; Martín-Romero, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos


    Exposure of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) produced a time-dependent inhibition of the F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, reaching 50% inhibition with 46.7 +/- 8.3 microM SIN-1 for 8.7 microM S1, that is, at a SIN-1/S1 molar ratio of approximately 5.5. The inhibition was due to the peroxynitrite produced by SIN-1 decomposition because (1) decomposed SIN-1 was found to have no effect on S1 ATPase activity, (2) addition of SIN-1 in the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase fully prevented inhibition by SIN-1, and (3) micromolar pulses of chemically synthesized peroxynitrite produced inhibition of F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. In parallel, SIN-1 produced the inhibition of the nonphysiological Ca(2+)-dependent and K(+)/EDTA-dependent S1 ATPase activity of S1 and, therefore, suggested that the inhibition of F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity is produced by the oxidation of highly reactive cysteines of S1 (Cys(707) and Cys(697)), located close to the catalytic center. This point was further confirmed by the titration of S1 cysteines with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and by the parallel decrease of Cys(707) labeling by 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein, and it was reinforced by the fact that other common protein modifications produced by peroxynitrite, for example, protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine formation, were barely detected at the concentrations of SIN-1 that produced more than 50% inhibition of the F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Differential scanning calorimetry of S1 (untreated and treated with different SIN-1 concentrations) pointed out that SIN-1, at concentrations that generate micromolar peroxynitrite fluxes, impaired the ability of ADP.V(1) to induce the intermediate catalytic transition state and also produced the partial unfolding of S1 that leads to an enhanced susceptibility of S1 to trypsin digestion, which can be fully protected by 2 mM GSH.

  13. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly

    Her, Joonyoung [Departments of Biology and Integrated Omics for Biomedical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, In Kwon, E-mail: [Departments of Biology and Integrated Omics for Biomedical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 associates with catalytically active telomerase via an interaction with hTERT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding and telomerase assembly. -- Abstract: Continued cell proliferation requires telomerase to maintain functional telomeres that are essential for chromosome integrity. Although the core enzyme includes a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA component (TERC), a number of auxiliary proteins have been identified to regulate telomerase assembly, localization, and enzymatic activity. Here we describe the characterization of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. NVL2 interacts and co-localizes with hTERT in the nucleolus. NLV2 is also found in association with catalytically competent telomerase in cell lysates through an interaction with hTERT. Depletion of endogenous NVL2 by small interfering RNA led to a decrease in hTERT without affecting the steady-state levels of hTERT mRNA, thereby reducing telomerase activity, suggesting that NVL2 is an essential component of the telomerase holoenzyme. We also found that ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding as well as telomerase assembly. Our findings suggest that NVL2, in addition to its role in ribosome biosynthesis, is essential for telomerase biogenesis and provides an alternative approach for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer.

  14. A Kinetic Characterization of the Gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from the Semi-terrestrial Mangrove Crab Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825 (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    Farias, Daniel L; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Mantelatto, Fernando L; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A


    We provide a kinetic characterization of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a posterior gill microsomal fraction from the semi-terrestrial mangrove crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation reveals two distinct membrane fractions showing considerable (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, but also containing other microsomal ATPases. The (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase, notably immuno-localized to the apical region of the epithelial pillar cells, and throughout the pillar cell bodies, has an M r of around 110 kDa and hydrolyzes ATP with V M = 146.8 ± 6.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) and K M = 0.05 ± 0.003 mmol L(-1) obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. While stimulation by Na(+) (V M = 139.4 ± 6.9 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K M = 4.50 ± 0.22 mmol L(-1)) also follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity by MgATP (V M = 136.8 ± 6.5 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.27 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), K(+) (V M = 140.2 ± 7.0 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.17 ± 0.008 mmol L(-1)), and NH4(+) (V M = 149.1 ± 7.4 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.60 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)) shows cooperative kinetics. Ouabain (K I = 52.0 ± 2.6 µmol L(-1)) and orthovanadate (K I = 1.0 ± 0.05 µmol L(-1)) inhibit total ATPase activity by around 75%. At low Mg(2+) concentrations, ATP is an allosteric modulator of the enzyme. This is the first study to provide a kinetic characterization of the gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase in C. guanhumi, and will be useful in better comprehending the biochemical underpinnings of osmoregulatory ability in a semi-terrestrial mangrove crab.

  15. Effects of lead on Na+, K+-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J.


    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mu g/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mu g/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mu g/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mu g/g. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na+ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca2+ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may

  16. Neurotransmitter release: vacuolar ATPase V0 sector c-subunits in possible gene or cell therapies for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and psychiatric diseases.

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Tsuji, Chiharu; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi


    We overview the 16-kDa proteolipid mediatophore, the transmembrane c-subunit of the V0 sector of the vacuolar proton ATPase (ATP6V0C) that was shown to mediate the secretion of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, serotonin, and dopamine (DA) are released from cell soma and/or dendrites if ATP6V0C is expressed in cultured cells. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer of ATP6V0C into the caudate putamen enhanced the depolarization-induced overflow of endogenous DA in Parkinson-model mice. Motor impairment was ameliorated in hemiparkinsonian model mice when ATP6V0C was expressed with DA-synthesizing enzymes. The review discusses application in the future as a potential tool for gene therapy, cell transplantation therapy, and inducible pluripotent stem cell therapy in neurological diseases, from the view point of recent findings regarding vacuolar ATPase.

  17. Capsazepine, a synthetic vanilloid that converts the Na,K-ATPase to Na-ATPase

    Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed


    of the membrane. Kinetic analyses showed that CPZ stabilized an enzyme species that constitutively occluded K+. Low-affinity ATP interaction with the enzyme was strongly reduced following CPZ treatment; in contrast, indirectly measured interaction with ADP was much increased, which suggests that composite...... regulatory communication with nucleotides takes place during turnover. Studies with lipid vesicles revealed that CPZ reduced ATP-dependent digitoxigenin-sensitive 22Na+ influx into K+ loaded vesicles only at saturating ATP concentrations. The drug apparently abolishes the regulatory effect of ATP on the pump...

  18. K+-Phosphatase activity of gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the blue crab, Callinectes danae: low-salinity acclimation and expression of the alpha-subunit.

    Masui, D C; Furriel, R P M; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Leone, F A


    The kinetic properties of a microsomal gill (Na(+), K(+)) ATPase from the blue crab, Callinectes danae, acclimated to 15 per thousand salinity for 10 days, were analyzed using the substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate. The (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase hydrolyzed the substrate obeying Michaelian kinetics at a rate of V=102.9+/-4.3 with K(0.5)=1.7+/-0.1 mmol.L(-1), while stimulation by magnesium (V=93.7+/-2.3; K(0.5)=1.40+/-0.03 mmol.L(-1)) and potassium ions (V=94.9+/-3.5; K(0.5)=2.9+/-0.1 mmol.L(-1)) was cooperative. K(+)-phosphatase activity was also stimulated by ammonium ions to a rate of V=106.2+/-2.2 U. mg(-1) with K(0.5)=9.8+/-0.2 mmol.L(-1), following cooperative kinetics (n(H)=2.9). However, K(+)-phosphatase activity was not stimulated further by K(+) plus NH(4) (+) ions. Sodium ions (K(I)=22.7+/-1.7 mmol.L(-1)), and orthovanadate (K(I)=28.1+/-1.4 nmol.L(-1)) completely inhibited PNPPase activity while ouabain inhibition reached almost 75% (K(I)=142.0+/-7.1 micromol.L(-1)). Western blotting analysis revealed increased expression of the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase alpha-subunit in crabs acclimated to 15 per thousand salinity compared to those acclimated to 33 per thousand salinity. The increase in (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in C. danae gill tissue in response to low-salinity acclimation apparently derives from the increased expression of the (Na(+), K( (+) ))-ATPase alpha-subunit; phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes other than (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase are also expressed. These findings allow a better understanding of the kinetic behavior of the enzymes that underlie the osmoregulatory mechanisms of euryhaline crustaceans. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. V-ATPase-Mediated Granular Acidification Is Regulated by the V-ATPase Accessory Subunit Ac45 in POMC-Producing Cells

    Jansen, Eric J. R.; Hafmans, Theo G. M.


    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an important proton pump, and multiple critical cell-biological processes depend on the proton gradient provided by the pump. Yet, the mechanism underlying the control of the V-ATPase is still elusive but has been hypothesized to involve an accessory subunit of the pump. Here we studied as a candidate V-ATPase regulator the neuroendocrine V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45. We transgenically manipulated the expression levels of the Ac45 protein specifically in Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells and analyzed in detail the functioning of the transgenic cells. We found in the transgenic melanotrope cells the following: i) significantly increased granular acidification; ii) reduced sensitivity for a V-ATPase-specific inhibitor; iii) enhanced early processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by prohormone convertase PC1; iv) reduced, neutral pH–dependent cleavage of the PC2 chaperone 7B2; v) reduced 7B2-proPC2 dissociation and consequently reduced proPC2 maturation; vi) decreased levels of mature PC2 and consequently reduced late POMC processing. Together, our results show that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 represents the first regulator of the proton pump and controls V-ATPase-mediated granular acidification that is necessary for efficient prohormone processing. PMID:20702583

  20. Activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase with DRm217 attenuates oxidative stress-induced myocardial cell injury via closing Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/Src/Ros amplifier.

    Yan, Xiaofei; Xun, Meng; Dou, Xiaojuan; Wu, Litao; Zhang, Fujun; Zheng, Jin


    Reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has close relationship with cardiomyocyte death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays an important role in cardiac cell damage. It has been proved that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and ROS form a feed-forward amplifier. The aim of this study was to explore whether DRm217, a proved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase's DR-region specific monoclonal antibody and direct activator, could disrupt Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier and protect cardiac cells from ROS-induced injury. We found that DRm217 protected myocardial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cardiac cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. DRm217 also alleviated the effect of H2O2 on inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface expression, and Src phosphorylation. H2O2-treatment increased intracellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS and induced intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. DRm217 closed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier, alleviated Ca(2+) accumulation and finally inhibited ROS and mitochondrial ROS generation. These novel results may help us to understand the important role of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related disease.

  1. Oscillations in glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of autocatalysis and intracellular ATPase activity.

    Kloster, Antonina; Olsen, Lars Folke


    We have investigated the glycolytic oscillations, measured as NADH autofluorescence, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a batch reactor. Specifically, we have tested the effect of cell density and a number of inhibitors or activators of ATPase activity on the amplitude of the oscillations. The amplitude dependence on cell density shows the same behavior as that observed in cells in a CSTR. Furthermore, the amplitude decreases with increasing inhibition of the three ATPases (i) F(0)F(1) ATPase, (ii) plasma membrane ATPase (Pma1p) and (iii) vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). The amplitude of the oscillations also decreases by stimulating the ATPase activity, e.g. by FCCP or Amphotericin B. Thus, ATPase activity strongly affects the glycolytic oscillations. We discuss these data in relation to a simple autocatalytic model of glycolysis which can reproduce the experimental data and explain the role of membrane-bound ATPases . In addition we also studied a recent detailed model of glycolysis and found that, although this model faithfully reproduces the oscillations of glycolytic intermediates observed experimentally, it is not able to explain the role of ATPase activity on the oscillations.

  2. Elucidating Functional Aspects of P-type ATPases

    Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth


    similar to that of the wild type (WT) protein. The discrepancy between the newly determined crystal structure of LpCopA and the functional manifestations of the missense mutation in human CopA, could indicate that LpCopA is insufficient in structurally elucidating the effect of disease-causing mutations...... cancer and pathogenic microbes. The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation was to functionally characterize SERCA1a and CopA from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) through a range of different methods within structural biology. Crystallographic studies of SERCA1a led to a newly determined crystal structure......P-type ATPases are proteins that act to maintain ion homeostasis and electrochemical gradients through the translocation of cations across cell membranes. Underscoring their significance in humans, dysfunction of the ATPases can lead to crucial diseases. Dysfunction of the sarco...

  3. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens


    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  4. Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus: molecular cloning, characterization, and expression under low salinity stress

    Han, Xiaolin; Liu, Ping; Gao, Baoquan; Wang, Haofeng; Duan, Yafei; Xu, Wenfei; Chen, Ping


    Na+/K+-ATPases are membrane-associated enzymes responsible for the active transport of Na+ and K+ ions across cell membranes, generating chemical and electrical gradients. These enzymes' α-subunit provides catalytic function, binding and hydrolyzing ATP, and itself becoming phosphorylated during the transport cycle. In this study, Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit cDNA was cloned from gill tissue of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end methods. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA had a full-length of 3 833 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 3 120 bp, 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 317 bp, and 3' UTR of 396 bp. The sequence encoded a 1 039 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 115.57 kDa and with estimated pI of 5.21. It was predicted here to possess all expected features of Na+/K+-ATPase members, including eight transmembrane domains, putative ATP-binding site, and phosphorylation site. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that the P. trituberculatus α-subunit possessed an overall identity of 75%-99% to that of other organisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this α-subunit was in the same category as those of crustaceans. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that this α-subunit's transcript were most highly expressed in gill and lowest in muscle. RT-PCR analysis also revealed that α-subunit expression in crab gill decreased after 2 and 6 h, but increased after 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. In addition, α-subunit expression in hepatopancreas of crab decreased after 2-72 h. These facts indicated that the crab's Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit was potentially involved in the observed acute response to low salinity stress.

  5. Na+, K+-ATPase activity in gill microsomes from the blue crab, Callinectes danae, acclimated to low salinity: novel perspectives on ammonia excretion.

    Masui, Douglas C; Mantelatto, Fernando L M; McNamara, John C; Furriel, Rosa P M; Leone, Francisco A


    This investigation provides an extensive characterization of the modulation by ATP, Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and NH(4)(+) of a gill microsomal (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase from Callinectes danae acclimated to 15 per thousand salinity. Novel findings are the lack of high-affinity ATP-binding sites and a 10-fold increase in enzyme affinity for K(+) modulated by NH(4)(+), discussed regarding NH(4)(+) excretion in benthic marine crabs. The (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase hydrolyzed ATP at a maximum rate of 298.7+/-16.7 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) and K(0.5)=174.2+/-9.8 mmol L(-1), obeying cooperative kinetics (n(H)=1.2). Stimulation by sodium (V=308.9+/-15.7 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), K(0.5)=7.8+/-0.4 mmol L(-1)), magnesium (299.2+/-14.1 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), K(0.5)=767.3+/-36.1 mmol L(-1)), potassium (300.6+/-15.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), K(0.5)=1.6+/-0.08 mmol L(-1)) and ammonium (V=345.1+/-19.0 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1), K(0.5)=6.0+/-0.3 mmol L(-1)) ions showed site-site interactions. Ouabain inhibited (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase activity with K(I)=45.1+/-2.5 micromol L(-1), although affinity for the inhibitor increased (K(I)=22.7+/-1.1 micromol L(-1)) in 50 mmol L(-1) NH(4)(+). Inhibition assays using ouabain plus oligomycin or ethacrynic acid suggest mitochondrial F(0)F(1)- and K(+)-ATPase activities, respectively. Ammonium and potassium ions synergistically stimulated specific activity up to 72%, inferring that these ions bind to different sites on the enzyme molecule, each modulating stimulation by the other.

  6. ATPase center of bacteriophage lambda terminase involved in post-cleavage stages of DNA packaging: identification of ATP-interactive amino acids.

    Hang, J Q; Tack, B F; Feiss, M


    Terminase is the enzyme that mediates lambda DNA packaging into the viral prohead. The large subunit of terminase, gpA (641 amino acid residues), has a high-affinity ATPase activity (K(m)=5 microM). To directly identify gpA's ATP-interacting amino acids, holoterminase bearing a His(6)-tag at the C terminus of gpA was UV-crosslinked with 8-N(3)-[alpha-(32)P]ATP. Tryptic peptides from the photolabeled terminase were purified by affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Two labeled peptides of gpA were identified. Amino acid sequencing failed to show the tyrosine residue of the first peptide, E(43)SAY(46)QEGR(50), or the lysine of the second peptide, V(80)GYSK(84)MLL(87), indicating that Y(46) and K(84) were the 8-N(3)-ATP-modified amino acids. To investigate their roles in lambda DNA packaging, Y(46) was changed to E, A, and F, and K(84) was changed to E and A. Purified His(6)-tagged terminases with changes at residues 46 and 84 lacked the gpA high-affinity ATPase activity, though the cos cleavage and cohesive end separation activities were near to those of the wild-type enzyme. In virion assembly reactions using virion DNA as a packaging substrate, the mutant terminases showed severe defects. In summary, the results indicate that Y(46) and K(84) are part of the high-affinity ATPase center of gpA, and show that this ATPase activity is involved in the post-cos cleavage stages of lambda DNA packaging.

  7. New ATPase regulators-p97 goes to the PUB

    Madsen, Louise; Seeger, Michael; Semple, Colin A;


    The conserved eukaryotic AAA-type ATPase complex, known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast, is involved in a number of cellular pathways, including fusion of homotypic membranes, protein degradation, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. Most likely, p97 is directed to ...... of the currently known PUB-domain proteins and other p97-interacting proteins....

  8. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    Perut, Francesca, E-mail: [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hosogi, Shigekuni [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki [Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Baldini, Nicola [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)


    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  9. Ion pathways in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    Bublitz, Maike; Musgaard, Maria; Poulsen, Hanne; Thøgersen, Lea; Olesen, Claus; Schiøtt, Birgit; Morth, J Preben; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul


    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is a transmembrane ion transporter belonging to the P(II)-type ATPase family. It performs the vital task of re-sequestering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum store, thereby also terminating Ca(2+)-induced signaling such as in muscle contraction. This minireview focuses on the transport pathways of Ca(2+) and H(+) ions across the lipid bilayer through SERCA. The ion-binding sites of SERCA are accessible from either the cytoplasm or the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum lumen, and the Ca(2+) entry and exit channels are both formed mainly by rearrangements of four N-terminal transmembrane α-helices. Recent improvements in the resolution of the crystal structures of rabbit SERCA1a have revealed a hydrated pathway in the C-terminal transmembrane region leading from the ion-binding sites to the cytosol. A comparison of different SERCA conformations reveals that this C-terminal pathway is exclusive to Ca(2+)-free E2 states, suggesting that it may play a functional role in proton release from the ion-binding sites. This is in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and mutational studies and is in striking analogy to a similar pathway recently described for the related sodium pump. We therefore suggest a model for the ion exchange mechanism in P(II)-ATPases including not one, but two cytoplasmic pathways working in concert.

  10. Kinetics of the H+-ATPase from Dry and 5-Hours-Imbibed Maize Embryos in Its Native, Solubilized, and Reconstituted Forms

    Sobeida Sánchez-Nieto; Consuelo Enríquez-Arredondo; Fernando Guzmán-Chávez; Rolando Hernández-Mu(n)oz; Jorge Ramírez; Marina Gavilanes-Ruíz


    T Membranes undergo recovery upon rehydration in seed germination. Previous work has described that the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from maize embryos adopts two different forms at 0 and 5 h of imbibition. We investigated how the kinetics of these two forms could be affected by alterations in the plasma membrane (PM). In comparison to the 0-h, PMs from the 5-h imbibed embryos showed changes in glycerophospholipid composition, decrease in leakage, and increase in fluidity. Kinetics of the PM H+-ATPase from 0 and 5-h imbibed embryos showed negative cooperativity. With the removal of the membrane environment, the activity of the enzymes shifted to a more complex kinetics, displaying two enzyme components. Lipid reconstitution produced one component with positive cooperativity. In all cases, enzymes from 0 and 5-h imbibed embryos presented similar kinetics with some quantitative differences. These results indicate that the two enzyme forms have the potential ability to respond to changes in the membrane environment, but the fact that they do not show differences in the native membranes at 0 or 5 h implies that modifications in the membrane are not drastic enough to alter their kinetics, or that they are able to preserve their boundary lipids or associated proteins and thus retain the same kinetic behavior.

  11. Helical stalk segments S4 and S5 of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae are optimized to impact catalytic site environment.

    Soteropoulos, P; Valiakhmetov, A; Kashiwazaki, R; Perlin, D S


    The stalk segments of P-type ion-translocating enzymes are presumed to play important roles in energy coupling. In this work, stalk segments S4 and S5 of the yeast H(+)-ATPase were examined for helical character, optimal length, and segment orientation by a combination of proline substitution, insertion/deletion mutagenesis, and second-site suppressor analyses. The substitution of various residues for helix-disrupting proline in both S4 (L353P,L353G; A354P; and G371P) and S5 (D676P and I684P) resulted in highly defective or inactive enzymes supporting the importance of helical character and/or the maintenance of essential interactions. The contiguous helical nature of transmembrane segment M5 and stalk element S5 was explored and found to be favorable, although not essential. The deletion or addition of one or more amino acids at positions Ala(354) in S4 and Asp(676) in S5, which were intended to either rotate helical faces or extend/reduce the length of helical segments, resulted in enzyme destabilization that abolished most enzyme assembly. Second-site suppressor mutations were obtained to primary site mutations G371A (S4) and D676G (S5) and were analyzed with a molecular structure model of the H(+)-ATPase. Primary site mutations were predicted to alter the site of phosphorylation either directly or indirectly. The suppressor mutations either directly changed packing around the primary site or altered the environment of the site of phosphorylation. Overall, these data support the view that stalk segments S4 and S5 of the H(+)-ATPase are helical elements that are optimized for length and interactions with other stalk elements and can influence the phosphorylation domain.

  12. Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.

    Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J


    Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased α1β1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC α-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. N-linked glycosylation of a subunit isoforms is critical for vertebrate vacuolar H(+) -ATPase (V-ATPase) biosynthesis.

    Esmail, Sally; Kartner, Norbert; Yao, Yeqi; Kim, Joo Wan; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F; Manolson, Morris F


    The a subunit of the V0 membrane-integrated sector of human V-ATPase has four isoforms, a1-a4, with diverse and crucial functions in health and disease. They are encoded by four conserved paralogous genes, and their vertebrate orthologs have positionally conserved N-glycosylation sequons within the second extracellular loop, EL2, of the a subunit membrane domain. Previously, we have shown directly that the predicted sequon for the a4 isoform is indeed N-glycosylated. Here we extend our investigation to the other isoforms by transiently transfecting HEK 293 cells to express cDNA constructs of epitope-tagged human a1-a3 subunits, with or without mutations that convert Asn to Gln at putative N-glycosylation sites. Expression and N-glycosylation were characterized by immunoblotting and mobility shifts after enzymatic deglycosylation, and intracellular localization was determined using immunofluorescence microscopy. All unglycosylated mutants, where predicted N-glycosylation sites had been eliminated by sequon mutagenesis, showed increased relative mobility on immunoblots, identical to what was seen for wild-type a subunits after enzymatic deglycosylation. Cycloheximide-chase experiments showed that unglycosylated subunits were turned over at a higher rate than N-glycosylated forms by degradation in the proteasomal pathway. Immunofluorescence colocalization analysis showed that unglycosylated a subunits were retained in the ER, and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that they were unable to associate with the V-ATPase assembly chaperone, VMA21. Taken together with our previous a4 subunit studies, these observations show that N-glycosylation is crucial in all four human V-ATPase a subunit isoforms for protein stability and ultimately for functional incorporation into V-ATPase complexes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))


    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. A conserved mechanism of DEAD-box ATPase activation by nucleoporins and IP6 in mRNA export

    Montpetit, Ben; Thomsen, Nathan D.; Helmke, Kara J.; Seeliger, Markus A.; Berger, James M.; Weis, Karsten


    Superfamily 1 (SF1) and superfamily 2 (SF2) RNA helicases are ubiquitous mRNA-protein (mRNP) remodelling enzymes that play critical roles in all aspects of RNA metabolism1, 2. The SF2 DEAD-box ATPase Dbp5/Ddx19 functions in mRNA export and is thought to remodel mRNPs at the nuclear pore complex (NPC)3–8. Dbp5 is localized to the NPC via an interaction with Nup159/Nup2143–5, 8, 9 and is locally activated there by Gle1 together with the small-molecule inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) 10, 11. Local activation of Dbp5 at the NPC by Gle1 is essential for mRNA export in vivo11, 12; however, the mechanistic role of Dbp5 in mRNP export is poorly understood and it is not known how Gle1IP6 and Nup159 regulate the activity of Dbp5. Here we report structures of Dbp5 in complex with Gle1IP6, Nup159/Gle1IP6, and RNA. These structures reveal that IP6 functions as a small-molecule tether for the Gle1-Dbp5 interaction. Surprisingly, the Gle1IP6-Dbp5 complex is structurally similar to another DEAD-box ATPase complex essential for translation initiation, eIF4G-eIF4A, and we demonstrate that Gle1IP6 and eIF4G both activate their DEAD-box partner by stimulating RNA release. Furthermore, Gle1IP6 relieves Dbp5 auto- regulation and cooperates with Nup159 in stabilizing an open Dbp5-intermediate that precludes RNA binding. These findings explain how Gle1IP6, Nup159, and Dbp5 collaborate in mRNA export and provide a general mechanism for DEAD-box ATPase regulation by Gle1/eIF4G-like activators. PMID:21441902

  16. F1FO ATPase vesicle preparation and technique for performing patch clamp recordings of submitochondrial vesicle membranes.

    Sacchetti, Silvio; Alavian, Kambiz N; Lazrove, Emma; Jonas, Elizabeth A


    Mitochondria are involved in many important cellular functions including metabolism, survival(1), development and, calcium signaling(2). Two of the most important mitochondrial functions are related to the efficient production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell, by oxidative phosphorylation, and the mediation of signals for programmed cell death(3). The enzyme primarily responsible for the production of ATP is the F1FO-ATP synthase, also called ATP synthase(4-5). In recent years, the role of mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has received considerable attention. In apoptotic cell death, BCL-2 family proteins such as Bax enter the mitochondrial outer membrane, oligomerize and permeabilize the outer membrane, releasing pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol(6). In classic necrotic cell death, such as that produced by ischemia or excitotoxicity in neurons, a large, poorly regulated increase in matrix calcium contributes to the opening of an inner membrane pore, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or mPTP. This depolarizes the inner membrane and causes osmotic shifts, contributing to outer membrane rupture, release of pro-apoptotic factors, and metabolic dysfunction. Many proteins including Bcl-xL(7) interact with F1FO ATP synthase, modulating its function. Bcl-xL interacts directly with the beta subunit of F1FO ATP synthase, and this interaction decreases a leak conductance within the F1FOATPasecomplex, increasing the net transport of H+ by F1FO during F1FO ATPase activity(8) and thereby increasing mitochondrial efficiency. To study the activity and modulation of the ATP synthase, we isolated from rodent brain submitochondrial vesicles (SMVs) containing F1FO ATPase. The SMVs retain the structural and functional integrity of the F1FO ATPase as shown in Alavian et al. Here, we describe a method that we have used successfully for the isolation of SMVs from rat brain and we delineate the patch clamp technique to analyze channel activity (ion

  17. Effect of IUD with Indomethacin on Rabbits Endometrium by Enzyme Histochemistry

    陆欣; 吴竞梅; 徐胜; 王春年; 刘昌官; 金毓翠; 刘晓瑗


    The present paper reported the observation of the effect of IUD with indomethacin on enzyme activities of succinic dehydrogenase ( SDH ),nonspecific esterase (NSE) and ATPase in endomtrium of rabbits, and the comparison with copper intrauterine devices, silicon rubber and IUD with copper and indomethacin. The results indicated= 1. In the group of indomethacin, the enzyme activities of SDH, NSE and ATPase were increased, while they' were obviously decreased in [UD with copper. In the group of IUD with copper and indomethacin the enzyme activities also decreased, but were higher than those observed in the silicon rubber group. 2. The damage to endometrium was obvious in IUD with copper. The damage to epithelium of endometrium in structure and function by IUD with indomethacin was found to be lower.

  18. The localization of vanadium- and nitrate-sensitive ATPases in Cucumis sativus L. root cells

    Grażyna Kłobus


    Full Text Available Distinct separation of plasma membrane and tonoplast membranes was attained by centrifugation of cucumber root microsomes in a sucrose density gradient. The fractions enriched in plasma membranes, identified on the basis of the sensitivity of ATPases to VO43- sedimented at a specific density of 1. 1463-1. 1513 g x cm-3. They did not exhibit cytochrome oxidase activity and there was only trace activity of the azide-sensitive ATPase in these fractions. The fractions enriched in tonoplast membranes, having peak activity of nitrate-sensitive ATPase, were found in the region of specific densities of 1. 1082-1.1175. The presence of vanadium-sensitive and azide-sensitive ATPases was not found in these fractions. The ATPase inhibitors, DCCD, DES and EDAC, inhibited the activity of both vanadium-sensitive and nitrate-sensitive ATPases.

  19. The Chromodomains of the Chd1 Chromatin Remodeler Regulate DNA Access to the ATPase Motor

    Hauk, G.; McKnight, J; Nodelman, I; Bowman, G


    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.

  20. [Structure and function of heavy metal transporter P(1B)-ATPase in plant: a review].

    Zhang, Yuxiu; Zhang, Yuanya; Sun, Tao; Chai, Tuanyao


    The regulation of the heavy-metal accumulation in vivo for plant survival is very complex. The metal cation transporter plays key roles in the metabolic process. P(1B)-ATPases are the only subgroup of P-ATPases that contribute to heavy metal homeostasis presented in most organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana contains eight genes encoding P(1B)-ATPases. The current reports show that the functions of P(1B)-ATPases are involved in maintaining metal homeostasis, transporting and detoxification in plants. P(1B)-ATPases not only mediated metal ion mobilization and uptake in roots, but also contribute to the metal transport, storage and tolerance in shoots, especially in heavy metal hyperaccumulators. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed the evolution, classification, structure and function of P(1B)-ATPases in plants. HMAs-transgenic manipulation could be a feasible approach for phytoremediation and mineral nutrition fortification.


    符云峰; 王素敏; 卢振敏; 李红


    Objective To investigate the relationships between levels of plasma cholesterol (Ch), triglyceride (TG)、high density lipoprotein(HDL) and ion transport enzyme activities in red cell membranes of essential hypertensive patients.Methods Plasma Ch, TG, HDL-c, activites of Na+ -K+ -ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, Ca2+-binding capacity of interior membrane surface, and membrane Ch, phospholipid(PL) were measured in 32 normotensive (NT) subjects and 55 essential hypertensive patients(HT).Results ①Mean artery pressure(MAP), plasma Ch、TG and membrane Ch levels, and membrane cholesterol/phospholipid(C/P) molar ratio were significantly increased compared with those in NT group, respectively; ②The plasma HDL-c level, the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the Ca2+-binding capacity of the interior membrane surface in HT group were significantly lower than those in NT group, respectively.Conclusion The depressed activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-binding capacity of the interior surface in cell membranes are the major evidence of ion transport abnormalities in essential hypertension. The plasma TG and membrance C/P molar ratio-dependent changes in membrane microviscosity seem to be responsible for the modulation of particular ion transport pathways.

  2. Investigation of the Mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 and tRNALys Genes Mutations in Autism

    Sepideh Dadgar; Zahra-Soheila Soheili; Omid Aryani; Massoud Houshmand; Fahimeh Piryaei


    Objective: Autism results from developmental factors that affect many or all functional brain systems. Brain is one of tissues which are crucially in need of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Autism is noticeably affected by mitochondrial dysfunction which impairs energy metabolism. Considering mutations within ATPase 6, ATPase 8 and tRNALys genes, associated with different neural diseases, and the main role of ATPase 6/8 in energy generation, we decided to investigate mutations on these mtDNA-en...

  3. Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)


    Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So fa...

  4. Preparation of Na+,K+-ATPase with near maximal specific activity and phosphorylation capacity: evidence that the reaction mechanism involves all of the sites.

    Martin, D W; Sachs, J R


    The phosphorylation capacity of Na+,K+-ATPase preparations in common use is much less than expected on the basis of the molecular weight of the enzyme deduced from cDNA sequences. This has led to the popularity of half-of-the-sites or flip-flop models for the enzyme reaction mechanism. We have prepared Na+,K+-ATPase from nasal salt glands of salt-adapted ducks which has a phosphorylation capacity and specific activity near the theoretical maxima. Preparations with specific activities of >60 micromol (mg of protein)-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C had phosphorylation capacities of >60 nmol/mg of protein, and the rate of turnover of the enzyme was 9690 min-1, within the range reported for the enzyme from other sources. The fraction of the maximal specific activity of the enzyme compared well with the fraction of the protein on SDS-PAGE which was alpha and beta chains, especially at the highest specific activity which indicates that all of the alphabeta protomers are active. The gels of the most reactive preparations contained only alpha and beta chains, but less active preparations contained a number of extraneous proteins. The major contaminant was actin. The preparation did not contain any protein which migrated in the molecular weight range of the gamma subunit. The subunit composition of the enzyme was alpha1 and beta1 only. This is the first report of a pure, homogeneous, fully active preparation of the protein. Reaction models which incorporate a half-of-the-sites or flip-flop mechanism do not apply to this enzyme.

  5. Prevention and recovery of (mu(3)-diethylentriamino)-chloro-palladium(II)-chloride induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase by SH containing ligands--L-cysteine and glutathione.

    Krinulović, Katarina; Bugarcić, Zivadin; Vrvić, Miroslav; Krstić, Danijela; Vasić, Vesna


    The effect of (mu(3)-diethylentriamino)-chloro-palladium(II)-chloride ([PdCl(dien)]Cl) on the activity of Na/K-ATPase from porcine cerebral cortex was studied in vitro, in the absence and presence of -SH containing ligands L-cysteine and glutathione (GSH). The aim of the study was to elucidate the mechanism of [PdCl(dien)](+) induced inhibition of the enzyme activity and to examine the ability of thiols to prevent and recover the inhibition. The coordinative interaction between [PdCl(dien)](+) and enzyme was verified by UV and (1)H NMR spectra. The semblance in the changes in absorption spectra of [PdCl(dien)](+) in the presence of Na/K-ATPase and thiols (L-cysteine and GSH) suggested that the complex ion interacts with enzymatic sulfhydryl groups. [PdCl(dien)](+) inhibited the enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. The Hill analysis of the inhibition curve yielded the half-maximum inhibitory activity value, IC(50)=1.21 x 10(-4)M, and Hill coefficient, n=0.7, suggesting the negative cooperation for binding of [PdCl(dien)](+) to the enzyme. Dependence of the initial reaction rate on the concentration of MgATP(2-) exhibited typical Michelis-Menten kinetics in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. Kinetic analysis showed that [PdCl(dien)](+) inhibited Na/K-ATPase by reducing the maximum reaction rate (V(max)), rather than changing the affinity to the substrate (K(m)). Kinetic parameters derived using Lineweaver-Burk transformation of experimental data indicated the non-competitive nature of Na/K-ATPase inhibition. The inhibitory constant, K(i)=1.05 x 10(-4)M, was determined from secondary replot of Lineweaver-Burk graph, and correlated with stability constants of [Pd(dien)(thiol)] complexes. 1 x 10(-3)M L-cysteine or GSH prevented the enzyme inhibition induced by Pd(II) complex cation when present below 1 x 10(-4)M. The both thiols completely reversed the inhibited activity in the concentration dependent manner, due to the complex formation with [PdCl(dien)](+).

  6. Glucose Regulation of Pre-steady State Kinetics of ATP Hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase

    Mohammad Mahfuzul HAQUE; Nikhat MANZOOR; Mohammad AMIN; Mohammad Ejaz HUSSAIN; Luqman Ahmad KHAN


    The effect of glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose on pre-steady state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase has been investigated by following pH transients in a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. A typical pre-steady state signal showed an initial decrease then subsequent increase in acidity. Under optimal Na+ (120 mM) and K+ (30 mM) concentrations, magnitudes of both H+ release and H+ absorption were found to be approximately 1.0/ATPase molecule. The presence of 1 mM glucose significantly decreased H+ absorption at high Na+ concentrations, whereas it was ineffective at low Na+. H+ release was decreased significantly in the presence of 1 mM glucose at Na+ concentrations ranging from 30 mM to 120 mM. Similar to the control,K+ did not show any effect on either H+ release or H+ absorption at all tested combinations of Na+ and K+ concentrations. Pre-steady state H+ signal obtained in the presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not vary significantly as compared with glucose. Delayed addition of K+ (by 30 ms) to the mixture (enzyme+120 mM Na++ATP+glucose) showed that only small fractions of population absorb H+ in the absence of K+. No H+ absorption was observed in the absence of Na+. Delayed mixing of Na+ or K+ did not have any effect on H+ release. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on H+ absorption and release was almost the same as that of glucose at all combinations of Na+ and K+ concentrations. Results obtained have been discussed in terms of an extended kinetic scheme which shows that, in the presence of either glucose or 2-deoxy-D-glucose, significantly fewer enzyme molecules reache the E~P(3Na+) stage and that K+ plays an important role in the conversion of E1.ADP.P(3Na+) to H+.E1~(3Na+) complex.

  7. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei


    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered ...

  8. Direct interaction of the Golgi V-ATPase a-subunit isoform with PI(4)P drives localization of Golgi V-ATPases in yeast.

    Banerjee, Subhrajit; Kane, Patricia M


    Luminal pH and phosphoinositide content are fundamental features of organelle identity. V-ATPases drive organelle acidification in all eukaryotes, and membrane-bound a-subunit isoforms of the V-ATPase are implicated in organelle-specific targeting and regulation. Earlier work demonstrated that the endo-lysosomal lipid PI(3,5)P2 activates V-ATPases containing the vacuolar a-subunit isoform in S. cerevisiae Here we demonstrate that PI4P, the predominant Golgi PI species, directly interacts with the cytosolic amino terminal (NT) domain of the yeast Golgi V-ATPase a-isoform, Stv1. Lysine 84 of Stv1NT is essential for interaction with PI4P in vitro and in vivo, and interaction with PI4P is required for efficient localization of Stv1-containing V-ATPases. The cytosolic NT domain of the human V-ATPase a2 isoform specifically interacts with PI4P in vitro, consistent with its Golgi localization and function. We propose that NT domains of Vo a-subunit isoforms interact specifically with PI lipids in their organelles of residence. These interactions can transmit organelle-specific targeting or regulation information to V-ATPases. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  9. Regulation of branchial V-H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NHE2 in response to acid and base infusions in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katoh, Fumi; Fenton, Heather; Jasinska, Edyta; Goss, Greg G


    To study the mechanisms of branchial acid-base regulation, Pacific spiny dogfish were infused intravenously for 24 h with either HCl (495+/- 79 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or NaHCO(3) (981+/-235 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Infusion of HCl produced a transient reduction in blood pH. Despite continued infusion of acid, pH returned to normal by 12 h. Infusion of NaHCO(3) resulted in a new steady-state acid-base status at approximately 0.3 pH units higher than the controls. Immunostained serial sections of gill revealed the presence of separate vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase)-rich or sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)-rich cells in all fish examined. A minority of the cells also labeled positive for both transporters. Gill cell membranes prepared from NaHCO(3)-infused fish showed significant increases in both V-H(+)-ATPase abundance (300+/-81%) and activity. In addition, we found that V-H(+)-ATPase subcellular localization was mainly cytoplasmic in control and HCl-infused fish, while NaHCO(3)-infused fish demonstrated a distinctly basolateral staining pattern. Western analysis in gill membranes from HCl-infused fish also revealed increased abundance of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 2 (213+/-5%) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (315+/-88%) compared to the control.

  10. 3'-O-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)ADP ether and ATP ether. Affinity reagents for labeling ATPases.

    Chuan, H; Wang, J H


    The affinity reagents 3'-O-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)ADP ether (FDNP-ADP) and 3'-O-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)ATP ether (FDNP-ATP) were synthesized and characterized. FDNP[14C]ADP was found to label the active site of mitochondrial F1-ATPase slowly at room temperature but with high specificity. F1 was effectively protected from the labeling reagent by ATP or ADP. An average number of 1.3 covalent label per F1 is sufficient for 100% inhibition of the ATPase. About 73% of the radioactive label was found covalently attached to beta subunits, 9% on alpha, practically none on gamma, delta, and epsilon. Cleavage of the labeled enzyme by pepsin and sequencing of the major radioactive peptide showed that the labeled amino acid residue in beta subunit was Lys beta 162. These results show that Lys beta 162 is indeed at the active site of F1 as assumed in the recently proposed models (Fry, D. C., Kuby, S. A., and Mildvan, A. S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83, 907-911; Duncan, I. M., Parsonage, D., and Senior, A. E. (1986) FEBS Lett. 208, 1-6).

  11. Localization and cation dependence of a Ca2+- or Mg2+-ATPase from electrocytes of Electrophorus electricus, L.

    Taffarel, M; Coelho-Sampaio, T; Teixeira-Ferreira, A; Somló, C; De Souza, W; Machado, R D; Vieyra, A


    Electrocyte membranes of Electrophorus electricus exhibit high ATPase activity, as demonstrated by cytochemical and biochemical techniques. This activity is visualized as electron-dense deposits in electron micrographs, and appears to be localized only at the innervated face of the electrocyte. ATP hydrolysis can be detected cytochemically or biochemically only in the presence of calcium or magnesium. The effects of Ca or Mg on ATPase activity can be described by Michaelis-like functions with similar apparent Km values for Ca and Mg (0.41 mM and 0.23 mM, respectively). Vmax, however, is fivefold higher in the presence of Mg. The effects of the two cations are not additive, and pH dependence of ATP hydrolysis is identical in the presence of Ca or Mg (maximal at pH 8-9). Therefore, it can be concluded that Ca and Mg activate the same enzyme, the differences in Vmax being attributable to influences in kcat.

  12. Exercise effects on activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase and adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in ovariectomized rats.

    Ben, Juliana; Soares, Flávia Mahatma Schneider; Cechetti, Fernanda; Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Bonan, Carla Denise; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza


    Hormone deficiency following ovariectomy causes activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that has been related to cognitive deficits in experimental animals. Considering that physical exercise presents neuroprotector effects, we decide to investigate whether exercise training would affect enzyme activation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as adenosine nucleotide hydrolysis in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Female adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: sham (submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries), exercise, ovariectomized (Ovx) and Ovx plus exercise. Thirty days after surgery, animals were submitted to one month of exercise training, three times per week. After, rats were euthanized, blood serum was collected and hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Data demonstrated that exercise reversed the activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities both in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy decreased AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex and did not alter adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in blood serum. Exercise per se decreased ADP and AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, AMP hydrolysis in blood serum was increased by exercise in ovariectomized adult rats. Present data support that physical exercise might have beneficial effects and constitute a therapeutic alternative to hormone replacement therapy for estrogen deprivation.

  13. Recovery from blood alkalosis in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii): involvement of gill V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase.

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Goss, Greg G


    To investigate the base secretory mechanisms in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii), we injected animals with NaHCO3 into the subcutaneous sinus. In the first series of experiments, hagfish were injected with 6000 micromol kg(-1) NaHCO3 (base-infused hagfish, BIH) or NaCl (controls). Blood pH increased significantly 1 h after injection in BIH (8.05+/-0.05 vs. 7.82+/-0.03 pH units), but returned to control values by t=6 h. Plasma total CO2 (TCO2) followed the same pattern. Immunolabeled sections revealed that Na+/K+-ATPase and V-H+-ATPase were usually located in the same cells. Western blotting revealed that the abundance of both proteins remained unchanged in whole gill homogenates and in a fraction enriched in cell membranes 6 h after the injections. The second experimental series was to induce long-term alkalosis by serially injecting 6000 micromol kg(-1) NaHCO3 every 6 h for 24 h. Blood pH completely recovered from the base loads within 6 h after each injection. Moreover, plasma TCO2 was not elevated 3 h after the second infusion, suggesting that HCO3(-) secreting mechanisms had been upregulated by that time. Na+/K+-ATPase and V-H+-ATPase cellular localizations did not change in the 24 h base infusion protocol. Na+/K+-ATPase abundance was similar in gill homogenates from fish from both treatments. However, Na+/K+-ATPase abundance in the membrane fraction was significantly lower in BIH, while V-H+-ATPase was greater both in whole gill and membrane fractions. Our results suggest that differential insertion of V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase into the basolateral membrane is involved in recovering from alkalotic stress in hagfish.

  14. Regulation of Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) Reassembly by Glycolysis Flow in 6-Phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1)-deficient Yeast Cells.

    Chan, Chun-Yuan; Dominguez, Dennis; Parra, Karlett J


    Yeast 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) has two subunits, Pfk1p and Pfk2p. Deletion of Pfk2p alters glucose-dependent V-ATPase reassembly and vacuolar acidification (Chan, C. Y., and Parra, K. J. (2014) Yeast phosphofructokinase-1 subunit Pfk2p is necessary for pH homeostasis and glucose-dependent vacuolar ATPase reassembly. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 19448-19457). This study capitalized on the mechanisms suppressing vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in pfk2Δ to gain new knowledge of the mechanisms underlying glucose-dependent V-ATPase regulation. Because V-ATPase is fully assembled in pfk2Δ, and glycolysis partially suppressed at steady state, we manipulated glycolysis and assessed its direct involvement on V-ATPase function. At steady state, the ratio of proton transport to ATP hydrolysis increased 24% after increasing the glucose concentration from 2% to 4% to enhance the glycolysis flow in pfk2Δ. Tighter coupling restored vacuolar pH when glucose was abundant and glycolysis operated below capacity. After readdition of glucose to glucose-deprived cells, glucose-dependent V1Vo reassembly was proportional to the glycolysis flow. Readdition of 2% glucose to pfk2Δ cells, which restored 62% of ethanol concentration, led to equivalent 60% V1Vo reassembly levels. Steady-state level of assembly (100% reassembly) was reached at 4% glucose when glycolysis reached a threshold in pfk2Δ (≥40% the wild-type flow). At 4% glucose, the level of Pfk1p co-immunoprecipitated with V-ATPase decreased 58% in pfk2Δ, suggesting that Pfk1p binding to V-ATPase may be inhibitory in the mutant. We concluded that V-ATPase activity at steady state and V-ATPase reassembly after readdition of glucose to glucose-deprived cells are controlled by the glycolysis flow. We propose a new mechanism by which glucose regulates V-ATPase catalytic activity that occurs at steady state without changing V1Vo assembly.

  15. Radiosensitizing effect of PSMC5, a 19S proteasome ATPase, in H460 lung cancer cells

    Yim, Ji-Hye [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hong Shik [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, In-Chul [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of)


    The function of PSMC5 (proteasome 26S subunit, ATPase 5) in tumors, particularly with respect to cancer radioresistance, is not known. Here, we identified PSMC5 as a novel radiosensitivity biomarker, demonstrating that radiosensitive H460 cells were converted to a radioresistance phenotype by PSMC5 depletion. Exposure of H460 cells to radiation induced a marked accumulation of cell death-promoting reactive oxygen species, but this effect was blocked in radiation-treated H460 PSMC5-knockdown cells through downregulation of the p53-p21 pathway. Interestingly, PSMC5 depletion in H460 cells enhanced both AKT activation and MDM2 transcription, thereby promoting the degradation of p53 and p21 proteins. Furthermore, specific inhibition of AKT with triciribine or knockdown of MDM2 with small interfering RNA largely restored p21 expression in PSMC5-knockdown H460 cells. Our data suggest that PSMC5 facilitates the damaging effects of radiation in radiation-responsive H460 cancer cells and therefore may serve as a prognostic indicator for radiotherapy and molecular targeted therapy in lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • PSMC5 is a radiation-sensitive biomarker in H460 cells. • PSMC5 depletion inhibits radiation-induced apoptosis in H460 cells. • PSMC5 knockdown blocks ROS generation through inhibition of the p53-p21 pathway. • PSMC5 knockdown enhances p21 degradation via AKT-dependent MDM2 stabilization.

  16. Regulation of Vegetative Phase Change by SWI2/SNF2 Chromatin Remodeling ATPase BRAHMA.

    Xu, Yunmin; Guo, Changkui; Zhou, Bingying; Li, Chenlong; Wang, Huasen; Zheng, Ben; Ding, Han; Zhu, Zhujun; Peragine, Angela; Cui, Yuhai; Poethig, Scott; Wu, Gang


    Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes. BRM regulates miR156 expression by directly binding to the MIR156A promoter. Mutations in BRM not only increased occupancy of the -2 and +1 nucleosomes proximal to the transcription start site at the MIR156A locus but also the levels of trimethylated histone H3 at Lys 27. The precocious phenotype of brm mutant was partially suppressed by a second mutation in SWINGER (SWN), but not by a mutation in CURLEY LEAF, both of which are key components of the Polycomb Group Repressive Complex 2 in plants. Our results indicate that BRM and SWN act antagonistically at the nucleosome level to fine-tune the temporal expression of miR156 to regulate vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis.

  17. [Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization].

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Podpalova, O M; Nuryshchenko, N Ie; Martyniuk, V S


    The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skeletal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the calcium-transporting sternal epithelium of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber L. (Crustacea).

    Ziegler, A


    Terrestrial isopods store large amounts of calcium carbonate between the epithelium and the old cuticle of the first four anterior sternites before molt. During the formation of these sternal CaCO3 deposits, large amounts of calcium are transported across the anterior sternal epithelium from the base to the apical side of the integument, and in the reverse direction during resorption of the deposit. A monoclonal antibody against the avian alpha-subunit of Na+,K(+)-ATPase was used to localize Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the anterior and the posterior sternal epithelium of Porcellio scaber. Semithin cryosections 0.5 micron thick were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and ultrathin cryosections for immunogold electron microscopy. The Na+,K(+)-ATPase was localized in the basolateral plasma membrane of the posterior and anterior sternal epithelium. The apical plasma membrane, including cytoplasmic extensions into the newly secreted cuticle, was virtually devoid of the enzyme. This pattern of immunolocalization was not affected by the direction of transepithelial calcium transport associated with the deposition and resorption phases of the molt cycle.

  19. Dominant Rio1 kinase/ATPase catalytic mutant induces trapping of late pre-40S biogenesis factors in 80S-like ribosomes.

    Ferreira-Cerca, Sébastien; Kiburu, Irene; Thomson, Emma; LaRonde, Nicole; Hurt, Ed


    During eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, members of the conserved atypical serine/threonine protein kinase family, the RIO kinases (Rio1, Rio2 and Rio3) function in small ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Structural analysis of Rio2 indicated a role as a conformation-sensing ATPase rather than a kinase to regulate its dynamic association with the pre-40S subunit. However, it remained elusive at which step and by which mechanism the other RIO kinase members act. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the human Rio1-ATP-Mg(2+) complex carrying a phosphoaspartate in the active site indicative of ATPase activity. Structure-based mutations in yeast showed that Rio1's catalytic activity regulates its pre-40S association. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Rio1 associates with a very late pre-40S via its conserved C-terminal domain. Moreover, a rio1 dominant-negative mutant defective in ATP hydrolysis induced trapping of late biogenesis factors in pre-ribosomal particles, which turned out not to be pre-40S but 80S-like ribosomes. Thus, the RIO kinase fold generates a versatile ATPase enzyme, which in the case of Rio1 is activated following the Rio2 step to regulate one of the final 40S maturation events, at which time the 60S subunit is recruited for final quality control check.

  20. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the golgi and requires a beta-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation.

    Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; López-Marqués, Rosa Laura; McDowell, Stephen C; Okkeri, Juha; Licht, Dirk; Schulz, Alexander; Pomorski, Thomas; Harper, Jeffrey F; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde


    Vesicle budding in eukaryotes depends on the activity of lipid translocases (P(4)-ATPases) that have been implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two leaflets of the membrane and in inducing membrane curvature. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P(4)-ATPase subfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that mutations of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots. The growth defect is accompanied by failure of the root cap to release border cells involved in the secretion of molecules required for efficient root interaction with the environment, and ala3 mutants are devoid of the characteristic trans-Golgi proliferation of slime vesicles containing polysaccharides and enzymes for secretion. In yeast complementation experiments, ALA3 function requires interaction with members of a novel family of plant membrane-bound proteins, ALIS1 to ALIS5 (for ALA-Interacting Subunit), and in this host ALA3 and ALIS1 show strong affinity for each other. In planta, ALIS1, like ALA3, localizes to Golgi-like structures and is expressed in root peripheral columella cells. We propose that the ALIS1 protein is a beta-subunit of ALA3 and that this protein complex forms an important part of the Golgi machinery required for secretory processes during plant development.

  1. Decrease of Na, K-ATPase Electrogenic Contribution and Resting Membrane Potential of Rat Soleus after 3 Days of Hindlimb Unloading

    Krivoi, I. I.; Kravtsova, V. V.; Drabkina, T. M.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Shenkman, B. S.


    The Na,K-ATPase activity is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle expressing ? and ? isoforms of the enzyme [6, 9]. It is well known that disuse induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) leads to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle; the muscle undergoes a number of dramatic remodeling events. In particular, changes in ion channel expression in response to muscle unweighting were observed [1, 8]. Decrease of resting membrane potential (RMP), electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase and membrane resistance during 7-28 days of HU was shown [8, 10]. The intrinsic mechanisms involved in the process have not been revealed until present. At the same time, the understanding of these mechanisms could be crucial for the disclosing the mechanisms underlying the resting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytoplasm of the unloaded muscle [3, 7]. In the present study, the effect of early (3 days) HU-induced disuse of slow-twitch soleus muscle on membrane electrogenesis as well as on electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated.

  2. Effects of heavy metals on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in gill cell plasma-membrane of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.).

    Viarengo, A; Mancinelli, G; Pertica, M; Fabbri, R; Orunesu, M


    1. Heavy metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) at micromolar concentrations strongly inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in the plasma-membrane obtained from the gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Heavy metals act through inhibition of the formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. 2. All the heavy metals tested inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, the effect following the order: Hg2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+; the simultaneous addition of different heavy metals causes a summatory inhibition of the enzyme activity; addition to the reaction mixture of GSH at a final concentration of 0.5 mM, reverses inhibitory effects of heavy metals. 3. The inhibitory effects of Cu2+ on Ca(2+)-ATPase are highly enhanced by addition of ascorbate to the reaction mixture. In the presence of ascorbate (100 microM), copper strongly stimulates the lipid peroxidation damage of the gill plasma-membranes, a result that may explain the high copper cytotoxicity.

  3. ATP-dependent inactivation of the beta-Ser339Cys mutant F1-ATPase from Escherichia coli by N-ethylmaleimide.

    Schmidt, G; Senior, A E


    We introduced mutations at the highly-conserved residue Ser-339 in subunit beta of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. The mutations beta S339Y and beta S339F abolished ATPase activity and impaired enzyme assembly. In contrast beta S339C F1 retained function to a substantial degree. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) at 0.2-0.3 mM inactivated beta S339C F1-ATPase by 80-95% in the presence of MgATP or MgADP but did not inactivate appreciably in absence of nucleotide or presence of EDTA. In absence of nucleotide, 0.7 mol of [14C-NEM] was incorporated into beta-subunits of 1.0 mol F1: in presence of MgATP the amount was 1.7 mol/mol, i.e. the introduced Cys residue became more accessible to reaction in the presence of MgATP. In the X-ray structure of F1 (Abrahams et al. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628) one of the catalytic nucleotide-binding domains is empty (on the "beta E subunit") and contains a cleft. Residue beta-339 lies within this cleft; the cleft does not occur in the other two beta-subunits. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that in wild-type enzyme under physiological conditions, MgATP or MgADP induce an enzyme conformation in which residue beta-Ser-339 becomes more exposed, possibly similar to the situation seen in the "beta E-subunit" in the X-ray structure.

  4. Suramin inhibits Hsp104 ATPase and disaggregase activity.

    Mariana P Torrente

    Full Text Available Hsp104 is a hexameric AAA+ protein that utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis to dissolve disordered protein aggregates as well as amyloid fibers. Interestingly, Hsp104 orthologues are found in all kingdoms of life except animals. Thus, Hsp104 could represent an interesting drug target. Specific inhibition of Hsp104 activity might antagonize non-metazoan parasites that depend on a potent heat shock response, while producing little or no side effects to the host. However, no small molecule inhibitors of Hsp104 are known except guanidinium chloride. Here, we screen over 16,000 small molecules and identify 16 novel inhibitors of Hsp104 ATPase activity. Excluding compounds that inhibited Hsp104 activity by non-specific colloidal effects, we defined Suramin as an inhibitor of Hsp104 ATPase activity. Suramin is a polysulphonated naphthylurea and is used as an antiprotozoal drug for African Trypanosomiasis. Suramin also interfered with Hsp104 disaggregase, unfoldase, and translocase activities, and the inhibitory effect of Suramin was not rescued by Hsp70 and Hsp40. Suramin does not disrupt Hsp104 hexamers and does not effectively inhibit ClpB, the E. coli homolog of Hsp104, establishing yet another key difference between Hsp104 and ClpB behavior. Intriguingly, a potentiated Hsp104 variant, Hsp104A503V, is more sensitive to Suramin than wild-type Hsp104. By contrast, Hsp104 variants bearing inactivating sensor-1 mutations in nucleotide-binding domain (NBD 1 or 2 are more resistant to Suramin. Thus, Suramin depends upon ATPase events at both NBDs to exert its maximal effect. Suramin could develop into an important mechanistic probe to study Hsp104 structure and function.

  5. Effects of phenol on ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)

    Poston, T.M.


    The ATPase specific activities from crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout were lower than those from microsomal preparations reported in the literature. Sodium pump activity (ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase) was demonstrable at 37/sup 0/C. An ouabain insensitive NaK-ATPase was demonstrable at temperatures below 30/sup 0/C and may represent a Na-ATPase activity reported by others. Energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C for total NaK-ATPase ws 10,500 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity had an energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C of 15,600 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity was thermally labile at temperatures in excess of 30/sup 0/C. Concentrations of Mg/sup +2/ in excess of 5 mM appeared to inhibit total NaK-ATPase activity. At 37/sup 0/C, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ exerted little, if any, stimulatory effect on ATPase activities, in spite of the fact that 37/sup 0/C was the only temperature at which sodium pump activity was demonstrable. MS-222 failed to produce any discernible changes in any of the demonstrable ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates. Total NaK-ATPase activities were more sensitive than Mg-baseline activities to in vitro inhibition by phenol. Concentrations of phenol which produce 50% inhibition in total NaK-ATPase produced only 35% inhibition in Mg-baseline activity. The nature of in vitro inhibition was uncompetitive. Sodium pump activity was unaffected by phenol at concentrations as high as 25 mM. An effort was made to demonstrate an in vivo effects of phenol on rainbow trout gill ATPase activites. An infestation of a parasite (Gyrodactilus) on the experimental fish precludes any definative assessment of in vivo effects.

  6. Monomers of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase catalyze efficient proton translocation.

    Goormaghtigh, E; Chadwick, C; Scarborough, G A


    Liposomes prepared by sonication of asolectin were fractionated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation, and the small liposomes contained in the upper region of the gradients were used for reconstitution of purified, radiolabeled Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase molecules by our previously published procedures. The reconstituted liposomes were then subjected to two additional rounds of glycerol density gradient centrifugation, which separate the H+-ATPase-bearing proteoliposomes from ATPase-free liposomes by virtue of their greater density. The isolated H+-ATPase-bearing proteoliposomes in two such preparations exhibited a specific H+-ATPase activity of about 11 mumol of Pi liberated/mg of protein/min, which was approximately doubled in the presence of nigericin plus K+, indicating that a large percentage of the H+-ATPase molecules in both preparations were capable of generating a transmembrane protonic potential difference sufficient to impede further proton translocation. Importantly, quantitation of the number of 105,000-dalton ATPase monomers and liposomes in the same preparations by radioactivity determination and counting of negatively stained images in the electron microscope indicated ATPase monomer to liposome ratios of 0.97 and 1.06. Because every liposome in the preparations must have had at least one ATPase monomer, these ratios indicate that very few of the liposomes had more than one, and simple calculations show that the great majority of active ATPase molecules in the preparations must have been present as proton-translocating monomers. The results thus clearly demonstrate that 105,000-dalton monomers of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase can catalyze efficient ATP hydrolysis-driven proton translocation.

  7. The rapid and direct determination of ATPase activity by ion exchange chromatography and the application to the activity of heat shock protein-90.

    Bartolini, Manuela; Wainer, Irving W; Bertucci, Carlo; Andrisano, Vincenza


    Adenosine nucleotides are involved as substrates or co-factors in several biochemical reactions, catalyzed by enzymes, which modulate energy production, signal transduction and cell proliferation. We here report the development and optimization of an ion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of ATP, ADP and AMP. This method is specifically aimed at the determination of the ATP-ase activity of human heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone that has emerged as target enzyme in cancer therapy. Separation of the three nucleotides was achieved in a 15-min run by using a disk shaped monolithic ethylene diamine stationary phase of small dimensions (2mm×6mm i.d.), under a three-solvent gradient elution mode and UV detection at 256nm. The described direct LC method resulted highly specific as a consequence of the baseline separation of the three adenosine nucleotides and could be applied to the determination of the enzymatic activity of ADP/ATP generating or consuming enzymes (such as kinases). Furthermore, comparison of the LOD and LOQ values of the LC method with those obtained with the malachite green assay, which is one of the most used indirect screening methodologies for ATP-ase activity, showed that the LC method has a similar range of application without presenting the drawbacks related to contamination by inorganic phosphate ions and glycerol, which are present in Hsp90 commercial samples.

  8. Structural and functional studies of heavy metal ATPases

    Sitsel, Oleg


    to handle heavy metal ions. LpCopA is then compared to its two human homologues ATP7A and ATP7B, which cause the severe Menkes and Wilson diseases when malfunctioning. The differences between the three proteins are described and disease-causing mutations in the human proteins are analyzed. The crystal......Copper and zinc are trace elements that are crucial for the well-being of all cells and are an indispensable part of many proteins. At the same time, the intracellular levels of these metals require careful regulation, as an excess or deficiency may be lethal. P1B-ATPases are key players in Cu...

  9. Regulatory Mechanisms in the P4-ATPase Complex

    Costa, Sara

    as these transporters are trapped in an environment formed by their own substrate (lipids). Most lipid uptake assays use fluorescent lipid analogues in combination with flow cytometry analysis. However, flow cytometry systems are rather expensive and require extensive maintenance. Thus, we present a simple and more...... affordable alternative using a microscope-based cytometer. This system can simultaneously provide information on flippase activity and expression levels. Taken together, the findings described in this thesis provide new tools for P4-ATPase characterization and valuable insights into the regulation...

  10. Enzyme detection by microfluidics


    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...... by that enzyme...

  11. Conformational changes of the H+-ATPase from Escherichia coli upon nucleotide binding detected by single molecule fluorescence.

    Börsch, M; Turina, P; Eggeling, C; Fries, J R; Seidel, C A; Labahn, A; Gräber, P


    Using a confocal fluorescence microscope with an avalanche photodiode as detector, we studied the fluorescence of the tetramethylrhodamine labeled F1 part of the H+-ATPase from Escherichia coli, EF1, carrying the gammaT106-C mutation [Aggeler, J.A. and Capaldi, R.A. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 21355-21359] in aqueous solution upon excitation with a mode-locked argon ion laser at 528 nm. The diffusion of the labeled EF1 through the confocal volume gives rise to photon bursts, which were analyzed with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, resulting in a diffusion coefficient of 3.3 x 10(-7) cm2 s(-1). In the presence of nucleotides the diffusion coefficient increases by about 15%. This effect indicates a change of the shape and/or the volume of the enzyme upon binding of nucleotides, i.e. fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with single EF1 molecules allows the detection of conformational changes.

  12. Induction of nitrate uptake in maize roots: expression of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter and plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoforms.

    Santi, Simonetta; Locci, Geraldine; Monte, Rossella; Pinton, Roberto; Varanini, Zeno


    An investigation was carried out to assess the effect of nitrate supply on the root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase of etiolated maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. The treatment induced higher uptake rates of the anion and the expression of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter gene (ZmNRT2.1), the first to be identified in maize. Root PM H+-ATPase activity displayed a similar time-course pattern as that of net nitrate uptake and investigations were carried out to determine which of the two isoforms reported to date in maize, MHA1 and 2, responded to the treatment. MHA1 was not expressed under the conditions analysed. Genome analysis revealed that MHA2, described as the most abundant form in all maize tissues, was not present in the maize hybrid investigated, but a similar form was found instead and named MHA3. A second gene (named MHA4) was also identified and partially sequenced. Both genes, classified as members of the PM H+-ATPase subfamily II, responded to nitrate supply, although to different degrees: MHA4, in particular, proved more sensitive than MHA3, with a greater up- and down-regulation in response to the treatment. Increased expression of subfamily II genes resulted in higher steady-state levels of the enzyme in the root tissues and enhanced ATP-hydrolysing activity. The results support the idea that greater proton-pumping activity is required when nitrate inflow increases and suggest that nitrate may be the signal triggering the expression of the two members of PM H+-ATPase subfamily II.

  13. Catalytic properties of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase depleted of endogenous nucleotides.

    Senior, A E; Lee, R S; al-Shawi, M K; Weber, J


    Nucleotide-depleted Escherichia coli F1 was prepared by the procedure of Wise et al. (1983, Biochem. J. 215, 343-350). This enzyme had high rates of steady-state ATPase and GTPase activity. When "unisite" ATP hydrolysis was measured using an F1/ATP concentration ratio of 10, all of the substoichiometric ATP became bound to the high-affinity catalytic site and none became bound to noncatalytic sites. The association rate constant for ATP binding was 7 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and the KdATP was 7.9 x 10(-10) M, as compared to values of 3.8 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and 1.9 x 10(-10) M, respectively, in native (i.e., nucleotide-replete) F1. Rate constants for bound ATP hydrolysis, ATP resynthesis, and P(i) release, and the reaction equilibrium constant, were similar in nucleotide-depleted and native F1. Therefore, we conclude that occupancy of the noncatalytic sites is not required for formation of the high-affinity catalytic site of F1 and has no significant effect on unisite catalysis. In further experiments we looked for the occurrence of inhibitory, catalytic-site-bound MgADP in E. coli F1. Such an entity has been reported for chloroplast and mitochondrial F1. However, our experiments gave no indication for inhibitory MgADP in E. coli F1.

  14. Properties of the V-type ATPase from the excretory system of the usherhopper, Poekilocerus bufonius.

    Al-Fifi, Z I A; Al-Robai, A; Khoja, S M


    The bafilomycin A(1) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive (V-type) ATPase was partially purified from the apical membrane-rich fractions of excretory system (Malpighian tubules and hind gut) of P. bufonius. Enzymatic activity was inhibited by bafilomycin A(1) (IC(50) = 1.3 nM) and NEM (IC(50) = 10.1 microM). The V-type ATPase activity is confined to the apical membrane fraction, while the activity of Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase forms the major part of the basal membrane fraction. The optimal pH required for maximal activity of V-type ATPase was pH 7.5. The effect of 30 mM of various salts on ATPase activity was investigated. NaCl and KCl caused increases of 175% and 184%, respectively. Other chloride salts also caused an increase in activity in the following ascending order: RbCl, LiCI, choline Cl, NaCI, KCl and tris-HCl. The activity of V-type ATPase was stimulated by a variety of different anions and cations, and HCO(3)(-) was found to be the most potent cationic activator of ATPase activity. The present results show that the properties of V-type ATPase of P. bufonius are similar to those reported for other insect tissues.

  15. A novel mechanism of P-type ATPase autoinhibition involving both termini of the protein

    Ekberg, Kira; Palmgren, Michael; Veierskov, Bjarke;


    The activity of many P-type ATPases is found to be regulated by interacting proteins or autoinhibitory elements located in N- or C-terminal extensions. An extended C terminus of fungal and plant P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases has long been recognized to be part of a regulatory apparatus...

  16. The Na/K-ATPase-mediated signal transduction as a target for new drug development.

    Xie, Zijian; Xie, Joe


    The Na/K-ATPase, or Na+ pump, is a member of the P-type ATPase superfamily. In addition to pumping ions, the Na/K-ATPase is a receptor that not only regulates the function of protein kinases, but also acts as a scaffold, capable of tethering different proteins into a signalplex. The signaling Na/K-ATPase resides in caveolae and forms a "binary receptor" with the tyrosine kinase Src. Endogenous cardiotonic steroids and digitalis drugs such as ouabain act as agonists and provoke this binary receptor, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins that are either associated with, or in close proximity to, the signaling Na/K-ATPase. Subsequently, this initiates protein kinase cascades including ERKs and PKC isozymes. It also increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Like other receptors, activation of the Na/K-ATPase/Src by ouabain induces the endocytosis of the plasma membrane Na/K-ATPase. Significantly, this newly appreciated signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, therefore serving as an important target for development of novel therapeutic agents.

  17. An H+ P-ATPase on the tonoplast determines vacuolar pH and flower colour

    Verweij, W.; Spelt, C.; di Sansebastiano, G.-P.; Vermeer, J.; Reale, L.; Ferranti, F.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.


    The regulation of pH in cellular compartments is crucial for intracellular trafficking of vesicles and proteins and the transport of small molecules, including hormones. In endomembrane compartments, pH is regulated by vacuolar H+-ATPase1 (V-ATPase), which, in plants, act together with

  18. The Sulfolobus solfataricus AAA protein sso090, a homologue of the eukaryotic ESCRT vps4 ATPase

    Hobel, Cedric F. V.; Albers, Sonja V.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Lupas, Andrei N.

    Sso0909 is a protein of the thermo-acidophilic crenarchaeon sulfolobus solfatoricus, annotated as a p60 katanin-like ATPase. We present here results supporting the hypothesis that Sso0909 is an orthologue of the eukaryotic ESCRT (enclosomal sorting complex required for transport) ATPase Vps4

  19. Demethoxycurcumin is a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPases from diverse kingdoms of life

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Thanh Tung, Truong;


    P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used ...

  20. Plant P4-ATPases: lipid translocators with a role in membrane traficking

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The secretory pathway is involved in several vital cellular processes, including host-pathogen interactions, nutrient and gravity sensing, and protein sorting [1-3]. In the past years, a subfamily of P-type ATPases has been suggested to be involved in vesicle formation. P-type ATPases comprise a ...

  1. On Allosteric Modulation of P-Type Cu+-ATPases

    Mattle, Daniel; Sitsel, Oleg; Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth


    -specific sequence motifs and structural elements that are linked to transport specificity and mechanistic modulation. Here we provide an overview of the Cu+-transporting ATPases (of subclass PIB) and compare them to the well-studied sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2 +-ATPase (of subclass PIIA). Cu+ ions in the cell...

  2. Copper-transporting P-type ATPases use a unique ion-release pathway

    Andersson, Magnus; Mattle, Daniel; Sitsel, Oleg


    Heavy metals in cells are typically regulated by PIB-type ATPases. The first structure of the class, a Cu(+)-ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA), outlined a copper transport pathway across the membrane, which was inferred to be occluded. Here we show by molecular dynamics simulations...

  3. Crystal structure of a copper-transporting PIB-type ATPase

    Gourdon, Pontus; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Skjørringe, Tina


    Heavy-metal homeostasis and detoxification is crucial for cell viability. P-type ATPases of the class IB (PIB) are essential in these processes, actively extruding heavy metals from the cytoplasm of cells. Here we present the structure of a PIB-ATPase, a Legionella pneumophila CopA Cu(+)-ATPase, ......Heavy-metal homeostasis and detoxification is crucial for cell viability. P-type ATPases of the class IB (PIB) are essential in these processes, actively extruding heavy metals from the cytoplasm of cells. Here we present the structure of a PIB-ATPase, a Legionella pneumophila CopA Cu......(+)-ATPase, in a copper-free form, as determined by X-ray crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. The structure indicates a three-stage copper transport pathway involving several conserved residues. A PIB-specific transmembrane helix kinks at a double-glycine motif displaying an amphipathic helix that lines a putative...... copper entry point at the intracellular interface. Comparisons to Ca(2+)-ATPase suggest an ATPase-coupled copper release mechanism from the binding sites in the membrane via an extracellular exit site. The structure also provides a framework to analyse missense mutations in the human ATP7A and ATP7B...

  4. 家鸽mtDNA ATPase8和ATPase6基因的分子克隆及序列分析%Molecular cloning and sequence analyzing of mtDNA ATPase8 and ATPase6 gene in pigeon

    张慧霞; 吴建平; 张利平; 宗卉


    利用特异引物,通过聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)技术,从家鸽(Columba livia)肝脏组织的总DNA中扩增到目的片段,并将扩增产物克隆到pMD18-T载体中,经菌落PCR与酶切鉴定、序列测定及序列分析.结果表明:克隆得到了家鸽ATPase8-ATPase6基因842 bp及COⅡ的部分序列共861 bp.用DNA分析软件对家鸽ATPase8和ATPase6基因与Genbank中的5种鸟类的ATPase8和ATPase6基因序列进行比较分析,表明家鸽与其他5种鸟类的ATPase8和ATPase6基因具有较