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Sample records for enzootic raccoon rabies

  1. Maternal immunity against rabies in raccoon dogs.

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    Vos, A; Müller, T; Schuster, P; Selhorst, T; Wenzel, U

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine possible maternally transferred antibodies (maAb) against rabies in raccoon dogs. Ten cubs born from a rabies-immune animal were bled on days 31, 36, 43, 50, 57 and 64 post partum. The geometric mean titres of the cubs were 1.19, 1.18, 0.45, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.16 IU/ml, respectively. Up to 36 days post partum maAb were detected in all cubs at levels > or = 0.5 IU/ml and at day 56 post partum all animals had maAb levels dogs as well.

  2. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  3. MHC class II DRB diversity in raccoons (Procyon lotor) reveals associations with raccoon rabies virus (Lyssavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Castillo, Sarrah; Rosatte, Rick C; Kyle, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    In North America, the raccoon rabies virus (RRV) is an endemic wildlife disease which causes acute encephalopathies and is a strong selective force on raccoons (Procyon lotor), with estimates of ∼85% of the population succumbing to the disease when epizootic. RRV is regarded as a lethal disease if untreated; therefore, no evolutionary response would be expected of raccoon populations. However, variable immune responses to RRV have been observed in raccoons indicating a potential for evolutionary adaptation. Studies of variation within the immunologically important major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have revealed relationships between MHC alleles and diseases in humans and other wildlife species. This enhances our understanding of how hosts and pathogens adapt and co-evolve. In this study, we used RRV as a model system to study host-pathogen interaction in raccoons from a challenge study and from four wild populations that differ in exposure times and viral lineages. We investigated the potential role of Prlo-DRB polymorphism in relation to susceptibility/resistance to RRV in 113 RRV positive and 143 RRV negative raccoons. Six alleles were found to be associated with RRV negative status and five alleles with RRV positive animals. We found variable patterns of MHC associations given the relative number of selective RRV sweeps in the studied regions and correlations between MHC diversity and RRV lineages. The allelic associations established provide insight into how the genetic variation of raccoons may affect the disease outcome and this can be used to examine similar associations between other rabies variants and their hosts.

  4. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  5. Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Stacey A; Chipman, Richard B; Slate, Dennis; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Gilbert, Amy T

    2017-03-01

    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools. Also critical is a cooperatively produced strategic plan that emphasizes collaborative rabies management among agencies and organizations at the landscape scale. Common management strategies, alone or as part of an integrated approach, include the following: oral rabies vaccination (ORV), trap-vaccinate-release (TVR), and local population reduction. As a complement, mathematical and statistical modeling approaches can guide intervention planning, such as through contact networks, circuit theory, individual-based modeling, and others, which can be used to better understand and predict rabies dynamics through simulated interactions among the host, virus, environment, and control strategy. Strategies derived from this ecological lens can then be optimized to produce a management plan that balances the ecological needs and program financial resources. This paper discusses the management and modeling strategies that are currently used, or have been used in the past, and provides a platform of options for consideration while developing raccoon rabies virus elimination strategies in the US.

  6. Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A Elmore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada, foxes (Europe, and dogs and coyotes (United States demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools. Also critical is a cooperatively produced strategic plan that emphasizes collaborative rabies management among agencies and organizations at the landscape scale. Common management strategies, alone or as part of an integrated approach, include the following: oral rabies vaccination (ORV, trap-vaccinate-release (TVR, and local population reduction. As a complement, mathematical and statistical modeling approaches can guide intervention planning, such as through contact networks, circuit theory, individual-based modeling, and others, which can be used to better understand and predict rabies dynamics through simulated interactions among the host, virus, environment, and control strategy. Strategies derived from this ecological lens can then be optimized to produce a management plan that balances the ecological needs and program financial resources. This paper discusses the management and modeling strategies that are currently used, or have been used in the past, and provides a platform of options for consideration while developing raccoon rabies virus elimination strategies in the US.

  7. The Economics of a Successful Raccoon Rabies Elimination Program on Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Julie L.; Bigler, Laura L.; Anderson, Aaron M.; Maki, Joanne L.; Lein, Donald H.; Shwiff, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Raccoon rabies is endemic in the eastern U.S.; however, an epizootic had not been confirmed on Long Island, New York until 2004. An oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program was initiated soon after the first rabies-positive raccoon was discovered, and continued until raccoon rabies was eliminated from the vaccination zone. The cost-effectiveness and economic impact of this rabies control program were unknown. A public health surveillance data set was evaluated following the ORV program on Long Island, and is used here as a case study in the health economics of rabies prevention and control efforts. A benefit-cost analysis was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program, and a regional economic model was used to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of raccoon rabies elimination to New York State. The cost of the program, approximately $2.6 million, was recovered within eight years by reducing costs associated with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and veterinary diagnostic testing of rabies suspect animals. By 2019, the State of New York is projected to benefit from the ORV program by almost $27 million. The benefit-cost ratio will reach 1.71 in 2019, meaning that for every dollar spent on the program $1.71 will be saved. Regional economic modeling estimated employment growth of over 100 jobs and a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increase of $9.2 million through 2019. This analysis suggests that baiting to eliminate rabies in a geographically constrained area can provide positive economic returns. PMID:27935946

  8. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010

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    Linda L. Han

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3 and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8, skunks (OR = 8.0, gray foxes (OR = 21.3, red foxes (OR = 10.4, woodchucks (OR = 4.7 and coyotes (OR = 27.6. While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001. The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs.

  9. Longitudinal analysis of raccoon rabies in West Virginia, 2000–2015: a preliminary investigation

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    K. Bert Plants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal borne rabies virus is a source of infection in humans, and raccoons (Procyon lotor are the primary terrestrial reservoir in West Virginia (WV. To assess the behavior and status of raccoon variant rabies virus (RRV cases in WV, a longitudinal analysis for the period 2000–2015 was performed, using data provided by the state Bureau of Public Health. The analytic approach used was negative binomial regression, with exclusion of those counties that had not experienced RRV cases in the study period, and with further examination of those counties where oral rabies vaccine (ORV baits had been distributed as compared with non-ORV counties. These analyses indicated that there had been a reduction in numbers of RRV positive animals over the study period, predominantly due to a decrease in raccoon infections. Non-raccoon hosts did not appear to have a similar decline, however. The rates of decline for the ORV zone were found to be significantly greater as compared to the non-ORV area. The study was limited by the lack of data for season or point location of animal collection, and by lack of surveillance effort data. Even so, this study has implications for the preventive measures currently being implemented, including expanded vaccination effort in domestic animals. Spatial analyses of RRV and further examination of the virus in non-raccoon hosts are warranted.

  10. Use of filter paper blood samples for rabies antibody detection in foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Rabies Raccoon People are exposed to rabies when they to the local health department. Rabies is almost always fatal once clinical symptoms appear. To confirm the victim's risk of being exposed to rabies, a decision must be made to either test or quarantine

  12. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Melinda Hergert

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  13. Frequency of Virus Coinfection in Raccoons ( Procyon lotor) and Striped Skunks ( Mephitis mephitis) During a Concurrent Rabies and Canine Distemper Outbreak.

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    Jardine, Claire M; Buchanan, Tore; Ojkic, Davor; Campbell, G Douglas; Bowman, Jeff

    2018-03-08

    Rabies and canine distemper virus infections in wildlife share similar presenting signs. Canine distemper virus was detected using real-time PCR of conjunctival swabs in rabies positive raccoons (22/32) and skunks (7/34) during a concurrent rabies and canine distemper outbreak in Ontario, Canada in 2015-2016. Coinfections with both viruses should be considered, particularly in distemper endemic areas that are at risk of rabies incursion.

  14. An aerial baiting system for the distribution of attenuated or recombinant rabies vaccines for foxes, raccoons, and skunks.

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    Johnston, D H; Voigt, D R; MacInnes, C D; Bachmann, P; Lawson, K F; Rupprecht, C E

    1988-01-01

    An aerial baiting system was developed to deliver oral rabies vaccines to wild carnivore vectors of rabies, e.g., red fox, striped skunk, and raccoon. The bait consists of a polyethylene bag that contains either a 30-g hamburger ball or a 25-mL cube of polyurethane sponge coated with a wax-beef tallow mixture containing 100-150 mg of tetracycline as a biomarker. Attractants used with the sponge were added to the bag (e.g., liver slurry, cheeses, fish oils, or fruits). Baits (greater than 80,000) were dropped from light aircraft at densities of 18-120 baits/km2 over test areas in Ontario and Pennsylvania. Rates of bait acceptance were assessed by the presence of fluorescent tetracycline deposits in the teeth of animals obtained from hunters and trappers. Bait acceptance reached 74% in foxes, 54% in skunks, 43% in raccoons, and 85% in coyotes in the Ontario trials; bait acceptance by raccoons in a small trial in Pennsylvania reached 76%. Also, 66% of juvenile foxes that ate baits ate a second bait 7 or more days after eating the first, thus giving the potential for a booster effect. The cost of aerial distribution of bait (excluding cost of bait and vaccine) in Canadian dollars was $1.45/km2. The aerial distribution system is capable of economically reaching a high proportion of foxes, skunks, and raccoons over large areas. Trials with attenuated ERA (Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth) vaccines are under way in Ontario.

  15. In Vivo Safety Studies With SPBN GASGAS in the Frame of Oral Vaccination of Foxes and Raccoon Dogs Against Rabies

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    Steffen Ortmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Marketing Authorization for an oral rabies vaccine in the European Union, not only safety studies in the target species, red fox and raccoon dog, are required. Since baits are distributed unsupervised in the environment, specific safety studies in selected non-target species are compulsory. Furthermore, oral rabies vaccines are based on live, replication-competent viruses and thus distinct safety studies in the target species for such type of vaccines are also mandatory. Here, the results of these safety studies in target and selected non-target species for a 3rd generation oral rabies virus vaccine construct, SPBN GASGAS (Rabitec, are presented. The studies included the following species; red fox, raccoon dog, domestic dog, domestic cat, domestic pig, wild rodents. The following safety topics were investigated; overdose, repeated dose, dissemination, shedding, horizontal and vertical transmission. It was shown that SPBN GASGAS did not cause disease or any other adverse reaction in vaccinated animals and naïve contact animals. The vaccine did not disseminate within the host beyond the site of entry. No horizontal transmission was observed in wild rodents. In the target species, there was evidence that in a few cases horizontal transmission of vaccine virus could have occurred under these experimental conditions; most likely immediately after vaccine administration. The vaccine construct SPBN GASGAS meets therefore the latest revised minimal safety requirements as laid down in the European Pharmacopoeia.

  16. First international collaborative study to evaluate rabies antibody detection method for use in monitoring the effectiveness of oral vaccination programmes in fox and raccoon dog in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasniewski, M; Almeida, I; Baur, A

    2016-01-01

    The most effective and sustainable method to control and eliminate rabies in wildlife is the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of target species, namely foxes and raccoon dogs in Europe. According to WHO and OIE, the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns should be regularly assessed via disease...... surveillance and ORV antibody monitoring. Rabies antibodies are generally screened for in field animal cadavers, whose body fluids are often of poor quality. Therefore, the use of alternative methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed to improve reliability of serological...... results obtained on wildlife samples. We undertook an international collaborative study to determine if the commercial BioPro ELISA Rabies Ab kit is a reliable and reproducible tool for rabies serological testing. Our results reveal that the overall specificity evaluated on naive samples reached 96...

  17. Right place, wrong species: a 20-year review of rabies virus cross species transmission among terrestrial mammals in the United States.

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    Ryan M Wallace

    Full Text Available In the continental US, four terrestrial mammalian species are reservoirs for seven antigenic rabies virus variants. Cross species transmission (CST occurs when a rabies virus variant causes disease in non-reservoir species.This study analyzed national surveillance data for rabies in terrestrial mammals. The CST rate was defined as: number of rabid non-reservoir animals/number of rabid reservoir animals. CST rates were analyzed for trend. Clusters of high CST rate counties were evaluated using space-time scanning statistics.The number of counties reporting a raccoon variant CST rate >1.0 increased from 75 in 1992 to 187 in 2011; counties with skunk variant CST rates >1.0 remained unchanged during the same period. As of 2011, for every rabid raccoon reported within the raccoon variant region, there were 0.73 cases of this variant reported in non-reservoir animals. Skunks were the most common non-reservoir animal reported with the raccoon rabies variant. Domestic animals were the most common non-reservoir animal diagnosed with a skunk rabies virus variant (n = 1,601. Cross species transmission rates increased fastest among domestic animals.Cross species transmission of rabies virus variants into non-reservoir animals increases the risk of human exposures and threatens current advances toward rabies control. Cross species transmission in raccoon rabies enzootic regions increased dramatically during the study period. Pet owners should vaccinate their dogs and cats to ensure against CST, particularly in regions with active foci of rabies circulation. Clusters of high CST activity represent areas for further study to better understand interspecies disease transmission dynamics. Each CST event has the potential to result in a rabies virus adapted for sustained transmission in a new species; therefore further understanding of the dynamics of CST may help in early detection or prevention of the emergence of new terrestrial rabies virus variants.

  18. Protection of bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against rabies following topical or oronasal exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.

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    Stading, Ben; Ellison, James A; Carson, William C; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian; Rocke, Tonie E; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is an ancient neglected tropical disease that causes tens of thousands of human deaths and millions of cattle deaths annually. In order to develop a new vaccine for potential use in bats, a reservoir of rabies infection for humans and animals alike, an in silico antigen designer tool was used to create a mosaic glycoprotein (MoG) gene using available sequences from the rabies Phylogroup I glycoprotein. This sequence, which represents strains more likely to occur in bats, was cloned into raccoonpox virus (RCN) and the efficacy of this novel RCN-MoG vaccine was compared to RCN-G that expresses the glycoprotein gene from CVS-11 rabies or luciferase (RCN-luc, negative control) in mice and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Mice vaccinated and boosted intradermally with 1 x 107 plaque forming units (PFU) of each RCN-rabies vaccine construct developed neutralizing antibodies and survived at significantly higher rates than controls. No significant difference in antibody titers or survival was noted between rabies-vaccinated groups. Bats were vaccinated either oronasally (RCN-G, RCN-MoG) with 5x107 PFU or by topical application in glycerin jelly (RCN-MoG, dose 2x108 PFU), boosted (same dose and route) at 46 days post vaccination (dpv), and then challenged with wild-type big brown variant RABV at 65 dpv. Prior to challenge, 90% of RCN-G and 75% of RCN-MoG oronasally vaccinated bats had detectable levels of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies. Bats from the RCN-luc and topically vaccinated RCN-MoG groups did not have measurable antibody responses. The RCN-rabies constructs were highly protective and not significantly different from each other. RCN-MoG provided 100% protection (n = 9) when delivered oronasally and 83% protection (n = 6) when delivered topically; protection provided by the RCN-G construct was 70% (n = 10). All rabies-vaccinated bats survived at a significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher rate than control bats (12%; n = 8). We have demonstrated the efficacy of

  19. Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Nark

    2013-01-01

    Rabies has been a scourge of mankind since antiquity. The name itself, ?rabies? is derived from the ancient Sanskrit rabhas meaning ?to do violence? and has been found described in medical writings several thousand years old. The rabies virus is an RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae (Greek for ?rod-shaped virus?), genus Lyssavirus (Lyssa being the Greek God of frenzy and rage). Rabies infections have a worldwide spread, with only a few, mostly island nations laying claim to being ?rabies free.? 2013.

  20. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procurement, and usage are expected from rabies biological suppliers in both India and Viet Nam. Once complete, ... as part of a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation project led by WHO, recently showed that a reduction ...

  1. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rabies","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... prevention and control in communities includes education and information on responsible pet ownership, how to prevent dog ...

  2. Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingtai; DeMaria, Alfred; Smole, Sandra; Brown, Catherine M.; Han, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.

  3. Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies remains an important public health problem in the world due to uncontrolled enzootic rabies, lack of safe efficient vaccines and poor information on the risk of contracting rabies post animal exposure. The lethality and mutagenic potential of challenge virus standard (CVS) was evaluated in mice. Mice were ...

  4. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

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    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  5. Geographical Clusters and Predictors of Rabies in Three Southeastern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sara; Sanderson, Wayne T; Christian, W Jay; Browning, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure. This ecologic study obtained county-level rabies surveillance data from state health departments and the United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife services for North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia from 2010 to 2013. A spatial statistical analysis was performed to identify county clusters with high or low rates of raccoon rabies in the three states. Potential demographic and geographic factors associated with these varying rates of rabies were assessed using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. In North Carolina, raccoons constituted 50% of positive tests, in Virginia, 49%, and in West Virginia, 50%. Compared to persons residing in West Virginia counties, persons in North Carolina counties had 1.67 times the risk of exposure (p rabies exposure. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of the oral rabies vaccine program in controlling the risk of human exposure to raccoon rabies.

  6. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

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    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  7. Antigen detection, rabies virus isolation, and Q-PCR in the quantification of viral load in a natural infection of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Shannon M D; Pouliott, Craig E; Rudd, Robert J; Davis, April D

    2015-01-01

    All mammals are believed susceptible to rabies virus infection, yet transmission from nonreservoir hosts to humans is uncommon. However, interactions between nonreservoir hosts and humans occur frequently and risk of exposure increases where rabies is enzootic. We describe rabies and apparent pantropism of rabies virus in a beaver (Castor canadensis).

  8. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...

  9. PROFILAKSIS RABIES

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    Susilawathi NM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies merupakan penyakit ensefalitis akut yang disebabkan oleh virus RNA, famili Rhabdoviridae, genus lyssavirus. Anjing adalah reservoir utama penularan rabies, puluhan ribu kematian per tahun disebabkan oleh gigitan anjing rabies. Bila seseorang menunjukkan gejala rabies, biasanya selalu fatal.  Profilaksis terhadap rabies merupakan tindakan efektif dan aman. Mencuci luka dan vaksinasi segera setelah kontak dengan hewan tersangka rabies dapat mencegah timbulnya rabies hampir 100%. Strategi yang paling efektif untuk mencegah rabies adalah mengurangi penularan rabies pada anjing melalui vaksinasi.[MEDICINA 2009;40:55-9].

  10. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  11. Deadly Parasite in Raccoons

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-18

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the UCLA School of Public Health, discusses a study about roundworms in raccoons and their effect on the environment.  Created: 8/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/18/2011.

  12. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Pareen; Boyd, Zachary [University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Cully, Brent [University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Raccoon roundworm encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection characterized by progressive neurological decline despite attempted therapy. Patients present with deteriorating neurological function, eosinophilia, and history of pica or geophagia resulting in ingestion of the parasite. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate nonspecific findings of progressive white matter inflammation and cortical atrophy. (orig.)

  13. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pareen; Boyd, Zachary; Cully, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Raccoon roundworm encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection characterized by progressive neurological decline despite attempted therapy. Patients present with deteriorating neurological function, eosinophilia, and history of pica or geophagia resulting in ingestion of the parasite. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate nonspecific findings of progressive white matter inflammation and cortical atrophy. (orig.)

  14. Lyssaviruses and rabies: current conundrums, concerns, contradictions and controversies [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rupprecht

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons. All mammals are believed to be susceptible to rabies virus infection. Besides reservoirs among the Chiroptera, meso-carnivores also serve as major historical hosts and are represented among the canids, raccoons, skunks, mongooses, and ferret badgers.  Perpetuating as a disease of nature with the mammalian central nervous system as niche, host breadth alone precludes any candidacy for true eradication. Despite having the highest case fatality of any infectious disease and a burden in excess of or comparative to other major zoonoses, rabies remains neglected. Once illness appears, no treatment is proven to prevent death. Paradoxically, vaccines were developed more than a century ago, but the clear majority of human cases are unvaccinated. Tens of millions of people are exposed to suspect rabid animals and tens of thousands succumb annually, primarily children in developing countries, where canine rabies is enzootic. Rather than culling animal populations, one of the most cost-effective strategies to curbing human fatalities is the mass vaccination of dogs. Building on considerable progress to date, several complementary actions are needed in the near future, including a more harmonized approach to viral taxonomy, enhanced de-centralized laboratory-based surveillance, focal pathogen discovery and characterization, applied pathobiological research for therapeutics, improved estimates of canine populations at risk, actual

  15. Raccoon roundworm in raccoons in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon F. Owen; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; James M. Crum; Petra Bohall Wood

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) in common raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia during spring (n = 9, April-June) and fall (n = 5, August-October) 2001 and spring (n = 1) and fall (n = 4) 2002. We found no evidence of B. procyonis...

  16. Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities. PMID:24016204

  17. Rabies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... messages between the brain and the body. The rabies virus spreads through the nerves, first causing flu- ... to hallucinations, delirium, and insomnia. If left untreated, rabies is nearly always fatal.

  18. Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in dogs and ferret badgers. Methods A retrospective survey on rabies epidemics was performed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces in southeast China. The brain tissues from ferret badgers and dogs were assayed by fluorescent antibody test. Rabies virus was isolated and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The sera from ferret badgers and dogs were titrated using rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA test. Results The ferret badgers presented a higher percentage of rabies seroconversion than dogs did in the endemic region, reaching a maximum of 95% in the collected samples. Nine ferret badger-associated rabies viruses were isolated, sequenced, and were phylogenetically clustered as a separate group. Nucleotide sequence revealed 99.4-99.8% homology within the ferret badger isolates, and 83-89% homology to the dog isolates in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes in the same rabies endemic regions. Conclusions Our data suggest ferret badger-associated rabies has likely formed as an independent enzootic originating from dogs during the long-term rabies infestation in southeast China. The eventual role of FB rabies in public health remains unclear. However, management of ferret badger bites, rabies awareness and control in the related regions should be an immediate need.

  19. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Slate

    Full Text Available Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV. Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US

  20. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  1. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  2. Trichinella spp. biomass has increased in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärssin, Age; Häkkinen, Liidia; Niin, Enel

    2017-01-01

    for evaluating the effectiveness of oral vaccination program for rabies eradication in wildlife, samples from 113 raccoon dogs and 87 red foxes were included in this study. From each animal, 20 g of masseter muscle tissue was tested for the presence of Trichinella larvae using an artificial digestion method.......0% in red foxes, which were higher than previous estimates. In addition, the larval burden had also increased in both hosts. We estimated that in 2011-2012, the Trichinella spp. biomass was more than 15 times higher in raccoon dogs and almost two times higher in red foxes than in 1992-2000 (based on mean...

  3. Rabies in Nonhuman Primates and Potential for Transmission to Humans: A Literature Review and Examination of Selected French National Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Blanton, Jesse; Dacheux, Laurent; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Brouqui, Philippe; Parola, Philippe; Esposito, Douglas H.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Background The nonhuman primate (NHP)-related injuries in rabies-enzootic countries is a public health problem of increasing importance. The aims of this work are to collect data concerning rabies transmission from NHPs to humans; to collate medical practices regarding rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in different countries, and to provide an evidence base to support the decision to apply rabies PEP in this context. Methodology To retrieve information, we conducted a literature search from 1960 to January 2013. All reports of rabies in NHPs and rabies transmission to humans by infected NHPs were included. Also included were studies of travelers seeking care for rabies PEP in various settings. Data collected by the French National Reference Centre for Rabies concerning NHPs submitted for rabies diagnosis in France and human rabies exposure to NHPs in travelers returning to France were analyzed for the periods 1999–2012 and 1994–2011, respectively. Principal findings A total of 159 reports of rabies in NHPs have been retrieved from various sources in South America, Africa, and Asia, including 13 cases in animals imported to Europe and the US. 134 were laboratory confirmed cases. 25 cases of human rabies following NHP-related injuries were reported, including 20 from Brazil. Among more than 2000 international travelers from various settings, the proportion of injuries related to NHP exposures was about 31%. NHPs rank second, following dogs in most studies and first in studies conducted in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. In France, 15.6% of 1606 travelers seeking PEP for exposure to any animal were injured by monkeys. Conclusions/significance Although less frequently reported in published literature than human rabies, confirmed rabies cases in NHPs occur. The occurrence of documented transmission of rabies from NHPs to human suggests that rabies PEP is indicated in patients injured by NHPs in rabies-enzootic countries. PMID:24831694

  4. Rabies in nonhuman primates and potential for transmission to humans: a literature review and examination of selected French national data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gautret

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nonhuman primate (NHP-related injuries in rabies-enzootic countries is a public health problem of increasing importance. The aims of this work are to collect data concerning rabies transmission from NHPs to humans; to collate medical practices regarding rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP in different countries, and to provide an evidence base to support the decision to apply rabies PEP in this context. METHODOLOGY: To retrieve information, we conducted a literature search from 1960 to January 2013. All reports of rabies in NHPs and rabies transmission to humans by infected NHPs were included. Also included were studies of travelers seeking care for rabies PEP in various settings. Data collected by the French National Reference Centre for Rabies concerning NHPs submitted for rabies diagnosis in France and human rabies exposure to NHPs in travelers returning to France were analyzed for the periods 1999-2012 and 1994-2011, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 159 reports of rabies in NHPs have been retrieved from various sources in South America, Africa, and Asia, including 13 cases in animals imported to Europe and the US. 134 were laboratory confirmed cases. 25 cases of human rabies following NHP-related injuries were reported, including 20 from Brazil. Among more than 2000 international travelers from various settings, the proportion of injuries related to NHP exposures was about 31%. NHPs rank second, following dogs in most studies and first in studies conducted in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. In France, 15.6% of 1606 travelers seeking PEP for exposure to any animal were injured by monkeys. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although less frequently reported in published literature than human rabies, confirmed rabies cases in NHPs occur. The occurrence of documented transmission of rabies from NHPs to human suggests that rabies PEP is indicated in patients injured by NHPs in rabies-enzootic countries.

  5. Advancements in web-database applications for rabies surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélanger Denise

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protection of public health from rabies is informed by the analysis of surveillance data from human and animal populations. In Canada, public health, agricultural and wildlife agencies at the provincial and federal level are responsible for rabies disease control, and this has led to multiple agency-specific data repositories. Aggregation of agency-specific data into one database application would enable more comprehensive data analyses and effective communication among participating agencies. In Québec, RageDB was developed to house surveillance data for the raccoon rabies variant, representing the next generation in web-based database applications that provide a key resource for the protection of public health. Results RageDB incorporates data from, and grants access to, all agencies responsible for the surveillance of raccoon rabies in Québec. Technological advancements of RageDB to rabies surveillance databases include 1 automatic integration of multi-agency data and diagnostic results on a daily basis; 2 a web-based data editing interface that enables authorized users to add, edit and extract data; and 3 an interactive dashboard to help visualize data simply and efficiently, in table, chart, and cartographic formats. Furthermore, RageDB stores data from citizens who voluntarily report sightings of rabies suspect animals. We also discuss how sightings data can indicate public perception to the risk of racoon rabies and thus aid in directing the allocation of disease control resources for protecting public health. Conclusions RageDB provides an example in the evolution of spatio-temporal database applications for the storage, analysis and communication of disease surveillance data. The database was fast and inexpensive to develop by using open-source technologies, simple and efficient design strategies, and shared web hosting. The database increases communication among agencies collaborating to protect human health from

  6. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  7. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several ...

  8. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Süld

    Full Text Available The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1% and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%. Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with 'carrion' and 'anthropogenic plants' making up the bulk of both species' diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, 'anthropogenic plants' and 'carrion' provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa, this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange.

  9. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with 'carrion' and 'anthropogenic plants' making up the bulk of both species' diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, 'anthropogenic plants' and 'carrion' provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange.

  10. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Palmer, Dustyn; Dyer, Jessie; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1%), and 69 dogs (1.1%). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1% increase in the number of reported rabid cats. Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus). PMID:21916759

  11. Wildlife Notes: The Raccoon - Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni McLellan; Mary Torsello

    The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is an important link in nature's food web. Raccoons are also beneficial to humans because of their consumption of pesky insects and mice, their aesthetic qualities, and their fur. They are an enjoyable and lovable animal; however, they can cause damage and pose health problems to animals and humans. This publication describes...

  12. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! Rabies Learning about bats and rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most bats ... might contact people and pets. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies in humans is ...

  13. Burden of Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails The Burden of Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Learn how ... bitten by an animal that has the disease. Rabies in the U.S. Rabies continues to be a ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fever Chapter 3 - Perspectives: Intradermal Rabies Preexposure Immunization Rabies Brett W. Petersen, Ryan M. Wallace, David R. ... animal. Box 3-04. World Health Organization, human rabies case definition Clinical case definition: a person presenting ...

  15. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Dyer, Jessie; McBrayer, Jesse; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (270%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (71%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). Compared with 2010, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid skunks reported. Six cases of rabies involving humans were reported from California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina. Three cases reported from Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York were determined to be a result of canine rabies virus variants acquired outside the United States. PMID:22947154

  16. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species.

  17. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  18. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia.

  19. Raccoons of North and Middle America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Edward A.; Jackson, Hartley H.T.

    1950-01-01

    The raccoons, genus Procyon, colloquially known as “coons,” belong to the carnivorous family Procyonidae, which also includes the American genera Nasua, Nasuella, Bassaricyon, and Potos, and the Old World genera Ailurus and Ailuropoda of the subfamily Ailurinae.

  20. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  1. Rabies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rabies KidsHealth / For Parents / Rabies What's in this article? ... Treatment Prevention Print en español La rabia About Rabies Rabies infections in people are rare in the ...

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths in raccoons in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, Amy E; Henke, Scott E; Pence, Danny B

    2009-01-01

    Raccoons (n=590) were collected from October 1999 to August 2003 from 35 counties across Texas, and gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth parasites. Prevalence was calculated and differences in mean abundance were examined among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes. Twenty different species of helminths (13 nematodes, two cestodes, two acanthocephalans, and three trematodes) were positively identified in the gastrointestinal tracts of 590 raccoons in Texas. Five of the 20 helminth species collected (Physaloptera rara, Placoconus lotoris, Molineus barbatus, Atriotaenia procyonis, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens) had a prevalence >20%. The total number of individuals of these five species (n=22,777) accounted for over 86% of the total number of individuals of all helminth species (n=26,426) collected. Subsequent analyses were based on these five helminths. Mean abundance differed among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes for all five parasites evaluated. This study is the most comprehensive statewide survey ever done of gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons across Texas. The five most prevalent helminths identified have all been reported in at least one previous survey, indicating that these parasites are not new to Texas and that raccoons are not naïve to the effects these parasites have on them. It may be helpful to wildlife rehabilitators, trappers, wildlife biologists, and other professionals to be aware of parasite abundance in raccoons from different areas of the state, as frequent human-raccoon interactions occur, and some of these parasites could be harmful to humans and domestic animals.

  3. Hemoparasites of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, S R; Forrester, D J

    1991-07-01

    Four hemoparasite species (Babesia lotori, Trypanosoma cruzi, Dirofilaria tenuis and Mansonella llewellyni) were found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) collected from 1972 to 1974 in Duval (n = 14) and Collier (n = 170) counties, Florida (USA). Trypanosoma cruzi was found in thin blood smears from one raccoon at each locality. The prevalence of B. lotori was 79% and 80% in samples taken in December 1973 in Collier and Duval counties, respectively. No patent infections by B. lotori were detected in raccoons collected in Collier County in December 1972, but 42% of the raccoons examined in September 1973 were infected. In Collier County there were no significant differences in the prevalence of B. lotori by host sex or age. In Duval County, overall D. tenuis prevalence was 7%, whereas that of M. llewellyni was 14%; the latter species was not found in Collier County. Adult raccoons had a significantly greater prevalence of D. tenuis (32%) than did subadults and juveniles (7%), and male raccoons showed a significantly greater prevalence (51%) than did females (8%).

  4. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jessie L.; Yager, Pamela; Orciari, Lillian; Greenberg, Lauren; Wallace, Ryan; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Blanton, Jesse D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2013, 53 reporting jurisdictions reported 5,865 rabid animals and 3 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 4.8% decrease from the 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human case reported in 2012. Ninety-two percent of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,898 raccoons (32.4%), 1,598 bats (27.2%), 1,447 skunks (24.7%), 344 foxes (5.9%), 247 cats (4.2%), 86 cattle (1.5%), and 89 dogs (1.5%). One human case was reported from Maryland. The infection was determined to have been transmitted via organ transplantation. Infection in the organ donor, a North Carolina resident, was retrospectively diagnosed. Both the organ donor and the organ recipient were infected with the raccoon rabies virus variant. The third human case, reported by Texas, involved a Guatemalan resident who was detained while crossing the US border. The infection was determined to be caused by a canine rabies virus variant that circulates in Central America. PMID:25356711

  5. Epizootiologic studies on filarioids of the raccoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1965-01-01

    Filarioid worms (Dirofilaria immitis, D. tenuis, Dipetalonema procyonis, and D. llewellyni) were discovered in raccoons (Procyon lotar) in Maryland. Raccoons were trapped in lowland, upland, and agricultural-residential areas, which were further classified as stream borders, poorly drained, and well drained. Data on incidence of D. llewellyni were analyzed on basis of host distribution within these areas to indicate type of habitat in which one might seek the vector. It was concluded that exposure takes place in the spring of the year. The arthropod found associated most often with the raccoon in spring was Ixodes texanus. Larvae of this tick which were fed on infected raccoons presented no evidence of development of the microfilariae. Feeding experiments were also conducted with mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti, A. canadensis, A. sollicitans, A. triseriatus, A. vexans, Culex pipiens, Anopheles punctipennis, and A. quadrimaculatus. Although microfilariae remained alive and active in the gut contents of all these mosquitoes for 2 days, only in Aedes aegypti did they enter the hemocele, but no developmental changes were noted and all microfilariae were dead by the eighth day. Although the intermediate host of D. llewellyni was not determined, evaluation of the accumulated data provides criteria for seeking the vector. It appeared unlikely that exposure of the raccoons took place in the den or that the filarioids were transmitted by an ectoparasite commonly found in raccoon dens. The data suggest that the vector is available only early in spring, although there are infected raccoons throughout the year. Prevalence in juveniles was 21 percent; in subadults, 64 percent; in adults, 87 percent.

  6. Aspects of raccoon (Procyon lotor) social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Spatial and temporal relationships among members of a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population were studied during spring and summer in east-central North Dakota during 1973-1975. Radio telemetry was used to locate 48 raccoons 6443 times. Livetrapping results and other observations suggested that most raccoons in the area were radio equipped; densities were estimated to be 0.5-1.0 resident/km2. Adult males maintained large areas relatively exclusive of other adult males; they seldom were located within 3 km of each other even though their home ranges abutted. One adult male responded to the death of an adjacent adult male by shifting movements into the dead male's former home range. Two or more parous or pregnant females resided within the home ranges of a single adult male. All yearling males showed signs of dispersal in May, June, or July, some occupied exclusive areas as adults in the following year. Parous or pregnant females (six adults, one yearling) occupied extensively overlapping home ranges but were never located with other adult or yearling raccoons. Nulliparous yearling females did not disperse and tolerated other raccoons. Territoriality is indicated among adult males probably in response to competition for access to females.

  7. Oral vaccination of wildlife using a vaccinia-rabies-glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (RABORAL V-RG®): a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Joanne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Aubert, Michel; Brochier, Bernard; Cliquet, Florence; Hanlon, Cathleen A; King, Roni; Oertli, Ernest H; Rupprecht, Charles E; Schumacher, Caroline; Slate, Dennis; Yakobson, Boris; Wohlers, Anne; Lankau, Emily W

    2017-09-22

    RABORAL V-RG ® is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ("modified-live") recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates into the environment, and has been tested for thermostability under a range of laboratory and field conditions. Safety of V-RG has been evaluated in over 50 vertebrate species, including non-human primates, with no adverse effects observed regardless of route or dose. Immunogenicity and efficacy have been demonstrated under laboratory and field conditions in multiple target species (including fox, raccoon, coyote, skunk, raccoon dog, and jackal). The liquid vaccine is packaged inside edible baits (i.e., RABORAL V-RG, the vaccine-bait product) which are distributed into wildlife habitats for consumption by target species. Field application of RABORAL V-RG has contributed to the elimination of wildlife rabies from three European countries (Belgium, France and Luxembourg) and of the dog/coyote rabies virus variant from the United States of America (USA). An oral rabies vaccination program in west-central Texas has essentially eliminated the gray fox rabies virus variant from Texas with the last case reported in a cow during 2009. A long-term ORV barrier program in the USA using RABORAL V-RG is preventing substantial geographic expansion of the raccoon rabies virus variant. RABORAL V-RG has also been used to control wildlife rabies in Israel for more than a decade. This paper: (1) reviews the development and historical use of RABORAL V-RG; (2) highlights wildlife rabies control

  8. Rabies in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies in the Americas Search this site Welcome Previous Meetings Steering Committee Contact Sitemap Welcome The Rabies in the Americas (RITA) meeting is an annual event that has been held since 1990 managers of rabies programs, wildlife biologists, laboratory personnel and other people interested in

  9. Contribution to rabies prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, P

    1992-01-01

    After the end of the Second World War, an outbreak of fox rabies invaded Europe. For the immunization of human populations and domestic animals against the risk of rabies transmitted by infected wild animals, it appeared necessary to replace the first generation of rabies vaccines (nerve tissue vaccines) by more potent and safer vaccines. The European vaccine manufacturers, in close collaboration with the research institutes engaged in rabies research, soon and quickly developed a second generation of rabies vaccines, produced in cell cultures including continuous cell lines grown in bioreactors of industrial scale. The third generation of rabies vaccines is already available: the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine is presently applied on a large scale in some European countries for immunization of wildlife. The canarypox recombinant vaccine has already been considered and successfully tested for human immunization.

  10. Update on rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan C JacksonDepartments of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Human rabies is almost invariably fatal, and globally it remains an important public health problem. Our knowledge of rabies pathogenesis has been learned mainly from studies performed in experimental animal models, and a number of unresolved issues remain. In contrast with the neural pathway of spread, there is still no credible evidence that hematogenous spread of rabies virus to the central nervous system plays a significant role in rabies pathogenesis. Although neuronal dysfunction has been thought to explain the neurological disease in rabies, recent evidence indicates that structural changes involving neuronal processes may explain the severe clinical disease and fatal outcome. Endemic dog rabies results in an ongoing risk to humans in many resource-limited and resource-poor countries, whereas rabies in wildlife is important in North America and Europe. In human cases in North America, transmission from bats is most common, but there is usually no history of a bat bite and there may be no history of contact with bats. Physicians may not recognize typical features of rabies in North America and Europe. Laboratory diagnostic evaluation for rabies includes rabies serology plus skin biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva specimens for rabies virus antigen and/or RNA detection. Methods of postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin, are highly effective after recognized exposure. Although there have been rare survivors of human rabies, no effective therapy is presently available. Therapeutic coma (midazolam and phenobarbital, ketamine, and antiviral therapies (known as the “Milwaukee protocol” were given to a rabies survivor, but this therapy was likely not directly responsible for the favorable outcome. New therapeutic

  11. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group...... in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  12. Identification of a Second Raccoon-Associated Polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Eileen M; Welch, Nicole L; Yabsley, Michael J; Church, Molly E; Pesavento, Patricia A; Buck, Christopher B

    2017-06-29

    Raccoon polyomavirus 1 (RacPyV1) is the suspected cause of an outbreak of fatal brain tumors among raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in the western United States. Spleen samples from Georgia raccoons were screened for polyomaviruses. Although RacPyV1 was not detected, a previously unknown polyomavirus, which we designate RacPyV2, was identified and sequenced. Copyright © 2017 Geoghegan et al.

  13. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabue N. Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results: Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%, markets (18.3%, and houses (13.6%. The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05. Conclusion: Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district.

  14. Rabies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A.; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K.; Abdybekova, Aida M.; Karatayev, Bolat S.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We used detailed public health and veterina...

  15. Rabies in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Abdybekova, Aida M; Karatayev, Bolat S; Torgerson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low. This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology and economic effects of rabies in respect to Kazakhstan.

  16. The phylogeography and spatiotemporal spread of south-central skunk rabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Kuzmina

    Full Text Available The south-central skunk rabies virus (SCSK is the most broadly distributed terrestrial viral lineage in North America. Skunk rabies has not been efficiently targeted by oral vaccination campaigns and represents a natural system of pathogen invasion, yielding insights to rabies emergence. In the present study we reconstructed spatiotemporal spread of SCSK in the whole territory of its circulation using a combination of Bayesian methods. The analysis based on 241 glycoprotein gene sequences demonstrated that SCSK is much more divergent phylogenetically than was appreciated previously. According to our analyses the SCSK originated in the territory of Texas ~170 years ago, and spread geographically during the following decades. The wavefront velocity in the northward direction was significantly greater than in the eastward and westward directions. Rivers (except the Mississippi River and Rio Grande River did not constitute significant barriers for epizootic spread, in contrast to deserts and mountains. The mean dispersal rate of skunk rabies was lower than that of the raccoon and fox rabies. Viral lineages circulate in their areas with limited evidence of geographic spread during decades. However, spatiotemporal reconstruction shows that after a long period of stability the dispersal rate and wavefront velocity of SCSK are increasing. Our results indicate that there is a need to develop control measures for SCSK, and suggest how such measure can be implemented most efficiently. Our approach can be extrapolated to other rabies reservoirs and used as a tool for investigation of epizootic patterns and planning interventions towards disease elimination.

  17. New introduction and spread of rabies among dog population in Bangui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakouné, E; Digol, M; Konamna, X; Selekon, B; Le Faou, A

    2012-08-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Central African Republic (CAR) and a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. Before April 2009, rabies was not a notifiable disease in CAR. Vaccination of animals is expensive and not commonly done. In 2005, none rabies case was recorded in Bangui. To understand how rabies was introduced and propagated in the city of Bangui from 2006 to 2008, we analyzed samplings of dog brain as well as reviewed the records of dog owners. A total of 86 out of 101 samples (84.8%) tested positive for rabies virus during this period. Previous phylogenetic analysis of some strains circulating in Bangui between 2006 and 2008 indicated that virus of cosmopolitan and Africa 2 clade are found. Given the time frame and location of these samples, one possible explanation for this alarming result may be that two different strains of rabies virus were introduced at different times in Bangui. Stray dogs are solely responsible for the spread of the epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rabies: the clinical features, management and prevention of the classic zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Mary J; Warrell, David A

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of rabies encephalitis relies on awareness of the varied clinical features and eliciting a history of unusual contact with a mammal throughout the endemic area. The diagnosis is easily missed. Laboratory tests are not routine and only confirm clinical suspicion. Rabies infection carries a case fatality exceeding 99.9%. Palliation is appropriate, except for previously-vaccinated patients or those infected by American bats, for whom intensive care is probably indicated. However, as rabies vaccines are outstandingly effective, no one should die of dog-transmitted infection. Vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin are expensive and usually scarce in Asia and Africa. All travellers to dog rabies enzootic areas should be strongly encouraged to have pre-exposure immunisation before departure. There is no contraindication to vaccination but the cost can be prohibitive. Intradermal immunisation, using 0.1 ml and sharing vials of vaccine, is cheaper and is now permitted by UK regulations. Returning travellers may need post-exposure prophylaxis. Economical intradermal post-exposure vaccination is practicable and should be introduced into rural areas of Africa and Asia immediately. Eliminating rabies in dogs is now feasible and would dramatically reduce human mortality, if funds were made available. The high current economic burden of human prophylaxis would then be largely relieved. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  19. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58. Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%, of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%. Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%. Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.

  20. Using an Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System to Evaluate Reporting of Potential Rabies Exposures, Illinois, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Kelley; Frias, Mabel; Patel, Megan Toth; Christiansen, Demian

    Mandatory reporting of potential rabies exposures and initiation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) allow local health authorities to monitor PEP administration for errors. Our objectives were to use an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to (1) estimate reporting compliance for exposure to rabies in suburban Cook County, Illinois, and (2) initiate interventions to improve reporting and reassess compliance. We queried ED records from 45 acute care hospitals in Cook County and surrounding areas from January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, for chief complaints or discharge diagnoses pertaining to rabies, PEP, or contact with a wild mammal (eg, bat, raccoon, skunk, fox, or coyote). We matched patients with ≥1 ED visit for potential rabies exposure to people with potential rabies exposure reported to the Cook County Department of Public Health. We considered nonmatches to have unreported exposures. We then initiated active surveillance in July 2015, disseminated education on reporting requirements in August and September 2015, and reassessed reporting completeness from July 2015 through February 2016. Of 248 patients with rabies-related ED visits from January 2013 through June 2015, 63 (25.4%) were reported. After interventions were implemented to increase reporting compliance, 53 of 98 (54.1%) patients with rabies-related ED visits from July 2015 through February 2016 were reported. Patients with ED visits for potential rabies exposure were twice as likely to be reported postintervention than preintervention (risk ratio = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.8). The volume of potential rabies exposure cases reported to the health department from July 2015 through February 2016 increased by 252% versus the previous year. Potential rabies exposures and PEP initiation are underreported in suburban Cook County. ED syndromic surveillance records can be used to estimate reporting compliance and conduct active surveillance.

  1. Rabies: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease caused by rabies virus, a neurotropic virus and a prototype of Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae family. It is transmitted to human beings through infected saliva of dogs and cats during bite. Dog is the cause of more than 90% of human rabies in India. The incubation period is 4-8 weeks (but it may vary from 5 days to 7 years. There are two clinical types of rabies - encephalitic (furious and paralytic (dumb types. In the encephalitic (furious form, the principal malfunction is in the brain stem and limbic system. Patient has hydrophobia in the full-blown form, but the mind remains clear till the end. Death occurs within a week after the onset of symptoms. Paralytic rabies resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome. Diagnosis is mostly clinical. However, direct fluorescent antibody test is used to identify the antigen in skin biopsy from the nape of neck. In the postmortem specimen, demonstration of Negri bodies in the brain confirms the diagnosis. Anti-rabies vaccine is used for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. The commonly used intramuscular (IM regimen is being superseded by intradermal (ID vaccine because it makes the treatment economical. Whereas touching of animal or lick on intact skin does not require vaccination, any transdermal bite with bleeding requires immediate administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG and simultaneous vaccination with a tissue culture vaccine (TCV. Minor abrasion without bleeding may require only vaccination and no RIG. Rabies human monoclonal antibody (RMAb is the newest entry in the prophylaxis of rabies which may ultimately replace RIG. Prognosis is grave since there are just six reports of survivors. Treatment is mainly palliative with heavy sedation and/or therapeutic coma (Milwaukee protocol.

  2. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC DRB exon 2 and DRA exon 3 fragments in a primary terrestrial rabies vector (Procyon lotor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarrah Castillo

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC presents a unique system to explore links between genetic diversity and pathogens, as diversity within MHC is maintained in part by pathogen driven selection. While the majority of wildlife MHC studies have investigated species that are of conservation concern, here we characterize MHC variation in a common and broadly distributed species, the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor. Raccoons host an array of broadly distributed wildlife diseases (e.g., canine distemper, parvovirus and raccoon rabies virus and present important human health risks as they persist in high densities and in close proximity to humans and livestock. To further explore how genetic variation influences the spread and maintenance of disease in raccoons we characterized a fragment of MHC class II DRA exon 3 (250 bp and DRB exon 2 (228 bp. MHC DRA was found to be functionally monomorphic in the 32 individuals screened; whereas DRB exon 2 revealed 66 unique alleles among the 246 individuals screened. Between two and four alleles were observed in each individual suggesting we were amplifying a duplicated DRB locus. Nucleotide differences between DRB alleles ranged from 1 to 36 bp (0.4-15.8% divergence and translated into 1 to 21 (1.3-27.6% divergence amino acid differences. We detected a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at the peptide binding region (P = 0.005, indicating that DRB exon 2 in raccoons has been influenced by positive selection. These data will form the basis of continued analyses into the spatial and temporal relationship of the raccoon rabies virus and the immunogenetic response in its primary host.

  3. Attenuated enzootic (pestoides) isolates of Yersinia pestis express active aspartase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Scott W; Sexton, Christopher; Pare, Joshua; Fowler, Janet M; Arvidson, Cindy G; Yerman, Lyudmyla; Viola, Ronald E; Brubaker, Robert R

    2009-01-01

    It is established that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, recently evolved from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by undergoing chromosomal degeneration while acquiring two unique plasmids that facilitate tissue invasion (pPCP) and dissemination by fleabite (pMT). Thereafter, plague bacilli spread from central Asia to sylvatic foci throughout the world. These epidemic isolates exhibit a broad host range including man as opposed to enzootic (pestoides) variants that remain in ancient reservoirs where infection is limited to muroid rodents. Cells of Y. pseudotuberculosis are known to express glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf) and aspartase (AspA); these activities are not detectable in epidemic Y. pestis due to missense mutations (substitution of proline for serine at amino position 155 of Zwf and leucine for valine at position 363 of AspA). In this study, functional Zwf was found in pestoides strains E, F and G but not seven other enzootic isolates; enzymic activity was associated with retention of serine at amino acid position 155. Essentially, full AspA activity occurred in pestoides isolates where valine (pestoides A, B, C and D) or serine (pestoides E, F, G and I) occupied position 363. Reduced activity occurred in strains Angola and A16, which contained phenylalanine at this position. The kcat but not Km of purified AspA from strain Angola was significantly reduced. In this context, aspA of the recently described attenuated enzootic microtus biovar encodes active valine at position 363, further indicating that functional AspA is a biomarker for avirulence of Y. pestis in man.

  4. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  5. Rabies in Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-19

    Dr. Richard Franka, a CDC scientist, discusses rabies in organ transplant recipients.  Created: 9/19/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/19/2016.

  6. Use of tylvalosin in the control of porcine enzootic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pallarés, F. J.; Lasa, C.; Roozen, M.; Ramis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tylvalosin (Aivlosin Water Soluble Granules, ECO Animal Health) in drinking water for control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) on a farm with chronic enzootic pneumonia (EP) problems and high prevalence of mycoplasma-like lesions at slaughter. Design On a 4000-sow farm in the southeast of Spain, 1500 animals of same age were randomly divided into two groups: 900 pigs in the treated group (TG) and 600 pigs in the non-tr...

  7. Anisotropic Rabi model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...

  8. Sarcoptic mange in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Shin, Nam-Shik; Shin, Taekyun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2008-12-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed from four wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) accidentally captured and presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Diagnosis was done by microscopic and histologic examination from skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only species detected from the lesions and characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. In addition, infiltration of mast cells in the dermis was associated with infestation of the burrowing mite. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs in Korea. Because heavy infestation with S. scabiei was found in all of the captured wild raccoon dogs, further work is necessary to develop prophylactic interventions to prevent the spread of sarcoptic mange in free-living raccoon dogs in Korea.

  9. Parasites of the raccoon dog – an invading species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hammer, A. S.; Chriél, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species have a marked negative influence on the biodiversity of ecosystems and may contribute to the transmission of diseases. During the 1920s until 1950s, thousands of Raccoon dogs were deliberately introduces to the eastern European countries from the Far East, in order to enrich...... the wild with this new valuable fur animal. The Raccoon dog is considered the most successful invading mammal in Europe, and in the last 20 years, it has invaded the western part of Denmark, namely Jutland. The Danish ministry of Environment reacted to the new threat by deciding to eradicate this species...... species were isolated from both hosts; however, foxes harboured more helminth species per infected animal (average 3,1 helminth species/fox) than raccoon dogs (average 1,7 helminth species/raccoon dog). Prevalences of nematodes (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonine) and cestodes...

  10. Investigation into Seasonal Scavenging Patterns of Raccoons on Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows; Smith, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Although raccoons are known as one of the most common scavengers in the U.S., scavenging by these animals has seldom been studied in terms of forensic significance. In this research, the seasonal pattern of raccoon scavenging and its effect on human decomposition was investigated using 178 human cadavers placed at the Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) between February 2011 and December 2013. The results reveal that (i) the frequency of scavenging increases during summer, (ii) scavenging occurs relatively immediately and lasts shorter in summer months, and (iii) scavenging influences the decomposition process by hollowing limbs and by disturbing insect activities, both of which eventually increases the chance of mummification on the affected body. This information is expected to help forensic investigators identify raccoon scavenging as well as make a more precise interpretation of the effect of raccoon scavenging on bodies at crime scenes. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. THE INCIDENCE OF JACKAL BITES AND INJURIES IN THE ZAGREB ANTI RABIES CLINIC DURING THE 1995-2014 PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopija, Radovan; Racz, Aleksandar; Pahor, Đana

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. The disease affects domestic and wild animals, and is spread to people through close contact with infectious material, usually saliva, via bites or scratches. Rabies is present on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, but more than 95% of human deaths occur in Asia and Africa. Once the symptoms of the disease have developed, rabies is nearly always fatal. People are usually infected following deep bite or scratch by an infected animal. Dogs are the main host and transmitter of rabies. They are the source of infection in all of the estimated 55 000 human rabies deaths annually in Asia and Africa. Bats are the source of most human rabies deaths in the Americas. Bat rabies has also recently emerged as a public health threat in Australia and Western Europe. Human deaths following exposure to foxes, raccoons, skunks, jackals, mongooses and other wild carnivore host species are very rare. In the Zagreb Anti Rabies Clinic, from 1995 to 2014, there were 18,094 patients bitten by various animals, but only 2 cases were caused by jackals. One was imported (from France), and the other was from Croatia. The incidence of jackal injuries during the observed period was extremely low, accounting for 0.011% of all animals. When the imported case is excluded, the incidence was 0.0055%. Accordingly, it is concluded that jackal bites and injuries are exceptionally low and that they pose no risk for patients who present routinely to the Zagreb Anti Rabies Clinic. Therefore, it is justified that jackal as an animal species be classified in the group of 'other animals', when officially reported.

  12. Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap Penyakit Rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Retna Siwi Padmawati, I Made Kerta Duana Nida Ul Hasanat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals, and human. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. Rabies in Bali was firstly discovered in Badung District. Rabies was transferred by dog bite. Bali has enourmous dog population, the number reach approximately 540.000 animals or about 96 animals per square kilometer. Meanwhile, domesticated dog population onl...

  13. Symptomatic Raccoon Dogs and Sarcoptic Mange Along an Urban Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki U; Sonoda, Yoichi

    2017-06-01

    We quantitatively evaluated the effects of landscape factors on the distribution of symptomatic raccoon dogs with sarcoptic mange along an urban gradient. We used 246 camera traps (182 traps from April 2005 to December 2006; 64 traps from September 2009 to October 2010) to record the occurrence of asymptomatic and symptomatic raccoon dogs at 21 survey sites along an urban-rural gradient in the Tama Hills area of Tokyo. Each occurrence was explained in terms of the surrounding forest, agricultural, and grassland areas and additional factors (i.e., seasonal variations and survey methods) at various spatial scales using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). In our analysis, a 1000-m radius was identified as the important spatial scale for asymptomatic and symptomatic raccoon dog occurrence. The peak of the predicted occurrence probability of asymptomatic raccoon dogs appeared in the intermediate forest landscape as opposed to non-forest and forest landscapes. However, a high occurrence probability of symptomatic raccoon dogs was detected in non-forest and intermediate forest landscapes (i.e., urban and suburban) as opposed to a forest landscape, presumably because of animals occurring at much higher densities in more urbanized areas. Therefore, our results suggest that human-modified landscapes play an important role in the high occurrence of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs.

  14. [Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-05-01

    Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA.

  15. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.

  16. Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2 circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis

  17. Prevalence and epidemiological features of ovine enzootic abortion in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonas, J; Petkevicius, S; Russo, P; Pepin, M; Salomskas, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of performed study was to determine the level of enzootic abortion (EA) in sheep breeding farms in different districts of Lithuania, to determine differences in clinical signs and infection frequency between various age groups, and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of complement fixation test for antibodies detection and indirect immunofluorescence for antigen detection in sheep chlamydiosis. The clinical, serological and immunological tests in sheep farms were performed in 2004 and 2005. Comparing different age groups of sheep revealed that the lowest number of infected sheep was registered in animals younger than 18 months (23.1%, antibodies titre 3.191 log2, Pabortus infection. The highest prevalence of chlamydia (66.7%) was registered in placentas of sheep which aborted.

  18. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. © 2016 Blackwell

  19. Rabies - epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Karam Pal; Cherian, Susan; Saminathan, Mani; Kapoor, Sanjay; Manjunatha Reddy, G B; Panda, Shibani; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae. It affects all warm-blooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the world and endemic in many countries except in Islands like Australia and Antarctica. Over 60,000 peoples die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Bite of rabid animals and saliva of infected host are mainly responsible for transmission and wildlife like raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes are main reservoirs for rabies. The incubation period is highly variable from 2 weeks to 6 years (avg. 2-3 months). Though severe neurologic signs and fatal outcome, neuropathological lesions are relatively mild. Rabies virus exploits various mechanisms to evade the host immune responses. Being a major zoonosis, precise and rapid diagnosis is important for early treatment and effective prevention and control measures. Traditional rapid Seller's staining and histopathological methods are still in use for diagnosis of rabies. Direct immunofluoroscent test (dFAT) is gold standard test and most commonly recommended for diagnosis of rabies in fresh brain tissues of dogs by both OIE and WHO. Mouse inoculation test (MIT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are superior and used for routine diagnosis. Vaccination with live attenuated or inactivated viruses, DNA and recombinant vaccines can be done in endemic areas. This review describes in detail about epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, advances in diagnosis, vaccination and therapeutic approaches along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  20. Incorporating Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing into Large-Scale Wildlife Rabies Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an incursion of the mid-Atlantic raccoon variant of the rabies virus into southern Ontario, Canada, in late 2015, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies (dRIT was employed on a large scale to establish the outbreak perimeter and to diagnose specific cases to inform rabies control management actions. In a 17-month period, 5800 wildlife carcasses were tested using the dRIT, of which 307 were identified as rabid. When compared with the gold standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT, the dRIT was found to have a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.2%. Positive and negative test agreement was shown to be 98.3% and 99.1%, respectively, with an overall test agreement of 98.8%. The average cost to test a sample was $3.13 CAD for materials, and hands-on technical time to complete the test is estimated at 0.55 h. The dRIT procedure was found to be accurate, fast, inexpensive, easy to learn and perform, and an excellent tool for monitoring the progression of a wildlife rabies incursion.

  1. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  2. Rabies Across Borders

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-04

    Dr. Roman Biek, with the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, discusses rabies outbreaks in Canada from the U.S.  Created: 12/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/4/2017.

  3. Memorial I.Rabi

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper,H

    1988-01-01

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  4. Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # Rabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rabies Homepage Exposure What materials can spread rabies? What ...

  5. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  6. A Very Rare Presentation of Multiple Myeloma: Unilateral Raccoon Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Varım

    2015-08-01

    Two thirds of patients complain of bone pain, especially lower back pain. MM could be diagnosed after a pathologic fracture occurs in one third of patients. Presentation with symptoms related to hyperviscosity, hypercalcemia and bleeding tendency could also be observed. A rare presentation of MM is peri-orbital ecchymotic lesion (raccoon eye. Here, we report a 64 years old, male patient presented with unilateral raccoon eye and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR to internal medicine outpatient. The patient was referred to hematology outpatient and was diagnosed with multiple myeloma.

  7. Risk factors associated with nonvaccination rabies status of dogs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergert M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Hergert,1 Kevin le Roux,2 Louis H Nel3,4 1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Environment, Agriculture and Rural Development, Government Veterinary Services, Pietermaritzburg, 3Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: Canine rabies has been enzootic in the dog population of the KwaZulu-Natal ­province of South Africa since the mid-1970s and has been associated with high rates of human exposures and frequent transmissions to other domestic animal species. Several decades of control efforts, consisting primarily of mass vaccination programs, failed to sufficiently curb rabies in this province. For meaningful progression toward better control and elimination, the factors contributing to the persistence of this disease need to be elucidated and addressed. This paper reports evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding owned canine populations in this South African province. We used logistic regression modeling to predict variables associated with risk of nonvaccination of rabies in owned dogs. The study indicated that husbandry practices, rabies knowledge, geographical area/location, and the ages of dogs were important factors associated with the risk of nonvaccination. High population turnover, together with large free roaming dog populations, compromised the levels of vaccination achieved and contributed to the persistence of dog rabies in the province. Dog owners in this study also reported that they were more likely to present their dogs for vaccination when the vaccines were free of charge (52% and less than a kilometer from their homes (91%. It has been suggested that effective dog rabies control

  8. Epizootic of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in relation to population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Natsuko; Doi, Kandai; Kato, Takuya; Morita, Tatsushi; Hayama, Shin-Ichi

    2018-03-30

    To examine outbreaks of mange in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) with respect to population density, we analyzed camera trap videos, and isolated mites from raccoon dog carcasses. In a camera trapping survey, we categorized the skin condition of raccoon dogs, and used a number of independent videos to calculate the relative abundance index (RAI). The RAI of raccoon dogs with alopecia increased following an increase in the RAI of those without alopecia. Among 27 raccoon dog carcasses, 12 showed mange-compatible skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from 11 of these raccoon dogs, indicating that sarcoptic mange was endemic in our study area. Therefore, a high relative population density may be a factor underlying epizootics of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs.

  9. Use of tylvalosin in the control of porcine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, F J; Lasa, C; Roozen, M; Ramis, G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tylvalosin (Aivlosin Water Soluble Granules, ECO Animal Health) in drinking water for control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) on a farm with chronic enzootic pneumonia (EP) problems and high prevalence of mycoplasma-like lesions at slaughter. On a 4000-sow farm in the southeast of Spain, 1500 animals of same age were randomly divided into two groups: 900 pigs in the treated group (TG) and 600 pigs in the non-treated control group (CG). TG was medicated for seven days with tylvalosin in drinking water (2.5 mg tylvalosin/kg bodyweight (BW)) at weaning (from 21st to 28th day of life) and a second treatment when moved to finisher barn (from 63rd to 70th day of life). In the TG, there was a significant reduction in the severity (Ptylvalosin/kg BW in drinking water for seven days at weaning and when moved to finisher barn significantly reduces mycoplasma-like lung lesions and improves productivity parameters.

  10. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i) quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii) solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii) mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  11. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  12. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered

  13. The Mad Fox Disease: Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about the control of rabies. Using both simplified sentence structure and vocabulary, it describes how rabies may be spread, its symptoms, its treatment, and ways it can be prevented. (FL)

  14. Genetic and anatomic determinants of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of Culex (Melanoconion taeniopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan L Kenney

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a re-emerging, mosquito-borne viral disease with the potential to cause fatal encephalitis in both humans and equids. Recently, detection of endemic VEE caused by enzootic strains has escalated in Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Ecuador, emphasizing the importance of understanding the enzootic transmission cycle of the etiologic agent, VEE virus (VEEV. The majority of work examining the viral determinants of vector infection has been performed in the epizootic mosquito vector, Aedes (Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. Based on the fundamental differences between the epizootic and enzootic cycles, we hypothesized that the virus-vector interaction of the enzootic cycle is fundamentally different from that of the epizootic model. We therefore examined the determinants for VEEV IE infection in the enzootic vector, Culex (Melanoconion taeniopus, and determined the number and susceptibility of midgut epithelial cells initially infected and their distribution compared to the epizootic virus-vector interaction. Using chimeric viruses, we demonstrated that the determinants of infection for the enzootic vector are different than those observed for the epizootic vector. Similarly, we showed that, unlike A. taeniorhynchus infection with subtype IC VEEV, C. taeniopus does not have a limited subpopulation of midgut cells susceptible to subtype IE VEEV. These findings support the hypothesis that the enzootic VEEV relationship with C. taeniopus differs from the epizootic virus-vector interaction in that the determinants appear to be found in both the nonstructural and structural regions, and initial midgut infection is not limited to a small population of susceptible cells.

  15. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Stanek, J F; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Oglesbee, M J; Rosypal, A C; Njoku, C J; Stich, R W; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Hamir, A N; Reed, S M

    2001-10-24

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses in the Americas and Sarcocystis neurona is the most common etiologic agent. The distribution of S. neurona infections follows the geographical distributions of its definitive hosts, opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris). Recently, cats and skunks were reported as experimental and armadillos as natural intermediate hosts of S. neurona. In the present report, raccoons (Procyon lotor) were identified as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. Two laboratory-raised opossums were found to shed S. neurona-like sporocysts after ingesting tongues of naturally-infected raccoons. Interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice fed raccoon-opossum-derived sporocysts developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was identified immunohistochemically in tissues of KO mice fed sporocysts and the parasite was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with infected KO mouse tissues. The DNA obtained from the tongue of a naturally-infected raccoon, brains of KO mice that had neurological signs, and from the organisms recovered in cell cultures inoculated with brains of neurologic KO mice, corresponded to that of S. neurona. Two raccoons fed mature S. neurona sarcocysts did not shed sporocysts in their feces, indicating raccoons are not likely to be its definitive host. Two raccoons fed sporocysts from opossum feces developed clinical illness and S. neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions.

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Momo, Jean Blaise; Besong, Laura; Loul, Sévérin; Njouom, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt) and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa) identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment of the enzootic

  18. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Raul; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  19. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C.

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species’ dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large ‘central’ population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations. PMID:27064784

  20. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair

  1. Jaundice and bilirubinemia as manifestations of canine distemper in raccoons and ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilham, L.; Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.

    1956-01-01

    1) Two strains of distemper virus have been isolated from wild raccoons and one strain from ferrets. 2) All strains isolated have induced bilirubinemia in raccoons and ferrets. Many raccoons with bilirubinemia also had jaundice. 3) Identification of these strains as members of the canine distemper virus complex has been by clinical and pathological findings consistent with this diagnosis as well as by cross-immunity tests.

  2. Integrability of the Rabi Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braak, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Rabi model is a paradigm for interacting quantum systems. It couples a bosonic mode to the smallest possible quantum model, a two-level system. I present the analytical solution which allows us to consider the question of integrability for quantum systems that do not possess a classical limit. A criterion for quantum integrability is proposed which shows that the Rabi model is integrable due to the presence of a discrete symmetry. Moreover, I introduce a generalization with no symmetries; the generalized Rabi model is the first example of a nonintegrable but exactly solvable system.

  3. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-01

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.  Created: 10/1/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 10/5/2007.

  4. Atrial septal defect in a Korean wild raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soomi; Choi, Sooyoung; Kim, Jongtaek; Chung, Jin-Young; Park, Inchul

    2017-10-07

    An approximately two-year-old, male 6.1 kg body weight, Korean wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) was captured by the wildlife medical rescue center of Kangwon National University. Upon physical examination, the heart rate was 87 beats per min and there were no clinical signs. The hematological, and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings; however, thoracic radiographs showed cardiac enlargement, especially in the right atrium. On electrocardiogram, sinus node dysfunction and bradyarrhythmia were revealed. Echocardiography showed a left-to-right shunting atrial septal defect. Based on these findings, this Korean wild raccoon dog was diagnosed with atrial septal defect. This is the rare case report of atrial septal defect in wildlife.

  5. Atrial septal defect in a Korean wild raccoon dog

    OpenAIRE

    YIM, Soomi; CHOI, Sooyoung; KIM, Jongtaek; CHUNG, Jin-Young; PARK, Inchul

    2017-01-01

    An approximately two-year-old, male 6.1 kg body weight, Korean wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) was captured by the wildlife medical rescue center of Kangwon National University. Upon physical examination, the heart rate was 87 beats per min and there were no clinical signs. The hematological, and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings; however, thoracic radiographs showed cardiac enlargement, especially in the right atrium. On electrocardiogram, sinus...

  6. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  7. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Novel vaccines to human rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegund C J Ertl

    Full Text Available Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered.

  9. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  10. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rabies: What Care Will I Receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closure should be decided together with your doctor. Rabies Postexposure Vaccinations For people who have never been ... you through the process. Also see: Preexposure Vaccinations Rabies Biologics Currently Available—United States, 2018 1 Human ...

  12. Assessing Potential Environmental Contamination by Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs from Infected Raccoons in Southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogdee, Jacob L; Henke, Scott E; Wester, David B; Fedynich, Alan M

    2017-03-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a large ascarid of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic threat. We documented the potential rate a raccoon population can contaminate their environment with B. procyonis eggs. We estimated the population size of raccoons using a 9 × 7 trapping grid of Havahart traps, identified locations of raccoon scats through systematic searches, and enumerated the distance B. procyonis eggs passively travel from site of origin upon scat decay. During an 8-week capture period, the raccoon population was estimated to be 19.6 ± 1.3 raccoons within the 63-ha study area (1 raccoon/3.2 ha). There were 781 defecation sites, of which 744 (95.3%) were isolated sites and 37 (4.7%) were latrine sites. Fifty-three (6.8%) defecation sites occurred in areas associated with human structures (commensal zone). Of the noncommensal sites, 9 (1.2%) and 719 (98.8%) sites were identified as latrine sites and isolated scats, respectively. More latrine sites were located within the commensal zone (p contaminate 0.03 ± 0.01 ha/year with B. procyonis eggs. Our findings indicate that B. procyonis represents a substantial risk to humans in areas where infected raccoons and humans co-occur.

  13. Food preferences of captive wild raccoons, Procyon lotor, from east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Taulman; James H. Williamson

    1994-01-01

    We offered a random assortment of six foods to nine captive raccoons (Procyon lotor) during 10 days in February 1991 and to 10 raccoons during 9 days in January 1992; persimmon (Diospyros virginianus); southern red oak acorn (Quercus falacata); chicken egg; crayfish (Cambarus bartoni);...

  14. First record of Giardia assemblage D infection in farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Solarczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Giardia genotypes was investigated in 18 raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides and 80 red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes on one farm. To demonstrate Giardia cysts, fresh and trichrome stained smears were microscopically screened. Two molecular markers were used for Giardia genotyping: a fragment of the beta-giardin gene and a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. All faecal samples obtained from red foxes were negative. Giardia cysts were identified only in 2 of the 18 raccoon dogs. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis from both raccoon dogs belonged to the D assemblage. This finding of a new animal reservoir of G. duodenalis canids-specific genotypes is important in order to eliminate the risk of infecting other animals bred for fur. Further molecular analyses of Giardia isolates in raccoon dogs are required. The present study represents the first contribution to knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in raccoon dogs.

  15. Novel polyomavirus associated with brain tumors in free-ranging raccoons, western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Florante N; Giannitti, Federico; Li, Linlin; Woods, Leslie W; Del Valle, Luis; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of any type are exceedingly rare in raccoons. High-grade brain tumors, consistently located in the frontal lobes and olfactory tracts, were detected in 10 raccoons during March 2010-May 2012 in California and Oregon, suggesting an emerging, infectious origin. We have identified a candidate etiologic agent, dubbed raccoon polyomavirus, that was present in the tumor tissue of all affected animals but not in tissues from 20 unaffected animals. Southern blot hybridization and rolling circle amplification showed the episomal viral genome in the tumors. The multifunctional nuclear protein large T-antigen was detectable by immunohistochemical analyses in a subset of neoplastic cells. Raccoon polyomavirus may contribute to the development of malignant brain tumors of raccoons.

  16. Sarcocyst Development in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) Inoculated with Different Strains of Sarcocystis neurona Culture-Derived Merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, E L; Marsh, A E; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Reed, S M; Bolten, K E; Pei, W; Saville, W J A

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the United States; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon muscles, and raccoons also develop clinical signs simulating EPM. The focus of this study was to determine if sarcocysts would develop in raccoons experimentally inoculated with different host-derived strains of in vitro-cultivated S. neurona merozoites. Four raccoons were inoculated with strains derived from a raccoon, a sea otter, a cat, and a horse. Raccoon tissues were fed to laboratory-raised opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ), the definitive host of S. neurona . Intestinal scraping revealed sporocysts in opossums who received muscle tissue from raccoons inoculated with the raccoon-derived or the sea otter-derived isolates. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can mature in raccoons inoculated with in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites. In contrast, the horse and cat-derived isolates did not produce microscopically or biologically detected sarcocysts. Immunoblot analysis revealed both antigenic and antibody differences when testing the inoculated raccoons. Immunohistochemical staining indicated differences in staining between the merozoite and sarcocyst stages. The successful infections achieved in this study indicates that the life cycle can be manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, thereby allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle.

  17. Rabies: Need for active and passive immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an acute highly fatal viral disease of the CNS caused by Lyssavirus Type-I. It has a long and variable incubation period. It is a communicable disease of man that is always fatal. The combined administration of a single dose of anti rabies serum with a course of vaccine, together with local treatment of the wound is the best specific prophylactic treatment after exposure of man to rabies. Here, we report a case of rabies, who developed the disease in spite of having taken three doses of anti rabies vaccine (Post exposure.

  18. Trematodes in snails near raccoon latrines suggest a final host role for this mammal in California Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Dunham, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Of the 18 trematode species that use the horn snail, Cerithidea californica, as a first intermediate host, 6 have the potential to use raccoons as a final host. The presence of raccoon latrines in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California, allowed us to investigate associations between raccoons and trematodes in snails. Two trematode species, Probolocoryphe uca and Stictodora hancocki, occurred at higher prevalences in snails near raccoon latrines than in snails away from latrines, suggesting that raccoons may serve as final hosts for these species. Fecal remains indicated that raccoons fed on shore crabs, the second intermediate host for P. uca, and fish, the second intermediate host for S. hancocki. The increase in raccoon populations in the suburban areas surrounding west coast salt marshes could increase their importance as final hosts for trematodes in this system. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  19. The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe. 1. Rabies in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J; Foggin, C M; Wandeler, A I; Hill, F W

    1999-03-01

    The epidemiology of rabies in dogs in Zimbabwe is described using data from 1950, when rabies was re-introduced after a 37-year absence, to 1996. Dogs constituted 45.7% of all laboratory-confirmed rabies cases and were the species most frequently diagnosed with the disease. Slightly more cases were diagnosed from June to November than in other months. From 1950 to the early 1980s, most dog cases were recorded from commercial farming areas, but since the early 1980s most have been recorded from communal (subsistence farming) areas. This change appears to be due to improved surveillance in communal areas and not to any change in the prevalence of rabies. Dog rabies therefore appears to be maintained mainly in communal area dog populations, particularly the large communal area blocks. Urban rabies was not important except in the city of Mutare. Where dog rabies prevalence was high, the disease was cyclic with periods between peak prevalence ranging from 4-7 years. Dog rabies cases were, on the whole, independent of jackal rabies and rabies in other carnivores. There was a significant negative relationship between the annual number of rabies vaccine doses administered nationally to dogs and the annual number of dog rabies cases lagged by one year, indicating that the past levels of immunisation coverage have had a significant effect on the number of rabies cases. However, dog vaccination coverage has clearly not been adequate to prevent the regular occurrence of rabies in dogs.

  20. First case report of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in "Ouled Djellal" ewe in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Sid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report clinical and pathological features of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA in one sheep in Algeria. A one-year-old Ouled Djellal sheep from a large herd (~1240 animals, located in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria, was clinically diagnosed by the presence of persistent seromucous nasal discharge, head shaking, muzzle licking, dyspnoea, exophthalmia and frontal protrusion. The sheep was euthanized, and the necropsy was performed. Gross examination showed soft touch, pinkish-white tumour masses in the nasal cavities with distortion of the turbinates and of the medium septum. According to clinical and pathological findings, the tumour has been defined as a low grade mixed nasal adenocarcinoma, with the presence of tubular and papillary structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of ENA in Algeria known to be associated with enzootic nasal tumour virus (ENTV infection. However, such association requires confirmation by direct and/or indirect viral investigation.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi strain TcIV infects raccoons from Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailey Vandermark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The northern limits of Trypanosoma cruzi across the territory of the United States remain unknown. The known vectors Triatoma sanguisuga and T. lecticularia find their northernmost limits in Illinois; yet, earlier screenings of those insects did not reveal the presence of the pathogen, which has not been reported in vectors or reservoir hosts in this state. OBJECTIVES Five species of medium-sized mammals were screened for the presence of T. cruzi. METHODS Genomic DNA was isolated from heart, spleen and skeletal muscle of bobcats (Lynx rufus, n = 60, raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 37, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, n = 5, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, n = 3, and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Infections were detected targeting DNA from the kinetoplast DNA minicircle (kDNA and satellite DNA (satDNA. The discrete typing unit (DTU was determined by amplifying two gene regions: the Spliced Leader Intergenic Region (SL, via a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and the 24Sα ribosomal DNA via a heminested reaction. Resulting sequences were used to calculate their genetic distance against reference DTUs. FINDINGS 18.9% of raccoons were positive for strain TcIV; the rest of mammals tested negative. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results confirm for the first time the presence of T. cruzi in wildlife from Illinois, suggesting that a sylvatic life cycle is likely to occur in the region. The analyses of sequences of SL suggest that amplicons resulting from a commonly used multiplex reaction may yield non-homologous fragments.

  2. Therapeutic and post-lesional aspects of enzootic pneumonia in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Stancu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mycoplasmas are causing significant economic damage, these conditions being constant attention of farmers and veterinary services. Economic losses may be due to mortality, veterinary restrictions, a decrease in meat production, increased feed consumption and expenditure specific therapeutic and control measures. The conducted reaserches aimed at methods of disease treatment and diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia based on morphopathological lesions (macroscopic and histopathologicalin dead pigs cases.

  3. Therapeutic and post-lesional aspects of enzootic pneumonia in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian C. Stancu

    2013-01-01

    The mycoplasmas are causing significant economic damage, these conditions being constant attention of farmers and veterinary services. Economic losses may be due to mortality, veterinary restrictions, a decrease in meat production, increased feed consumption and expenditure specific therapeutic and control measures. The conducted reaserches aimed at methods of disease treatment and diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia based on morphopathological lesions (macroscopic and histopathological)in dead p...

  4. [Epidemiology of rabies in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A; Belkaid, M; Benhassine, M

    An epidemiological study on rabies in Algeria has been carried out on data provided by the "Institut national de Santé publique" and the "Institut Pasteur d'Algérie". It showed that no region is unhurt. The animal reservoir is of the domestic type, essentially the dog. In 40% of cases, bites are due to stray dogs.

  5. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene. PMID:26493436

  6. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  7. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar

    2015-07-12

    Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene.

  8. Rabies: What If I Receive Treatment Outside the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # Rabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rabies Homepage Exposure What materials can spread rabies? What ...

  9. Effective preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies with a highly attenuated recombinant rabies virus

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Milosz; Li, Jianwei; Kean, Rhonda B.; Hooper, D. Craig; Alugupalli, Kishore R.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Rabies remains an important public health problem with more than 95% of all human rabies cases caused by exposure to rabid dogs in areas where effective, inexpensive vaccines are unavailable. Because of their ability to induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses capable of clearing the infection from the CNS after a single immunization, live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccines could be particularly useful not only for the global eradication of canine rabies but also for late-stage r...

  10. Population Viability Analysis of feral raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Anna Elisabeth; Nørgaard, Louise Solveig; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Malene Götz

    2015-01-01

    that more 2 efficient and intensive actions are needed to reach the goal of the DAP, aiming at eradicating the breeding population of raccoon dogs in Denmark within 2015. Simulations suggested that around 950 individuals should be culled a year from 2012 to 2015. Sensitivity analysis that was performed......To assess the effects of actions implemented by the Danish Action Plan (DAP) for eradication of the raccoon dog, the population dynamics of the raccoon dog in Denmark was simulated. A population viability analysis (PVA) was generated with the stochastic simulation program, VORTEX, based...... and reach an assessed carrying capacity of 30 000 individuals with no intervention within 10 years. Simulations of the current culling strategy showed that the raccoon dog in Denmark would reach the carrying capacity with only a few years' delay compared to simulations with no intervention. This indicates...

  11. Normal conjunctival flora in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Chantale L; Brightman, Alan H; Yeary, Teresa J; Everson, Troy D; Cox, Linda K; Chengappa, M M; Davidson, Harriet J

    2002-10-01

    We documented the normal conjunctival bacterial flora from 17 opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in Manhattan, Kansas (USA) from November 1999 to January 2000. Both raccoons and opossums were free of apparent ocular disease. The inferior conjunctival sacs of each animal were swabbed for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia detection. All conjunctival samples were positive for one or more species of aerobic bacteria. The most common isolate from opossums was Staphylococcus spp. Other isolates included Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Enterococcus faecalis. The most common isolates in raccoons was Bacillus spp. Other isolates included Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-hemolytic Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. Mycoplasma culture was negative in samples from opossums and raccoons. Evidence of Mycoplasma and Chlamydia presence was detected by PCR.

  12. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Dein, F.J.; Fuchsberger, M.; Fox, B.C.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of Yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.

  13. An Invasive Vector of Zoonotic Disease Sustained by Anthropogenic Resources: The Raccoon Dog in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were ...

  14. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Dein, F Joshua; Fuchsberger, Martina; Fox, Barry C; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2004-07-29

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of Yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.

  15. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  16. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  17. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisatio...

  18. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisat...

  19. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US-Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, Hannah; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Real, Leslie A; Biek, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen's spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks. RRV incursions were attributable predominantly to systematic virus leakage of local strains across areas along the border where vaccination has been conducted but also to single stochastic events such as long-distance translocations. These results demonstrate the utility of phylogeographic analysis of pathogen genomes for understanding transboundary outbreaks.

  20. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-07

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of poverty on dog ownership and access to canine rabies vaccination: results from a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey, Uganda 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan MacLaren; Mehal, Jason; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Recuenco, Sergio; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Osinubi, Modupe; Tugumizemu, Victor; Blanton, Jesse D; Gilbert, Amy; Wamala, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is a neglected disease despite being responsible for more human deaths than any other zoonosis. A lack of adequate human and dog surveillance, resulting in low prioritization, is often blamed for this paradox. Estimation methods are often employed to describe the rabies burden when surveillance data are not available, however these figures are rarely based on country-specific data. In 2013 a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey was conducted in Uganda to understand dog population, rabies vaccination, and human rabies risk factors and improve in-country and regional rabies burden estimates. Poisson and multi-level logistic regression techniques were conducted to estimate the total dog population and vaccination coverage. Twenty-four villages were selected, of which 798 households completed the survey, representing 4 375 people. Dog owning households represented 12.9% of the population, for which 175 dogs were owned (25 people per dog). A history of vaccination was reported in 55.6% of owned dogs. Poverty and human population density highly correlated with dog ownership, and when accounted for in multi-level regression models, the human to dog ratio fell to 47:1 and the estimated national canine-rabies vaccination coverage fell to 36.1%. This study estimates there are 729 486 owned dogs in Uganda (95% CI: 719 919 - 739 053). Ten percent of survey respondents provided care to dogs they did not own, however unowned dog populations were not enumerated in this estimate. 89.8% of Uganda's human population was estimated to reside in a community that can support enzootic canine rabies transmission. This study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the effect of poverty on dog ownership in Africa. These results indicate that describing a dog population may not be as simple as applying a human: dog ratio, and factors such as poverty are likely to heavily influence dog ownership and vaccination coverage. These modelled estimates should be confirmed through

  2. The quantum Rabi model: solution and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Qiongtao; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong; Batchelor, Murray T

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a review of recent developments on various aspects of the quantum Rabi model. Particular emphasis is given on the exact analytic solution obtained in terms of confluent Heun functions. The analytic solutions for various generalisations of the quantum Rabi model are also discussed. Results are also reviewed on the level statistics and the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model. The article concludes with an introductory overview of several experimental realisations of the quantum Rabi model. An outlook towards future developments is also given. (topical review)

  3. Rabi N. Bhattacharya selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Waymire, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents some of the most influential papers published by Rabi N. Bhattacharya, along with commentaries from international experts, demonstrating his knowledge, insight, and influence in the field of probability and its applications. For more than three decades, Bhattacharya has made significant contributions in areas ranging from theoretical statistics via analytical probability theory, Markov processes, and random dynamics to applied topics in statistics, economics, and geophysics. Selected reprints of Bhattacharya’s papers are divided into three sections: Modes of Approximation, Large Times for Markov Processes, and Stochastic Foundations in Applied Sciences. The accompanying articles by the contributing authors not only help to position his work in the context of other achievements, but also provide a unique assessment of the state of their individual fields, both historically and for the next generation of researchers. Rabi N. Bhattacharya: Selected Papers will be a valuable resource for yo...

  4. First findings of Trichinella spiralis and DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild raccoon dogs in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Maas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the raccoon dog in the Netherlands may be associated with the risk of introduction and spread of zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess whether Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp. infections are present in Dutch raccoon dogs. Between 2013 and 2014, nine raccoon dogs, mainly road kills, were collected for necropsies. One raccoon dog tested repeatedly positive in the qPCR for E. multilocularis. The positive raccoon dog was collected in the province of Flevoland, which is not a known endemic region for E. multilocularis. Another raccoon dog tested positive for Trichinella spiralis by the digestion of the forelimb musculature and the tongue. Trichinella spiralis has not been reported in wildlife since 1998 and thus far was not found in wild carnivores in the Netherlands. It shows that despite the small raccoon dog population that is present in the Netherlands and the limited number of raccoon dogs that were tested, the raccoon dog may play a role in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis and Trichinella spp. in the Netherlands.

  5. The diet of feral raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and native badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmeros, Morten; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Malene Götz; Nørgaard, Louise Solveig

    2018-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an East Asian Canid that has been introduced in Europe. Introduction of alien species is an increasing conservation issue. We examined the diet of a recently established raccoon dog population in Denmark by analysing stomach content in 249 carcasses...... collected in 2008–2016. Raccoon dog diet was compared to the diet of native badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. The most common food for raccoon dogs were invertebrates (frequency of occurrence, FO 69%), small mammals (FO 68%), birds (FO 41%), fruits (FO 38%), amphibians (FO 36...

  6. Isidor I Rabi and CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    Isidor I. Rabi (1898-1988) is the acknowledged "father of CERN", today one of the most important particle-physics laboratories in the world. I explore his motives for promoting the idea in 1950 that Western Europe should build a "Brookhaven" with national governments replacing universities. I unravel the many ways in which a major accelerator facility in Geneva, Switzerland, could both stimulate European science and serve the interests of the American scientific community. Rabi was careful to avoid giving any official support to steps then under way in Europe to build a research reactor, even though Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, had one from the outset. I suggest that his main motive for doing so was that he wanted West Germany to be part of the collaborative venture. Rabi was well aware of the foreign-policy objectives of the U.S. State Department in the European theater in 1950, and he wanted to situate politically the new research center in the framework of the Marshall Plan for ...

  7. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest

  8. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  9. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Rabies: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. The true disease burden and public health impact due to rabies remain underestimated due to lack of sensitive laboratory diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnosis of rabies can help initiate prompt infection control and public health measures, obviate the need for unnecessary treatment/medical tests, and assist in timely administration of pre- or postexposure prophylactic vaccination to family members and medical staff. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies provides an impetus for clinicians to attempt experimental therapeutic approaches in some patients, especially after the reported survival of a few cases of human rabies. Traditional methods for antemortem and postmortem rabies diagnosis have several limitations. Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. These assays which complement traditional methods have the potential to revolutionize rabies diagnosis in future. PMID:24348170

  10. Risk of rabies exposure among travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Tawil, S.; van Vugt, M.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, requests for rabies immunoglobulin have increased at Amsterdam's Academic Medical Center's travel clinic. Travellers who received rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) before travel departure have immunological memory that can quickly be activated by timely booster vaccinations

  11. Quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Koç, R; Tuetuencueler, H

    2002-01-01

    A method is suggested to obtain the quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian. It is conceptually simple and can be easily extended to other systems. The analytical expressions are obtained for eigenstates and eigenvalues in terms of orthogonal polynomials. It is also demonstrated that the Rabi system, in a particular case, coincides with the quasi exactly solvable Poeschl-Teller potential.

  12. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell cultures or nerve tissues obtained from animals that have developed rabies...

  13. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... administration. (iii) Observe all animals for signs of rabies until scheduled time to sacrifice. If animals show...

  14. Epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Yokohama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, N; Itabashi, M; Takahashi, M; Futami, M

    2013-01-16

    Free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, and Yokohama Zoological Gardens frequently rescued dogs having Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. However, the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs and its influence on the population of masked palm civets in Yokohama, Japan. We examined records of raccoon dog rescue between 1981 and 2010 and classified the dogs into the following 4 categories on the basis of the reason for rescue: dogs with S. scabiei infestation, scabies-infested dogs involved in car accidents, uninfested dogs involved in car accidents, and other reasons for rescue. We found that the number of dogs rescued due to car accidents and other reasons increased from 1989 onwards, and an S. scabiei outbreak was recorded since 1993. The infestation spread from the southern to the northern regions of Yokohama. The total number of raccoon dogs rescued annually peaked in 1995 and declined thereafter. The number of masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) rescued gradually increased with a decline in the number of raccoon dogs rescued. In the present study, we revealed the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation in the raccoon dog. The outbreak might be induced by the increased population density, and the infestation spread immediately from the southern to the northern regions of Yokohama since 1993. Further, the population of masked palm civets may have increased due to the decrease in the population of the raccoon dog. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rabies in Asia: the classical zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains a constant threat to humans throughout much of Asia. The dog is the main reservoir and vector with wildlife playing a very minor role. No Asian country or region has been declared rabies free by WHO in over two decades and there is evidence of canine rabies spread to new regions during the past 10 years. We now have the knowledge and technology to control canine rabies. The main barrier in managing this costly endemic is lack of motivation by authorities to address this issue along with regional inability of public health and livestock (agriculture) officials to tackle this issue in cooperation and coordination. Rabies is one of the first recognized zoonoses and a model for a true "One Health" management goal where human; veterinary, and government officials must work together in harmony to defeat this disease.

  16. Strategic model of national rabies control in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Yeotaek; Kim, Bongjun; Lee, Ki Joong; Park, Donghwa; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyeoncheol; Park, Eunyeon; Lee, Hyeongchan; Bae, Chaewun; Oh, Changin; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is an important zoonosis in the public and veterinary healthy arenas. This article provides information on the situation of current rabies outbreak, analyzes the current national rabies control system, reviews the weaknesses of the national rabies control strategy, and identifies an appropriate solution to manage the current situation. Current rabies outbreak was shown to be present from rural areas to urban regions. Moreover, the situation worldwide demonstrates that each nation struggles to prevent or control rabies. Proper application and execution of the rabies control program require the overcoming of existing weaknesses. Bait vaccines and other complex programs are suggested to prevent rabies transmission or infection. Acceleration of the rabies control strategy also requires supplementation of current policy and of public information. In addition, these prevention strategies should be executed over a mid- to long-term period to control rabies.

  17. In Vivo Efficacy of a Cocktail of Human Monoclonal Antibodies (CL184 Against Diverse North American Bat Rabies Virus Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Franka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Following rabies virus (RABV exposure, a combination of thorough wound washing, multiple-dose vaccine administration and the local infiltration of rabies immune globulin (RIG are essential components of modern post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Although modern cell-culture-based rabies vaccines are increasingly used in many countries, RIG is much less available. The prohibitive cost of polyclonal serum RIG products has prompted a search for alternatives and design of anti-RABV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs that can be manufactured on a large scale with a consistent potency and lower production costs. Robust in vitro neutralization activity has been demonstrated for the CL184 MAb cocktail, a 1:1 protein mixture of two human anti-RABV MAbs (CR57/CR4098, against a large panel of RABV isolates. In this study, we used a hamster model to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PEP against a lethal challenge. Various doses of CL184 and commercial rabies vaccine were assessed for the ability to protect against lethal infection with representatives of four distinct bat RABV lineages of public health relevance: silver-haired bat (Ln RABV; western canyon bat (Ph RABV; big brown bat (Ef-w1 RABV and Mexican free-tailed bat RABV (Tb RABV. 42–100% of animals survived bat RABV infection when CL184 (in combination with the vaccine was administered. A dose-response relationship was observed with decreasing doses of CL184 resulting in increasing mortality. Importantly, CL184 was highly effective in neutralizing and clearing Ph RABV in vivo, even though CR4098 does not neutralize this virus in vitro. By comparison, 19–95% survivorship was observed if human RIG (20 IU/kg and vaccine were used following challenge with different bat viruses. Based on our results, CL184 represents an efficacious alternative for RIG. Both large-scale and lower cost production could ensure better availability and affordability of this critical life-saving biologic in rabies enzootic

  18. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  19. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Human and domestic animal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearneyhough, M G

    2001-05-01

    The emphasis on rabies control and prevention in the United States seems to be a function of our perception of proximity of the threat. Wildlife rabies epizootics within a state may be of little concern to the uninformed urban dweller. Additionally, many parts of the western United States are free of terrestrial rabies; were it not for the presence of bat rabies, people in those areas would likely interpret rabies control as a minor public health concern. It is essential that federal, state, and local public health programs emphasize the importance of rabies control through activities that include rabies education, sponsorship of legislated requirements for domestic animal vaccination, support for local animal control programs, and the promotion of recommendations that encourage the appropriate use of PEP. We are almost guaranteed that rabies is going to remain a major public health issue well into the next century because of expanding wildlife rabies epizootics, identification of new rabies viral variants with increased public health concern, emotional and legal concerns associated with rabies exposure, and increasing national cost associated with rabies control and prevention. Nevertheless, the development of new laboratory technology that allows an understanding of the epidemiologic nature of the rabies virus based on an evolving genetic history and the interrelationship with wildlife reservoirs should allow access to valuable tools for rabies control. When combined with programs using new developments in oral rabies vaccine that can immunize whole populations of wildlife reservoirs, that technology offers encouragement in our effort to control one of the diseases of antiquity.

  20. Raccoon Use of Den Trees and Plant Associations in Western Mesophytic Forests: Tree Attributes and Availability or Landscape Heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Keith M. Endres

    2012-01-01

    We monitored 15 radio-collared raccoons (Procyon lotor) on Davies Island in March 1987 - May 1988 to determine the extent to which individual tree attributes or spatial configuration of plant associations (habitat types) across the land-scape influenced den use. Of 1091 verified den sites, 428 were in tree cavities. Raccoon occurrence among 4 cover...

  1. Rabies in the Americas: 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire de Carvalho, Mary; Vigilato, Marco A N; Pompei, Julio A; Rocha, Felipe; Vokaty, Alexandra; Molina-Flores, Baldomero; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2018-03-01

    Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA). Differences in human and dog rabies incidence rates and dog vaccination rates were shown between low, middle and high-income countries. At the peak, over 50 million dogs were vaccinated annually in national campaigns in the countries represented. The reported number of animal exposures remained fairly stable during the study period with an incidence rate ranging from 123 to 191 reported exposures per 100,000 people. On average, over 2 million doses of human vaccine were applied annually. In the most recent survey, only 37% of countries reported that they had sufficient financial resources to meet the program objectives. The data show a sufficient and sustained effort of the LAC countries in the area of dog vaccination and provide understanding of the baseline effort required to reduce dog-mediated rabies incidence.

  2. Rabies in the Americas: 1998-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Freire de Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA. Differences in human and dog rabies incidence rates and dog vaccination rates were shown between low, middle and high-income countries. At the peak, over 50 million dogs were vaccinated annually in national campaigns in the countries represented. The reported number of animal exposures remained fairly stable during the study period with an incidence rate ranging from 123 to 191 reported exposures per 100,000 people. On average, over 2 million doses of human vaccine were applied annually. In the most recent survey, only 37% of countries reported that they had sufficient financial resources to meet the program objectives. The data show a sufficient and sustained effort of the LAC countries in the area of dog vaccination and provide understanding of the baseline effort required to reduce dog-mediated rabies incidence.

  3. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The isolation and identification of Trypanosoma cruzi from raccoons in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, B.C.; Bauman, P.M.; Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1958-01-01

    Five raccoons trapped at Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, were found to have trypanosomes in the blood which were morphologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi on stained smears. The organism grew well in culture. It developed and reproduced in Triatoma protracta, T. infestans, T. phyllosoma, and Rhodnius prolixus. Experimental infections were produced in raccoons, opossums, mice, rats, and monkeys by inoculation of blood, culture, and triatome forms. Typical leishmaniform bodies were found in tissue sections of cardiac muscle fibers from naturally and experimentally infected animals. Cross agglutinations carried out with Iiving cultural forms and rabbit antisera demonstrated a close antigenic relationship between the raccoon trypanosome and T. cruzi (Brazil strain). On the basis of (1) morphology, (2) presence of leishmaniform tissue stages, (3) development in triatomes, (4) infectivity to a variety of mammals, (5) culture characteristics, and (6) cross reactions in serological tests, this parasite is considered conspecific with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909), the causative agent of American human trypanosomiasis.

  5. [Comparison of fluoride concentrations in human, dog, fox and raccoon dog bones from northwestern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the XXth there has been a constant increase in fluoride (F-) emissions into the environment, mainly due to the development of industry, the fluoridation of drinking water, and the widespread use of toothpaste containing fluoride. All these factors have resulted in an intensive accumulation of F- in the bodies of vertebrates, mainly in their bones. It is therefore reasonable to estimate the F- concentration in humans and other long-lived mammals. Accordingly, ecotoxicologists worldwide have looked for mammalian species that may serve as good bioindicators of environmental fluoride pollution. In contrast to ungulates, long-lived domestic mammals and wild carnivores have rarely been used for this purpose (including the dog, fox and raccoon dog). The main aims of this study were to: 1) investigate F- concentrations in bones obtained from humans, dog, fox and raccoon dog from northwestern Poland, 2) perform intra- and inter-specific comparisons of F- concentrations in the studied mammalian bones against the background of environmental and living conditions, 3) examine the relationship between concentrations of F- in bones and the age or age category of the studied mammals. The study material comprised bones of the hip joint obtained from 36 patients who underwent hip replacement in Szczecin, 43 dogs from Szczecin veterinary clinics, 32 foxes and 18 raccoon dogs provided by hunters, with the whole test material consisting of 129 samples. The indications of F- (using potentiometry with Thermo Orion ion-selective electrodes) were performed in triplicate. The F- concentration was expressed on a dry weight basis. Interspecific analysis showed that the largest number of differences in the concentrations of F- were between the fox and raccoon, and then between the dog and fox, and then between the dog and the wild canids (foxes and raccoon dogs together). Close statistically significant differences were also found between the samples from humans and the

  6. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  7. An enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic E. coli in Adler monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Boris A; Yakovleva, Lelita A; Dzhikidze, Eteri K; Gvozdik, Tatiana E; Agumava, Aslan A; Stasilevich, Zinaida K; Danilova, Irina G

    2015-12-01

    In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted. Morphologically, hemorrhagic enterocolitis and massive hemorrhages were found. PCR investigation of bacteriologically isolated E. coli characterized it as enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli. The outbreak in Adler colony slightly differed from similar outbreak in Florida in 2014 by more marked hemorrhagic diathesis and articular changes in some monkeys caused by polyavitaminosis developed in the course of infection. Sensitive to infection were M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops, P. hamadryas and anubis, and Cebus capucinus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  9. Construction of a molecular clone of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Scott R; Gerpe, María Carla Rosales; Wootton, Sarah K

    2016-12-30

    Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV-1) is an ovine betaretrovirus that has been linked to enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious tumor of the ethmoid turbinates of sheep. Transmission experiments performed using virus isolated from cell free nasal tumor homogenates suggest that ENTV-1 is the causative agent of ENA; however, this etiological relationship has not been conclusively proven due to the fact that the virus cannot be propagated in vitro nor is there an infectious molecular clone of the virus. Here we report construction of a molecular clone of ENTV-1 and demonstrate that transfection of this molecular clone into HEK 293T cells produces mature virus particles. Analysis of recombinant virus particles derived from the initial molecular clone revealed a defect in the proteolytic processing of Gag; however, this defect could be corrected by co-expression of the Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein from the highly related Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) suggesting that the polyprotein cleavage sites in the ENTV-1 molecular clone were functional. Mutagenesis of the molecular clone to correct amino acid variants identified within the pro gene did not restore proteolytic processing; whereas deletion of one proline residue from a polyproline tract located in variable region 1 (VR1) of the matrix resulted in production of CA protein of the mature (cleaved) size strongly suggesting that normal virion morphogenesis and polyprotein cleavage took place. Finally, electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical virus particles with an eccentric capsid and an average diameter of about 100 nm. In summary, we have constructed the first molecular clone of ENTV-1 from which mature virus particles can be produced. Future experiments using virus produced from this molecular clone can now be conducted to fulfill Koch's postulates and demonstrate that ENTV-1 is necessary and sufficient to induce ENA in sheep.

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  13. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7×104 LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague.

  14. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  15. Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, E.; Felbacq, D.

    2000-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate transient phenomena in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals doped by single-mode microcavities. We show that for antisymmetric defect modes, there are Rabi oscillations between the microcavities. We develop a spectral analysis which permits us to compute the Rabi frequencies of these oscillations as well as the Q factor of the microcavities. We present a method allowing the computation of the coupling factor between localized modes

  16. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  17. Heterogeneity of Rabies Vaccination Recommendations across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Buchy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries bear the greatest burden of the disease, with a majority (59% of rabies-related deaths occurring in Asia. In order to promote best practices, we summarized national human vaccination guidelines across this region, to highlight differences and similarities and to discuss the aspects that would benefit from updates. National management guidelines for rabies were retrieved from various sources to extract information on rabies pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, and PEP, booster vaccination, and route of administration. Rabies guidelines recommendations for wound management and PrEP across Asia are broadly aligned to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. For PEP, the 5-dose Essen, and the 4-dose Zagreb are the regimens of choice for intramuscular (IM, and the Thai Red Cross regimen for intradermal (ID, administration. Several national guidelines have yet to endorse ID vaccine administration. Most guidelines recommend rabies immunoglobulin in category III exposures. Booster recommendations are not included in all guidelines, with limited clarity on booster requirement across the spectrum of risk of rabies exposure. In conclusion, national recommendations across Asian countries differ and while some guidelines are closely aligned to the WHO recommendations, resource-saving ID administration and use of rational abbreviated schedules have yet to be endorsed.

  18. Genetically different isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi elicit different infection dynamics in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Ellis, Angela E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a genetically and biologically diverse species. In the current study we determined T. cruzi infection dynamics in two common North American reservoirs, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Based on previous molecular and culture data from naturally-exposed animals, we hypothesised that raccoons would have a longer patent period than opossums, and raccoons would be competent reservoirs for both genotypes T. cruzi I (TcI) and TcIIa, while opossums would only serve as hosts for TcI. Individuals (n=2 or 3) of each species were inoculated with 1x10(6) culture-derived T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa (North American (NA) - raccoon), TcI (NA - opossum), TcIIb (South American - human), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitemias in opossums gradually increased and declined rapidly, whereas parasitemias peaked sooner in raccoons and they maintained relatively high parasitemia for 5weeks. Raccoons became infected with all three T. cruzi strains, while opossums only became infected with TcI and TcIIb. Although opossums were susceptible to TcIIb, infection dynamics were dramatically different compared with TcI. Opossums inoculated with TcIIb seroconverted, but parasitemia duration was short and only detectable by PCR. In addition, raccoons seroconverted sooner (3-7days post inoculation) than opossums (10days post inoculation). These data suggest that infection dynamics of various T. cruzi strains can differ considerably in different wildlife hosts.

  19. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Müller

    Full Text Available In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution.

  20. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas F.; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Freuling, Conrad M.

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978–2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution. PMID:26280895

  1. An immune stimulating complex (iscom) subunit rabies vaccine protects dogs and mice against street rabies challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fekadu; J.H. Schaddock; J. Ekströ m; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D.W. Sanderlin; B. Sundquist; B. Morein (Bror)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDogs and mice were immunized with either a rabies glycoprotein subunit vaccine incorporated into an immune stimulating complex (ISCOM) or a commercial human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) prepared from a Pitman Moore (PM) rabies vaccine strain. Pre-exposure vaccination of mice with two

  2. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  3. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lempp

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes, next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence, canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation. The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16 and pneumonia (n = 20. None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry

  4. Epidemiology of canine distemper virus in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kang, Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2012-09-01

    Raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are widespread and common in South Korea. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 102 wild raccoon dogs to survey their exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV). Forty-five of the 102 animals (44.1%) were seropositive. Field cases of canine distemper in wild raccoon dogs from 2010 to 2011 were investigated. Fourteen cases of CDV infection were identified by a commercially available CDV antigen detection kit. These cases were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated that all viruses isolated belonged to the Asia-2 genotype. H protein residues which are related to the receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analyzed. A glutamic acid (E) residue is present at 530 in all isolates. At 549, a histidine (H) residue was found in five isolates and tyrosine (Y) residue was found in 6 isolates. Our study demonstrated that CDV infection was widespread in wild raccoon dogs in South Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal and external parasites of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten-Sacken, Natalia; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Pacoń, Jarosław; Skrzypczak, Łukasz; Werner, Anna

    Parasites of an invasive species, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from western Poland were investigated to clarify poorly known ecological key aspects of the species. The research was conducted in two study areas: the Ujście Warty National Park and the Bogdaniec Forestry District. Intestinal samples were collected from the intestinal tracks of 39 dead animals and 51 faecal samples were collected in all seasons from latrines of raccoon dogs. Macro-parasites, their eggs and protozoan parasites were investigated to assess the taxonomic composition of parasites, the level of infection and the risk of potential transfer of dangerous parasites from raccoon dogs to people and native species. Among parasites potentially dangerous for human and native mammal species, Toxocara canis was found in the intestines and T. canis eggs, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and Entamoeba sp. cysts were identified in faecal samples. Sarcoptic mange was observed in the skin of two animals, whereas Diptera larvae (probably from the family Gasterophilidae) were found in the intestines of two other animals. This latter finding is very interesting, because Gasterophilidae are the typical parasites in horses and ungulates, but so far were never found in raccoon dogs.

  6. SURVEILLANCE FOR ANTIBODIES AGAINST SIX CANINE VIRUSES IN WILD RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-10-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus type 2 were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  7. Moellerella wisconsensis isolated from the oral cavity of a wild raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Rebecca F; Murray, William; Janda, J Michael

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from the oral secretions of a wild raccoon in Northern California. Human enteric disease has previously been associated with this organism. This represents the first isolation of this rare enterobacterial species from a non-captive animal and only the third from a non-human source.

  8. Emergence of novel canine parvovirus type 2 and its pathogenesis in raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Yu, Yu; Qian, Zhu; Fei-Fei, Diao; Chuan-Jie, Teng; Hui, Peng; Yuan-Yuan, Shang; Yong-Feng, Zhao; Jian-Li, Wang; Jiang, Shijin; Zhi-Jing, Xie

    2018-03-01

    Three parvoviruses were isolated from the raccoon dogs experiencing severe enteritis, named RDPV-DP1, RDPV-DP2 and RDPV-DP3, respectively. The VP2 genes of the 3 isolates showed 99.9% identity at the nucleotide level, and shared 99.1%-99.5% identity with the reference CPVs. The RDPVs resembled original CPV-2, but with four mutations. The RDPVs displayed S297A of VP2 protein as CPV-2a or CPV-2b prevalent throughout most of the world. Residue N375D was found in the 3 isolates, resembling CPV-2a/2b/2c. And the 3 isolates had a natural mutation of VP2 residue V562L, which is adjacent to residue 564 and 568 and might be involved in host range. Interestingly, VP2 S27T was firstly found in the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 genes revealed that the RDPVs were clustered into one small evolutionary branch and shared the identical branch with 7 CPV-2 isolates from raccoon dogs and one CPV-2 isolate from fox, not with CPV vaccine viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of NS1 genes demonstrated that the RDPVs shared the identical branch with the reference CPV-2a/2b/2c. Experimental infection showed that RDPV infection caused a high morbidity in raccoon dogs. It implied that the RDPV was virulent to raccoon dogs and continued to evolve in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human rabies in India: an audit from a rabies diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2016-04-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive encephalomyelitis, continues to be a serious public health problem in India and many other countries in Asia and Africa. The low level of commitment to rabies control is partly attributable to challenges in laboratory diagnosis and lack of adequate surveillance to indicate the disease burden. A laboratory audit of human rabies cases was undertaken to disseminate information on the clinical, demographic, prophylactic and most importantly the laboratory diagnostic aspects of rabies. A retrospective analysis of all clinically suspected human rabies cases, whose samples were received at a rabies diagnostic laboratory in South India in the last 3 years, was performed. Clinical and demographic details of patients were obtained. The clinical samples included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, saliva and nuchal skin biopsy collected antemortem, and brain tissue obtained post-mortem. Various laboratory tests were performed for diagnosis. Clinical samples from 128 patients with suspected rabies, from 11 states in India, were received for diagnostic confirmation. About 94% of the victims reported dog-bites, more than a third of them were children and most of the victims did not receive adequate post-exposure prophylaxis. Antemortem confirmation of rabies by a combination of laboratory diagnostic assays (detection of viral RNA in CSF, skin and saliva, and neutralising antibodies in CSF) could be achieved in 40.6% cases. Increasing awareness about adequate post-exposure prophylaxis, additional rabies diagnostic facilities, and enhanced human and animal rabies surveillance to indicate the true disease burden are essential to control this fatal disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon Bailey, Jordana L; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian G; Mellanby, Richard J; Mazeri, Stella

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children's knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren.

  11. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon Bailey, Jordana L.; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian G.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Mazeri, Stella

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children’s knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren. PMID:29522517

  12. Rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis and deaths in a region of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    Full Text Available Thousands of human deaths from rabies occur annually despite the availability of effective vaccines following exposure, and for disease control in the animal reservoir. Our aim was to assess risk factors associated with exposure and to determine why human deaths from endemic canine rabies still occur.Contact tracing was used to gather data on rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP delivered and deaths in two rural districts in northwestern Tanzania from 2002 to 2006. Data on risk factors and the propensity to seek and complete courses of PEP was collected using questionnaires. Exposures varied from 6-141/100,000 per year. Risk of exposure to rabies was greater in an area with agropastoralist communities (and larger domestic dog populations than an area with pastoralist communities. Children were at greater risk than adults of being exposed to rabies and of developing clinical signs. PEP dramatically reduced the risk of developing rabies (odds ratio [OR] 17.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.39-60.83 and when PEP was not delivered the risks were higher in the pastoralist than the agro-pastoralist area (OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.60-14.58. Low socioeconomic class and distance to medical facilities lengthened delays before PEP delivery. Over 20% of rabies-exposed individuals did not seek medical treatment and were not documented in official records and <65% received PEP. Animal bite injury records were an accurate indicator of rabies exposure incidence.Insufficient knowledge about rabies dangers and prevention, particularly prompt PEP, but also wound management, was the main cause of rabies deaths. Education, particularly in poor and marginalized communities, but also for medical and veterinary workers, would prevent future deaths.

  13. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  14. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    Rabies has one of the highest case-fatality ratios of any infectious disease. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal control officials, and other parties engaged in rabies prevention and control activities and should serve as the basis for standardizing procedures among jurisdictions. The recommendations regarding domestic animal vaccination, management of animals exposed to rabies, and management of animals that bite humans are the core elements of animal rabies control and human rabies prevention. These updated 2011 guidelines include the national case definition for animal rabies and clarify the role of the CDC rabies laboratory in providing confirmatory testing of suspect animals. The table of rabies vaccines licensed and marketed in the United States has been updated, and additional references have been included to provide scientific support for information in this report.

  15. Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Brain Tissues of Apparetly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies is a serious public health hazard and recently outbreaks of the disease have been reported in three local government areas in Cross River State. Detection of rabies antigen in the brain tissues of apparently healthy dogs indicates the presence of rabies virus and this is a significant factor in the transmission and ...

  16. A comparative rabies laboratory diagnosis: Peculiar features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many diagnostic methods have been used to detect rabies virus antigen. The preferred method for routine rabies diagnosis in fresh brain tissue is fluorescent antibody test (FAT). In this study, FAT was used to evaluate the presence of rabies virus antigen in the brain (hippocampus) of fifty apparently healthy dogs. Mouse ...

  17. Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Girardi, Janice; Hiby, Elly; Knobel, Darryn; Mardiana, Wayan; Townsend, Sunny; Scott-Orr, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008–2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali. PMID:23632033

  18. Response to a rabies epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Hampson, Katie; Girardi, Janice; Hiby, Elly; Knobel, Darryn; Mardiana, I Wayan; Townsend, Sunny; Scott-Orr, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008-2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali.

  19. Childhood Rabies: A 10 Year Review of Management and Outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies is still a cause of death among children in our environment. We undertook a 10-year retrospective review to evaluate the aetiology and outcome of management of childhood rabies in our setting. Methodology: This was a 10-year retrospective study of rabies cases managed in the Paediatrics Unit of the ...

  20. Canine and Human Rabies in Cameroon | Awah | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a retrospective review of recorded rabies and antirabies activities in Cameroon from 1990 to 1999 to determine the current state of rabies in both dogs and humans. Rabies and antirabies activities were recorded every year in Cameroon through out the 10-year study period with the highest values observed in ...

  1. The status of rabies in Ethiopia: A retrospective record review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies, a viral disease that affects all warm-blooded animals, is widespread in many regions of the world. Human rabies, transmitted by dogs is an important public health issue in Ethiopia. To-date, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened.. Objective: Reviewing ...

  2. Human rabies: Still a neglected preventable disease in Nigeria | Eke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objectives: Adequate surveillance and monitoring of dog bite incidents are veritable tools in the determination of the epidemiology of human rabies infections. There is a paucity of data with regards to rabies in Nigeria. Hence, this study was aimed at describing the pattern and outcomes of dog bites and rabies ...

  3. Prevalence and demographic distribution of canine rabies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies, a neglected tropical disease, is one of the most fatal diseases. Around 55,000 people die from rabies annually with over 99% of these deaths occurring in Africa and Asia. A retrospective study of rabies cases was carried out in Plateau state, Nigeria, 2004 – 2009. Cases reported to the central diagnostic laboratory ...

  4. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  5. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Diana I; Kang, Wenli; Weaver, Scoti C

    2008-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that enzootic and epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses can infect and be transmitted by Ae. aegypti, we conducted a series of experimental infection studies. One set of experiments tested the susceptibility of geographic strains of Ae. aegypti from Peru and Texas (U.S.A.) for epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) strains from Colombia/Venezuela, whereas the second set of experiments tested the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti from Iquitos, Peru, to enzootic VEE complex strains (subtypes ID, IIIC, and IIID) isolated in the same region, at different infectious doses. Experimental infections using artificial bloodmeals suggested that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, particularly the strain from Iquitos, Peru, is moderately to highly susceptible to all of these VEE complex alphaviruses. The occurrence of enzootic VEE complex viruses circulating endemically in Iquitos suggests the possibility of a dengue-like transmission cycle among humans in tropical cities.

  6. [Epidemiology of human rabies in China, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y R; Zhu, L L; Zhu, W Y; Tao, X Y

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 and provide evidence for the control and prevention of human rabies. Methods: The incidence data of human rabies in China in 2016 were collected from national infectious disease reporting information management system. The surveillance data were collected from provinces of Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Hunan, Jiangsu and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Excel 2013 software was used to process and summarize the data, the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 were described by using indicators such as morbidity, mortality and constituent ratio. Results: A total of 644 human rabies cases were reported in 28 provinces in China in 2016, a decrease of 19.60% (157/801) compared with 2015. The provinces reporting high incidences of human rabies were Henan, Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou, accounting for 39.44% (254/644) of the total cases. One case was reported in Qinghai province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region respectively. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.14∶1 (439/205), and the majority of the patients were farmers (444/644). Surveillance points in 6 provinces reported 1 281 340 persons seeking post-exposure treatment, of whom 1 018 367 were treated for dog bite or scratch. A total of 764 234 persons completed the vaccination series, accounting for 63.90% (764 234/1 195 956) of the persons with grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposures, and 28.89% (165 677/573 571) of the persons with grade Ⅲ exposure were treated with passive immunization product. The average density of dogs in each surveillance area was 7.03/100 persons, the average canine immunization rate was 37.64%. Conclusion: The incidence of human rabies has remained decline in China in 2016, the number of the affected provinces has increased and that has the tendency of spreading to low-risk regions. The cases mainly occurred in men and farmers, and caused by dog bite or scratch. It is

  7. Effective preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies with a highly attenuated recombinant rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Milosz; Li, Jianwei; Kean, Rhonda B; Hooper, D Craig; Alugupalli, Kishore R; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2009-07-07

    Rabies remains an important public health problem with more than 95% of all human rabies cases caused by exposure to rabid dogs in areas where effective, inexpensive vaccines are unavailable. Because of their ability to induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses capable of clearing the infection from the CNS after a single immunization, live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccines could be particularly useful not only for the global eradication of canine rabies but also for late-stage rabies postexposure prophylaxis of humans. To overcome concerns regarding the safety of live-attenuated RV vaccines, we developed the highly attenuated triple RV G variant, SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS. In contrast to most attenuated recombinant RVs generated thus far, SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS is completely nonpathogenic after intracranial infection of mice that are either developmentally immunocompromised (e.g., 5-day-old mice) or have inherited deficits in immune function (e.g., antibody production or type I IFN signaling), as well as normal adult animals. In addition, SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS induces immune mechanisms capable of containing a CNS infection with pathogenic RV, thereby preventing lethal rabies encephalopathy. The lack of pathogenicity together with excellent immunogenicity and the capacity to deliver immune effectors to CNS tissues makes SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS a promising vaccine candidate for both the preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies.

  8. Advances in Diagnosis of Rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B.P.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques have been standardised internationally. Laboratory techniques are preferably conducted on central nervous system (CNS tissue removed from the cranium. Agent identification is preferably done using the fluorescent antibody test. A drop of purified immunoglobulin previously conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate is added to an acetone-fixed brain tissue smear, preferably made from several parts of the brain, including the hippocampus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. For a large number of samples, as in an epidemiological survey, the immunoenzyme technique can provide rapid results (the rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis. FAT provides a reliable diagnosis in 98-100% of cases for all genotypes if a potent conjugate is used, while RREID detects only genotype 1 virus. Infected neuronal cells have been demonstrated by histological tests and these procedures will reveal aggregates of viral material (the Negri bodies in the cytoplasm of neurones. However, the sensitivity of histological techniques is much less than that of immunological methods, especially if there has been some autolysis of the specimen. Consequently, histological techniques can no longer be recommended. As a single negative test on fresh material does not rule out the possibility of infection, inoculation tests, or other tests, should be carried out simultaneously. Newborn or 3-4-week-old mice are inoculated intracerebrally with a pool of several CNS tissues, including the brain stem, and then kept under observation for 28 days. For any mouse that dies between 5 and 28 days, the cause of death should be confirmed by FAT. Alternatively, a monolayer culture of susceptible cells is inoculated with the same material as used for mice. FAT carried out after appropriate incubation will demonstrate the presence or absence of viral antigen. Wherever possible, virus isolation in cell culture should replace mouse inoculation tests

  9. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  10. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  11. A comparative study of helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes sharing the same territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Karl Schuster

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the helminth fauna of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes originating from the Uckermark distict, a rural area in the northeastern part of Germany. Methods: Internal organs of 101 legally hunted raccoon dogs and 144 red foxes were examined for helminths by helminthological dissection. Results: In total, 18 helminth species were detected of which 14 were present in raccoon dogs and 17 were detected in red foxes. In both host species, Mesocestoides litteratus, Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis occurred in comparably high prevalences. Significant differences in prevalence were seen in Isthmiophora melis and Alaria alata that were more often diagnosed in raccoon dogs and Taenia polyacantha that was more frequent in red foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis was present in both hosts in low prevalence. Conclusions: Both canid hosts sharing the same territories have a similar helminth spectrum. Differences in prevalence and abundance can be explained with distinct.

  12. Comparison of an anti-rabies human monoclonal antibody combination with human polyclonal anti-rabies immune globulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, Jaap; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Rice, Amy B.; Kruif, John de; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates human mortality from endemic canine rabies to be 55,000 deaths/year. Limited supply hampers the accessibility of appropriate lifesaving treatment, particularly in areas where rabies is endemic. Anti-rabies antibodies are key to protection against lethal

  13. The Formation of the Eastern Africa Rabies Network: A Sub-Regional Approach to Rabies Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieracci, Emily G; Scott, Terence P; Coetzer, Andre; Athman, Mwatondo; Mutembei, Arithi; Kidane, Abraham Haile; Bekele, Meseret; Ayalew, Girma; Ntegeyibizaza, Samson; Assenga, Justine; Markalio, Godson; Munyua, Peninah; Nel, Louis H; Blanton, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    International rabies networks have been formed in many of the canine-rabies endemic regions around the world to create unified and directed regional approaches towards elimination. The aim of the first sub-regional Eastern Africa rabies network meeting, which included Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, was to discuss how individual country strategies could be coordinated to address the unique challenges that are faced within the network. The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination and the Global Dog Rabies Elimination Pathway tool were used to stimulate discussion and planning to achieve the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Our analysis estimated a total dog population of 18.3 million dogs in the Eastern Africa region. The current dog vaccination coverage was estimated to be approximately 5% (915,000 dogs), with an estimated 4910 vaccinators available. Assuming that every vaccinator performs rabies vaccination, this equated to each vaccinator currently vaccinating 186 dogs per year, whilst the target would be to vaccinate 2609 dogs every year for the community to reach 70% coverage. In order to achieve the World Health Organization-recommended 70% vaccination coverage, an additional 11 million dogs need to be vaccinated each year, pointing to an average annual shortfall of $ 23 million USD in current spending to achieve elimination by 2030 across the region. Improved vaccination efficiency within the region could be achieved by improving logistics and/or incorporating multiple vaccination methods to increase vaccinator efficiency, and could serve to reduce the financial burden associated with rabies elimination. Regional approaches to rabies control are of value, as neighboring countries can share their unique challenges while, at the same time, common approaches can be developed and resource-saving strategies can be implemented.

  14. Species distribution modeling for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Austria and first range predictions for alpine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Duscher Tanja; Nopp-Mayr Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models are important tools for wildlife management planning, particularly in the case of invasive species. We employed a recent framework for niche-based invasive species distribution modeling to predict the probability of presence for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Austria. The raccoon dog is an adaptive, mobile and highly reproductive Asiatic canid that has successfully invaded many parts of Europe. It is known...

  15. Rabies Vaccine and Rabies Immunoglobulin in Cambodia: Use and Obstacles to Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; In, Sotheary; Ong, Sivuth; Peng, Yiksing; Heng, Nayyim; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Authorities have pledged to eliminate canine rabies by 2020 in Cambodia, a country with a very high rabies burden. Logistic and financial access to timely and adequate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is essential for preventing rabies in humans. We undertook a survey of the few identified sites where PEP rabies vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) are available in Cambodia. We examined the Rabies Prevention Center at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (rpc@ipc) database and rpc@ipc order forms for 2012 to assess vaccine and RIG use. We conducted a rapid internet survey of centers that provide rabies vaccine and RIG in Cambodia, other than rpc@ipc. The cost of a full course of intramuscular or intradermal PEP in Cambodia, with and without RIG, was also estimated. Rabies vaccination is free of charge in one foundation hospital and is accessible for a fee at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), some institutions, and some Cambodian private clinics. In 2012, 27,500 rabies vaccine doses (0.5 mL) and 591 equine RIG doses were used to provide intradermal PEP to 20,610 persons at rpc@ipc following animal bites. Outside of rpc@ipc, an estimated total of 53,400 vaccine doses and 200 RIG doses were used in Cambodia in 2012. The wholesale cost of full rabies PEP was estimated at 50% to 100% of a Cambodian farmer's monthly wage. Local populations and travelers cannot be sure to locally access adequate and timely PEP due to high costs and low access to RIG. Travelers to high-endemic areas such as Cambodia are strongly encouraged to undergo pre-exposure vaccination or seek expert advice, as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. State-subsidized, pre-positioned stocks of human vaccine and RIG in bite management centers would extend the rabies prevention centers network. Support from Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for staff training, cold chain, and quality control would contribute to reducing the risk of rabies deaths in Cambodia. © 2015 International Society of

  16. Low Prevalence of Enzootic Equine Influenza Virus among Horses in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders’ livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia’s horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016–2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces. Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels. Seven of the horse swabs were “positive” for qRT-PCR evidence of influenza A (Ct value ≤ 38. Two more were “suspect positive” (Ct value > 38 and ≤ 40. These nine specimens were collected from four aimags. None of the camel specimens had molecular evidence of infection. Despite serial blind passage in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK cells, none of the nine horse specimens yielded an influenza A virus. None of the 131 herder households surveyed had recently vaccinated their horses against EIV. It seems likely that sporadic EIV is enzootic in multiple Mongolian aimags. This finding, the infrequent use of EIV vaccination, periodic prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, and the mixing of domestic and wild equid herds suggest that Mongolia may be a hot spot for novel EIV emergence.

  17. Suppression of Rabi oscillations for moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Muga, J. G.; Hegerfeldt, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known laser-induced Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom are shown to be suppressed under certain conditions when the atom is entering a laser-illuminated region. For temporal Rabi oscillations the effect has two regimes: a first classical-like one, taking place at intermediate atomic velocities, and a second purely quantum case at low velocities. The classical regime is associated with the formation of incoherent internal states of the atom in the laser region, whereas in the quantum, low velocity regime the laser projects the atom onto a pure internal state that can be controlled by detuning. Spatial Rabi oscillations are only suppressed in this low velocity, quantum regime

  18. Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from eastern Colorado, an area of undefined prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Deanna J; LeVan, Ivy K; Miller, Michael W; Ballweber, Lora R

    2012-04-30

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a zoonotic parasite that has been documented in raccoons throughout much of the United States; however, no published information on its occurrence is available for the transition zone from the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains. Because this parasite can cause neural larva migrans and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in humans (as well as other hosts), a more complete understanding of the distribution of this parasite seems warranted for public health reasons. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the distribution of B. procyonis in an area of the US where there is, currently, no published information available. Fifty-three raccoons were collected throughout eastern Colorado during 2007-2010. Forty-six were examined by necropsy and seven by fecal flotation. Age (11 juveniles, 25 adults) and sex (16 males, 19 females) of the raccoons were recorded when intact carcasses were available. When available, feces were further processed for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium using a direct fluorescent antibody detection method. B. procyonis was found in 31 of 53 raccoons (58.5%, 95% CI=44.1%, 71.9%). Mean intensity was 11.7 with a range of 1-49 worms per infected individual. There was no significant difference between age or sex, and the presence of ascarids or the number of ascarids. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were detected in 11/44 (25%; 95% CI: 13.2, 40.3) and 3/44 (6.9%; 95% CI: 1.4, 18.7) raccoons, respectively. The genotype of the Giardia present could not be determined. The genotype of five of six cryptosporidial isolates was 100% homologous to the skunk genotype while the sixth was 100% homologous to Cryptosporidium parvum. Based on these results, both B. procyonis and Cryptosporidium spp. appear to be prevalent in raccoons of eastern Colorado. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The raccoon polyomavirus genome and tumor antigen transcription are stable and abundant in neuroglial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostoff, Terza; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Church, Molly E; Woolard, Kevin D; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV) is associated with 100% of neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons. Other tumor-associated polyomaviruses (PyVs), including simian virus 40 (SV40), murine PyV, and Merkel cell PyV, are found integrated in the host genome in neoplastic cells, where they constitutively express splice variants of the tumor antigen (TAg) gene. We have previously reported that RacPyV exists only as an episome (nonintegrated) in neuroglial tumors. Here, we have investigated TAg transcription in primary tumor tissue by transcriptome analysis, and we identified the alternatively spliced TAg transcripts for RacPyV. We also determined that TAg was highly transcribed relative to host cellular genes. We further colocalized TAg DNA and mRNA by in situ hybridization and found that the majority of tumor cells showed positive staining. Lastly, we examined the stability of the viral genome and TAg transcription by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in cultured tumor cells in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model. When tumor cells were cultured in vitro, TAg transcription increased nearly 2 log-fold over that of parental tumor tissue by passage 17. Both episomal viral genome and TAg transcription were faithfully maintained in culture and in tumors arising from xenotransplantation of cultured cells in mice. This study represents a minimal criterion for RacPyV's association with neuroglial tumors and a novel mechanism of stability for a polyomavirus in cancer. The natural cycle of polyomaviruses in mammals is to persist in the host without causing disease, but they can cause cancer in humans or in other animals. Because this is an unpredictable and rare event, the oncogenic potential of polyomavirus is primarily evaluated in laboratory animal models. Recently, raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV) was identified in neuroglial tumors of free-ranging raccoons. Viral copy number was consistently high in these tumors but was low or undetectable in nontumor tissue or in

  20. Seasonal forecasting of discharge for the Raccoon River, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele; Bradley, Allen; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The state of Iowa (central United States) is regularly afflicted by severe natural hazards such as the 2008/2013 floods and the 2012 drought. To improve preparedness for these catastrophic events and allow Iowans to make more informed decisions about the most suitable water management strategies, we have developed a framework for medium to long range probabilistic seasonal streamflow forecasting for the Raccoon River at Van Meter, a 8900-km2 catchment located in central-western Iowa. Our flow forecasts use statistical models to predict seasonal discharge for low to high flows, with lead forecasting times ranging from one to ten months. Historical measurements of daily discharge are obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Van Meter stream gage, and used to compute quantile time series from minimum to maximum seasonal flow. The model is forced with basin-averaged total seasonal precipitation records from the PRISM Climate Group and annual row crop production acreage from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Services database. For the forecasts, we use corn and soybean production from the previous year (persistence forecast) as a proxy for the impacts of agricultural practices on streamflow. The monthly precipitation forecasts are provided by eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), with lead times ranging from 0.5 to 11.5 months, and a resolution of 1 decimal degree. Additionally, precipitation from the month preceding each season is used to characterize antecedent soil moisture conditions. The accuracy of our modelled (1927-2015) and forecasted (2001-2015) discharge values is assessed by comparison with the observed USGS data. We explore the sensitivity of forecast skill over the full range of lead times, flow quantiles, forecast seasons, and with each GCM. Forecast skill is also examined using different formulations of the statistical models, as well as NMME forecast

  1. Dynamical properties of the Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Binglu; Zhou, Huili; Chen, Shujie; Xianlong, Gao; Wang, Kelin

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamical properties of the quantum Rabi model using a systematic expansion method. Based on the observation that the parity symmetry of the Rabi model is kept during evolution of the states, we decompose the initial state and the time-dependent one into positive and negative parity parts expanded by superposition of the coherent states. The evolutions of the corresponding positive and the negative parities are obtained, in which the expansion coefficients in the dynamical equations are known from the derived recurrence relation. (paper)

  2. Transcriptional mapping of rabies virus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamand, A.; Delagneau, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Synthesis of the proteins of rabies virus was studied in hamster cell infected with uv-irradiated virus. The uv target size of genes L, N, M 1 , and M 2 was measured during primary transcription. Except for N, the target size of the remaining genes was considerably larger than that of their physical sizes. The data fit the hypothesis that four genes occupy a single transcriptional unit and that transcription of rabies virus proceeds in the order N, M 1 , M 2 , and L

  3. Vaccination of Ferrets for Rabies and Distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    Companion ferrets need to be vaccinated against 2 viral diseases that cause neurologic illness: canine distemper and rabies. Although not common in ferrets, both viruses are fatal in ferrets and rabies virus is also fatal in humans. In this article, we provide a basic review of the 2 diseases, highlighting key neurologic concerns. We also review and update current vaccine concerns from a practitioner's perspective, including available vaccines, vaccine schedule recommendations, vaccine reactions, and risk assessment. Last, we mention the ferret and its use in cutting-edge vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Notes from the field: wildlife rabies on an island free from canine rabies for 52 years--Taiwan, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Su-San; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Wallace, Ryan M; Recuenco, Sergio E; Doty, Jeffrey B; Vora, Neil M; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-02-28

    Dog-to-dog transmission of rabies in Taiwan was eliminated in 1961; the island was considered canine rabies-free for 52 years. On July 16, 2013, three ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata) tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing at the Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture of Taiwan. This was the first time wild animals other than bats were tested. During 1999-2012, a total of 6,841 clinically healthy dogs and five apparently normal cats from shelters were tested and found negative for rabies. During 2009-2012, a total of 322 bats were tested and found negative for rabies.

  5. Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable

  6. Sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease) in a juvenile raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapniarsky, N; Wenger, D A; Scheenstra, D; Mete, A

    2013-01-01

    A wild caught juvenile male raccoon with neurological disease was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Necropsy examination revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and multicentric lymphadenomegaly with diffuse hepatic pallor and pulmonary consolidation with pinpoint pale subpleural foci. Microscopically, there was marked pale cytoplasmic swelling of the central and peripheral neurons as well as the glial cells in the brain, accompanied by multiorgan infiltration by abundant foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural investigation revealed accumulation of concentrically arranged lamellar material within lysosomes of the affected neurons, macrophages and endothelial cells. Biochemical enzymatic analysis detected sphingomyelinase deficiency and lysosomal storage disease consistent with sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease [NPD]) was diagnosed. This is the first report of NPD in a raccoon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  8. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Terryn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate, when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP.

  9. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  10. A pathological study of sepsis associated with sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T L D R; Takai, Y; Kubo, M; Sakai, H; Masegi, T; Yanai, T

    2009-01-01

    The pathological findings in Japanese raccoon dogs with sarcoptic mange infection associated with death from sepsis are described. Microscopical lesions of the skin were consistent with those described previously in wildlife populations with Sarcoptes infection, but secondary lesions were also present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen and brain of these animals. This infection was therefore very similar to "crusted scabies" or "Norwegian scabies" in man and was characterized by severe pathology and high mortality, with deaths frequently occurring due to sepsis.

  11. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  12. From agricultural intensification to conservation: sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Schilling, Keith E

    2011-01-01

    Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively affects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate long-term TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that efforts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Reminiscences by Dr. I.I. Rabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, I.I.

    1973-01-01

    Dr. I.I. Rabi, Professor of Physics, Columbia University, Nobel Laureate, adviser to presidents and an original member of the scientific advisory committees both of the United Nations and the IAEA, delivered the following address at the Salazar Atomic Centre, Mexico, in October 1972 he spoke on 'reminiscences from scientific advisory services to governments and international organizations'. (author)

  14. Rabies in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation of diagnostic test kits Prevention Prevention in animals Prevention in people Rabies in the U.S. and around the World ... United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs ...

  15. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation of diagnostic test kits Prevention Prevention in animals Prevention in people Rabies in the U.S. and around the World ... United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs ...

  16. [Viruses and bats: rabies and Lyssavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordo, N; Marianneau, M Ph

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging zoonoses (hemorrhagic fevers due to Ebola or Marburg virus, encephalitis due to Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SRAS virus...) outline the potential of bats as vectors for transmission of infectious disease to humans. Such a potential is already known for rabies encephalitis since seven out of the eight genotypes of Lyssavirus are transmitted by bats. In addition, phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Lyssavirus have evolved in chiropters before their emergence in carnivores. Nevertheless, carnivores remain the most critical vectors for public health, in particular dogs that are originating 55.000 rabies deaths per year, essentially in developing countries. Rabies control in carnivores by parenteral (dog) or oral (wild carnivores) vaccination is efficacious and campaigns start to be more widely applied. On the other hand, rabies control in bat still remains non realistic, particularly as the pathogenicity of bat Lyssavirus for bats is still under debate, suggesting that a "diplomatic relationship" between partners would have arisen from a long term cohabitation. While comparing the interactions that humans and bats establish with Lyssavirus, scientists try to understand the molecular basis ofpathogenicity in man, a indispensable prerequisite to identify antiviral targets in a perspective of therapy.

  17. Rabies vaccine and neuraxial anaesthesia | Rewari | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report of neuraxial anaesthesia for emergency orthopaedic surgery serves to highlight the dilemma faced by anaesthetists when surgical intervention becomes necessary in a patient on anti-rabies vaccine. The two issues of importance are the possible reduction in the efficacy of vaccination by an ...

  18. [Establishment and application of a Vero cell line stably expressing raccoon dog SLAM, the cellular receptor of canine distemper virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Yan, Ruxun; Zhang, Hailing; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Shao, Xiqun; Chai, Xiuli; Yan, Xijun; Wu, Wei

    2012-12-04

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also known as CD150), is used as a cellular receptor by canine distemper virus (CDV). Wild-type strains of CDVs can be isolated and propagated efficiently in non-lymphoid cells expressing this protein. Our aim is to establish a Vero cells expressing raccoon dog SLAM (rSLAM) to efficiently isolate CDV from pathological samples. A eukaryotic expression plasmid, pIRES2-EGFP-rSLAMhis, containing rSLAM gene fused with six histidine-coding sequence, EGFP gene, and neomycin resistance gene was constructed. After transfection with the plasmid, a stable cell line, Vero-rSLAM, was screened from Vero cells with the identification of EGFP reporter and G418 resistance. Three CD positive specimens from infected foxes and raccoon dogs were inoculated to Vero-rSLAM cells for CDV isolation. Foxes and raccoon dogs were inoculated subcutaneously LN (10)fl strain with 4 x 10(2.39)TCID50 dose to evaluate pathogenicity of CDV isolations. The rSLAMh fused gene was shown to transcript and express stably in Vero-rSLAM cells by RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry assay. Three CDV strains were isolated successfully in Vero-rSLAM cells 36 -48 hours after inoculation with spleen or lung specimens from foxes and raccoon dogs with distemper. By contrast, no CDV was recovered from those CD positive specimens when Vero cells were used for virus isolation. Infected foxes and raccoon dogs with LN(10)f1 strain all showed typical CD symptoms and high mortality (2/3 for foxes and 3/3 for raccoon dogs) in 22 days post challenge. Our results indicate that Vero-rSLAM cells stably expressing raccoon dog SLAM are highly sensitive to CDV in clinical specimens and the CDV isolation can maintain high virulence to its host animals.

  19. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigfrido Burgos-Cáceres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution of rabies in Arctic foxes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Wennerberg, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The temporal occurrence, spatial distribution, spread, and prevalence of rabies in Arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, in Greenland were studied using historical observations from 1969 to 2011 and survey data collected in the winters 1992 and 1993. Regionally, the prevalence of rabies ranged between 0...... and 7.1 %. Wavelet analysis was used to identify periodicities in the abundance of rabies cases based on the historical observations. No general length of the cyclic interval of rabies occurrences in Greenland could be demonstrated. The frequency of outbreaks was found to be variable but can be grouped...... as short (less than 5 years), medium (5–10 years), and long (more than 10 years). Moreover, rabies outbreaks in neighboring regions were found to be more closely correlated compared to regions further apart. In West Greenland, the temporal outbreaks of rabies were found to occur along a north...

  1. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  2. Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infections in fattening pigs and association with clinical signs and pathological lesions of Enzootic Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrs, Adrian; Siegenthaler, Salome; Grützner, Niels; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Kuhnert, Peter; Nathues, Heiko

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory disorders in fattening pigs are of major concern worldwide. Particularly Enzootic Pneumonia remains a problem for the pig industry. This chronic respiratory disease is primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). However, more recently it was hypothesised that M. hyorhinis can also cause similar lung lesions. To investigate the relevance of M. hyorhinis as a cause of pneumonia in fattening pigs 10 farms in Switzerland (considered free of Enzootic Pneumonia) and 20 farms in Germany (regarded as endemic for Enzootic Pneumonia) with a history of chronic and/or recurrent respiratory diseases were included in the study. During a one-time farm visit the coughing index was determined in the batch of oldest fattening pigs in each farm before submission to slaughter. In total, 1375 lungs from these pigs were collected at the abattoir and individually scored for lesions. Furthermore, 600 lungs with, if present, indicative lesions for Enzootic Pneumonia (purple to grey areas of tissue consolidation in the cranio-ventral lung lobes) were tested for mycoplasma species by culture and by real-time PCR for the presence of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. In total, 15.7% of the selected lungs were tested positive for M. hyorhinis by real-time PCR. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis was 10% in Switzerland and 18.5% in Germany and differed significantly between these two countries (p=0.007). M. hyorhinis was detected significantly more often in pneumonic lungs (p=0.004) but no significant association was found between M. hyorhinis and the coughing index or the M. hyopneumoniae status of the pig. M. hyopneumoniae was detected in 0% and 78.5% of the selected lungs in Switzerland and Germany, respectively. We found no evidence that M. hyorhinis alone can lead to similar lung lesions as seen by an infection with M. hyopneumoniae in fattening pigs. In addition, a simultaneous infection with both M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae did not aggravate the observed

  3. Species distribution modeling for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Austria and first range predictions for alpine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duscher Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are important tools for wildlife management planning, particularly in the case of invasive species. We employed a recent framework for niche-based invasive species distribution modeling to predict the probability of presence for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Austria. The raccoon dog is an adaptive, mobile and highly reproductive Asiatic canid that has successfully invaded many parts of Europe. It is known to occur in Austria since 1963 and is now widespread in the northern and eastern parts of the country, but its population density remains low. With the help of a species distribution model we identified focal areas for future monitoring and management actions, and we address some management implications for the raccoon dog in Austria. We also determined the environmental predictors of raccoon dog distribution in this alpine country. Its distribution seems to be mainly limited by climatic factors (snow depth, duration of snow cover, winter precipitation and mean annual temperature and is thus linked to elevation. Consequently, we assumed the Alps to be a barrier for the spread of the invasive raccoon dog in Europe; however, its ecological permeability is expected to increase with ongoing climate change.

  4. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes respectively harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, of which several were of zoonotic significance. Significantly more nematode...

  5. Rabi oscillation between states of a coupled harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Jun

    2003-01-01

    Rabi oscillation between bound states of a single potential is well known. However the corresponding formula between the states of two different potentials has not been obtained yet. In this work, we derive Rabi formula between the states of a coupled harmonic oscillator which may be used as a simple model for the electron transfer. The expression is similar to typical Rabi formula for a single potential. This result may be used to describe transitions between coupled diabatic potential curves

  6. Paralytic rabies: MRI findings and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jayantee Kalita; Sanjeev K Bhoi; Jogendra K Bastia; Sangmitra Lashkar; Anita Mahadevan; Usha K Misra

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic rabies closely simulates Guillain-Barre syndrome or ascending myelitis often causing clinical dilemma. Two such patients were managed in our hospital whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed characteristic findings revealing T2 hyper intensity in central spinal cord and in posterior brainstem and hypothalamus. These MRI findings are helpful in the diagnosis of rabies in appropriate setting. We also review the literature on MRI changes in paralytic rabies.

  7. The History of Rabies in Trinidad: Epidemiology and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine F. R. Seetahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bat-transmitted rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak reported in 1925. Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We conducted a literature review to describe the changing epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad and give a historical perspective to rabies prevention and control measures on the island. The last human case of rabies occurred in 1937 and although no case of canine-transmitted rabies was reported since 1914, sporadic outbreaks of bat-transmitted rabies still occur in livestock to date. Over the last century, seven notable epidemics were recorded in Trinidad with the loss of over 3000 animals. During the 1950s, several measures were effectively adopted for the prevention and control of the disease which led to a significant reduction in the number of cases. These measures include: vampire bat population control, livestock vaccination, and animal surveillance. However, due to lapses in these measures over the years (e.g., periods of limited vampire control and incomplete herd vaccination, epidemics have occurred. In light of the significant negative impact of rabies on animal production and human health, rabies surveillance in Trinidad should be enhanced and cases evaluated towards the design and implementation of more evidence-based prevention and control programs.

  8. Pneumomediastinum as initial presentation of paralytic rabies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemachudha Thiravat

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is readily diagnosed when it presents as the classic furious form. Paralytic and atypical forms can pose significant problems in diagnosis. Catastrophic incidents included 7 organ transplant recipients who died of rabies recently in United States and Germany. Although rabies remains top in the lists of differential diagnosis of encephalitis in rabies endemic area, its complication may divert physicians from making a relevant management. We encountered an unusual case of paralytic rabies who presented with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Case Presentation A young male presented with fever and dysphagia. There was a history of fluctuating consciousness and aerophobia but they were absent or could not be demonstrated at the time of admission. He exhibited subcutaneous chest wall emphysema and was found to have pneumomediastinum which resulted in surgical intervention. He developed paralysis followed by seizures during postoperative period. Diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of rabies RNA in saliva during the preterminal phase and by the autopsy. Over 200 hospital staff subsequently received rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Conclusion Spontaneous pneumomediastinum can be a rare complication of rabies. It may lead clinicians to perform inappropriate treatment, particularly when phobic spasms are not present and agitation is not prominent. High level of awareness of rabies in any patient with confusion albeit subtle or with any obscure neurological presentations such as difficulty swallowing with no identifiable causes must be borne in mind.

  9. Challenges and needs for China to eliminate rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenwu; Dong, Jie; Tu, Changchun; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Zhou, Hang; Yu, Hongjie; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-10-02

    In China, rabies is a significant public health concern where dogs remain the main reservoir of disease transmission to humans; rabies-related mortality ranks second in the world.We compiled all published articles and official documents on rabies in mainland China to examine challenges and needs to eliminate rabies in the country. The Chinese authorities have identified rabies as a priority, recognized rabies control in dogs as key to control rabies in humans and required intersectoral collaborations. Efforts have been made to respond effectively to the latest re-emergence of rabies, which peaked in 2007 with >3,300 cases. Despite these outcomes and the increasing volume of publications and regulations in the recent years, our review points to some major information gaps to improve rabies control activities and envisage elimination program. An emphasis on laboratory or pathogen-associated and basic epidemiology research in the literature has contrasted with the absence of information to monitor various systems in humans and animals (e.g. quality of surveillance, response and post-exposure prophylaxis). Information is also lacking to appropriately inform policymakers (e.g. economic disease burden, impact of policies) and assist program managers (e.g. comprehensive and strategic guidance for cost-effective prevention and control activities, public education and dog population management).In conclusion, strategic planning is needed to provide a sense of direction, demonstrate feasibility of elimination in China, and develop a research agenda, addressing country's operational needs and constraints. The planning should be a multisectoral effort.

  10. Rabi-vibronic resonance with large number of vibrational quanta

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, R.; Raikh, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically the Rabi oscillations of a resonantly driven two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator (vibrational mode) with frequency, \\omega_0. We show that for weak coupling, \\omega_p \\ll \\omega_0, where \\omega_p is the polaronic shift, Rabi oscillations are strongly modified in the vicinity of the Rabi-vibronic resonance \\Omega_R = \\omega_0, where \\Omega_R is the Rabi frequency. The width of the resonance is (\\Omega_R-\\omega_0) \\sim \\omega_p^{2/3} \\omega_0^{1/3} ...

  11. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China.

  12. Fatal rabies despite post-exposure prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Deshmukh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only sporadic reports of failure of post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies exist in the published literature. We are reporting such a case in a 3-year-old boy. The child had Category III dog bite on his right thigh. He presented with progressive ascending paralysis, finally developing quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis. Typical hydrophobia and aerophobia were absent. He received four doses of antirabies cell culture vaccine. He did not receive antirabies immunoglobulin. The boy succumbed on the 23 rd day of the dog bite. Diagnosis of rabies was confirmed in the laboratory by demonstration of Negri bodies, direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction either on impression smear of brain or a piece of brain taken during autopsy.

  13. Epizootic to enzootic transition of a fungal disease in tropical Andean frogs: Are surviving species still susceptible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state. Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory. Our study focuses on a diverse Peruvian amphibian community that experienced a Bd-caused collapse. We explore host/Bd dynamics of eight surviving species a decade after the mass extinction by using population level disease metrics and Bd-susceptibility trials. We found that three of the eight species continue to be susceptible to Bd, and that their populations are declining. Only one species is growing in numbers and it was non-susceptible in our trials. Our study suggests that some species remain vulnerable to Bd and exhibit ongoing population declines in enzootic systems where Bd-host dynamics are assumed to be stable.

  14. Crossover of coherent Rabi oscillations in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamullah; Kumar, Vipin; Setlur, Girish S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of crossover of Rabi oscillations in graphene as a function of detuning - the difference between the frequency of the incident wave and interband energy (2v F |k|). It is shown by comparison with an exactly solved model with bands having linear dispersion but lacking pseudospin that this crossover is unique to graphene, attributable to the pseudospin character of the graphene hamiltonian. A group theoretic argument for why this model is solvable is given. We compute the nonlinear current using our formalism, the main prediction being the threshold behavior (with exponent equal to 1/2) of the slowly varying part of the current in frequency domain with threshold frequency being 2ω R 2 /ω (‘anomalous’ Rabi frequency) where ω R is the Rabi frequency for zero detuning. The novelty of our approach is the introduction of an alternative to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) (called asymptotic RWA here) which is argued to be important in demonstrating this crossover. We provide an interpolation method between these two regimes, that shows novel phenomena attributable to harmonic generation. A fully numerical solution to the Bloch equations verifies the analytical results and the various approximation schemes.

  15. Behavior and mortality of free-ranging raccoons, snowshoe hares, and striped skunks after exposure to 300 R γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tester, J.R.; Ternes, J.W.; Siniff, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor), snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) exposed to 300 R cesium-137 radiation were monitored by an automatic radio-tracking system. Five irradiated juvenile raccoons died within 30 days postirradiation, but no controls died. One irradiated and one control snowshoe hare were killed by predators within 30 days after irradiation. No skunks died. No consistent patterns of effects of the irradiation were detected in terms of size or location of home range or in the circadian rhythms

  16. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J.; Gallegos, E.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial 'raccoon eyes'). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the 'scintigraphic raccoon eyes' sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the 'MIBG super scan'). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  17. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Gallegos, E. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Fink-Bennett, D. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial `raccoon eyes`). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the `scintigraphic raccoon eyes` sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the `MIBG super scan`). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  18. Home range differences by habitat type of raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides (Carnivora: Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseog Jeong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From July 2013 to November 2014, this research was conducted to secure baseline data to find long-term preventive measures against epidemics from the analysis of home range and movement characteristics of raccoon dogs, which are known as carriers of zoonosis. Researchers conducted a follow-up study with 12 raccoon dogs, each attached with a Global Positioning System mobile transmitter. Analysis of home range used the minimum convex polygon (MCP method and kernel density estimation (KDE with accumulating data of time-based locations. Except for three animals that showed unique behavior, the researchers analyzed nine animals and calculated their average home range. As a result, average home range was 0.48±0.35 km2 (MCP method, and KDE result analysis was verified as 0.65±0.66 km2 (95%, 0.31±0.35 km2 (75%, and 0.23±0.28 km2 (50%. Based on the MCP method, acted in range of minimum 0.07 km2 and maximum 1.08 km2, and the core habitat, KDE 50% level showed activity range in 0.02 km2 to 0.37 km2. Three individuals of unique behavior were classified into two types. Two individuals moved 10–20 km and settled at a place different from the existing habitat, and one individual kept moving without a regular sphere of influence. Generally, raccoon dogs are not considered to move if they secure their area of influence; animals in urban areas have a wider area of influence than those living in areas with a rich source of food such as forest and agricultural land.

  19. Live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not an inactivated rabies virus cell culture vaccine, protect B-lymphocyte-deficient A/WySnJ mice against rabies: considerations of recombinant defective poxviruses for rabies immunization of immunocompromised individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, Donald L; Esposito, Joseph J; Ewalt, Larry C

    2004-09-03

    Presently, commercially available cell culture rabies vaccines for humans and animals consist of the five inactivated rabies virus proteins. The vaccines elicit a CD4+ helper T-cell response and a humoral B-cell response against the viral glycoprotein (G) resulting in the production of virus neutralizing antibody. Antibody against the viral nucleoprotein (N) is also present, but the mechanism(s) of its protection is unclear. HIV-infected individuals with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and individuals undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs have an impaired neutralizing antibody response after pre- and post-exposure immunization with rabies cell culture vaccines. Here we show the efficacy of live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not a cell culture vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus, to elicit elevated levels of neutralizing antibody in B-lymphocyte deficient A/WySnJ mice. The cell culture vaccine also failed to protect the mice, whereas a single immunization of a vaccinia recombinant expressing the rabies virus G or co-expressing G and N equally protected the mice up to 18 months after vaccination. The data suggest that recombinant poxviruses expressing the rabies virus G, in particular replication defective poxviruses such as canarypox or MVA vaccinia virus that undergo abortive replication in non-avian cells, or the attenuated vaccinia virus NYVAC, should be evaluated as rabies vaccines in immunocompromised individuals.

  20. Survey of bat populations from Mexico and Paraguay for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler-Gordon, L L; Smith, J S

    2001-07-01

    A mammalian survey was conducted in Mexico (October 1994-January 1996) and in Paraguay (August 1996-March 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. The surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. One male Lasiurus ega, collected in Paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). Nucleotide sequence from a 300 bp region of the rabies nucleoprotein gene was compared with sequence obtained from representative rabies virus samples in the repository at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Rabies virus extracted from the brain material of L. ega differed by only one nucleotide from a 300 bp consensus sequence (>99% homology) derived from samples for the variant of rabies virus transmitted by Lasiurus cinereus. Lasiurus ego differed by approximately 15% for the variant transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Phylogenetic analysis found no evidence to suggest L. ego is a reservoir for rabies antigenic variant 6. The most likely explanation for rabies in L. ega was infection following contact with a rabid L. cinereus.

  1. Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes a 10-year study of the use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies in New York State. CDC's Dr. Brett Petersen discusses the prevalence of rabies in the United States and how the study lends support to recent changes in the recommended PEP protocol.

  2. Conventional and anomalous quantum Rabi oscillations in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Enamullah; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Upendra; Setlur, Girish S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the non linear response of graphene in presence of quantum field in two different regimes. Far from resonance, using our new technique asymptotic rotating wave approximation (ARWA), we obtained that the matter field interaction leads to the slow oscillations like conventional Rabi oscillations observed in conventional semiconductors using well known rotating wave approximation (RWA). The Rabi frequency obtained in both the regimes

  3. A thermostable messenger RNA based vaccine against rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, Lothar; Vogel, Annette; Schnee, Margit; Voss, Daniel; Rauch, Susanne; Mutzke, Thorsten; Ketterer, Thomas; Kramps, Thomas; Petsch, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G). Prolonged storage of the vaccine from -80°C to up to +70°C for several months did not impact the protective capacity of the mRNA vaccine. Efficacy after storage was demonstrated by the induction of rabies specific virus neutralizing antibodies and protection in mice against lethal rabies infection. Moreover, storing the vaccine at oscillating temperatures between +4° and +56°C for 20 cycles in order to simulate interruptions of the cold chain during vaccine transport, did not affect the vaccine's immunogenicity and protective characteristics, indicating that maintenance of a cold chain is not essential for this vaccine.

  4. Rabies, the neglected cause of mortality in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the studies on rabies in Tanzania have been conducted by foreign scientists and the WHO and few Tanzanians-often junior researchers and research assistants. Currently, there is an on-going study at Ifakara on immunization of dogs and results are still pending. Rabies is a fatal disease that carries a very high mortality.

  5. Detection of Rabies antigen in brains of suspected Rabid dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the presence of rabies antigen in brains of suspected rabid dogs. Materials and Methods: Ninety six (96) brain specimens from suspected rabid dogs were examined for the presence of rabies antigen using Seller's staining technique and enzyme immunoassay. Results: The two techniques were both ...

  6. Rabies Elimination in Dogs in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Rabies has been eliminated from dogs in the United States through efforts to promote annual vaccination, but it's still a problem in wildlife in the U.S. and in wild and domesticated animals abroad. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Charles Rupprecht discusses a study which provides proof of the elimination of rabies in dogs and what this means for the average American.

  7. Factors Associated with Rabies Awareness and Attitude to Dog Bite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...

  8. Rabies trends and surveillance capabilities in Zambia | Kabaso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the trends, distribution and positivity rate of rabies cases in Zambia. A retrospective study for the period of 10 years between 2004 and 2014, was conducted by using rabies case reports. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and geo-coded in Quantum ...

  9. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  10. Rabies elimination research: juxtaposing optimism, pragmatism and realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-12-20

    More than 100 years of research has now been conducted into the prevention, control and elimination of rabies with safe and highly efficacious vaccines developed for use in human and animal populations. Domestic dogs are a major reservoir for rabies, and although considerable advances have been made towards the elimination and control of canine rabies in many parts of the world, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in Africa and Asia. Policy efforts are now being directed towards a global target of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030 and the global elimination of canine rabies. Here we demonstrate how research provides a cause for optimism as to the feasibility of these goals through strategies based around mass dog vaccination. We summarize some of the pragmatic insights generated from rabies epidemiology and dog ecology research that can improve the design of dog vaccination strategies in low- and middle-income countries and which should encourage implementation without further delay. We also highlight the need for realism in reaching the feasible, although technically more difficult and longer-term goal of global elimination of canine rabies. Finally, we discuss how research on rabies has broader relevance to the control and elimination of a suite of diseases of current concern to human and animal health, providing an exemplar of the value of a 'One Health' approach. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. What Is the Rabies Risk for My Pet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Control May 28, 2010: Report on Human and Dog Rabies Prevention and Control April 21, 2010: Limited ... be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Dogs and cats that are currently ... to cause rabies among humans in the United States. Bites by these animals ...

  12. Rabies vaccines: where do we stand, where are we heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Garg, Rajni; Singh, Samer; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Rabies being the most lethal zoonotic, vaccine-preventable viral disease with worldwide distribution of reservoir wild animals presents unique challenges for its diagnosis, management and control. Although vaccines available are highly effective, which had played the key role in controlling rabies in North America, western Europe and in a number of Asian and Latin American countries, the requirement of multiple doses along with boosters, associated cost to reduce the incidence in wild animals and prophylactic human vaccination has remained a major impediment towards achieving the same goals in poorer parts of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia. Current efforts to contain rabies worldwide are directed towards the development of more safe, cheaper and efficacious vaccines along with anti-rabies antibodies for post-exposure prophylaxis. The work presented here provides an overview of the advances made towards controlling the human rabies, particularly in last 10 years, and future perspective.

  13. Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Louise H; Hampson, Katie; Fahrion, Anna; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptation of the Aesop's Fable paradigm for use with raccoons (Procyon lotor): considerations for future application in non-avian and non-primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Lauren; Davis, Emily; Johnson, Shylo; Gilbert, Amy; Benson-Amram, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the evolution of animal cognition, it is necessary to test and compare the cognitive abilities of a broad array of taxa. Meaningful inter-species comparisons are best achieved by employing universal paradigms that standardize testing among species. Many cognitive paradigms, however, have been tested in only a few taxa, mostly birds and primates. One such example, known as the Aesop's Fable paradigm, is designed to assess causal understanding in animals using water displacement. To evaluate the universal effectiveness of the Aesop's Fable paradigm, we applied this paradigm to a previously untested taxon, the raccoon (Procyon lotor). We first trained captive raccoons to drop stones into a tube of water to retrieve a floating food reward. Next, we presented successful raccoons with objects that differed in the amount of water they displaced to determine whether raccoons could select the most functional option. Raccoons performed differently than corvids and human children did in previous studies of Aesop's Fable, and we found raccoons to be innovative in many aspects of this task. We suggest that raccoon performance in this paradigm reflected differences in tangential factors, such as behavior, morphology, and testing procedures, rather than cognitive deficiencies. We also present insight into previously undocumented challenges that should better inform future Aesop's Fable studies incorporating more diverse taxa.

  15. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Tiziana; Attlan, Michaël; Bourhy, Hervé; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; de Balogh, Katinka; Dodet, Betty; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hiby, Elly; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tordo, Noël; Tumpey, Abbigail; Wandeler, Alexander; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination. PMID:21776359

  16. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lembo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination.

  17. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs.

  18. DISTRIBUSI KASUS GIGITAN HEWAN PENULAR RABIES (HPR DAN KASUS RABIES DI KABUPATEN NGADA, PROPINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Indriaty P.B Sopi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies adalah penyakit infeksi zoonotic akut padasystem saraf pusat yang disebabkan oleh family Rhabdovirus dan genus Lyssavirus. Data tentang penyebaran rabies di Kabupaten Ngada menunjukkan bahwa ada 3 kasus rabies pada tahun 2000. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan distribusi kasus gigitan hewan penular rabies (HPR dan kasus rabies di Kabupaten Ngada. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang menggunakan desain cross-sectional. Data dikumpulkan dari kasus gigitan HPR dan kasus rabies tahun 2004 sampai Oktober 2008. Data tersebut merupakan data sekunder dari Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Ngada. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kasus gigitan HPR tertinggi per puskesmas adalah di Puskesmas Watumanu pada tahun 2007, yaitu 79 kasus. Puncak terjadinya kasus gigitan HPR adalah pada tahun 2004, yaitu 78 kasus di bulan Mei, dan 77 kasus di bulan Juni. Median kasus per bulan pada bulan Juli, yaitu 26 kasus. Hewan peliharaan masyarakat yang paling sering menularkan rabies adalah anjing. Pendekatan persuasive dan intensif melalui pendidikan kesehatan untuk mengajak masyarakat memvaksinasi hewan peliharaan sangat dibutuhkan. Hal ini karena, kesadaran masyarakat tentang pentingnya vaksinasi hewan peliharaan, akan mendukung keberhasilan program pemberantasan rabies di Kabupaten Ngada.  

  19. Evaluating enzootic bovine leukemia virus infection by means of molecular probe compared with the results of serological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, M.; Grundbock, J.; Rulka, J.; Kozaczynska, B.; Stec, J.

    1994-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at determining the relation between the finding obtained by means of serological tests and the specific molecular probe. Serological tests were performed according to the methods recommended by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture; ELISA was run with ''Bioveta'' and ''Rhone Merieux'' kits and the AGID test was performed with EBL antigen made in our laboratory. The molecular probe was prepared from the previously cloned provirus DNA of EBL virus. The EBL provirus was detected in 28 samples taken from 44 randomly selected cows in three herds on which a leukemia eradication programme was in process. Three sera out of 28 positive reacting animals were negative in AGID test and only one serum in ELISA. The results indicate that the use of a specific molecular probe has some advantages in the diagnosis of latent virus infections. Besides, it can be applied in the studies on the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukemia. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  1. Rabies in Iraq: trends in human cases 2001-2010 and characterisation of animal rabies strains from Baghdad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Horton

    Full Text Available Control of rabies requires a consistent supply of dependable resources, constructive cooperation between veterinary and public health authorities, and systematic surveillance. These are challenging in any circumstances, but particularly during conflict. Here we describe available human rabies surveillance data from Iraq, results of renewed sampling for rabies in animals, and the first genetic characterisation of circulating rabies strains from Iraq. Human rabies is notifiable, with reported cases increasing since 2003, and a marked increase in Baghdad between 2009 and 2010. These changes coincide with increasing numbers of reported dog bites. There is no laboratory confirmation of disease or virus characterisation and no systematic surveillance for rabies in animals. To address these issues, brain samples were collected from domestic animals in the greater Baghdad region and tested for rabies. Three of 40 brain samples were positive using the fluorescent antibody test and hemi-nested RT-PCR for rabies virus (RABV. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences derived from the samples demonstrated the viruses belong to a single virus variant and share a common ancestor with viruses from neighbouring countries, 22 (95% HPD 14-32 years ago. These include countries lying to the west, north and east of Iraq, some of which also have other virus variants circulating concurrently. These results suggest possible multiple introductions of rabies into the Middle East, and regular trans-boundary movement of disease. Although 4000 years have passed since the original description of disease consistent with rabies, animals and humans are still dying of this preventable and neglected zoonosis.

  2. Analytical eigenstates for the quantum Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Batchelor, Murray T

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method to find analytical solutions for the eigenstates of the quantum Rabi model. These include symmetric, anti-symmetric and asymmetric analytic solutions given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Both regular and exceptional solutions are given in a unified form. In addition, the analytic conditions for determining the energy spectrum are obtained. Our results show that conditions proposed by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 100401) are a type of sufficiency condition for determining the regular solutions. The well-known Judd isolated exact solutions appear naturally as truncations of the confluent Heun functions. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, BoKyu; Oh, JinSik; Lee, ChulSeung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Park, YoungNam; Hong, KyungSoo; Lee, KyungGi; Cho, ByungKi; Song, DaeSub

    2007-10-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus detection was evaluated using 51 clinical samples and 4 isolates of rabies virus. The quick detection of rabies virus under field conditions may be helpful in determining if post-exposure prophylaxis is needed, thereby avoiding unnecessary treatments, as well as undue economic burden. There are several widely used diagnostic methods for rabies, including fluorescent antibody tests, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy; however, these methods include time-consuming, intricate, and costly procedures. The rapid immunodiagnostic test was able to detect rabies virus in clinical samples, including brain tissue and saliva, in addition to 10(3.2) 50% lethal dose (LD(50))/mL cell-adapted rabies virus. The assay was not cross-reactive with non-rabies virus microbes. When the performance of the rapid immunodiagnostic test was compared to a fluorescent antibody test, the rapid immunodiagnostic test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% (95.8% CI).

  4. Potential Confounding of Diagnosis of Rabies in Patients with Recent Receipt of Intravenous Immune Globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neil M; Orciari, Lillian A; Bertumen, J Bradford; Damon, Inger; Ellison, James A; Fowler, Vance G; Franka, Richard; Petersen, Brett W; Satheshkumar, P S; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Smith, Todd G; Wallace, Ryan M; Weinstein, Susan; Williams, Carl; Yager, Pamela; Niezgoda, Michael

    2018-02-09

    Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed human rabies case as an illness compatible with rabies that meets at least one of five different laboratory criteria.* Four of these criteria do not depend on the patient's rabies vaccination status; however, the remaining criterion, "identification of Lyssavirus-specific antibody (i.e. by indirect fluorescent antibody…test or complete [Rabies lyssavirus] neutralization at 1:5 dilution) in the serum," is only considered diagnostic in unvaccinated patients. Lyssavirus-specific antibodies include Rabies lyssavirus-specific binding immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and Rabies lyssavirus neutralizing antibodies (RLNAs). This report describes six patients who were tested for rabies by CDC and who met CSTE criteria for confirmed human rabies because they had illnesses compatible with rabies, had not been vaccinated for rabies, and were found to have serum RLNAs (with complete Rabies lyssavirus neutralization at a serum dilution of 1:5). An additional four patients are described who were tested for rabies by CDC who were found to have serum RLNAs (with incomplete Rabies lyssavirus neutralization at a serum dilution of 1:5) despite having not been vaccinated for rabies. None of these 10 patients received a rabies diagnosis; rather, they were considered to have been passively immunized against rabies through recent receipt of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). Serum RLNA test results should be interpreted with caution in patients who have not been vaccinated against rabies but who have recently received IVIG.

  5. Human rabies: still a neglected preventable disease in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, C B; Omotowo, I B; Ukoha, O M; Ibe, B C

    2015-01-01

    Adequate surveillance and monitoring of dog bite incidents are veritable tools in the determination of the epidemiology of human rabies infections. There is a paucity of data with regards to rabies in Nigeria. Hence, this study was aimed at describing the pattern and outcomes of dog bites and rabies infections among patients presenting to University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. This was a 10-year (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013) observational retrospective study. Case definition of rabies was based on ICD 10 criteria, while relevant clinical data were retrieved from individual folders of registered victims using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 while the level of statistical significance was set at P cases of dog bites were reported during the period under review, of which 6 (4.0%) had confirmed rabies. Ninety-six (64.4%) cases presented more than 24 h after the bites. Majority of the offending dogs were stray dogs 86 (57.7%), which attacked their victims unprovoked, in 54.6% of cases. Furthermore, most of the bites were from dogs with unknown history of rabies vaccination 72 (52.3%), while the case fatality rate was 100%. All the cases of rabies reported were as a result of bites from stray dogs with unknown history of rabies vaccinations, and the outcome was 100% fatality in all cases. Efforts should be made to create and strengthen awareness campaigns on control of rabies infections through responsible dog ownership including their regular vaccinations as well as provision and use of prompt postexposure prophylaxis in human cases of dog bites at all levels of health care.

  6. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: Qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castillo-Neyra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts.We conducted 8 focus groups (FG in urban and peri-urban communities of Mariano Melgar district; each FG included both sexes, and campaign participants and non-participants. All FG were transcribed and then coded independently by two coders. Results were summarized using the Social Ecological Model. At the individual level, participants described not knowing enough about rabies and vaccination campaigns, mistrusting the campaign, and being unable to handle their dogs, particularly in peri-urban vs. urban areas. At the interpersonal level, we detected some social pressure to vaccinate dogs, as well as some disparaging of those who invest time and money in pet dogs. At the organizational level, participants found the campaign information to be insufficient and ill-timed, and campaign locations and personnel inadequate. At the community level, the influence of landscape and topography on accessibility to vaccination points was reported differently between participants from the urban and peri-urban areas. Poor security and impermanent housing materials in the peri-urban areas also drives higher prevalence of guard dog ownership for home protection; these dogs usually roam freely on the streets and are more difficult to handle and bring to the vaccination points.A well-designed communication campaign could improve knowledge about canine rabies. Timely messages

  7. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, G R; Horton, D L; Dahal, M; Rai, J N; Ide, S; Leech, S; Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R

    2011-04-01

    Rabies is endemic throughout most of Asia, with the majority of human cases transmitted by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Here, we report a case of rabies in a 12-year-old girl in the Lalitpur district of Nepal that might have been prevented by better public awareness and timely post-exposure prophylaxis. Molecular characterization of the virus showed 100% identity over a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus sequence after passage in vitro but not after passage in vivo.

  8. Multi-photon Rabi oscillations in high spin paramagnetic impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, S; Groll, N; Chen, L; Chiorescu, I

    2011-01-01

    We report on multiple photon monochromatic quantum oscillations (Rabi oscillations) observed by pulsed EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) of Mn 2+ (S = 5/2) impurities in MgO. We find that when the microwave magnetic field is similar or large than the anisotropy splitting, the Rabi oscillations have a spectrum made of many frequencies not predicted by the S = l/2 Rabi model. We show that these new frequencies come from multiple photon coherent manipulation of the multi-level spin impurity. We develop a model based on the crystal field theory and the rotating frame approximation, describing the observed phenomenon with a very good agreement.

  9. Modelling of Rabies Transmission Dynamics Using Optimal Control Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kiddy K. Asamoah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine an optimal way of eradicating rabies transmission from dogs into the human population, using preexposure prophylaxis (vaccination and postexposure prophylaxis (treatment due to public education. We obtain the disease-free equilibrium, the endemic equilibrium, the stability, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal control model. Using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS, the forward-backward sweep scheme and the fourth-order Range-Kutta numerical method predict that the global alliance for rabies control’s aim of working to eliminate deaths from canine rabies by 2030 is attainable through mass vaccination of susceptible dogs and continuous use of pre- and postexposure prophylaxis in humans.

  10. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  11. Rabi oscillations a quantum dot exposed to quantum light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyarov, A.; Slepyan, G.Ya.; Maksimenko, S.A.; Hoffmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the local field on the excitonic Rabi oscillations in an isolated quantum dot driven by the coherent state of light has been theoretically investigated. Local field is predicted to entail the appearance of two oscillatory regimes in the Rabi effect separated by the bifurcation. In the first regime Rabi oscillations are periodic and do not reveal collapse-revivals phenomenon, while in the second one collapse and revivals appear, showing significant difference as compared to those predicted by the standard Jaynes-Cummings model

  12. Muonium and the Breit-Rabi diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter introduces the study of muonium, as opposed to that of unbound muons. The properties and behaviour of muonium are compared and contrasted with those of hydrogen and of positronium. The special significance of muonium in atomic and molecular physics is explained, and its utility as a lightweight or radioactive isotope of hydrogen in solid state physics and chemistry illustrated. The identification of atomic muonium by means of its ground state magnetic properties is described with reference to the Breit-Rabi diagram. This diagram is invaluable for interpreting or predicting MuSR observations, both in transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields, so its construction and properties are explained in some detail. The precession signals observed in transverse-field MuSR correspond to transitions allowed between the energy levels in this diagram; particular attention is paid to the spectra characteristic of the high and low field regimes. The different states of muonium observed in dielectric, semiconducting and metallic materials are introduced. The influence of the host medium on the spectral parameters, hyperfine interaction and linewidth, is considered both for atomic muonium and for muonium which is chemically bound in paramagnetic molecules, for which the Breit-Rabi diagram also applies. (orig.)

  13. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level. PMID:24392679

  14. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level.

  15. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  16. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  17. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  18. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, S. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Lindsay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  19. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Lindsay, David S

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  20. Unusual Necrotizing Encephalitis in Raccoons and Skunks Concurrently Infected With Canine Distemper Virus and Sarcocystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiski, S V; Sisó, S; Church, M E; Cartoceti, A N; Barr, B; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Canine distemper virus commonly infects free-ranging, terrestrial mesopredators throughout the United States. Due to the immunosuppressive effects of the virus, concurrent opportunistic infections are also common. Among these, secondary systemic protozoal infections have been described in a number of species. We report an unusual presentation of necrotizing encephalitis associated withSarcocystissp in four raccoons and one skunk concurrently infected with canine distemper virus. Lesions were characterized by variably sized necrotizing cavitations composed of abundant mineral admixed with inflammatory cells and protozoa.Sarcocystissp was confirmed via immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody toSarcocystis neurona The pathologic changes are similar to lesions in human AIDS patients infected withToxoplasma gondii. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Iams, Keith P.; Dawe, S.; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy L.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated protection against plague in mice and prairie dogs using a raccoon pox (RCN) virus-vectored vaccine that expressed the F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis. In order to improve vaccine efficacy, we have now constructed additional RCN-plague vaccines containing two different forms of the lcrV (V) gene, including full-length (Vfull) and a truncated form (V307). Mouse challenge studies with Y. pestis strain CO92 showed that vaccination with a combination of RCN-F1 and the truncated V construct (RCN-V307) provided the greatest improvement (P = 0.01) in protection against plague over vaccination with RCN-F1 alone. This effect was mediated primarily by anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies and both contributed independently to increased survival of vaccinated mice.

  2. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  3. Demographics, diet, movements, and survival of an isolated, unmanaged raccoon Procyon lotor (Procyonidae, Carnivora) population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Arielle Waldstein; Simons, Theodore R.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are highly adaptable meso-carnivores that inhabit many environments, including the Atlantic barrier islands, where their role as predators of declining, beach-nesting bird and turtle species is of particular interest. Population models that improve our understanding of predator-prey dynamics are receiving increasing attention in the literature; however, their effective application requires site-specific information on population parameters. We studied an unharvested raccoon population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina and evaluated spatial and seasonal differences in a number of population/demographic factors of raccoons inhabiting areas of high and low human activity. Raccoons denned and foraged primarily in salt marsh habitats but shifted their movements in response to changes in seasonal resource conditions. The population was skewed toward older animals and exhibited delayed breeding, typical of populations at high density with few sources of mortality. Diet and movement analysis indicated shorebird and turtle predation was attributed to a small number of individual raccoons. Although seasonal resources appeared adequate to sustain a high population density of raccoons, poor body condition and low recruitment suggested a population near carrying capacity.

  4. Rabies in southeast Brazil: a change in the epidemiological pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Campos, Angélica Cristine A; Lopes, Marissol Cardoso; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Iamamoto, Keila; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; Venditti, Leandro Lima R; Ribeiro, Erica S; Pedro, Wagner André; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted using antigenic and genetic characterisation of rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in the southeast of Brazil from 1993 to 2007. An alteration in the epidemiological profile was observed. One hundred two samples were tested using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies, and 94 were genetically characterised by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. From 1993 to 1997, antigenic variant 2 (AgV-2), related to a rabies virus maintained in dog populations, was responsible for rabies cases in dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Antigenic variant 3 (AgV-3), associated with Desmodus rotundus, was detected in a few cattle samples from rural areas. From 1998 to 2007, rabies virus was detected in bats and urban pets, and four distinct variants were identified. A nucleotide similarity analysis resulted in two primary groups comprising the dog and bat antigenic variants and showing the distinct endemic cycles maintained in the different animal species in this region.

  5. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! When should I seek medical attention? Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... with soap and water. See your doctor for attention for any trauma due to an animal attack ...

  6. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  7. Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... lack of safe efficient vaccines and poor information on the risk of contracting rabies post animal exposure. .... cell was considered centromerically attenuated when it contains at least ..... population by adenovirus. In: Genetic ...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  10. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Leenstra, T.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; van Vugt, M.; Stijnis, C.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules. Although initial responses were lower, accelerated adequate immune responses were elicited after booster vaccinations. Lower-dose (and

  11. Human rabies due to lyssavirus infection of bat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Vos, A; Freuling, C; Tordo, N; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2010-05-19

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis and results from infection with viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Infection usually results from a bite from a dog infected with classical rabies virus. However, a small number of cases result from contact with bats. It is within bats that most lyssavirus variants, referred to as genotypes, are found. The lyssaviruses found in bats have a distinct geographical distribution and are often restricted to specific bat species. Most have been associated with rabies in humans and in some cases spill-over to domestic animals. Many diagnostic techniques are unable to differentiate rabies virus from other genotypes so it is possible that some human and animal cases go unreported. Furthermore, current vaccines have limited efficacy against some genotypes. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Diagnosis of rabies infection in animals using monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacem, O; Taril, A; Benelmouffok, A; Bemansour, A; Couillin, P; Brahimi, M; Benhassine, M

    1989-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (M.A.), specific for viral nucleocapsid, the M.A. D-20 and the M.A. D-43 raised against a fixed strain of rabies virus (C.V.S. 11), have been tested in parallel with a standard antirabies serum (S.A.R.) in diagnosis of animal rabies virus infection. 44 brain imprints from animals which died from rabies were tested by indirect immunofluorescent technique with monoclonal antibodies. Constant correlation has been found between the M.A. D-43 and the S.A.R. in the diagnosis of animal rabies virus infection in all cases studied. For M.A. D-20, concordance of results with S.A.R. was found only in limited number of cases.

  13. Taming the beast: rabies control in the cradle of mankind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D' Amico, C.; Mihalca, A. D.; Domsa, C.; Albrechtová, K.; Sándor, A.D.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 409-411 ISSN 1827-1987 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dogs * rabies * geographical information systems * Kenya Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2013

  14. Incidence of human rabies and characterization of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Deng, Yan-Qin; Wu, Shou-Li; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yan-Sheng

    2017-08-30

    Rabies is a global fatal infectious viral disease that is characterized by a high mortality after onset of clinical symptoms. Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of rabies in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of human rabies and characterize the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs sampled from Fujian Province, Southeast China from 2002 to 2012. Data pertaining to human rabies cases in Fujian Province during the period from 2002 through 2012 were collected, and the epidemiological profiles were described. The saliva and brain specimens were collected from dogs in Quanzhou, Longyan and Sanming cities of the province, and the rabies virus antigen was determined in the canine saliva specimens using an ELISA assay. Rabies virus RNA was extracted from canine brain specimens, and rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was amplified using a nested RT-PCR assay, followed by sequencing and genotyping. A total of 226 human rabies cases were reported in Fujian Province from 2002 to 2012, in which 197 cases were detected in three cities of Quanzhou, Longyan and Sanming. ELISA assay revealed positive rabies virus antigen in six of eight rabid dogs and 165 of 3492 seemingly healthy dogs. The full-length gene fragment of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was amplified from the brain specimens of seven rabid dogs and 12 seemingly healthy dogs. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these 19 rabies virus nucleoprotein genes all belonged to genotype I, and were classified into three genetic groups. Sequencing analysis showed a 99.7% to 100% intra-group and an 86.4% to 89.3% inter-group homology. This study is the first description pertaining to the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies cases and characterization of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China. Our findings may provide valuable knowledge for the development of strategies targeting the prevention and control of

  15. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H. C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  16. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal and Rabies Control in Joint Operations Areas (Working Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    appear lethargic with hypersalivation and anorexia . Two rabies syndromes are recognized in animals—the paralytic or “dumb” and hyperactive or “furious... nutritional needs, making populated areas a preferred habitat and increasing the reproductive capacity of animals which is attributed to improved... nutrition . Without appropriate vaccination and population control, feral animals contribute to the maintenance of sylvatic rabies cycles in local wildlife

  19. Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This podcast describes a 10-year study of the use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies in New York State. CDC's Dr. Brett Petersen discusses the prevalence of rabies in the United States and how the study lends support to recent changes in the recommended PEP protocol.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  20. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  1. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  2. Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae sequence types in spite of a control program for enzootic pneumonia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-09-15

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs caused by Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae has successfully been combatted in Switzerland. A control program was fully implemented in 2004 which is based on total depopulation strategies of affected fattening farms as well as partial depopulation on breeding farms. Thereby, the number of cases has dropped drastically from more than 200 in 2003 to two cases in 2013. Currently monitoring is done based on clinical observation and subsequent diagnostic of coughing pigs. Moreover, in case of more than 10% gross pathological lesions per slaughter batch laboratory confirmation for EP is compulsory. Despite these strict measures it was not possible to eliminate M. hyopneumoniae from Swiss pig production. In fact, during the last few years the number of EP cases has slightly increased. Therefore, genotyping of the involved M. hyopneumoniae strains was conducted in order to elucidate possible sources and routes of infection. All available and typeable samples from totally 22 cases during the period 2014-2016 were investigated by extended multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 16 cases, including eight from 2014, five from 2015 and three from 2016 could thereby be included in the study. MLST revealed that the majority of cases in 2014/2015 were due to two major spread scenarios, i.e. two M. hyopneumoniae sequence types, each scenario involving six individual production farms in five to six different Cantons (states), respectively. Moreover, by comparison of archived sequences some sequence types were observed over ten years demonstrating their persistence over a long time and the possible partial failure of elimination measures in Switzerland. Insufficient sanitation on affected farms and subsequent animal transport of symptomless infected pigs could lead to recurrent cases. Wild boar harbor identical strains found with EP but solid data are missing to assign a role as reservoir to this wild animal. Implementing a monitoring scheme for M

  3. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Resistance and Exhaust Air Dust PCR as a Diagnostic Tool in Mice Enzootically Infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Pratibha; Hayes, Yumiko O; Jarrell, Leslie T; Bellinger, Dwight A; Thomas, Rhiannon D; Lawson, Gregory W; Arkema, Jaclyn D; Fletcher, Craig A; Nielsen, Judith N

    2017-01-01

    The entry of infectious agents in rodent colonies occurs despite robust sentinel monitoring programs, strict quarantine measures, and stringent biosecurity practices. In light of several outbreaks with Aspiculuris tetraptera in our facilities, we investigated the presence of anthelmintic resistance and the use of exhaust air dust (EAD) PCR for early detection of A. tetraptera infection. To determine anthelmintic resistance, C57BL/6, DBA/2, and NCr nude mice were experimentally inoculated with embryonated A. tetraptera ova harvested from enzootically infected mice, followed by treatment with 150 ppm fenbendazole in feed, 150 ppm fenbendazole plus 5 ppm piperazine in feed, or 2.1 mg/mL piperazine in water for 4 or 8 wk. Regardless of the mouse strain or treatment, no A. tetraptera were recovered at necropsy, indicating the lack of resistance in the worms to anthelmintic treatment. In addition, 10 of 12 DBA/2 positive-control mice cleared the A. tetraptera infection without treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of EAD PCR for A. tetraptera, 69 cages of breeder mice enzootically infected with A. tetraptera were housed on a Tecniplast IVC rack as a field study. On day 0, 56% to 58% of the cages on this rack tested positive for A. tetraptera by PCR and fecal centrifugation flotation (FCF). PCR from EAD swabs became positive for A. tetraptera DNA within 1 wk of placing the above cages on the rack. When these mice were treated with 150 ppm fenbendazole in feed, EAD PCR reverted to pinworm-negative after 1 mo of treatment and remained negative for an additional 8 wk. The ability of EAD PCR to detect few A. tetraptera positive mice was investigated by housing only 6 infected mice on another IVC rack as a field study. The EAD PCR from this rack was positive for A. tetraptera DNA within 1 wk of placing the positive mice on it. These findings demonstrate that fenbendazole is still an effective anthelmintic and that EAD PCR is a rapid, noninvasive assay that may be a useful

  4. The decade of the RABiT (2005-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, G.; Turner, H.C.; Bertucci, A.; Sharma, P.; Taveras, M.; Bigelow, A.W.; Repin, M.; Lyulko, O.V.; Brenner, D.J.; Salerno, A.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Bian, D.; Yao, Y.L.; Dutta, A.; Wang, H.; Bhatla, A.; Balajee, A.; Simaan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The RABiT (Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool) is a dedicated Robotic platform for the automation of cytogenetics-based biodosimetry assays. The RABiT was developed to fulfill the critical requirement for triage following a mass radiological or nuclear event. Starting from well-characterized and accepted assays we developed a custom robotic platform to automate them. We present here a brief historical overview of the RABiT program at Columbia University from its inception in 2005 until the RABiT was dismantled at the end of 2015. The main focus of this paper is to demonstrate how the biological assays drove development of the custom robotic systems and in turn new advances in commercial robotic platforms inspired small modifications in the assays to allow replacing customized robotics with 'off the shelf' systems. Currently, a second-generation, RABiT II, system at Columbia University, consisting of a PerkinElmer cell::explorer, was programmed to perform the RABiT assays and is undergoing testing and optimization studies. (authors)

  5. Poxvirus-vectored vaccines for rabies--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Jacqueline; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2009-11-27

    Oral rabies vaccination of target reservoir species has proved to be one of the pillars of successful rabies elimination programs. The use of live attenuated rabies virus vaccines has been extensive but several limitations hamper its future use. A recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine has also been successfully used for the oral vaccination of several species. Nevertheless, its lack of efficacy in certain important rabies reservoirs and concerns on the use of this potent live virus as vaccine carrier (vector) impair the expansion of its use for new target species and new areas. Several attenuated and host-restricted poxvirus alternatives, which supposedly offer enhanced safety, have been investigated. Once again, efficacy in certain target species and innocuity through the oral route remain major limitations of these vaccines. Alternative recombinant vaccines using adenovirus as an antigen delivery vector have been extensively investigated and may provide an important addition to the currently available oral rabies vaccine repertoire, but are not the primary subject of this review.

  6. Retrospective: animal attacks and rabies exposures in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriaroon, Chakrapol; Sriaroon, Panida; Daviratanasilpa, Svastijaya; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Wilde, Henry

    2006-09-01

    Over 50% of animal bites and potential rabies exposures in Thailand are in children and they also have the more severe injuries due to inexperience, smaller size and less ability to fend off attacks. Potential rabies exposures and animal bites are common in Thailand. Majority of these are in children where the extent of the injuries is also much more severe. The bitten areas correlate to the age of the children and level of the bitten animal head. These are areas noted for a higher risk of infection with rabies virus and shorter incubation periods. The vast majority of bites are due to dogs (86%) of which 74.6% are stray or community-owned animals. The prevalence of dog bites shows no seasonal variation in adults but there are two peaks during school vacation period for children. Extensive educational efforts directed at the Thai public are responsible for the rapid presentation of victims for post-exposure treatment. The dramatic reduction of human rabies deaths in Thailand during the last decades was achieved largely by the provision of expensive WHO standard post-exposure treatment, utilizing modern tissue culture vaccines and immunoglobulins. Canine and feline rabies is nevertheless still endemic and not likely to be controlled or eliminated till sustainable humane methods of dog population control and comprehensive countrywide canine rabies vaccination become possible through government policy.

  7. Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, J L; Hatch, B G; Taylor, L H; Nel, L H; Shwiff, S A

    2018-02-01

    An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased. Transportation costs comprised a much higher proportion of total costs in rural areas and where house-to-house vaccination campaigns were necessary. The association between the cost of providing PEP and human population density was less clear. The presence of a pre-existing national rabies management programme had a marked effect on keeping infrastructure and equipment costs for the project low. Finally, the proportion of the total costs of the project provided by the external donor was found to be low for the projects in the Philippines and South Africa, but likely covered close to the complete costs of the project in Tanzania. The detailed economic evaluation of three recent large-scale rabies control pilot projects provides the opportunity to examine economic costs across these different settings and to identify factors influencing rabies control costs that could be applied to future projects. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Medium-term cryopreservation of rabies virus samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza D'avila de Freitas Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The cryopreservation of rabies virus has been described in detail in the literature. To date, little information is available on the use of cryoprotective agents for cold preservation of this virus, and the available data focus only on short-term virus preservation. In this study, we investigated the medium-term cryopreservation of samples of rabies virus using different cryopreservation protocols. Methods The cryopreservation protocols for the rabies virus samples were performed at -20°C and were divided according to the variables of time and cryoprotectant type used. The laboratory tests (intracerebral inoculation of mice, viral titration and direct immunofluorescence were performed at regular intervals (360 and 720 days to assess the viability of the viral samples according to the different preservation techniques used. Results After 1 year of cryopreservation, the fluorescence intensity of intracellular corpuscles of the rabies virus and the median survival time of the mice differed between the positive controls and the treatments with the cryoprotectants. After 2 years, most of the samples subjected to the cryopreservation protocols (including the controls did not produce fluorescence. However, the virus samples exposed to the cryoprotectant sucrose (68% solution responded positively in the direct immunofluorescence assay and in the intracerebral inoculation of the mice. Conclusions Medium-term cryopreservation of the rabies virus inactivates the viral sample. However, the cryoprotectant agent sucrose (68% produces a preservative effect in cryopreserved rabies virus samples.

  9. The spatiotemporal expansion of human rabies and its probable explanation in mainland China, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Wu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Kun; Li, Xin-Lou; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Human rabies is a significant public health concern in mainland China. However, the neglect of rabies expansion and scarce analyses of the dynamics have made the spatiotemporal spread pattern of human rabies and its determinants being poorly understood. We collected geographic locations and timeline of reported human rabies cases, rabies sequences and socioeconomic variables for the years 2004-2013, and integrated multidisciplinary approaches, including epidemiological characterization, hotspots identification, risk factors analysis and phylogeographic inference, to explore the spread pattern of human rabies in mainland China during the last decade. The results show that human rabies distribution and hotspots were expanding from southeastern regions to north or west regions, which could be associated with the evolution of the virus, especially the clade I-G. A Panel Poisson Regression analysis reveals that human rabies incidences had significant correlation with the education level, GDP per capita, temperature at one-month lag and canine rabies outbreak at two-month lag. The reduction in the overall human rabies incidence was accompanied by a westward and northward expansion of the circulating region in mainland China. Higher risk of human rabies was associated with lower level of education and economic status. New clades of rabies, especial Clade I-G, played an important role in recent spread. Our findings provide valuable information for rabies control and prevention in the future.

  10. Fear of feces? Trade-offs between disease risk and foraging drive animal activity around raccoon latrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Moura, Chad W.; Mendez, Jon Francis; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Fear of predation alters prey behavior, which can indirectly alter entire landscapes. A parasite-induced ecology of fear might also exist if animals avoid parasite-contaminated resources when infection costs outweigh foraging benefits. To investigate whether animals avoid parasite contaminated sites, and if such avoidance balances disease costs and foraging gains, we monitored animal behavior at raccoon latrines – sites that concentrate both seeds and pathogenic parasite eggs. Using wildlife cameras, we documented over 40 potentially susceptible vertebrate species in latrines and adjacent habitat. Latrine contact rates reflected background activity, diet preferences and disease risk. Disease-tolerant raccoons and rats displayed significant site attraction, while susceptible birds and small mammals avoided these high-risk sites. This suggests that parasites, like predators, might create a landscape of fear for vulnerable hosts. Such non-consumptive parasite effects could alter disease transmission, population dynamics, and even ecosystem structure.

  11. Population genomics of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Denmark: insights into invasion history and population development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Louise Solveig; Götz Mikkelsen, Dorthe Marlene; Elmeros, Morten

    2017-01-01

    , into at least four different clusters, in spite of the existence of long distance gene flow and secondary admixture from different population sources. The Danish population was characterized by a high level of genetic admixture with neighbouring feral European ancestries and the presence of private clusters......-sustaining population. To elucidate the origin and genetic patterns of Danish raccoon dogs, we studied the population genomics of 190 individuals collected in Denmark (n = 141) together with reference captive individuals from Poland (n = 21) and feral individuals from different European localities (Germany, Poland......, Estonia and Finland, n = 28). We used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach simultaneously identifying and genotyping a large panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (n = 4526). Overall, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring of the analysed raccoon dog populations...

  12. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza viruses transmit efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobian, Kristina; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Hansen, Mette Sif; Webby, Richard J; Larsen, Lars E

    2015-07-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2, and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titres in nasal wash and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics using a differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titres. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the 2,6-α-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that all were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggested that these viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as biological characterization of new influenza A viruses.

  13. Tiamulin feed premix in the improvement of growth performance of pigs in herds severely affected with enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, D G

    1984-03-03

    Four field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding tiamulin hydrogen fumarate at 20 and 30 ppm to fattening pigs over an eight week period, on farms with histories of severe, complicated, enzootic pneumonia problems. These farms had a prevalence of pigs with pneumonic lesions from 81 to 94 per cent and a range between individual batches of 69 to 96 per cent. The results of the first three trials showed that tiamulin at 30 ppm significantly improved the weight gains and feed conversion efficiency of pigs, in comparison with controls and was superior to the groups fed 20 ppm tiamulin. A further trial with tiamulin at 30 ppm and controls only, confirmed the original findings. The overall average results showed that tiamulin improved average daily gain by 33 g (4.7 per cent) and feed conversion efficiency by 0.138 (4.7 per cent). This effect did not appear to result from a reduction in the total extent of pneumonic lesions and the possible reasons for this are discussed, but in the fourth trial the number of pigs requiring parenteral treatment was noticeably reduced.

  14. Efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine for the control of enzootic pneumonia in pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivara, A; Kritas, S K; Bourriel, A R; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C

    2007-02-17

    The efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated at two M hyopneumoniae-infected farrow-to-finish commercial farms (A and B) in Greece. In a prospective, randomised double-blind study, two groups on each farm received intramuscular doses of either the vaccine or the adjuvant when they were one and four weeks of age. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs of disease; morbidity and mortality were recorded; and bodyweight was recorded at intervals. At slaughter, the lungs of the animals were examined and the chest cavities were examined for signs of pleuritis. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in any of the pigs. On farm A the vaccinated pigs were on average 6 kg heavier at slaughter, and on farm B they were on average 4 kg heavier; on both farms the average daily gain of the pigs was greater than that of the unvaccinated pigs. The prevalence and severity of enzootic pneumonia in the affected lungs were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated pigs.

  15. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Cristolde; Nacima, Amílcar; Cuamba, Lutero; Gujral, Lorna; Amiel, Olga; Baltazar, Cynthia; Cliff, Julie; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-07-01

    In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities. We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided. This investigation included collection of clinical, demographic and epidemiological information and a case control study to investigate the risk factors associated with human rabies. Fourteen cases of human rabies were detected in Maputo (n = 10) and Matola (n = 3) cities and neighbouring Boane district (n = 1) between April and August 2014, all of whom had been admitted to hospital. All had a recent history of dog bite. Of the 14 rabid dogs, only one had been immunized. 819 cases of animal bites were registered, of which 64.6% (529/819) were from Maputo City. Dogs were responsible for 97.8% (801/819) of all animal bites, but only 27.0% (126/467) were immunized. Factors significantly associated with human rabies were: age human rabies were strongly associated with bites by stray and unvaccinated dogs and irregular implementation of post-exposure measures.

  16. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  17. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  18. Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Salamon, S; Gorna, A; Switonski, M

    2013-04-01

    Coat colour variation is determined by many genes, one of which is the melanocortin receptor type 1 (MC1R) gene. In this study, we examined the whole coding sequence of this gene in four species belonging to the Canidae family (dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). Although the comparative analysis of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed a high conservation, which varied between 97.9 and 99.1%, we altogether identified 22 SNPs (10 in dogs, six in farmed red foxes, two in wild red foxes, three in arctic foxes and one in Chinese raccoon dog). Among them, seven appeared to be novel: one silent in the dog, three missense and one silent in the red fox, one in the 3'-flanking region in the arctic fox and one silent in the Chinese raccoon dog. In dogs and red foxes, the SNPs segregated as 10 and four haplotypes, respectively. Taking into consideration the published reports and results of this study, the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog (9) and red fox (7). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Three-dimensional positioning of B chromosomes in fibroblast nuclei of the red fox and the chinese raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociucka, B; Sosnowski, J; Kubiak, A; Nowak, A; Pawlak, P; Szczerbal, I

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has been achieved over the last years in studies on chromosome arrangement in mammalian cell nuclei. Growing evidence indicates that the genome's spatial organization is of functional relevance. So far, no attention has been paid to the nuclear organization of B chromosomes (Bs). In this study we have examined nuclear positioning of Bs in 2 species from the Canidae family--the red fox and the Chinese raccoon dog. Using 2D and 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization and 2 gene-specific probes (C-KIT and PDGFRA), we analyzed the location of Bs in fibroblast nuclei. We found that small Bs of the red fox occupied mostly the interior of the nucleus, while medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were observed in the peripheral area of the nucleus as well as in intermediate and interior locations. The more uniform distribution of B chromosomes in the Chinese raccoon dog may be the result of differences in their size, since 3 morphological types of Bs are distinguished in this species. Our results indicate that 3D positioning of B chromosomes in fibroblast nuclei of the 2 canid species is in agreement with the chromosome size-dependent theory. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Estimated prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in rac-coon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides in northern Branden-burg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine SCHWARZ, Astrid SUTOR, Christoph STAUBACH, Roswitha MATTIS, Kirsten TACKMANN, Franz Josef CONRATHS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval stage of the small fox tapeworm, is a lethal zoonotic infection if left untreated. E. multilocularis is distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and lives in the small intestines of carnivores, mainly canids. The main definitive host of E. multilocularis in European countries is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and in the last ten years new endemic areas for the parasite in Central Europe have been identified. In some areas, for instance in Germany, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides - a spreading neozoon - must be regarded as an additional definitive host for E. multilocularis. In 2001 this parasite was found for the first time in raccoon dogs in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Between 2000 and 2008, 1,252 raccoon dogs from Brandenburg were examined by the Intestinal Scraping Technique. The majority of samples were obtained in five northern counties and all 60 animals that tested positive for E. multilocularis were located there. The estimated true prevalence calculated by a beta-binomial- model ranged from 6%–12% [Current Zoology 57 (5: 655–661, 2011].

  1. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in skunks (Mephitis Mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) from Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Cheadle, M Andy; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2002-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in North America and is usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Natural cases of encephalitis caused by S. neurona have been reported in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. Sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (D. virginiana) from Connecticut were examined for agglutinating antibodies to S. neurona using the S. neurona agglutination test (SAT) employing formalin-fixed merozoites as antigen. The SAT was validated for skunk sera using pre- and postinfection serum samples from 2 experimentally infected skunks. Of the 24 (46%) skunks 11 were positive, and all 12 raccoons were positive for S. neurona antibodies. None of the 7 opossums was positive for antibodies to S. neurona. These results suggest that exposure to sporocysts of S. neurona by intermediate hosts is high in Connecticut. The absence of antibodies in opossums collected from the same areas is most likely because of the absence of systemic infection in the definitive host.

  2. Seasonal rhythms of body temperature in the free-ranging raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) with special emphasis on winter sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Asikainen, Juha; Kauhala, Kaarina; Paakkonen, Tommi; Nieminen, Petteri

    2007-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is the only canid with passive overwintering in areas with cold winters, but the depth and rhythmicity of wintertime hypothermia in the wild raccoon dog are unknown. To study the seasonal rhythms of body temperature (T(b)), seven free-ranging animals were captured and implanted with intra-abdominal T(b) loggers and radio-tracked during years 2004-2006. The average size of the home ranges was 306+/-26 ha, and the average 24 h T(b) was 38.0+/-dogs were hypothermic for 5 h in the morning (06:00-11:00 h), whereas the highest T(b) values were recorded between 16:00-23:00 h. The range of the 24 h oscillations increased by approximately 0.6 degrees C, and the rhythmicity was more pronounced than in the snow-free period. The ambient temperature and depth of snow cover were important determinants of the seasonal T(b) rhythms. The overwintering strategy of the raccoon dog resembled the patterns of winter sleep in bears and badgers, but the wintertime passivity of the species was more intermittent and the decrease in the T(b) less pronounced.

  3. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  4. Some cases of rabies with high exposure potential: A field experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12-year old girl died of rabies in 1986. The source of the rabies was a family dog that had been vaccinated several times with Flury Strain LEP rabies vaccine. The health and home care of the dog was excellent. The death of the dog 4 days after it bit the girl did not qualify it for a rabies suspect and the brain was not tested ...

  5. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  6. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the Science and Planning the Way Forward AGENCY... (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies... rabies vaccine potency testing, and to develop an implementation strategy to achieve global acceptance...

  7. Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Virus in Polar Foxes in Greeenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    Classical rabies virus continues to circulate in polar foxes in Greenland. Within the last 5 years more than 30 animals, mainly polar foxes have been tested positive for rabies. In this study, brain samples from this period were assessed for the presence of rabies viral RNA using molecular...

  8. 78 FR 33798 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0046] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental... Inspection Service has prepared a supplemental environmental assessment (EA) relative to an oral rabies... analyzes expanding the field trial for an experimental oral rabies vaccine for wildlife to additional areas...

  9. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Heng; Luo, Meiling; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Chen, Faming; Liu, Ruchun; Chen, Tianmu

    2017-09-01

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

  10. 77 FR 49409 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... assessment and finding of no significant impact relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in New... be prepared. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator...

  11. Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, E.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Geong, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies

  12. 76 FR 48119 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment AGENCY... environmental assessment relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in West Virginia. The environmental... rabies vaccine, analyzes the use of that vaccine in field safety and efficacy trials in West Virginia...

  13. 77 FR 40322 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... assessment relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Vermont, and West Virginia. The environmental assessment analyzes the use of an experimental rabies vaccine in field...

  14. 76 FR 56731 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive...

  15. A human monoclonal antibody cocktail as a novel component of rabies postexposure prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, John; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Throsby, Mark; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    The currently recommended treatment for individuals exposed to rabies virus is the combined administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin (RIG). This review sets out the criteria used to guide development of a cocktail of human monoclonal antibodies as a replacement for RIG. Using this

  16. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jibat, T.; Hogeveen, H.; Mourits, Monique C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases in both humans and animals. A bite by a rabid dog is the main cause of human rabies in Africa. Parenteral mass dog vaccination is the most cost-effective tool to prevent rabies in humans. Our main objective was to review research articles on the parenteral

  17. 78 FR 49444 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and Finding of... supplement to an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact relative to an oral rabies.... Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive, Suite 7, Concord...

  18. First reported case of dog associated pig rabies in Ghana | Tasiame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pig rabies is uncommon and there is paucity of information on rabies in pigs in West African countries other than Nigeria. This communication presents a case of dog associated pig rabies in Adidome, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Case history, Dog assessment in adjoining communities, human exposure, ...

  19. Incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is widely recognized that rabies is grossly under-reported even though it is a notifiable disease and a lack of accurate figures has rendered rabies a low public health and veterinary priority. This study aimed at determining the incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health care centre.

  20. Cold chain facility status and the potency of animal rabies vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies vaccine failures were reported in literature. Realising that rabies vaccine is sensitive to temperature change, there is need to assess the storage condition of rabies vaccine from distribution centres to veterinary clinics where they are used. This is to establish the sustained potency from source to use. Cold-Chain ...

  1. On the solvability of p states quantum Rabi Model with Zp -graded parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Won Sang; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the p-level Rabi model with Z p -graded symmetry is discussed. The p-level Rabi Hamiltonian is constructed by introducing the generalized Pauli matrices. The energy and wave function for the p-level Rabi equation are obtained by using the standard perturbation method. (paper)

  2. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N M; Orciari, L A; Niezgoda, M; Selvaggi, G; Stosor, V; Lyon, G M; Wallace, R M; Gabel, J; Stanek, D R; Jenkins, P; Shiferaw, M; Yager, P; Jackson, F; Hanlon, C A; Damon, I; Blanton, J D; Recuenco, S; Franka, R

    2015-06-01

    The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N.M.; Orciari, L.A.; Niezgoda, M.; Selvaggi, G.; Stosor, V.; Lyon, G.M.; Wallace, R.M.; Gabel, J.; Stanek, D.R.; Jenkins, P.; Shiferaw, M.; Yager, P.; Jackson, F.; Hanlon, C.A.; Damon, I.; Blanton, J.D.; Recuenco, S.; Franka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. Methods As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. Results All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. Conclusions The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. PMID:25851103

  4. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Canine and human rabies in Conakry: epidemiology and preventive aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youla, A S; Traore, F A; Sako, F B; Feda, R M; Emeric, M A

    2014-02-01

    In Guinea, stray dogs are present in large numbers in public places and around landfills. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of human exposure to rabies risk, the cases of human and canine rabies and to describe the epidemiological profile of the cases. This retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in health and veterinarian facilities within the city of Conakry. All records of patients admitted in these facilities because of animal bites and veterinary records for aggression by domestic animals from 2002 to 2012, so, during an 11-year period, were collected. During the study period, 7 994 people were concerned by domestic animal bites. Males were the most affected with 60.4% of all cases. Students represented the higher class with 36.0%, followed by workers (18%). The majority of injuries were to the lower limbs (54.4%). The dog has been implicated in the attacks in 98.8% of cases. Among the 2 916 biting dogs which were placed under observation, 14 developed clinical rabies. Among those assaulted, 11 cases of rabies were reported. From 7 994 victims of domestic animal bites, 2 634 received post-exposure prophylaxis and the dropout rate was 51%. Rabies is a real risk in Conakry. Provisions in terms of public health strategy must be taken to minimize it.

  6. Outbreak of human rabies in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Miranda, P; Tejada, E; Fishbein, D B

    1992-02-15

    Transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. These aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in Peru in early 1990. Between Jan 1 and April 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the Amazon Jungle in Peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. A census in one of the two towns revealed that the proportion affected was significantly higher for 5-14 year olds (17%) than for other age-groups (p less than 10(-5). Interviews conducted with 23 of the patients or their families revealed that 22 (96%) had a history of bat bite, compared with 66 (22%) of 301 community members who remained healthy (p less than 10(-6). A rabies virus strain identical to those isolated from vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) was isolated from the brain of the only person on whom necropsy could be done. Because of the extreme isolation of this and other communities affected by bat-transmitted rabies, preventive measures should be directed at decreasing the risk of nocturnal exposure to bats by bat proofing dwellings or use of mosquito nets and at prompt wound care. Rabies pre-exposure or postexposure vaccination is clearly indicated, but may not be feasible in these isolated populations.

  7. Line shapes of atomic-candle-type Rabi resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffer, J.G.; Camparo, J.C.; Sickmiller, B.; Presser, A.

    2002-01-01

    When atoms interact with a phase-modulated field, the probability of finding the atom in the excited-state oscillates at the second harmonic of the modulation frequency, 2ω m . The amplitude of this oscillating probability is a resonant function of the Rabi frequency Ω, and this is termed a β Rabi resonance. In this work, we examine the line shape of the β Rabi resonance both theoretically and experimentally. We find that a small-signal theory of the β-Rabi-resonance condition captures much of the line shape's character, and, in particular, that the resonance's 'line Q' (i.e., 2δΩ 1/2 /Ω) is proportional to the modulation frequency. This result can be applied to the atomic candle, where β Rabi resonances are employed to stabilize field strength. Considering our results in the context of developing an optical atomic candle, we find that a free-running diode laser's intensity noise could be improved by orders of magnitude using the atomic candle concept

  8. Transmission dynamics and prospects for the elimination of canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (approximately 1.2 and throughout its historic global range (<2. This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  9. Rabies vaccination in dogs using a dissolving microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Jaya M; Dewitt, Kristopher; Scott-Garrard, Maya; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-10

    Because humans get rabies primarily through dog bites, stray dog population control and mass or mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs and other animals has virtually eliminated human rabies in industrialized countries. However, thousands of people in developing countries die of rabies each year due to the inability to control dog populations and implement mass vaccination because of financial, logistical and other challenges. The availability of an easier-to-administer and more cost-effective vaccine may help to address some of these issues. Here, we propose the use of dissolving microneedle patches for simple and potentially cost-effective rabies vaccination, and assess the safety and immunogenicity of microneedle patch vaccination using a rabies DNA vaccine in dogs. The vaccine was stable upon formulation and storage for at least 3weeks at 4°C in a microneedle patch. For vaccination, the patches were applied to the inner ear by hand without an applicator. Microneedle patches were well tolerated in the skin, with mild erythema, minimal wheal formation and complete resolution of skin reactions within 7days, and generated no systemic adverse events. Microneedle patches were at least as immunogenic as intramuscular injection at the same dose, as demonstrated by similar serum neutralizing antibody titers. A ten-fold lower vaccine dose administered by microneedle patch generated a weaker immune response compared to full-dose intramuscular vaccination. We conclude that dissolving microneedle patches may provide an innovative approach to mass vaccination of dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, W.E.; Kramer, R.A.; Rice, A.; Weldon, W.C.; Niezgoda, M.; Faber, M.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, M.; Visser, T.J.; Jongeneelen, M.; Thijsse, S.; Throsby, M.; Kruif, de J.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Dietzschold, B.; Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, A.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  11. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Milosz; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Meloen, Rob H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Visser, Therese J.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Alexander B. H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  12. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures.

  13. Macro and microscopic structure of parotids salivary glands in two species of procyonidae: raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 and coati (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coati (Nasua nasua, a diurnal animal, and raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus, a crepuscular and nocturnal one, are species of terrestrial mammals, belonging to the procyonidae family, that are widely found in the Brazilian territory. For this work were used three adult coatis and two adult raccoons adults from the Scientific Breeding-Cecrimpas of Centro Universitario da Fundacão de Ensino Octávio Bastos (Ibama 02027.003731/04-76 were used, from which tissue samples of parotid salivary glands were obtained and stained H.E. for light microscopy. It was found that the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons has a positioning similar to that of the other domestic carnivores, opening their ducts within the oral cavity close to the fourth upper premolar tooth, as well as that histologically the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons are formed by serous acini, similarly to most of the domestic animals, humans beings and rodents, and differently from the results found in young dogs, lambs and some carnivores such as the ferret which have mixed acini and other ones which have serous. One concludes that the similarity in serous constitution of the parotid glands of coatis and raccoons might be due to the omnivorous feeding habit shared by these two species.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Etiopatogenia e imunoprofilaxia da pneumonia enzoótica suína Etiopathogenesis and immunoprofilaxis of Swine Enzootic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES, causada pela bactéria fastidiosa Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, é a doença respiratória mais importante dos suínos, responsável por enormes prejuízos à suinocultura brasileira e mundial. A elevada prevalência e o fato de pré-dispor os suínos à patógenos oportunistas tornam esta doença o alvo central de um programa de saúde de rebanho para doenças respiratórias. O conhecimento das características do agente etiológico bem como dos seus fatores de patogenicidade pode ajudar na elaboração de novas estratégias de controle da PES. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir alguns aspectos da etiopatogenia da PES que têm implicação na imunoprofilaxia da doença e os principais resultados obtidos com vacinas de última geração avaliadas experimentalmente.Swine Enzootic Pneumonia (SEP, caused by fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is the most important respiratory disease of swines, responsible for high losses to Brazilian and worldwide swine breeding. The high prevalence and the fact to predis-pose the swines to secondary pathogens make this disease the central target of a herd health program to respiratory diseases. The knowledge of the characteristics and pathogenicity factors of etiologic agent could help in the development of new strategies to control SEP. The aim of this review was to discuss some aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the SEP that have implications in the immunoprofilaxis of disease and the main results obtained with new generation vaccines evaluated experimentally.

  16. Relationship between the serological status towards enzootic bovine leukosis and reproductive parameters in specialized dairy herds in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An analytical longitudinal study was conducted to determine the cumulative incidence, and the relationship of the serostatus towards enzootic bovine leukosis virus (EBLV and reproductive parameters, in 26 dairy farms in Costa Rica using the VAMPP Bovine information system. A first sampling was carried out in 2006- 2007 in animals older than 6 months old; then, in 2009, a second sampling was performed in all cows seronegative in 2006-2007. The overall and farm- specific cumulative incidence were calculated; then, comparisons of these were performed by race and parity number, using the Chi-square test. The relationship of EBLV status with the calving interval (CI, services per conception (SPC and days open (DO by parity number and race groups, was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The overall incidence was 21.8% (173/794, with 38.5% of farms with incidences higher to 40%. The seroconversion rate in cows with 1-2 parities (23.5% was different than those with 6 or more parities (p=0.03. Holstein x Jersey cows had the highest incidence (33.3%, followed by Holstein (27.1%. According to the farmers, in the 26 farms (100% they used an individual needle and a single rectal palpation glove per animal; however, 53.8% of farms showed incidences above 15%. In general, there was a tendency to lower CI in seronegative cows with regard to seropositives and seroconverters, especially in seropoisitives of 1-2 lactations (p=0.017 and 3-5 lactations (p=0.038. Regardless parity number or race, the seropositives and seroconverters required more SPC (p=0.031; this same tendency (not significant was observed in DO. Thus, it was found some relation of the status about EBLV with CI and SPC, but not with DO, although there was no statistical significance in some of the differences found, with better parameters in seronegative cows.

  17. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  18. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed.

  19. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  20. Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, Ryan; Filin, Alex; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.

  1. Dispersive regime of the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Photon-based strongly correlated lattice models like the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattices differ from their more conventional relatives like the Bose–Hubbard model by the presence of an additional tunable parameter: the frequency detuning between the pseudo-spin degree of freedom and the harmonic mode frequency on each site. Whenever this detuning is large compared to relevant coupling strengths, the system is said to be in the dispersive regime. The physics of this regime is well-understood at the level of a single Jaynes–Cummings or Rabi site. Here, we extend the theoretical description of the dispersive regime to lattices with many sites, for both strong and ultra-strong coupling. We discuss the nature and spatial range of the resulting qubit–qubit and photon–photon coupling, demonstrate the emergence of photon-pairing and squeezing and illustrate our results by exact diagonalization of the Rabi dimer. (paper)

  2. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  3. Multiphoton Rabi oscillations between highly excited Stark states of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yonglin

    2011-01-01

    We have applied a nonperturbative resonant theory to study the Rabi frequency of microwave multiphoton transitions between two Rydberg states of potassium in a static electric field. The Stark electric dipole moments used to calculate the Rabi frequency are determined by the Stark states' wave functions, which are obtained by the diagonalization method. The frequencies of the Rabi oscillations are in good agreement with either experimental ones or ones calculated by the time-dependent close-coupling method and the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we are able to show that the size of avoided crossings between the (n+2)s and (n,3) states can be predicted from the Stark electric dipole moment and the difference of the two Stark states' energy at a given resonance.

  4. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hamid Reza Mozhgani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN. To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  5. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  6. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  7. Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuenco, Sergio; Navarro-Vela, Ana Maria; Deray, Raffy; Vigilato, Marco; Ertl, Hildegund; Durrheim, David; Rees, Helen; Nel, Louis H; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Briggs, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost–effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. Methods We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016. We reviewed field data from pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns in Peru and the Philippines. Findings Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic in children and adults, also when co-administered with routine childhood vaccinations and the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. The evidence available indicates that shorter regimens and regimens involving fewer doses are safe and immunogenic and that booster intervals could be extended up to 10 years. The few studies on cost suggest that, at current vaccine and delivery costs, pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns would not be cost-effective in most situations. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has been advocated for high-risk populations, only Peru and the Philippines have implemented appropriate national programmes. In the future, accelerated regimens and novel vaccines could simplify delivery and increase affordability. Conclusion Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis is safe and immunogenic and should be considered: (i) where access to postexposure prophylaxis is limited or delayed; (ii) where the risk of exposure is high and may go unrecognized; and (iii) where controlling rabies in the animal reservoir is difficult. Pre-exposure prophylaxis should not distract from canine vaccination efforts, provision of postexposure prophylaxis or education to increase rabies awareness in local communities. PMID:28250534

  8. Enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J S; Sumner, J W; Roumillat, L F

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay is described for detecting rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids. Glass fiber filter disks were used to immobilize gamma-irradiated mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with street or laboratory strains of rabies virus. Bound rabies-specific antibody was detected by reaction with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G. The assay was performed in a 96-well filtration device developed by Cleveland et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. ...

  9. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Gongal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  10. Spatio-temporal pattern of sylvatic rabies in the Sultanate of Oman, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Ward, Michael P; Body, Mohammed; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed; Wadir, Ali Awlad; Al-Habsi, Saif; Saqib, Muhammad; Ahmed, Mohammed Sayed; Almaawali, Mahir Gharib

    2013-07-01

    Rabies was first reported in the Sultanate of Oman is 1990. We analysed passive surveillance data (444 samples) collected and reported between 2006 and 2010. During this period, between 45 and 75% of samples submitted from suspect animals were subsequently confirmed (fluorescent antibody test, histopathology and reverse transcription PCR) as rabies cases. Overall, 63% of submitted samples were confirmed as rabies cases. The spatial distribution of species-specific cases were similar (centred in north-central Oman with a northeast-southwest distribution), although fox cases had a wider distribution and an east-west orientation. Clustering of cases was detected using interpolation, local spatial autocorrelation and scan statistical analysis. Several local government areas (wilayats) in north-central Oman were identified where higher than expected numbers of laboratory-confirmed rabies cases were reported. For fox rabies, more clusters (local spatial autocorrelation analysis) and a larger clustered area (scan statistical analysis) were detected. In Oman, monthly reports of fox rabies cases were highly correlated (rSP>0.5) with reports of camel, cattle, sheep and goat rabies. The best-fitting ARIMA model included a seasonality component. Fox rabies cases reported 6 months previously best explained rabies reported cases in other animal species. Despite likely reporting bias, results suggest that rabies exists as a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Oman and an opportunity still exists to prevent establishment of dog-mediated rabies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Calbindin and parvalbumin distribution in spinal cord of normal and rabies-infected mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Gómez, Jeison; Torres-Fernández, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal infectious disease of the nervous system; however, the knowledge about the pathogenic neural mechanisms in rabies is scarce. In addition, there are few studies of rabies pathology of the spinal cord. To study the distribution of calcium binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin and assessing the effect of rabies virus infection on their expression in the spinal cord of mice. MATERIALES Y METHODS: Mice were inoculated with rabies virus, by intracerebral or intramuscular route. The spinal cord was extracted to perform some crosscuts which were treated by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to reveal the presence of the two proteins in normal and rabies infected mice. We did qualitative and quantitative analyses of the immunoreactivity of the two proteins. Calbindin and parvalbumin showed differential distribution in Rexed laminae. Rabies infection produced a decrease in the expression of calbindin. On the contrary, the infection caused an increased expression of parvalbumin. The effect of rabies infection on the two proteins expression was similar when comparing both routes of inoculation. The differential effect of rabies virus infection on the expression of calbindin and parvalbumin in the spinal cord of mice was similar to that previously reported for brain areas. This result suggests uniformity in the response to rabies infection throughout the central nervous system. This is an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of rabies.

  12. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  13. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  14. The serological response of young dogs to the Flury LEP strain of rabies virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghomo, H O; Oduye, O O; Rupprecht, C E

    1990-01-01

    The serological response of puppies from Nigeria to live Flury low egg passage (LEP) rabies vaccine was determined. Two sets of puppies were used: one set from rabies-vaccinated bitches and another set from non-vaccinated bitches. Puppies were vaccinated intramuscularly with Flury LEP strain rabies vaccine and serially bled from the 4th week to the 30th week. Serum rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were measured by a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Puppies from non-vaccinated bitches responded well to vaccination after the 4th week and through to the 10th week of age, showing a progressive increase in VNA. In contrast, puppies from vaccinated bitches responded well to rabies vaccination only at 10 weeks of age, although detectable maternal rabies VNA and rabies anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies had decreased by 6 weeks post partum.

  15. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus

  16. Awareness of rabies and response to dog bites in a Bangladesh community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Sumon; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Haider, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    Community awareness regarding rabies and treatment seeking behaviours are critical both for the prevention and control of the disease in human and animals. We conducted a study to explore people's awareness about rabies, their attitudes towards dogs and practices associated with treating dog bites...... in Satkhira Sadar, a south-western sub-district of Bangladesh. Of the total 3200 households (HHs) surveyed, the majority of the respondents have heard about rabies (73%) and there was a high level of awareness that dog bite is the main cause of rabies (86%), and that rabies can be prevented by vaccination (85......%). However, 59% of the dog bite victims first seek treatment from traditional healers instead of visiting the hospitals, 29% received the rabies vaccine, 2% practiced proper wound washing with soap and water, while 4.8% have not taken any measures. None of the victims have received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG...

  17. Investigation of an Imported Case of Rabies in a Juvenile Dog with Atypical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy Goddard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Movement of dogs between rabies-endemic and rabies-free countries carries the inherent risk of introducing the disease. In April of 2008, a juvenile dog was imported to the UK from Sri Lanka. It died shortly after transfer to a quarantine facility in the south-east of England following a short history of diarrhoea and convulsions but no overt signs of aggression. Subsequent investigation confirmed that rabies was the cause of death. Rabies virus was isolated from brain samples taken from the dog and the subsequent phylogenetic investigation confirmed that the genomic sequence from this virus shared over 99% homology with endemic rabies viruses from Sri Lanka. Histological examination of the brain demonstrated clear signs of encephalitis and rabies antigenic labeling in numerous neurons. In this particular case, Negri bodies were absent. As this case was diagnosed in a quarantine facility, the ‘rabies-free’ status of the UK was un-affected.

  18. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Z.Q. [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ertl, H.C., E-mail: ertl@wistar.upenn.edu [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rupprecht, C.E. [The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS (United States); Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  19. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  20. The Rabi Oscillation in Subdynamic System for Quantum Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum computation for the Rabi oscillation based on quantum dots in the subdynamic system is presented. The working states of the original Rabi oscillation are transformed to the eigenvectors of subdynamic system. Then the dissipation and decoherence of the system are only shown in the change of the eigenvalues as phase errors since the eigenvectors are fixed. This allows both dissipation and decoherence controlling to be easier by only correcting relevant phase errors. This method can be extended to general quantum computation systems.

  1. Asymptotic behavior of observables in the asymmetric quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, J.; Kollar, M.

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetric quantum Rabi model with broken parity invariance shows spectral degeneracies in the integer case, that is when the asymmetry parameter equals an integer multiple of half the oscillator frequency, thus hinting at a hidden symmetry and accompanying integrability of the model. We study the expectation values of spin observables for each eigenstate and observe characteristic differences between the integer and noninteger cases for the asymptotics in the deep strong coupling regime, which can be understood from a perturbative expansion in the qubit splitting. We also construct a parent Hamiltonian whose exact eigenstates possess the same symmetries as the perturbative eigenstates of the asymmetric quantum Rabi model in the integer case.

  2. Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A progressive diagonalization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Feng; Guan, Xin; Wang, Yin; Draayer, J P

    2010-01-01

    A diagonalization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian, which describes a qubit interacting with a single-mode radiation field via a dipole interaction, is proposed. It is shown that the Rabi Hamiltonian can be solved almost exactly using a progressive scheme that involves a finite set of one variable polynomial equations. The scheme is especially efficient for the lower part of the spectrum. Some low-lying energy levels of the model with several sets of parameters are calculated and compared to those provided by the recently proposed generalized rotating-wave approximation and a full matrix diagonalization.

  4. A Class of Quasi-exact Solutions of Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Yao Youkun; Xie Mingxia; Han Wenjuan; Draayer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A class of quasi-exact solutions of the Rabi Hamiltonian, which describes a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode radiation field via a dipole interaction without the rotating-wave approximation, are obtained by using a wavefunction ansatz. Exact solutions for part of the spectrum are obtained when the atom-field coupling strength and the field frequency satisfy certain relations. As an example, the lowest exact energy level and the corresponding atom-field entanglement at the quasi-exactly solvable point are calculated and compared to results from the Jaynes-Cummings and counter-rotating cases of the Rabi Hamiltonian.

  5. Case Report: Magnetic resonance imaging in rabies encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Arekapudi Subramanyaswara; Varma, Dandu Ravi; Chalapathi Rao, Mamidi Venkata; Mohandas, Surat

    2009-01-01

    Rabies encephalitis is an invariably fatal disease characterized by typical clinical symptoms. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be made on the basis of the patient's history and the classical clinical presentation, neuroimaging may still play a role, especially for establishing an early diagnosis in cases with atypical presentations or when the history of animal bite is not forthcoming. We report the MRI findings in a case of furious rabies encephalitis and describe the utility of diffusion imaging in its diagnosis

  6. Rabies Elimination in Dogs in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from dogs in the United States through efforts to promote annual vaccination, but it's still a problem in wildlife in the U.S. and in wild and domesticated animals abroad. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Charles Rupprecht discusses a study which provides proof of the elimination of rabies in dogs and what this means for the average American.  Created: 12/1/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/1/2008.

  7. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Rabies Control and Treatment: From Prophylaxis to Strategies with Curative Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shimao; Guo, Caiping

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is an acute, fatal, neurological disease that affects almost all kinds of mammals. Vaccination (using an inactivated rabies vaccine), combined with administration of rabies immune globulin, is the only approved, effective method for post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in humans. In the search for novel rabies control and treatment strategies, live-attenuated viruses have recently emerged as a practical and promising approach for immunizing and controlling rabies. Unlike the conventional, inactivated rabies vaccine, live-attenuated viruses are genetically modified viruses that are able to replicate in an inoculated recipient without causing adverse effects, while still eliciting robust and effective immune responses against rabies virus infection. A number of viruses with an intrinsic capacity that could be used as putative candidates for live-attenuated rabies vaccine have been intensively evaluated for therapeutic purposes. Additional novel strategies, such as a monoclonal antibody-based approach, nucleic acid-based vaccines, or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) interfering with virus replication, could further add to the arena of strategies to combat rabies. In this review, we highlight current advances in rabies therapy and discuss the role that they might have in the future of rabies treatment. Given the pronounced and complex impact of rabies on a patient, a combination of these novel modalities has the potential to achieve maximal anti-rabies efficacy, or may even have promising curative effects in the future. However, several hurdles regarding clinical safety considerations and public awareness should be overcome before these approaches can ultimately become clinically relevant therapies. PMID:27801824

  9. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Song-En Huang

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI, and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5% were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2% persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9% persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22% were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and

  10. Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Brookes, Victoria J.; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures. Illegal transportation of rabies-infected dogs via boat landings is a high-risk entry pathway and was the focus of the current study. A quantitative, stochastic, risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the risk of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula, Australia, and rabies introduction to resident dogs in one of the communities via transport of rabies-infected dogs on illegal Indonesian fishing boats. Parameter distributions were derived from expert opinion, literature, and analysis of field studies. The estimated median probability of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia from individual fishing boats was 1.9 × 10−4/boat and 8.7 × 10−6/boat, respectively. The estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog enters north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia was 5.5 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−4, respectively. The estimated median probability of rabies introduction into Seisia was 4.7 × 10−8/boat, and the estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog causes rabies transmission in a resident Seisia dog was 8.3 × 10−5. Sensitivity analysis using the Sobol method highlighted some parameters as influential, including but not limited to the prevalence of rabies in Indonesia, the probability of a dog on board an Indonesian fishing boat, and the

  11. Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Hudson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures. Illegal transportation of rabies-infected dogs via boat landings is a high-risk entry pathway and was the focus of the current study. A quantitative, stochastic, risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the risk of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula, Australia, and rabies introduction to resident dogs in one of the communities via transport of rabies-infected dogs on illegal Indonesian fishing boats. Parameter distributions were derived from expert opinion, literature, and analysis of field studies. The estimated median probability of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia from individual fishing boats was 1.9 × 10−4/boat and 8.7 × 10−6/boat, respectively. The estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog enters north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia was 5.5 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−4, respectively. The estimated median probability of rabies introduction into Seisia was 4.7 × 10−8/boat, and the estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog causes rabies transmission in a resident Seisia dog was 8.3 × 10−5. Sensitivity analysis using the Sobol method highlighted some parameters as influential, including but not limited to the prevalence of rabies in Indonesia, the probability of a dog on board an Indonesian

  12. The procyonid social club: comparison of brain volumes in the coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica), kinkajou (Potos flavus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether increased relative brain size, including regional brain volumes, is related to differing behavioral specializations exhibited by three member species of the family Procyonidae. Procyonid species exhibit continuums of behaviors related to social and physical environmental complexities: the mostly solitary, semiarboreal and highly dexterous raccoons (Procyon lotor); the exclusively arboreal kinkajous (Potos flavus), which live either alone or in small polyandrous family groups, and the social, terrestrial coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica). Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 adult skulls including 17 coatimundis (9 male, 8 female), 14 raccoons (7 male, 7 female), and 14 kinkajous (7 male, 7 female) were used to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts. Endocranial volume was positively correlated with two separate measures of body size: skull basal length (r = 0.78, p Comparisons of relative regional brain volumes revealed that the anterior cerebrum volume consisting mainly of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly larger in the social coatimundi compared to kinkajous and raccoons. The dexterous raccoon had the largest relative posterior cerebrum volume, which includes the somatosensory cortex, in comparison to the other procyonid species studied. The exclusively arboreal kinkajou had the largest relative cerebellum and brain stem volume in comparison to the semi arboreal raccoon and the terrestrial coatimundi. Finally, intraspecific comparisons failed to reveal any sex differences, except in the social coatimundi. Female coatimundis possessed a larger relative frontal cortical volume than males. Social life histories differ in male and female coatimundis but not in either kinkajous or raccoons. This difference may reflect the differing social life histories experienced by females who reside in their natal bands, and forage and engage in antipredator behavior as a group, while males disperse upon reaching

  13. Faktor-Faktor Risiko Rabies pada Anjing di Bali (RISK FACTORS ANALYSIS FOR RABIES INDOGS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Dibia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to eradicate rabies in Bali have been done for more than three years. However, therabiescases is still spreading. Thus, rabies virus continues to infect humans. A case-control study wasconducted to identify the risk factors associated with rabid dog in Bali. Cases were defined as dogsconfirmed having rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT. Determination of sample amount ineach district was taken proportionally and samples were taken by using simple random sampling. A totalof 51 rabid dog cases between 2010 and 2011 and 102 uninfected rabies dogs as control were used in thisstudy. Possible associated factors were obtained by doing questionnaire. The data were subsequentlyanalyzed using chi-square (X2 and odds-ratio (OR for possible association, which were ultimately analyzedby means of logistic regression to build up of model. This study revealed that factors associated with rabiddog were the status of rabies vaccination (X2= 55.538; P= 0.000; OR= 19.133; 95% CI= 8.015rabies=1| x = - 4.413 + 3.919 (status of rabies vaccination + 3.457(contact with other dog. This study is expected to be used as a reference in order to improve rabies controleffectiveness in Bali.

  14. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  15. Rabi spin oscillations generated by ultrasound in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, C; Chudnovsky, E M

    2007-07-27

    It is shown that ultrasound in the gigahertz range can generate space-time Rabi oscillations between spin states of molecular magnets. We compute dynamics of the magnetization generated by surface acoustic waves and discuss conditions under which this novel quantum effect can be observed.

  16. Electronically induced nuclear transitions - temperature dependence and Rabi oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niez, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a nucleus electromagnetically coupled with the bound states of its electronic surroundings. It describes the temperature dependence of its dynamics and the onset of potential Rabi oscillations by means of a Master Equation. The latter is generalized in order to account for possible strong resonances. Throughout the paper the approximation schemes are discussed and tested. (authors)

  17. Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2018-01-01

    , the influence of nonlocality is rather limited, as in most occasions the width of the Rabi splitting remains largely unaffected and the two hybrid modes are well distinguishable. We discuss how this behavior can be understood in view of the popular coupled-harmonic-oscillator model, while we also provide...

  18. Expression of Rabies antibodies in tobacco and maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zungu, N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies, an important disease in Asia and Africa, is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system that affects humans and other mammals. Upon bites or contact with rabid animals patients are immediately immunized with antibodies followed...

  19. [Differences on geographic distribution of rabies virus lineages in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Li, M L; Chen, Y; Wang, B; Tao, X Y; Zhu, W Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To study the lineages of rabies virus and the epidemic characteristics in different provincial populations of China, to provide information for the development of control and prevention measures in each respective provinces. Methods: Full length N and G genes and full-genome of epidemic strains of rabies virus collected in China were downloaded from GenBank and combined with newly sequenced strains by our lab. Each strain was classified under six lineages of China rabies by constructing phylogenetic trees based on the N or G sequences. Numbers of strains and lineages in each province were counted and compared. Results: Six lineages (China Ⅰ-Ⅵ) were prevalent in China, with 4 found in Yunnan and Hunan. In 6 provinces, including Henan and Fujian, 3 lineages were found. In 8 provinces, including Shanghai and Jiangxi, 2 lineages were found Only 1 lineage, were found in Beijing, Tianjin and other 12 provinces. the China Ⅰ, was the dominant one in 25 provinces. In recent years, China Ⅲ had been found in wild animals and spread over livestock in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas. Qinghai and Tibet had been influenced by China Ⅳ, which also been found in wild animals of Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. Conclusion: There had been obvious differences in lineages and strain numbers of rabies virus identified in different provinces in China.

  20. Raby chaotic vacuum oscillations in resonator quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, L.E.; Prants, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown in numerical experiments with two-level atoms, moving through a single-mode high-quality resonator, that a new type of spontaneous radiation - the Raby chaotic vacuum oscillation - originates in the mode of strong atom-field bonds

  1. Serological Surveillance for Non-Rabies Lyssaviruses among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the seven recognized and four putative genotypes of lyssaviruses, genotypes 1-3 comprising namely the classical rabies virus (RABV), Lagos bat virus (LBV) and Mokola virus (MOKV) respectively have been reported in Nigeria. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is recognized as the reservoir for genotype 1, and the ...

  2. Evaluation of the thermotolerance of an inactivated rabies vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides the first robust data that the antibody response of dogs vaccinated with Nobivac® Rabies vaccine stored for several months at high temperatures (up to 30 °C) is not inferior to that of dogs vaccinated with vaccine stored under recommended cold-chain conditions (2 - 8 °C). A controlled and randomized ...

  3. Survey of rabies virus antibodies in confined, hunting and roaming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the recent upsurge in adoption of exotic and local dogs as pets in Nigeria associated with increased contact between the dogs and their owners, and the traditional close relationship between hunters and their dogs, there is a need for studies to determine the level of protection of these dogs against rabies. In this ...

  4. The origin and phylogeography of dog rabies virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhy, Hervé; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Dunham, Eleca J.; Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Jiaxin; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies is a progressively fatal and incurable viral encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus infection. Almost all of the 55 000 annual rabies deaths in humans result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). Despite the importance of rabies for human health, little is known about the spread of RABV in dog populations, and patterns of biodiversity have only been studied in limited geographical space. To address these questions on a global scale, we sequenced 62 new isolates and performed an extensive comparative analysis of RABV gene sequence data, representing 192 isolates sampled from 55 countries. From this, we identified six clades of RABV in non-flying mammals, each of which has a distinct geographical distribution, most likely reflecting major physical barriers to gene flow. Indeed, a detailed analysis of phylogeographic structure revealed only limited viral movement among geographical localities. Using Bayesian coalescent methods we also reveal that the sampled lineages of canid RABV derive from a common ancestor that originated within the past 1500 years. Additionally, we found no evidence for either positive selection or widespread population bottlenecks during the global expansion of canid RABV. Overall, our study reveals that the stochastic processes of genetic drift and population subdivision are the most important factors shaping the global phylogeography of canid RABV. PMID:18931062

  5. retrospective evaluation of vaccination of dogs against rabies at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Record books in form of one thousand, four hundred and seventy eight (1478) registers, case notes and vaccination certificates of registered dogs were assessed for rabies vaccination and its booster coverage. The dogs which consisted of 850 males and 628 females were presented at the Small Animal and Preventive ...

  6. Stray dog meat consumption and rabies | Wiwanitkit | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stray dog meat consumption and rabies. V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v14i3.41 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  7. Diagnosis of canine rabies by the direct fluorescent antibody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of canine rabies by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in Plateau State, Nigeria. DO Ehizibolo, EA Ogunsan, MJ Muhammad, CI Nwosuh, S Olaleye, OOC Chuckwu, MY Sugun, NM Sati, NE Waziri, OK Egwu, J Kamani, CA Meseko, SE Idachaba, GI Dogo ...

  8. Optimized t-expansion method for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travenec, Igor; Samaj, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    A polemic arose recently about the applicability of the t-expansion method to the calculation of the ground state energy E 0 of the Rabi model. For specific choices of the trial function and very large number of involved connected moments, the t-expansion results are rather poor and exhibit considerable oscillations. In this Letter, we formulate the t-expansion method for trial functions containing two free parameters which capture two exactly solvable limits of the Rabi Hamiltonian. At each order of the t-series, E 0 is assumed to be stationary with respect to the free parameters. A high accuracy of E 0 estimates is achieved for small numbers (5 or 6) of involved connected moments, the relative error being smaller than 10 -4 (0.01%) within the whole parameter space of the Rabi Hamiltonian. A special symmetrization of the trial function enables us to calculate also the first excited energy E 1 , with the relative error smaller than 10 -2 (1%). -- Highlights: → We study the ground state energy of the Rabi Hamiltonian. → We use the t-expansion method with an optimized trial function. → High accuracy of estimates is achieved, the relative error being smaller than 0.01%. → The calculation of the first excited state energy is made. The method has a general applicability.

  9. The status of rabies in Ethiopia: A retrospective record review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    eyes, nose, or mouth) or a scratch or break in the skin have contact with ... estimate that there might be one owned dog per five house-holds at ... According to the World Health Organization (WHO) for the year 1993 ..... come to EHNRI laboratory either after the loss of life from family .... natural history of rabies. Boca Racon ...

  10. Home and abroad: vets' role in dealing with rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Manuela

    2014-11-29

    Manuela Herrera reports on a session at the BVA Congress which discussed the contributions that vets can make to tackling rabies, and how the profession can be at the forefront of a One Health approach to saving the lives of animals and people. British Veterinary Association.

  11. A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of rabies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor public awareness towards rabies is considered as one of the bottle necks for the prevention ... next household (on the right side) was substituted automatically for interview. ... the majority of the respondents were female (55.6 %). Among the ..... general community in India and in Zimbabwe, it was reported that 70% of.

  12. Nutrient Reduction in Agricultural Green Infrastructure: An Analysis of the Raccoon River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Canning

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification has had the undesirable effect of degrading water quality throughout the United States. Nitrate pollution presents a difficult problem for rural and urban communities, and it contributes to the immense Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone. Current U.S. policy prohibits regulation of agricultural runoff because it is a nonpoint source. The Raccoon River Watershed upstream of Des Moines, Iowa, USA has some of the highest nitrate levels in the nation, and the drinking water utility in Des Moines unsuccessfully pursued litigation against drainage districts in the watershed. We propose a cooperative solution between urban residents and upstream rural residents—namely, the installation of agricultural green infrastructure in the form of riparian buffers throughout the watershed enabled by the principles of water quality trading. We compare this distributed, green approach with a centralized, gray approach (i.e., building a new nitrate removal facility at the drinking water utility. Using terrain analysis, we determined that first-order streams are the most fitting location for riparian buffers. We estimate the buffer installation to cost between $155–$185 million; maintenance of the current nitrate removal facility will cost $72 million, while a new facility could cost up to $184 million. Riparian buffer installation offers more indirect, non-quantified benefits than maintaining or building new centralized, gray treatment (e.g., living-wage jobs and in-stream water quality improvement. Our analysis could act as a model for water quality trading and distributed agricultural green infrastructure in other communities facing similar water quality challenges.

  13. A hidden analytic structure of the Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Rabi model describes the simplest interaction between a cavity mode with a frequency ω c and a two-level system with a resonance frequency ω 0 . It is shown here that the spectrum of the Rabi model coincides with the support of the discrete Stieltjes integral measure in the orthogonality relations of recently introduced orthogonal polynomials. The exactly solvable limit of the Rabi model corresponding to Δ=ω 0 /(2ω c )=0, which describes a displaced harmonic oscillator, is characterized by the discrete Charlier polynomials in normalized energy ϵ, which are orthogonal on an equidistant lattice. A non-zero value of Δ leads to non-classical discrete orthogonal polynomials ϕ k (ϵ) and induces a deformation of the underlying equidistant lattice. The results provide a basis for a novel analytic method of solving the Rabi model. The number of ca. 1350 calculable energy levels per parity subspace obtained in double precision (cca 16 digits) by an elementary stepping algorithm is up to two orders of magnitude higher than is possible to obtain by Braak’s solution. Any first n eigenvalues of the Rabi model arranged in increasing order can be determined as zeros of ϕ N (ϵ) of at least the degree N=n+n t . The value of n t >0, which is slowly increasing with n, depends on the required precision. For instance, n t ≃26 for n=1000 and dimensionless interaction constant κ=0.2, if double precision is required. Given that the sequence of the lth zeros x nl ’s of ϕ n (ϵ)’s defines a monotonically decreasing discrete flow with increasing n, the Rabi model is indistinguishable from an algebraically solvable model in any finite precision. Although we can rigorously prove our results only for dimensionless interaction constant κ<1, numerics and exactly solvable example suggest that the main conclusions remain to be valid also for κ≥1. -- Highlights: •A significantly simplified analytic solution of the Rabi model. •The spectrum is the lattice of discrete

  14. Spatial and temporal trends of bat-borne rabies in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, L E; Restif, O; Yung, V; Favi, M; Pons, D J; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-05-01

    In Chile, while dog rabies has decreased markedly over the last 30 years, bat rabies is still reported frequently. In order to shed new light on the spatiotemporal trends of these reports, we analysed active and passive data from years 1985 and 2012, which included 61 076 samples from 289 counties of Chile. We found that from 1994 to 2012, more than 15 000 bat samples were submitted for diagnostics through passive surveillance, 9·5% of which tested positive for rabies. By contrast, the prevalence of infection was only ~0·4% among the nearly 12 000 bat samples submitted through active surveillance. We found that the prevalence of dog rabies dropped steadily over the same period, with just a single confirmed case since 1998. None of the 928 samples from wild animals, other than bats, were positive for rabies. Although there has been only one confirmed case of human rabies in Chile since 1985, and a single confirmed case in a dog since 1998, bats remain a reservoir for rabies viruses. While active surveillance indicates that rabies prevalence is low in bat colonies, the high proportion of positive bats submitted through passive surveillance is a concern. To prevent human rabies, local public health agencies should increase research on the basic ecology of bats and the role of stray dogs and cats as potential rabies amplifiers.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of rabies in northern Tanzania in the period of 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs.

  16. Surveillance of Human Rabies by National Authorities--A Global Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L H; Knopf, L

    2015-11-01

    Effective prevention of deaths due to human rabies is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the scale of the problem, and the distribution of both animal and human cases across countries, regions and continents. Unfortunately, despite the severity of the disease, accurate data on which to assess these questions and to prioritize and direct public health interventions are not available for many parts of the world. This survey sought to understand the current global situation regarding the surveillance of human rabies. Data were collected from 91 countries across all continents and all categories of human rabies risk, generating the most complete and representative global data set currently available. Respondents were asked key questions about whether human rabies was a notifiable disease, how the surveillance system for human rabies operated and whether the respondent considered that the surveillance system was working effectively. Across the 91 countries from which data were collated, human rabies was a notifiable disease in all but eight. Despite international guidance, surveillance systems were very varied. Even where rabies is a notifiable disease, many countries had surveillance system judged to be ineffective, almost all of these being high and moderate rabies risk countries in Africa and Asia. Overall, 41% of the population covered by this survey (around 2.5 billion people) live in countries where there is no or ineffective rabies surveillance. The lack of robust surveillance is hindering rabies control efforts. However, whilst worldwide rabies surveillance would be improved if rabies were notifiable in all countries, many other challenges to the implementation of effective global human rabies surveillance systems remain. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. DIAGNOSTIC AND MEDICAL TREATMENT OF RABIES DISEASE IN HEALTH CENTER OF COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raflizar Raflizar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, Rabies is still considered as the most common zoonotic disease. It is not due to the number of death cases but to the number of human cases of human bitten by rabies virus infected animals or suspected ones. Most of human rabies cases caused by dog bites, besides cat and monkey bites. If rabies can be eliminated from dogs, rabies in cats and monkeys can also be eliminated as spontaneous rabies in these two animals are rare. Rabies is caused by an RNA virus from Rhabdowidae Family and it attacks the central nervous system. It is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms in unvaccinated people Diagnose is based on the history of close contacts to infected saliva (via bites or scratches and development of signs and symptoms. The early stage symptoms are fever. malaise, followed by agitation, abnormal behaviours, anxiety, hallucination, progressing to delirium, hypersalivalion, hydrophobia, aerophobia, neurological symptoms such as pharynx spasm. paralysis, seizure, and finally death. Laboratory test to detect rabies virus in saliva can be done by a Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Cham Reaction (RT/PCR and virus isolation in cultured tissues. Skin biopsies of hair follicles at nape of the neck are exammed for rabies antigen in cutaneous nerves at the base of hair follicles by immunofluoresence staining. The treatment after exposure are cleansing lesion, administering intradermal anti-rabies immunization to accelerate immune response. anti-rabies serum to stop infection process, intravenous and intraventricular ribavirin and alfa interferon, high concentration of ketamine infusion to inhibit rabies virus replication. At last, vaccination is the best prevention. Key words: rabies, RNA-virus, vaccination, diagnosis, treatment

  18. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  19. Ifit2 Is a Restriction Factor in Rabies Virus Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin M; Fensterl, Volker; Lawrence, Tessa M; Hudacek, Andrew W; Sen, Ganes C; Schnell, Matthias J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the interactions between rabies virus (RABV) and individual host cell proteins is critical for the development of targeted therapies. Here we report that interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (Ifit2), an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) with possible RNA-binding capacity, is an important restriction factor for rabies virus. When Ifit2 was depleted, RABV grew more quickly in mouse neuroblastoma cells in vitro This effect was replicated in vivo , where Ifit2 knockout mice displayed a dramatically more severe disease phenotype than wild-type mice after intranasal inoculation of RABV. This increase in pathogenicity correlated to an increase in RABV mRNA and live viral load in the brain, as well as to an accelerated spread to brain regions normally affected by this RABV model. These results suggest that Ifit2 exerts its antiviral effect mainly at the level of viral replication, as opposed to functioning as a mechanism that restricts viral entry/egress or transports RABV particles through axons. IMPORTANCE Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease with a nearly 100% case fatality rate. Although there are effective vaccines for rabies, this disease still takes the lives of about 50,000 people each year. Victims tend to be children living in regions without comprehensive medical infrastructure who present to health care workers too late for postexposure prophylaxis. The protein discussed in our report, Ifit2, is found to be an important restriction factor for rabies virus, acting directly or indirectly against viral replication. A more nuanced understanding of this interaction may reveal a step of a pathway or site at which the system could be exploited for the development of a targeted therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    Full Text Available Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter. In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  1. Coexistence of two different genotypes of Sarcoptes scabiei derived from companion dogs and wild raccoon dogs in Gifu, Japan: The genetic evidence for transmission between domestic and wild canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Ryota; Yabusaki, Toshihiro; Kuninaga, Naotoshi; Morimoto, Tomoya; Okano, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Asano, Makoto

    2015-09-15

    Sarcoptes scabiei is the causal agent of sarcoptic mange in domestic/companion dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Although there have been successful cases of experimental transmission of S. scabiei from mangy wild Canidae hosts to healthy dogs, and suspected cases of transmission between raccoon dogs and companion dogs, no clear-cut evidence has been obtained. In the present study, the genetic relationships between Sarcoptes mites from raccoon dogs and companion dogs living in the same region were elucidated.One hundred and thirty Sarcoptes mites from 22 raccoon dogs and 5 companion dogs were collected from the Gifu area in Japan. Using 9 microsatellite markers, the genotypes were compared, and the genetic structure of these mites was analyzed. In 6 pairs of companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites, 17 out of the 18 alleles analyzed were identical. Using a Bayesian approach, these 130 mites were separated into at least two groups, and companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites were segregated into both groups. In addition, comparatively large numbers of alleles at these loci were revealed by comparison with data from past studies. These results demonstrated that the host specificity at the 9 microsatellite-level could not be confirmed, strongly suggesting the transmission of Sarcoptes mites between raccoon dogs and companion dogs. This is the first report to provide a genetic evidence of Sarcoptes transmission between domestic and wild mammals in the natural environment. The possibility of a prior introduction of mites with novel genotypes (e.g., spillover of sarcoptic mange from domestic/companion dogs to raccoon dogs) could not be eliminated when considering the cause of the large number of alleles, and the coexistence of 2 mite groups in sympatric raccoon dogs and companion dogs in this local area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis of human rabies in Chongqing, China, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Su, Kun; Shen, Tao; Tang, Wenge; Xiao, Bangzhong; Long, Jiang; Zhao, Han; Chen, Xi; Xia, Yu; Xiong, Yu; Xiao, Dayong; Feng, Liangui; Li, Qin

    2018-01-03

    According to the global framework of eliminating human rabies, China is responding to achieve the target of zero human death from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Chongqing is the largest municipality directly under central government in China. We described the epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of human rabies in this area, in order to provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. The most updated epidemiological data for human rabies cases from 2007 to 2016 in Chongqing were collected from the National Disease Reporting Information System. A standardized questionnaire was applied to the human rabies cases or family members of cases as proxy to investigate the PEP situation. A total of 809 fatal human rabies cases were reported in Chongqing from 2007 to 2016. There was a trend of gradual annual decline about number of cases from 2007 to 2013, followed by stable levels until 2016. Rabies was mostly reported in summer and autumn; a majority of cases were noted in farmers (71.8%), especially in males (65.3%). The cases aged 35-74 and 5-14 years old accounted for 83.8% of all the cases. We collected information of 548 human rabies cases' rabies exposure and PEP situation. Of those, 95.8% of human rabies cases were victims of dog bites or scratch, and 53.3% of these dogs were identified as stray dogs. Only 4.0% of the domestic dogs were reported to have been vaccinated previously. After exposure, 87.8% of the 548 human rabies cases did not seek any medical services. Further investigation showed that none of the 548 cases received timely and properly standardized PEP. Human rabies remains a major public health problem in Chongqing, China. Dogs are the main reservoir and source of human rabies infection. Unsuccessful control of canine rabies and inadequate PEP of cases might be the main factors leading to the serious human rabies epidemic in this area. An integrated "One Health" approach should be

  3. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Ale, Anita; Declercq, Anne; Depraz, Stephanie; Gaire, Tara Nath; Gongal, Gyanendra; Karki, Surendra; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal. Methods We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal. Findings So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10–100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray

  4. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devleesschauwer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal.We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal.So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10-100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray dog

  5. Genome organization and DNA methylation patterns of B chromosomes in the red fox and Chinese raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Solek, Przemysław; Wronski, Mariusz; Potocki, Leszek; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with particular attention to the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their methylation status. We confirmed that the small Bs of the red fox show a typical fluorescent telomeric distal signal, whereas medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were characterized by clusters of telomeric sequences along their length. We also found different DNA methylation patterns for the B chromosomes of both species. Therefore, we concluded that DNA methylation may maintain the transcriptional inactivation of DNA sequences localized to B chromosomes and may prevent genetic unbalancing and several negative phenotypic effects. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from giant panda and raccoon dogs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species. Conclusions These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China. PMID:23566727

  7. Comparison of G protein sequences of South African street rabies viruses showing distinct progression of the disease in a mouse model of experimental rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonhyo; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence; Akinbowale, Jenkins; Prehaud, Christophe; Lafon, Monique; Sabeta, Claude

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship. Comparison of glycoprotein gene sequences revealed amino acid differences that may underpin the observed pathogenicity differences. Cumulatively, our results suggest that the canid rabies virus may be more neurovirulent in mice than the mongoose rabies variant. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Sistem Pemeliharaan Anjing dan Tingkat Pemahaman Masyarakat terhadap Penyakit Rabies di Kabupaten Bangli, Bali (DOG REARING SYSTEM AND UNDERSTANDING LEVEL OF PEOPLE IN BANGLI, BALI TOWARD RABIES DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Yulia Nugraha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a zoonotic fatal disease. The disease infects the central nervous system, known as encephalitis. This study aims were to determine the relationship between the percentage and the factors that influence the maintenance system and the level of public awareness toward rabies in Bangli Regency, Bali. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed in 14 villages that have never been reported having cases of rabies. Interview data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis and dendrogram. The results showed that a proper dog care system in Bangli associated with dog rearing conditions (100%; provided awareness of the feed (100%; the number of feeding more than one each day (91.4%; rabies vaccination status (83.6%; not keeping other rabies transmitted animals (cat (75.7%; health inspection status (67.1%; and the number of dogs that were kept not more than one tail (55.7%. Bad dog maintenance systems associated with the type of feed given (100%; contact with other dogs (80%; and system maintenance by way of detachable dogs (73.6%. The level of public understanding in Bangli district was well connected with the mobility of dogs (88.6%; understanding of the dangers of rabies (79.3%; dog origin (79.3%; knowledge of the characteristics of rabies (74.3%; and the village of rabies free status was retained (78.6%. Poor level of public understanding related to the lack of village rules and custom rules relating to rabies (100%; lack of community participation in education programs (62.1%; and how to have dogs (52.1%. Based on the results of this study, its concluded that the maintenance system of dogs and the level of public understanding regarding rabies in Bangli are relatively good. ABSTRAK Rabies adalah penyakit zoonosis yang bersifat mematikan. Penyakit ini menyerang sistem saraf pusat atau encephalitis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persentase dan hubungan antara faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi sistem pemeliharaan dan

  9. Severe impact of sarcoptic mange on the movements and space use for one of its most important vector species, the raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süld, Karmen; Tammeleht, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-08-30

    Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious zoonotic skin disease that can have severe effect on population dynamics of many wild mammals. However, very little is known about its effect on the activity and space use of infected animals. In this study we equipped two raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in a mange outbreak area with radio-collars and observed the spatial and temporal effects of sarcoptic mange to these individuals. Initially, the raccoon dogs had no external symptoms of mange infection, but developed these during the study period. One of the raccoon dogs died just 32 and the other 52days after collaring. During a relatively short period before their death, there was an abrupt and drastic decline in their home range size. For one of the animals it started about 1 month before its death and the home range size reduced >1000×, whereas for the other raccoon dog it took place within the last week, decreasing >200×. The daily covered distances also declined considerably. These results indicate that at the later stage sarcoptic mange affected the physiological state of the diseased animals so forcefully that made them almost immobile. Our results show for the first time how rapid and severe could the impact of sarcoptic mange be for one of its most important reservoir and vector species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluoride in the bones of foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linneaus, 1758) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834) from North-Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona; Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Lanocha, Natalia; Budis, Halina; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of exposure to fluoride (F(-)) is increasingly focused on mineralized tissues, mainly bones. Their periodic growth and continuous reconstruction make them a good material for studying long-term F(-) accumulation. In this study, F(-)concentrations were determined in the bones of foxes and raccoon dogs from north-western Poland and relationships between bone F(-) and the age categories of the animals were attempted to be identified. Bone samples were collected from femurs of 32 foxes (15 males and 17 females) and 18 raccoon dogs (10 males and 8 females) from polluted, medium-polluted, and unpolluted by F(-) areas. Bone F(-) was determined by potentiometric method, and results were expressed per dry weight (dw); they ranged from 176 to 3,668 mg/kg dw in foxes and from 84 to 1,190 mg/kg dw in raccoon dogs. Foxes from north-western Poland accumulated much more F(-) in their bones than raccoon dogs. Our study shows that the assessment of hazards created by industrial emitters can be conducted conveniently by the measurements of fluorine content in hard tissues of wild animals. Due to availability of such type of material for studies, it seems that the analysis of fluoride content in bones can be a good tool in the development of ecotoxicology.

  11. Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Park, Jae-Hwan; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2009-06-01

    Four feral cats and a raccoon dog purchased from a local collector on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, where human Gymnophalloides seoi infections are known to be prevalent, were examined for their intestinal helminth parasites. From 2 of 4 cats, a total of 310 adult G. seoi specimens were recovered. Other helminths detected in cats included Heterophyes nocens (1,527 specimens), Pygidiopsis summa (131), Stictodora fuscata (4), Acanthotrema felis (2), Spirometra erinacei (15), toxocarids (4), and a hookworm (1). A raccoon dog was found to be infected with a species of echinostome (55), hookworms (7), toxocarids (3), P. summa (3), and S. erinacei (1). No G. seoi was found in the raccoon dog. The results indicate that feral cats and raccoon dogs on Aphaedo are natural definitive hosts for intestinal trematodes and cestodes, including G. seoi, H. nocens, and S. erinacei. It has been first confirmed that cats, a mammalian species other than humans, play the role of a natural definitive host for G. seoi on Aphaedo Island.

  12. DETECTION OF RABIES VIRAL ANTIGEN IN CATTLE BY RAPID IMMUNOCHROMTOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSTIC TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, improved quality, accuracy and speed for diagnosis of rabies has been adopted for rabies control strategies in developing countries. In field condition, rapid immunochromtographic diagnostic test (RIDT is a true requirement for rapid epidemiological surveillance of rabies. In the present study, a total of ten numbers of rabies suspected cattle brain sample form different parts of West Bengal, India were examined through RIDT. The results revealed that one sample was found to be positive. The test was established as powerful screening tool for rabies with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus, RIDT can be employed as a reliable and quick approach for diagnosis and control of rabies under field condition.

  13. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  14. An inter- laboratory proficiency testing exercise for rabies diagnosis in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Clavijo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA, is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise. In addition, the laboratories completed an online questionnaire to assess laboratory practices. Answers to the online questionnaire indicated large variability in the laboratories throughput, equipment used, protocols availability, quality control standards and biosafety requirements. Our results will inform actions to improve and harmonize laboratory rabies capacities across LAC in support for the regional efforts towards elimination of dog-maintained rabies.

  15. [Human rabies transmitted by dogs: risk areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1991-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Cristiana Ferreira Jardim; da Silva, José Ailton; Moreira, Elvio Carlos

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study based on observation with the objective of identifying and characterizing the different risk areas for rabies transmission by dogs took place in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1991 to 1999. Indicators confirmed occurrences of canine and feline rabies, notification of human rabies, and administration of appropriate vaccination. The Minas Gerais State Health System is divided into 25 Regional Health Centers, which are linked to the State Health Department (SES-MG). These Health Centers were utilized in the study. The results of 2,845 records of laboratory diagnosis for canine, feline, and human rabies were analyzed. Consolidated SES-MG reports from 1997 to 1999 for rabies vaccination and notification records for cases of human rabies from the National Health Foundation (FUNASA) were also used. In order to verify the local reality, a semi-structured interview with each regional program director was conducted. Minas Gerais presents four different risk modalities, classified as zero, low, medium, and high.

  16. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

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    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  17. Atypical rabies encephalitis in a six-year-old boy: clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings

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    Sunil Karande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old boy from India developed an atypical form of rabies following a stray dog bite and as a consequence of not receiving the standard World Health Organization recommended post-exposure prophylaxis for category III wounds. Serial rising rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test helped confirm the diagnosis of rabies. The child has survived for 4 months since the onset of illness, albeit with neurological sequelae.

  18. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

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    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  19. Generation of Arctic-like Rabies Viruses Containing Chimeric Glycoproteins Enables Serological Potency Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Emma; Ali, Ruqiyo; Horton, Daniel; Corti, Davide; Banyard, Ashley; Fooks, Anthony; Wright, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Rabies viruses have the highest case fatality rate of any known virus and are responsible for an estimated 60,000 deaths each year. This is despite the fact that there are highly efficacious vaccines and post-exposure prophylaxis available. However, while it is assumed these biologics provide protection against all rabies virus isolates, there are certain subdivisions of RABV lineages, such as within the Arctic-like RABV (AL rabies virus lineage, where data is limited and thus the potency of ...

  20. Imported episodic rabies increases patient demand for and physician delivery of antirabies prophylaxis.

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    Zélie Lardon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Imported cases threaten rabies reemergence in rabies-free areas. During 2000-2005, five dog and one human rabies cases were imported into France, a rabies-free country since 2001. The Summer 2004 event led to unprecedented media warnings by the French Public Health Director. We investigated medical practice evolution following the official elimination of rabies in 2001; impact of subsequent episodic rabies importations and national newspaper coverage on demand for and delivery of antirabies prophylaxis; regular transmission of epidemiological developments within the French Antirabies Medical Center (ARMC network; and ARMC discussions on indications of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual data collected by the National Reference Center for Rabies NRCR (1989-2006 and the exhaustive database (2000-2005 of 56 ARMC were analyzed. Weekly numbers of patients consulting at ARMC and their RPEP- and antirabies-immunoglobulin (ARIG prescription rates were determined. Autoregressive integrated moving-average modeling and regression with autocorrelated errors were applied to examine how 2000-2005 episodic rabies events and their related national newspaper coverage affected demand for and delivery of RPEP. A slight, continuous decline of rabies-dedicated public health facility attendance was observed from 2000 to 2004. Then, during the Summer 2004 event, patient consultations and RPEP and ARIG prescriptions increased by 84%, 19.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Moreover, elevated medical resource use persisted in 2005, despite communication efforts, without any secondary human or animal case. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated appropriate responsiveness to reemerging rabies cases and effective newspaper reporting, as no secondary case occurred. However, the ensuing demand on medical resources had immediate and long-lasting effects on rabies-related public health resources and expenses. Henceforth, when

  1. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S 0 state and the doubly-excited S 2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation

  2. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

  3. Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Afakye, Kofi; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Johnson, Sherry Ama Mawuko; Wongnaah, Florence; Bonsu, George Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. Methods We actively searched for cases and exposures by interviewing hous...

  4. Caring for patients with rabies in developing countries - the neglected importance of palliative care.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarantola , Arnaud; Cabrol , Yoann; Mahendra , Bangalore Jayakrishnappa; In , Sotheary; Barennes , Hubert; Bourhy , Hervé; Peng , Yiksing; Ly , Sowath; Buchy , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although limited publications address clinical management of symptomatic patients with rabies in intensive care units, the overwhelming majority of human rabies cases occur in the rural setting of developing countries where healthcare workers are few, lack training and drugs. Based on our experience, we suggest how clinicians in resource-limited settings can make best use of essential drugs to provide assistance to patients with rabies and their families, at no risk to...

  5. Evaluation of Cases with Rabies Risk Presenting to Emergency Department

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    Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: All around the world 10-12 million people/year receive rabies prophylaxis. Rabies is an acute fatal central nervous system viral enfection. The virus can infect all warm-blooded animals and almost in all cases the enfection results with fatal encephalitis. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic characteristics of cases with rabies risk exposures and behind this to emphasise the significance of cooperation between the institutions to perform effective and accurate treatment. Material and Method: This study was performed with retrospective analysis of 1429 cases who attended to Emergency Department of Diyarbakir Goverment Hospital between January 2007-2010 for animal bites and exposures with the risk of rabies. Statistical analysis of data was performed SPSS V16 pocket programme. Data were defined as frequency and %. For statistical analysis Chi-Square and Fischer exact test was used. A value of P<0.05 was accepted statistically significant. Results: A total of 1055 (73.8% were male, 374 (26.2% were female and the mean age was 21.75 ± 16.9 (6 months-87 years. The major group in children was 6-11 years old and 651 (% 45.5 of the cases attended to hospital were under 18 years old. The vast majority (39.3% in adults were between 19-49 years. In our study 808 (56.5% of the cases  were bitten, 597 (41.8% of the cases  were scrabbled by the animal and 24 (1.7%of them  had indirect contact with the animal Both of them were taken into prophylactic vaccination programme (p<0.05. The vast majority of animal bites were dog (67%  and cat (28%. 3 doses of Human diploid cell vaccine-HDCV were administered to 1001 (70% of the patients and 5 doses to 428 (30% of patients. Human rabies immune globulin-HRIG were administered to 475 (33,3% of the patients in addition to vaccine. Discussion:  In our region rabies risk exposure is an important public health problem. Public oriented education should be given about attending to health care

  6. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, Lineke; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine; Finke, Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Koopmans, Marion; Müller, Thomas; Ruigrok, Tom J H; Kuiken, Thijs

    2018-04-01

    Bat-acquired rabies is becoming increasingly common, and its diagnosis could be missed partly because its clinical presentation differs from that of dog-acquired rabies. We reviewed the scientific literature to compare the pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores-including dogs-and related this pathogenesis to differences in the clinical presentation of bat-acquired and dog-acquired rabies in human beings. For bat-acquired rabies, we found that the histological site of exposure is usually limited to the skin, the anatomical site of exposure is more commonly the face, and the virus might be more adapted for entry via the skin than for dog-acquired rabies. These factors could help to explain several differences in clinical presentation between individuals with bat-acquired and those with dog-acquired rabies. A better understanding of these differences should improve the recording of a patient's history, enable drawing up of a more sophisticated list of clinical characteristics, and therefore obtain an earlier diagnosis of rabies after contact with a bat or carnivore that has rabies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecology and Geography of Transmission of Two Bat-Borne Rabies Lineages in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Ver?nica; Pons, Daniel J.; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding th...

  8. A generalization of the quantum Rabi model: exact solution and spectral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckle, Hans-Peter; Johannesson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We consider a generalization of the quantum Rabi model where the two-level system and the single-mode cavity oscillator are coupled by an additional Stark-like term. By adapting a method recently introduced by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett . 107 100401), we solve the model exactly. The low-lying spectrum in the experimentally relevant ultrastrong and deep strong regimes of the Rabi coupling is found to exhibit two striking features absent from the original quantum Rabi model: avoided level crossings for states of the same parity and an anomalously rapid onset of two-fold near-degenerate levels as the Rabi coupling increases. (paper)

  9. Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women - Vietnam, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong T T; Tran, Cuc H; Dang, Anh D; Tran, Huong G T; Vu, Thiem D; Pham, Thach N; Nguyen, Hoang V; Nguyen, Anh N K; Pieracci, Emily G; Tran, Duong N

    2018-03-02

    Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015-2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient's fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.

  10. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RABIES, PENYEBAB DAN MANAJEMEN PRA-PAJANAN SERTA PASCA-PAJANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavalli Ragunathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RABIES, ETIOLOGY,PRE-EXPOSURE AND POST-EXPOSURE MANAGEMENT ABSTRACT Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalomyelitis in virtually all the warm-blooded animals including man. The virus is found in wild and some domestic animals, and is transmitted to other animals and to humans through their saliva (i.e. following bites, scratches, licks on broken skin and mucous membrane. Guidelines throughout worldwide quote that dogs are responsible for about 97% of human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. The disease is mainly transmitted by the bite of a rabid dog. Keyword: Rabies, Epidemiology, Causes, Management

  12. Designing programs for eliminating canine rabies from islands: Bali, Indonesia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Sunny E; Sumantra, I Putu; Pudjiatmoko; Bagus, Gusti Ngurah; Brum, Eric; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crafter, Sally; Dewi, Ayu P M; Dharma, Dewa Made Ngurah; Dushoff, Jonathan; Girardi, Janice; Gunata, I Ketut; Hiby, Elly F; Kalalo, Corlevin; Knobel, Darryn L; Mardiana, I Wayan; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Schoonman, Luuk; Scott-Orr, Helen; Shand, Mike; Sukanadi, I Wayan; Suseno, Pebi Purwo; Haydon, Daniel T; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Canine rabies is one of the most important and feared zoonotic diseases in the world. In some regions rabies elimination is being successfully coordinated, whereas in others rabies is endemic and continues to spread to uninfected areas. As epidemics emerge, both accepted and contentious control methods are used, as questions remain over the most effective strategy to eliminate rabies. The Indonesian island of Bali was rabies-free until 2008 when an epidemic in domestic dogs began, resulting in the deaths of over 100 people. Here we analyze data from the epidemic and compare the effectiveness of control methods at eliminating rabies. Using data from Bali, we estimated the basic reproductive number, R(0), of rabies in dogs, to be ~1 · 2, almost identical to that obtained in ten-fold less dense dog populations and suggesting rabies will not be effectively controlled by reducing dog density. We then developed a model to compare options for mass dog vaccination. Comprehensive high coverage was the single most important factor for achieving elimination, with omission of even small areas (Bali will not be achieved through achievable reductions in dog density. To ensure elimination, concerted high coverage, repeated, mass dog vaccination campaigns are necessary and the cooperation of all regions of the island is critical. Momentum is building towards development of a strategy for the global elimination of canine rabies, and this study offers valuable new insights about the dynamics and control of this disease, with immediate practical relevance.

  13. Large protein as a potential target for use in rabies diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Katz, I S; Dias, M H; Lima, I F; Chaves, L B; Ribeiro, O G; Scheffer, K C; Iwai, L K

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. The rabies lyssavirus (RABV) genome encodes five structural proteins, multifunctional and significant for pathogenicity. The large protein (L) presents well-conserved genomic regions, which may be a good alternative to generate informative datasets for development of new methods for rabies diagnosis. This paper describes the development of a technique for the identification of L protein in several RABV strains from different hosts, demonstrating that MS-based proteomics is a potential method for antigen identification and a good alternative for rabies diagnosis.

  14. Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius with a vampire bat rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia

    2017-06-01

    Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rabies Virus Antibodies from Oral Vaccination as a Correlate of Protection against Lethal Infection in Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Moore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Both cell-mediated and humoral immune effectors are important in combating rabies infection, although the humoral response receives greater attention regarding rabies prevention. The principle of preventive vaccination has been adopted for strategies of oral rabies vaccination (ORV of wildlife reservoir populations for decades to control circulation of rabies virus in free-ranging hosts. There remains much debate about the levels of rabies antibodies (and the assays to measure them that confer resistance to rabies virus. In this paper, data from published literature and our own unpublished animal studies on the induction of rabies binding and neutralizing antibodies following oral immunization of animals with live attenuated or recombinant rabies vaccines, are examined as correlates of protection against lethal rabies infection in captive challenge settings. Analysis of our studies suggests that, though serum neutralization test results are expected to reflect in vivo protection, the blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA result at Day 28 was a better predictor of survival. ELISA kits may have an advantage of greater precision and ability to compare results among different studies and laboratories based on the inherent standardization of the kit format. This paper examines current knowledge and study findings to guide meaningful interpretation of serology results in oral baiting monitoring.

  16. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  17. Quantum dynamics of the driven and dissipative Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Loïc; Ristivojevic, Zoran; Orth, Peter P.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2014-08-01

    The Rabi model considers a two-level system (or spin 1/2) coupled to a quantized harmonic oscillator and describes the simplest interaction between matter and light. The recent experimental progress in solid-state circuit quantum electrodynamics has engendered theoretical efforts to quantitatively describe the mathematical and physical aspects of the light-matter interaction beyond the rotating-wave approximation. We develop a stochastic Schrödinger equation approach which enables us to access the strong-coupling limit of the Rabi model and study the effects of dissipation and ac drive in an exact manner. We include the effect of Ohmic noise on the non-Markovian spin dynamics, resulting in Kondo-type correlations, as well as cavity losses. We compute the time evolution of spin variables in various conditions. As a consideration for future work, we discuss the possibility of reaching a steady state with one polariton in realistic experimental conditions.

  18. Taming the beast: rabies control in the cradle of mankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca D’Amico

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 2006 and 2012, a rabies control programme has been conducted in the area of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. Spatial data obtained for this project were analysed with the aim of assessing the importance of dog home ranges with the view of possible overlapping between dog populations from adjacent localities. In contrast to our expectation of the maximum home ranges of dogs in the harsh semi-desert environment, the results provided by geographical information system (GIS analysis showed that in 14 out of 16 localities considered for the study, the dog populations were fully isolated from each other. The data obtained should be helpful for designing rabies control strategies.

  19. Correlation effect of Rabi oscillations of excitons in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, J.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kujiraoka, M.; Ema, K.; Sasaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a transient four-wave mixing experiment on a strain-compensated InAs quantum dot (QD) ensemble over a wide range of excitation intensities. Under the resonant excitation of an exciton ground state, an extremely long dephasing time of 1 ns was found. By increasing the areas of the excitation pulses, Rabi oscillations of excitonic polarizations were clearly observed. The corresponding Rabi frequency is three orders of magnitude higher than the measured dephasing rate. For larger pulse areas, we found that the deviation of experimental data from two-level predictions became significant. The deviations cannot be explained by taking into account, as has been suggested in other research, excitation density-dependent dephasing or Hartree-Fock-type Coulomb interactions between excitons

  20. Phase coherence and Rabi frequency induced ultranarrow spectral line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Panchadhyayee, Pradipta; Mahapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A scheme is proposed to achieve ultranarrow spectral line in the fluorescence spectrum of a lifetime broadened multilevel phase-coherent atom. It is shown that for weak-field coupling, ultranarrow spectral feature in the fluorescence spectrum can be generated by controlling the values of the Rabi frequencies involved in the coherent mechanism of the system. For fixed values of the Rabi frequencies in the weak-field limit, ultranarrow feature appears in the spectrum through the adjustment of the relative phase of the coherent fields. The results highlight that, larger the values of the decay rates associated with the field-driven channels, more pronounced is the phenomenon of narrowing in the spectrum.