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Sample records for environments fungal life

  1. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  2. Cultured and uncultured fungal diversity in deep-sea environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Takahiko; Nagano, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    The importance of fungi found in deep-sea extreme environments is becoming increasingly recognized. In this chapter, current scientific findings on the fungal diversity in several deep-sea environments by conventional culture and culture-independent methods are reviewed and discussed, primarily focused on culture-independent approaches. Fungal species detected by conventional culture methods mostly belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla. Culture-independent approaches have revealed the presence of highly novel fungal phylotypes, including new taxonomic groups placed in deep branches within the phylum Chytridiomycota and unknown ancient fungal groups. Future attempts to culture these unknown fungal groups may provide key insights into the early evolution of fungi and their ecological and physiological significance in deep-sea environments.

  3. Sequencing the fungal tree of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Martin; D. Cullen; D. Hibbett; A. Pisabarro; J.W. Spatafora; S.E. Baker; I.V. Grigoriev

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems host a complex array of interacting communities, with thousands of species of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In soils, this complex web of life is responsible for the cycling of carbon (C), for water and nutrients, for soil quality and for plant nutrition and health. To predict future changes of these threatened ecosystems and to fully...

  4. Ancient Fungal Life in North Pacific Eocene Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.; Lustrino, M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the manifold life forms of the deep biosphere although there is increasing scientific evidence that an extensive biosphere does exist in extreme environments such as the rocks below the seafloor. The ODP Leg 200 was devoted to the study of Eocene oceanic crust of the North Pacific Ocean. Within a massive tholeiitic lava flow unit, at depth of 51 mbsf underneath a water column of about 5000 m, we found unique filamentous structures. Based on morphological traits like branching, septa and central pores the filaments are interpreted as fungi. These filaments were found within carbonate-filled vesicles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3 mm in diameter. The net of fungal hyphae completely fills the whole pore space from the basalt-carbonate boundary towards the center of the pores. The cross section dimension of these filaments is about 5-10 micrometer and the length differ from 50 to several hundreds micrometer. Thereby the cell septa of the hyphae are clearly visible. The number of hyphae ranges from some tenth to some hundreds per particular pore. The presence of pyrite within the carbonate cements points out anaerobic conditions in this habitat. After removing the carbonate by etching the vesicles with diluted formic acid, the 3-dimensional structure of the fungus could be clearly visualized. Fine structure analysis of the hyphae obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a network of tiny small fibers coating the surface of the hyphae. Semi-quantitative chemical analyses of the etched hyphae were conducted with an energy dispersive spectrometer system (EDS) coupled with the FE-SEM. The results evidence a chemical composition of the hyphae different from the surrounding carbonate matrix. Undisturbed filamentous growth through different calcite crystals within the vesicles and small open space between the fungi and matrix indicate endolithic fungal growth after the calcium carbonate filling of the vesicles. To the best

  5. New perspectives towards analising fungal communities in terrestrial environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fungi play key roles in numerous ecosystem functions, and recent advances in the study of fungal diversity and ecology have led to a greater appreciation of this group of microeukaryotes. The application of a variety of nucleic acid techniques to fungal classification and phylogeny has led to a

  6. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2013-01-01

    Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids). However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes), spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  7. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Gerphagnon

    Full Text Available Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids. However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes, spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  8. Studies on fungal and bacterial population of air-conditioned environments

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    Claudia Ross

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical countries such as Brazil, there is not enough information about microbial contaminants in indoor environments with air conditioning systems. Microbial monitoring of such environments is important for the quality of human life. The aim of this work was to assess the fungal genera and bacterial morphotypes occurring in such environments. Air samples were taken indoors and outdoors from a public auditorium, a hospital, a company and a shopping center during the 2001 winter by using a six-stage impactor Millipore M air T® . Twenty-one fungal genera were identified. Bacterial morphological groups found were Gram positive and negative rods and Gram positive coccus.Em países tropicais como o Brasil, não há informação suficiente sobre contaminantes microbianos em ambientes internos com sistemas de ar condicionado. Monitoramento microbiano em tais ambientes é importante para a qualidade de vida humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os gêneros de fungos e morfotipos de bactérias que ocorrem em tais ambientes. Amostras de ar foram coletadas dentro e fora de um auditório público, um hospital, uma empresa e um shopping center durante o inverno de 2001 utilizando um impactador de ar de seis estágios Millipore M air T® . Vinte e um gêneros de fungos foram identificados. Foram encontrados grupos morfológicos de bactérias bastonetes Gram positivos e negativos e cocos Gram positivos.

  9. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  10. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  11. Relationship between Fungal Colonisation of the Respiratory Tract in Lung Transplant Recipients and Fungal Contamination of the Hospital Environment.

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    Christine Bonnal

    Full Text Available Aspergillus colonisation is frequently reported after lung transplantation. The question of whether aspergillus colonisation is related to the hospital environment is crucial to prevention.To elucidate this question, a prospective study of aspergillus colonisation after lung transplantation, along with a mycological survey of the patient environment, was performed.Forty-four consecutive patients were included from the day of lung transplantation and then examined weekly for aspergillus colonisation until hospital discharge. Environmental fungal contamination of each patient was followed weekly via air and surface sampling. Twelve patients (27% had transient aspergillus colonisation, occurring 1-13 weeks after lung transplantation, without associated manifestation of aspergillosis. Responsible Aspergillus species were A. fumigatus (6, A. niger (3, A. sydowii (1, A. calidoustus (1 and Aspergillus sp. (1. In the environment, contamination by Penicillium and Aspergillus was predominant. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between occurrence of aspergillus colonisation and fungal contamination of the patient's room, either by Aspergillus spp. in the air or by A.fumigatus on the floor. Related clinical and environmental isolates were genotyped in 9 cases of aspergillus colonisation. For A. fumigatus (4 cases, two identical microsatellite profiles were found between clinical and environmental isolates collected on distant dates or locations. For other Aspergillus species, isolates were different in 2 cases; in 3 cases of aspergillus colonisation by A. sydowii, A. niger and A. calidoustus, similarity between clinical and environmental internal transcribed spacer and tubulin sequences was >99%.Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of environmental risk of hospital acquisition of aspergillus colonisation in lung transplant recipients.

  12. Sporothrix schenckii complex biology: environment and fungal pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, M D; Batista-Duharte, A; Portuondo, D; Quinello, C; Bonne-Hernández, R; Carlos, I Z

    2014-11-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is a complex of various species of fungus found in soils, plants, decaying vegetables and other outdoor environments. It is the aetiological agent of sporotrichosis in humans and several animals. Humans and animals can acquire the disease through traumatic inoculation of the fungus into subcutaneous tissue. Despite the importance of sporotrichosis, it being currently regarded as an emergent disease in several countries, the factors driving its increasing medical importance are still largely unknown. There have only been a few studies addressing the influence of the environment on the virulence of these pathogens. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adverse conditions in its natural habitats can trigger the expression of different virulence factors that confer survival advantages both in animal hosts and in the environment. In this review, we provide updates on the important advances in the understanding of the biology of Spor. schenckii and the modification of its virulence linked to demonstrated or putative environmental factors. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in Kansas City indoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rittenour, William R.; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Barnes, Charles S.; Kashon, Michael L.; Lemons, Angela R.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Green, Brett J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to traditional methods of fungal exposure assessment, molecular methods have provided new insight into the richness of fungal communities present in both indoor and outdoor environments. In this study, we describe the diversity of fungi in the homes of asthmatic children located in Kansas City. Fungal diversity was determined by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA derived from fungi collected in air and dust samples from 31 homes participating in...

  14. Phylogenomics reveal a robust fungal tree of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, Eiko E.; Robert, Vincent; Snel, Berend; Weiß, Michael; Boekhout, Teun

    2006-01-01

    Our understanding of the tree of life (TOL) is still fragmentary. Until recently, molecular phylogeneticists have built trees based on ribosomal RNA sequences and selected protein sequences, which, however, usually suffered from lack of support for the deeper branches and inconsistencies probably

  15. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  16. Virtual learning environments: second life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy; Wink, Diane M

    2010-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the authors examine how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. The editor of this column and her coauthor describes how the virtual world of Second Life can be used in nursing education.

  17. Planetary Environments and Origins of Life

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    Ollivier Marc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present strategies proposed for the search for the origins of life and for extra-terrestrial life are mainly based on Earth-life and its adaptation along geological eras to the Earth environment. These strategies should however face the difficulty that one cannot as yet accurately date the appearance of life on Earth, and consequently one cannot identify a chronology of phenomena related to the transition from the non-living to the living and the dependence of these phenomena on the Earth environment. In this paper, we present new approaches to search for the origins of life on the Earth and next, for life on exoplanets. This study is based on our experience gained at the head of the CNRSc interdisciplinary research initiative "Environnements Planétaires et Origines de la Vie (EPOVd, and on the analysis of the projects the initiative funded.

  18. Fungal life-styles and ecosystem dynamics: biological aspects of plant pathogens, plant endophytes and saprophytes

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    Rodriguez, R.J.; Redman, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses various biochemical, genetic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of fungi that express either symbiotic or saprophytic life-styles. An enormous pool of potential pathogens exists in both agricultural and natural ecosystems, and virtually all plant species are susceptible to one or more fungal pathogens. Fungal pathogens have the potential to impact on the genetic structure of populations of individual plant species, the composition of plant communities and the process of plant succession. Endophytic fungi exist for at least part of their life cycles within the tissues of a plant host. This group of fungi is distinguished from plant pathogens because they do not elicit significant disease symptoms. However, endophytes do maintain the genetic and biochemical mechanisms required for infection and colonization of plant hosts. Fungi that obtain chemical nutrients from dead organic matter are known as saprophytes and are critical to the dynamics and resilience of ecosystems. There are two modes of saprophytic growth: one in which biomolecules that are amenable to transport across cell walls and membranes are directly absorbed, and another in which fungi must actively convert complex biopolymers into subunit forms amenable to transportation into cells. Regardless of life-style, fungi employ similar biochemical mechanisms for the acquisition and conversion of nutrients into complex biomolecules that are necessary for vegetative growth, production and dissemination of progeny, organismal competition, and survival during periods of nutrient deprivation or environmental inclemency.

  19. Molecular diversity of fungal phylotypes co-amplified alongside nematodes from coastal and deep-sea marine environments.

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    Punyasloke Bhadury

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99-100% and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%. BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

  20. Rapid detection of fungal alpha-amylase in the work environment with a lateral flow immunoassay.

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    Bogdanovic, Jelena; Koets, Marjo; Sander, Ingrid; Wouters, Inge; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; van Amerongen, Aart; Doekes, Gert

    2006-11-01

    Occupational allergen exposure assessment usually requires airborne dust sampling at the worksite followed by dust extraction and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis at the laboratory. Use of semiquantitative lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) may allow a more rapid detection procedure with direct on-site demonstration of a bioallergen exposure hazard. In a field study, we evaluated a recently developed LFIA for fungal alpha-amylase, an important bakery allergen. Airborne and surface dust (wipe) samples and samples from flours and baking additives used at the workplace were collected in 5 industrial bakeries and tested in the LFIA for fungal amylase. For comparison, amylase was measured in sample eluates with the reference EIA method. Sensitivity of the LFIA was 1 to 10 ng/mL, and of EIA, approximately 25 pg/mL. In LFIA, most flour samples, 84% of wipe samples, 26% of personal airborne dust, and none of the 26 ambient air dust samples produced a visible reaction. Wipe samples from dough-making areas and flour samples gave the strongest reactions. All extracts with >5 ng allergen per milliliter showed a positive LFIA reaction. The LFIA for fungal amylase is an easy and rapid method to demonstrate the allergen directly at the worksite in less than 10 to 20 minutes. Similar LFIA methods may be used for other occupational allergens in other work environments. Lateral flow immunoassays for occupational allergens may be of great value in occupational hygiene surveys to demonstrate directly to workers and supervisors the hazards of work-related bioallergen exposure.

  1. Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

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    Abdullah T. Al-fawwaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is an organic hazardous pollutant that exerts toxic effects on living cells at relatively at low concentrations. Moreover accumulation of phenol exhibit toxicity towards the biotic components of the environment. Phenol bioremoval is a very useful approach to clean up the residual phenol from the environment. This study aims at isolating green microalgae and fungi from local dry environment to test their ability to remove phenol. Subsequently two green microalgal species have been isolated and identified as Desmodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp.. Also two fungal species have been isolated and identified as Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Phenol bioremoval capacity as well as the effects of some physicochemical factors on the bioremoval process were then studied. These factors include initial phenol concentration contact time and the synergistic effect Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. on the bioremoval process. Both microalgae and fungi showed phenol bioremoval capacity. The highest phenol removal percentage among algae was found 75 by Desmodesmus sp. after 25 days at 25 mgL while the highest phenol removal percentage among fungi was found 86 by Rhizopus sp. after 25 days at 100 mgL. Bioremoval of phenol by the consortium Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. was found to be 95 at the phenol concentration 25 mgL.

  2. Internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in Kansas City indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, William R; Ciaccio, Christina E; Barnes, Charles S; Kashon, Michael L; Lemons, Angela R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2014-01-01

    Compared to traditional methods of fungal exposure assessment, molecular methods have provided new insight into the richness of fungal communities present in both indoor and outdoor environments. In this study, we describe the diversity of fungi in the homes of asthmatic children located in Kansas City. Fungal diversity was determined by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal RNA derived from fungi collected in air and dust samples from 31 homes participating in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program (KCSHHP). Sequencing results were then compared to data obtained using viable and non-viable fungal exposure assessment methods. ITS clone libraries were predominantly derived from the phylum Ascomycota in both air (68%) and dust (92%) samples and followed by the Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The majority of Ascomycota clones belonged to four orders including the Pleosporales, Eurotiales, Capnodiales, and Dothideales. ITS sequencing revealed the presence of a number of rarely documented fungal species placed in the Pleosporales. Several species placed in the Basidiomycota were detected in ITS clone libraries but not by viable or non-viable methods. The prevalence of organizational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly higher in air than in dust samples (p < 0.0001); however, no differences between OTUs in air samples collected in the subjects' room and basement were observed. These sequencing results demonstrate a much broader diversity of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota communities in KCSHHP indoor environments than previously estimated using traditional methods of assessment.

  3. Hospital environment fungal contamination and aspergillosis risk in acute leukaemia patients in Sousse (Tunisia).

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    Gheith, Soukeina; Ranque, Stéphane; Bannour, Wadiaa; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Khelif, Abderrahim; Ben Said, Moncef; Njah, Mansour; Saghrouni, Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Hospital environment is considered the main source of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in leukemic patients. This study aimed to describe Aspergillus colonisation in leukemic patients and their hospital environment and to test whether Aspergillus environmental contamination was associated with IA. For a 2-year period including 14-month renovation work, 91 acute leukaemia inpatients at the hematology department of University hospital in Sousse (Tunisia) were prospectively included. The incidence of probable IA (EORTC/MSG criteria) was 9.9%. Fifty-six Aspergillus were isolated from 53 (6.5%) of 811 sputa collected from 35 (38.5%) patients. Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 59.7% of 494 air samples and in 52.8% of 1579 surface samples taken in the patients' room. Aspergillus section Nigri (72.7%) was the most frequent. Aspergillus contamination peaked in autumn and winter on surface and in summer and autumn in air samples and was higher (P = 0.03) during the renovation work period. Multivariate analysis showed that for each Aspergillus section Nigri CFU airborne contamination IA risk increased by 1.05 (P = 0.04). In Tunisia, Aspergillus section Nigri and Flavi, but not Fumigati, are chiefly involved in IA. Our findings support swift implementation of airborne fungal contamination control measures in areas where immunocompromised patient are hospitalised. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Influence of Cutting Environment on Tool Life

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    Buranská, Eva; Gerulová, Kristína; Buranský, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    The issues of cutting environment and a suitable choice of cutting conditions by drilling are the main subjects of the article. Attention is paid to the application of the drilling process into the carbon steel. Analysed were the phenomena that adversely affect the tool life. The article demonstrated solutions how to remove these adverse effects. The multicriteria optimisation of input factors (cutting fluid concentration, cutting speed) for a defined target function (tool life) was applied. The measured values were subjected to mathematical-statistical analysis (ANOVA). Based on the implemented experiment and study of this issue, we determined the combinations of input factors, which achieved minimal values of target functions. Based on the implemented experiment and study of this issue, we also determined the combinations of input factors, which achieved minimal values of target functions. Based on this allegation, the most appropriate combination of the following input factors was proved: concentration 6.3 % and cutting speed 100 m/min.

  5. Fungal metabolic gene clusters – caravans traveling across genomes and environments

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    Jennifer Hughes Wisecaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic gene clusters (MGCs, physically co-localized genes participating in the same metabolic pathway, are signature features of fungal genomes. MGCs are most often observed in specialized metabolism, having evolved in individual fungal lineages in response to specific ecological needs, such as the utilization of uncommon nutrients (e.g., galactose and allantoin or the production of secondary metabolic antimicrobial compounds and virulence factors (e.g., aflatoxin and melanin. A flurry of recent studies has shown that several MGCs, whose functions are often associated with fungal virulence as well as with the evolutionary arms race between fungi and their competitors, have experienced horizontal gene transfer (HGT. In this minireview, after briefly introducing HGT as a source of gene innovation, we examine the evidence for HGT’s involvement on the evolution of MGCs and, more generally of fungal metabolism, enumerate the molecular mechanisms that mediate such transfers and the ecological circumstances that favor them, as well as discuss the types of evidence required for inferring the presence of HGT in MGCs. The currently available examples indicate that transfers of entire MGCs have taken place between closely related fungal species as well as distant ones and that they sometimes involve large chromosomal segments. These results suggest that the HGT-mediated acquisition of novel metabolism is an ongoing and successful ecological strategy for many fungal species.

  6. Majapahit Terracotta Figurines: Social Environment and Life

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    Dikdik Adikara Rachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to determine the three-dimensional visual tradition in the Majapahit kingdom. This was a manifestation of aesthetic that expressed in various forms, one of them was the figurines that represented linkage aspects in Majapahit’s community life. Terracotta was used as the main basic material in making figurines. Figurines indicated two aspects, namely the human relationship with the natural environment surrounding that translated into a mechanism for the creation, and showed the dimensions of social life in the Hindu tradition. The method used is empirical relational visual with text. In addition, the article was the result of field research conducted under the supervision of Sacred Bridge Foundation, which lasted from 2009 to 2010 in Trowulan as a heritage center site of Majapahit that spread over an area of nearly 100 km2. The research finds out that figurines as a proof of authenticity and identity of the Majapahit that understood as the embodiment of visual culture manifestation. 

  7. Monitoring of fungal loads in seabird rehabilitation centers with comparisons to natural seabird environments in northern California.

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    Burco, Julia D; Massey, J Gregory; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa; Clemons, Karl V; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis remains a major cause of mortality in captive and rehabilitated seabirds. To date, there has been poor documentation of fungal (particularly Aspergillus spp.) burdens in natural seabird loafing and roosting sites compared with fungal numbers in rehabilitation or captive settings and the various microenvironments that seabirds are exposed to during the rehabilitation process. This study compares fungal, particularly Aspergillus spp., burdens potentially encountered by seabirds in natural and rehabilitation environments. Differences among the various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were evaluated to determine the risk of infection when seabirds are experiencing high stress and poor immune function. Aspergillus spp. counts were quantified in three wildlife rehabilitation centers and five natural seabird loafing and roosting sites in northern California using a handheld impact air sampler and a water filtration system. Wildlife rehabilitation centers demonstrated an increase in numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus in air and water samples from select aquatic bird rehabilitation centers compared with natural seabird environments in northern California. Various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were identified as having higher numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that periodic monitoring of multiple local areas, where the birds spend time in a rehabilitation facility, should be done to identify "high risk" sites, where birds should spend minimal time, or sites that should be cleaned more frequently or have improved air flow to reduce exposure to fungal conidia. Overall, these results suggest that seabirds may be more likely to encounter Aspergillus spp. in various microenvironments in captivity, compared with their native habitats, which could increase their risk of developing disease when in a debilitated state.

  8. Can we develop general predictive models of mycorrhizal fungal community-environment relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Jeri L. Parrent

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the controls on mycorrhizal fungal species distribution and community organization is in its early childhood - especially when compared with that of the more mature fields of plant and animal community ecology and biogeography - largely because of the historical difficulty of gathering species distribution information.

  9. Fungal root endophytes from natural vegetation in Mediterranean environments with special reference to Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Jansson, Hans-Börje; Abdullah, Samir K; Descals, Enric; Salinas, Jesus; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2008-04-01

    Surveys (in 2002 and 2003) were performed for fungal endophytes in roots of 24 plant species growing at 12 sites (coastal and inland soils, both sandy soils and salt marshes) under either water or salt stress in the Alicante province (Southeast Spain). All plant species examined were colonized by endophytic fungi. A total of 1830 fungal isolates were obtained and identified by morphological and molecular [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor-1alpha gene region (TEF-1alpha) sequencing] techniques. One hundred and forty-two fungal species were identified, belonging to 57 genera. Sterile mycelia were assigned to 177 morphospecies. Fusarium and Phoma species were the most frequent genera, followed by Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium. Fungal root endophytic communities were influenced by the soil type where their respective host plants grew, but not by location (coastal or inland sites). Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria chlamydospora contributed most to the differences found between endophytic communities from sandy and saline soils. Host preference was found for three Fusarium species studied. Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani were especially isolated from plants of the family Leguminosae, while Fusarium equiseti showed a preference for Lygeum spartum (Gramineae). In some cases, specificity could be related to intra-specific variability as shown by sequencing of the TEF-1alpha in the genus Fusarium.

  10. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago; Canion, Andy [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Overholt, Will [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Prakash, Om [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wafula, Dennis [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Watson, David B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  11. Pisolithus tinctorius, Fungal Extremophile and Modern Analog to an Early Earth Environment; An Unlikely Harbor for Deeply Diverging and Novel Chemoautrophic Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K. C.; Lauzon, C.; Marinkovich, N.; Truong, T.

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbioses have given rise to some of the most important innovations in Earth's history. Indeed, ecological facilitation has been pivotal to the creation of higher order complexity, and in driving evolutionary transitions at every level of organization from cellular organelles to multicellularity. In this study we address a newly discovered endosymbiosis between prokaryotes and a eukaryote growing with no apparent external energy source in soils associated with acid-sulfate hydrothermal springs. Hydrothermal sites are relevant to origin of life because they provide a chemical and energetic environment that may have provided energy for pre-biotic synthesis in the absence of photosynthesis through chemoautotrophy. Pisolithus (genus, picture 1 below) is a terrestrial fungal extremophile that can grow in thermally altered soils of acid-thermal hot springs at extreme low pH and elevated temperature, thriving in conditions that are beyond the threshold of survivability for most other organisms. Fruiting bodies of this fungus accumulate elemental sulfur into the spore producing tissues (gleba) of the fruiting body. The gleba is encased in a thick peridium, or shell. Further, Pisolithus is capable of enzymatic conversion of elemental S to sulfate. The fruiting bodies are rich in hydrocarbons, contain water through much of their development and are also likely to contain CO2 from fungal cellular respiration. Further, our data indicate the presence of anaerobic zones within. Thus, the internal environment of Pisolithus contains many conditions relevant to early Earth environments in which life is thought to have originated. We used 16S rDNA sequences to test the hypothesis that Pisolithus individuals contain novel and/or ancient microbial lineages. Our data reveal lineages comprised of novel relatives of known aerobic and anaerobic chemoautrophic Bacteria (85-90% BLAST search matches), several deeply divergent and novel Bacterial lineages, and a newly discovered lineage

  12. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-Lin L; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-01-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an

  13. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-Lin L; Hallsworth, John E

    2017-01-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an

  14. Watershed-scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  15. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G.; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J.; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-lin L.; Hallsworth, John E.

    2016-01-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores of a variety of species including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilium (for...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Transcription Factors Families across Fungal Tree of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor

    2015-03-19

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that regulate the transcription of genes, by binding to specific DNA sequences. Based on literature (Shelest, 2008; Weirauch and Hughes,2011) collected and manually curated list of DBD Pfam domains (in total 62 DBD domains) We looked for distribution of TFs in 395 fungal genomes plus additionally in plant genomes (Phytozome), prokaryotes(IMG), some animals/metazoans and protists genomes

  17. Microbial life in ice and subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P. B.; Bramall, N.; Tatebe, K.

    2003-04-01

    Conditions for microbial life to exist in solid ice require the presence of liquid water and sources of energy and bioelements. In ice in thermal equilibrium, liquid water will exist in a three-dimensional network of micron-sized veins and in nanometer-thick films on mineral grains in ice. Ionic impurities lower the freezing temperature in the veins to as low as -95^oC. Depending on mineral type, the film on a grain surface will remain liquid down to ˜ -40^oC. The impurities provide both energy (via microbially catalyzed redox reactions) and bioelements. The maximum sustainable microbial population depends on metabolic rate, which in turn depends on species, temperature, and type and concentration of impurities in veins and surfaces. Microbes have been imaged by epifluorescence in veins in sea and Arctic lake ice and on grains in Dry Valleys lake ice. Indirect evidence exists for metabolism of microbes in Vostok glacial ice, in Greenland basal ice, and in Sajama (Bolivia) glacial ice. We will discuss several approaches to detection of microbes: epifluorescence microscopy of glacial ice at low temperature; fluorescence spectra taken with BSL (a new borehole logging instrument); fluorescence of microbes on surfaces of silt and volcanic ash in glacial ice; and in-situ cultivation of bacterial colonies at intersections of mineral grains and liquid veins in ice held in contact with a nutrient medium at subfreezing temperature. Based on measurements in the oligotrophic Lake Tahoe, BSL is sensitive to a concentration of ˜10^3 microbes cm-3, which may be adequate to detect life in Greenland ice and in Lake Vostok. A miniaturized version could be used to search for life in Martian permafrost and in diapirs in Europan ice.

  18. Life-Environment : HASCO-projekt / Toom Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Toom

    2002-01-01

    Sonda vallavalitsuse initsiatiivil on alustatud EU Life-Environment HASCO-projekti, mille raames töödeldakse 50 000 tonni puukoksi, 50 000 m3 turvast ja 50 000 m3 läga mullaparandusaineks Viru Ramm

  19. Environmental Variability and Fluctuation of Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) In California: Based on a New Framework Involving Fungal Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Okin, G. S.; Shafir, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever), caused by inhalation of spores from pathogenic fungus includingCoccidiodes immitis (C. immitis) and Coccidioides posadasii (C. posadasii), is a disease endemic to arid regions in the southwest US, as well as parts of Central and South America. With a projected increase of drought in this region, an improved understanding of environmental factors behind the outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis will enable the prediction of coccidioidomycosis in a changing climate regime. Previous research shows the infections correlate with climate conditions including precipitation, temperature, and dust. However, most studies focus only on the environmental conditions of fungus growth, which is the first stage in the fungal life cycle. In contrast, we extend the analysis to the following two stages in the life cycle, arthrospore formation and dispersal, to form a better model to predict the disease outbreaks. Besides climate conditions, we use relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA) based on MODIS MOD43 nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data to derive the relative dynamics of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil coverage as better indicators of soil moisture, which is important for arthospore formation and dispersal. After detecting the hotspots of disease outbreaks, we correlate seasonal incidence from 2000 to 2010 with the environmental variables zero to eight seasons before to obtain candidates for stepwise regression. Regression result shows a seasonal difference in the leading explanatory variables. Such difference indicates the different seasonal main influential process from fungal life cycle. C. immitis (fungus responsible for coccidioidomycosis outbreaks in California) growth explains outbreaks in winter and fall better than other two stages in the life cycle, while arthospore formation is more responsible for spring and summer outbreaks. As the driest season, summer has the largest area related with arthospore

  20. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of'Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of Life - Origin of Life on Earth. P V Sukumaran. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 4-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Fungal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Fungal Keratitis Sections What is Fungal Keratitis? Fungal Keratitis Causes ... Keratitis Symptoms Fungal Keratitis Treatment What is Fungal Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Fúngica? ...

  2. Life is determined by its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S.; Miller, William B.

    2016-10-01

    A well-developed theory of evolutionary biology requires understanding of the origins of life on Earth. However, the initial conditions (ontology) and causal (epistemology) bases on which physiology proceeded have more recently been called into question, given the teleologic nature of Darwinian evolutionary thinking. When evolutionary development is focused on cellular communication, a distinctly different perspective unfolds. The cellular communicative-molecular approach affords a logical progression for the evolutionary narrative based on the basic physiologic properties of the cell. Critical to this appraisal is recognition of the cell as a fundamental reiterative unit of reciprocating communication that receives information from and reacts to epiphenomena to solve problems. Following the course of vertebrate physiology from its unicellular origins instead of its overt phenotypic appearances and functional associations provides a robust, predictive picture for the means by which complex physiology evolved from unicellular organisms. With this foreknowledge of physiologic principles, we can determine the fundamentals of Physiology based on cellular first principles using a logical, predictable method. Thus, evolutionary creativity on our planet can be viewed as a paradoxical product of boundary conditions that permit homeostatic moments of varying length and amplitude that can productively absorb a variety of epigenetic impacts to meet environmental challenges.

  3. Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard – a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Abarenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data – for example, “retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms” – a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016 to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http://gensc.org/mixs/. The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http://its.mycologylab.org.

  4. The Quality of Seniors' Life in Their Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lachytová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research study is to investigate the quality of life of seniors at home and their satisfaction in the domains of physical health, survival, social relations and the environment itself. Design studio. We conducted the study on a sample of 80 respondents / seniors living at home in Vranov nad Topľou. For processing the obtained data, we used the following statistical methods - the Fisher's F-test and Student's t-test. For detecting the data from respondents we chose an anonymous standardized questionnaire WHOQOL-BREF (World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF, which is a shortened version of the WHOQOL-100. As completion of this study is the implementation of mechanisms supporting the quality of life of seniors in a natural environment with an emphasis on preventive measures of social policy to maintain a reasonable quality of life.

  5. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  6. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water‐activity limit for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G.; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J.; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su‐Lin L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the most‐extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0–64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water‐activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores from a variety of species, including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilum (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum) and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (and contained up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores−1). The ability of these spores to germinate, and the kinetics of germination, were then determined on a range of media designed to recreate stresses experienced in microbial habitats or anthropogenic systems (with water‐activities from 0.765 to 0.575). For A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. halophilicum, X. xerophilum and X. bisporus, germination occurred at lower water‐activities than previously recorded (0.640, 0.685, 0.651, 0.664 and 0.637 respectively). In addition, the kinetics of germination at low water‐activities were substantially faster than those reported previously. Extrapolations indicated theoretical water‐activity minima below these values; as low as 0.570 for A. penicillioides and X. bisporus. Glycerol is present at high concentrations (up to molar levels) in many types of microbial habitat. We discuss the likely role of glycerol in expanding the water‐activity limit for microbial cell function in relation to temporal constraints and location of the microbial cell or habitat. The findings reported here have also critical implications for understanding the extremes of Earth's biosphere; for understanding the potency of disease‐causing microorganisms; and in biotechnologies that operate at the limits of microbial function. PMID:27631633

  7. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-Lin L; Hallsworth, John E

    2017-03-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores from a variety of species, including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilum (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum) and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (and contained up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores-1 ). The ability of these spores to germinate, and the kinetics of germination, were then determined on a range of media designed to recreate stresses experienced in microbial habitats or anthropogenic systems (with water-activities from 0.765 to 0.575). For A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. halophilicum, X. xerophilum and X. bisporus, germination occurred at lower water-activities than previously recorded (0.640, 0.685, 0.651, 0.664 and 0.637 respectively). In addition, the kinetics of germination at low water-activities were substantially faster than those reported previously. Extrapolations indicated theoretical water-activity minima below these values; as low as 0.570 for A. penicillioides and X. bisporus. Glycerol is present at high concentrations (up to molar levels) in many types of microbial habitat. We discuss the likely role of glycerol in expanding the water-activity limit for microbial cell function in relation to temporal constraints and location of the microbial cell or habitat. The findings reported here have also critical implications for understanding the extremes of Earth's biosphere; for understanding the potency of disease-causing microorganisms; and in biotechnologies that operate at the limits of microbial function. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology

  8. Inter-Life: A Novel, Three-Dimensional, Virtual Learning Environment for Life Transition Skills Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Alison M.; Lally, Vic; Sclater, Madeleine; Parussel, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from one of the first empirical research studies which has investigated the impact of Inter-Life; a novel three-dimensional immersive virtual learning environment, on learning and development of social and educational life transition skills in a group of looked after and accommodated children. Drawing on social…

  9. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker. L Geetha. General Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 66-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0066-0077 ...

  10. Work-Life Balance in an Outsourcing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Dervent

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…

  11. Fluorine-rich planetary environments as possible habitats for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisa, Nediljko; Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-08-18

    In polar aprotic organic solvents, fluorine might be an element of choice for life that uses selected fluorinated building blocks as monomers of choice for self-assembling of its catalytic polymers. Organofluorine compounds are extremely rare in the chemistry of life as we know it. Biomolecules, when fluorinated such as peptides or proteins, exhibit a "fluorous effect", i.e., they are fluorophilic (neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic). Such polymers, capable of creating self-sorting assemblies, resist denaturation by organic solvents by exclusion of fluorocarbon side chains from the organic phase. Fluorous cores consist of a compact interior, which is shielded from the surrounding solvent. Thus, we can anticipate that fluorine-containing "teflon"-like or "non-sticking" building blocks might be monomers of choice for the synthesis of organized polymeric structures in fluorine-rich planetary environments. Although no fluorine-rich planetary environment is known, theoretical considerations might help us to define chemistries that might support life in such environments. For example, one scenario is that all molecular oxygen may be used up by oxidation reactions on a planetary surface and fluorine gas could be released from F-rich magma later in the history of a planetary body to result in a fluorine-rich planetary environment.

  12. Fluorine-Rich Planetary Environments as Possible Habitats for Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljko Budisa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In polar aprotic organic solvents, fluorine might be an element of choice for life that uses selected fluorinated building blocks as monomers of choice for self-assembling of its catalytic polymers. Organofluorine compounds are extremely rare in the chemistry of life as we know it. Biomolecules, when fluorinated such as peptides or proteins, exhibit a “fluorous effect”, i.e., they are fluorophilic (neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic. Such polymers, capable of creating self-sorting assemblies, resist denaturation by organic solvents by exclusion of fluorocarbon side chains from the organic phase. Fluorous cores consist of a compact interior, which is shielded from the surrounding solvent. Thus, we can anticipate that fluorine-containing “teflon”-like or “non-sticking” building blocks might be monomers of choice for the synthesis of organized polymeric structures in fluorine-rich planetary environments. Although no fluorine-rich planetary environment is known, theoretical considerations might help us to define chemistries that might support life in such environments. For example, one scenario is that all molecular oxygen may be used up by oxidation reactions on a planetary surface and fluorine gas could be released from F-rich magma later in the history of a planetary body to result in a fluorine-rich planetary environment.

  13. [Fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, H

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of fungal sinusitis is subjected to significant geographical variation. Basically, invasive and non-invasive fungal sinusitis is distinguished. Invasive fungal sinusitis is observed mainly in immunocompromised hosts. The diagnopsis is based on positive fungus detection combined with characteristic clinical features. The treatment of invasive fungal sinusitis is based on surgical debridement and systemic antifungal therapy. Non-invasive fungal sinusitis is either treated with surgery alone or surgery combined with systemic steroid therapy. The majority of studies showed no benefit of postoperative antimycotic medical treatment in patients with non-invasive fungal sinusitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    genetically informative cohorts. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) we selected long-lived sib-pairs (n=844) and their middle-aged offspring and the offspring's partners (n=1452). From the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT) 604 (302 pairs) same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...... number for partners was 71% (Penvironment accounts for the similarity within twin pairs. Our findings suggest that susceptibility to CMV infection......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  15. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  16. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  17. Category Learning Research in the Interactive Online Environment Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jan; Livingston, Ken; Sturm, Joshua; Bliss, Daniel; Hawthorne, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The interactive online environment Second Life allows users to create novel three-dimensional stimuli that can be manipulated in a meaningful yet controlled environment. These features suggest Second Life's utility as a powerful tool for investigating how people learn concepts for unfamiliar objects. The first of two studies was designed to establish that cognitive processes elicited in this virtual world are comparable to those tapped in conventional settings by attempting to replicate the established finding that category learning systematically influences perceived similarity . From the perspective of an avatar, participants navigated a course of unfamiliar three-dimensional stimuli and were trained to classify them into two labeled categories based on two visual features. Participants then gave similarity ratings for pairs of stimuli and their responses were compared to those of control participants who did not learn the categories. Results indicated significant compression, whereby objects classified together were judged to be more similar by learning than control participants, thus supporting the validity of using Second Life as a laboratory for studying human cognition. A second study used Second Life to test the novel hypothesis that effects of learning on perceived similarity do not depend on the presence of verbal labels for categories. We presented the same stimuli but participants classified them by selecting between two complex visual patterns designed to be extremely difficult to label. While learning was more challenging in this condition , those who did learn without labels showed a compression effect identical to that found in the first study using verbal labels. Together these studies establish that at least some forms of human learning in Second Life parallel learning in the actual world and thus open the door to future studies that will make greater use of the enriched variety of objects and interactions possible in simulated environments

  18. Assessment and determinants of airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations in different indoor environments: Homes, child day-care centres, primary schools and elderly care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João Cavaleiro; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Until now the influence of risk factors resulting from exposure to biological agents in indoor air has been far less studied than outdoor pollution; therefore the uncertainty of health risks, and how to effectively prevent these, remains. This study aimed (i) to quantify airborne cultivable bacterial and fungal concentrations in four different types of indoor environment as well as to identify the recovered fungi; (ii) to assess the impact of outdoor bacterial and fungal concentrations on indoor air; (iii) to investigate the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and relative humidity on bacterial and fungal concentrations; and (iv) to estimate bacterial and fungal dose rate for children (3-5 years old and 8-10 years old) in comparison with the elderly. Air samples were collected in 68 homes, 9 child day-care centres, 20 primary schools and 22 elderly care centres, in a total of 264 rooms with a microbiological air sampler and using tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar culture media for bacteria and fungi growth, respectively. For each building, one outdoor representative location were identified and simultaneously studied. The results showed that child day-care centres were the indoor microenvironment with the highest median bacterial and fungal concentrations (3870 CFU/m3 and 415 CFU/m3, respectively), whereas the lowest median concentrations were observed in elderly care centres (222 CFU/m3 and 180 CFU/m3, respectively). Indoor bacterial concentrations were significantly higher than outdoor concentrations (p fungi. Children's had two times higher dose rate to biological pollutants when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to children's susceptibility, special attention should be given to educational settings in order to guarantee their healthy future development.

  19. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E L

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system.

  20. Exploring Mars for Evidence of Habitable Environments and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mars has been more similar to that of Earth than has the climate of any other planet in our Solar System. But Mars still provides a valuable alternative example of how planetary processes and environments can affect the potential presence of life elsewhere. For example, although Mars also differentiated very early into a core, mantle and crust, it then evolved mostly if not completely without plate tectonics and has lost most of its early atmosphere. The Martian crust has been more stable than that of Earth, thus it has probably preserved a more complete record of its earliest history. Orbital observations determined that near-surface water was once pervasive. Orbiters have identified the following diverse aqueous sedimentary deposits: layered phyllosilicates, phyllosilicates in intracrater fans, plains sediments potentially harboring evaporitic minerals, deep phyllosilicates, carbonate-bearing deposits, intracrater clay-sulfate deposits, Meridiani-type layered deposits, valles-type layered deposits, hydrated silica-bearing deposits, and gypsum plains. These features, together with evidence of more vigorous past geologic activity, indicate that early climates were wetter and perhaps also somewhat warmer. The denser atmosphere that was required for liquid water to be stable on the surface also provided more substantial protection from radiation. Whereas ancient climates might have favored habitable environments at least in some localities, clearly much of the Martian surface for most of its history has been markedly less favorable for life. The combination of dry conditions, oxidizing surface environments and typically low rates of sedimentation are not conducive to the preservation of evidence of ancient environments and any biota. Thus a strategy is required whereby candidate sites are first identified and then characterized for their potential to preserve evidence of past habitable environments. Rovers are then sent to explore the most promising

  1. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  2. Alpine bistort (Bistorta vivipara) in edge habitat associates with fewer but distinct ectomycorrhizal fungal species: a comparative study of three contrasting soil environments in Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Sunil; Bahram, Mohammad; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2016-11-01

    Bistorta vivipara is a widespread arctic-alpine ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plant species. Recent findings suggest that fungal communities associated with B. vivipara roots appear random over short distances, but at larger scales, environmental filtering structure fungal communities. Habitats in highly stressful environments where specialist species with narrower niches may have an advantage represent unique opportunity to test the effect of environmental filtering. We utilised high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify ECM communities associated with B. vivipara in Svalbard. We compared ECM communities in a core habitat where B. vivipara is frequent (Dryas-heath) with edge habitats representing extremes in terms of nutrient availability where B. vivipara is less frequent (bird-manured meadow and a nutrient-depleted mine tilling). Our analysis revealed that soil conditions in edge habitats favour less diverse but more distinct ECM fungal communities with functional traits adapted to local conditions. ECM richness was overall lower in both edge habitats, and the taxonomic compositions of ECM fungi were in line with our functional expectations. Stress-tolerant genera such as Laccaria and Hebeloma were abundant in nutrient-poor mine site whereas functional competitors genera such as Lactarius and Russula were dominant in the nutrient-rich bird-cliff site. Our results suggest that ECM communities in rare edge habitats are most likely not subsets of the larger pool of ECM fungi found in natural tundra, and they may represent a significant contribution to the overall diversity of ECM fungi in the Arctic.

  3. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  4. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Krynak

    Full Text Available Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1 skin-associated microbial communities and 2 post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP production and 3 AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be

  5. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  6. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  7. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  8. The Pragmatics of Virtual Environments. Compliment responses in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cirillo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENThe advent of the Internet has dramatically changed, among other things, the way people learn a language. With the new ICT tools, more and more users can interact with native speakers in their target language, potentially without ever moving from home. To this regard, virtual worlds appear to be a resourceful place where language learners can meet and practice their L2. However, while these virtual worlds are being increasingly employed for language learning purposes, they still remain a linguistically unexplored ground. But if the Internet has changed the way people interact, it is also plausible that the pragmatic norms underlying this new form of communication have changed; therefore understanding their literacy would help understand their efficacy too. This study sets out to fill a gap in the literature by looking at how compliments are responded in Second Life. The results are then compared with compliment responses in real life to find out whether the language used in virtual environments faithfully reproduces the language used in face-to-face conversation, and to what extent it is convenient and significant for instructors to integrate such environments in their teaching practices. The results show a greater tendency to accept compliments than in real-life conversation. Possible pedagogical implications and directions for further research are discussed.Keywords: pragmatics; compliment responses; virtual environments; language learningITL’avvento di internet ha radicalmente cambiato, tra le altre cose, il modo in cui le persone imparano una lingua. Con i nuovi mezzi ICT, sempre più utenti possono interagire con parlanti nativi nella lingua d’arrivo, senza potenzialmente mai muoversi da casa. A questo riguardo/In questo ambito, i mondi virtuali sembrano essere un luogo pieno di risorse dove gli apprendenti di una lingua possono incontrarsi e praticare l’L2. Tuttavia, mentre questi mondi virtuali vengono sempre più utilizzati per

  9. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  10. Fungal keratitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-01-01

    What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis? Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast...

  11. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...

  12. Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... September 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  13. Ecdysteroid hormones link the juvenile environment to alternative adult life histories in a seasonal insect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, V.; Mateus, A.R.A.; Burg, van den K.R.L.; Piessens, T.; Eijk, van M.; Brakefield, P.M.; Beldade, P.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The conditional expression of alternative life strategies is a widespread feature of animal life and a pivotal adaptation to life in seasonal environments. To optimally match suites of traits to seasonally changing ecological opportunities, animals living in seasonal environments need mechanisms

  14. Leptin inhibitors from fungal endophytes (LIFEs): Will be novel therapeutic drugs for obesity and its associated immune mediated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Mouli, K; Pragathi, D; Naga Jyothi, U; Shanmuga Kumar, V; Himalaya Naik, M; Balananda, P; Suman, B; Seshadri Reddy, V; Vijaya, T

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of obesity and its associated immune mediated diseases is challenging due to impaired function of leptin system. Thus leptin is providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived adipokine, displays a variety of immune functions, and regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. The increased secretion of leptin (hyperleptinemia) and production of proinflammatory cytokines has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related immune diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis. These disorders are managed through antibiotics and by cytokines replacement. However, the effectiveness of cytokines coupled to the complexity of the cytokine network leads to severe side-effects, which can still occur after careful preclinical evaluation. In addition, synthetic immunotherapeutics carries a degree of risk, is time-consuming and expensive. Hence, the complexity of existing therapy and adverse effects emphasizes the need of an alternative approach for the management of immune dysfunction associated with obesity and its related diseases. For the aforementioned diseases that are related to leptin overabundance, new drugs blocking leptin signaling need to be generated. The research on the discovery of clinically important novel compounds from natural source is expanding due to their safety and no side effect. The fungal endophytes are the microbes that colonize internal tissue of plants without causing negative effects to the host. They produce plethora of substances of potential use to modern medicinal and pharmaceutical industry. The increasing body of evidence associated with application of bioactive metabolites derived from fungal endophytes in diverse disease states merits its use as therapeutic drugs. In particular, the saponins have been extensively proved to modulate the immune system

  15. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  16. Super-races are not likely to dominate a fungal population within a life time of a perennial crop plantation of cultivar mixtures: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangming

    2012-08-03

    Deployment of cultivars with different resistance in mixtures is one means to manage plant diseases and prolong the life of resistance genes. One major concern in adopting mixtures is the development of 'super-races' that can overcome many resistance genes present in the mixture. A stochastic simulation model was developed to study the dynamics of virulence alleles in two-cultivar mixtures of perennial crops, focusing on the effects of cost of virulence and pathogen reproduction mechanism. The simulated mechanism of virulence has characteristics of both major and minor genes. Random genetic drift due to repeated population crashes during the overwintering phase led to fixation of a single fungal genotype (in terms of its virulence), often within 100 seasons. Overall, cost of virulence is most important in determining the virulence dynamics under the present model formulation. With cost of virulence incorporated, nearly all simulation runs ended up with a single fungal genotype that can infect only one of the two cultivars. In absence of cost of virulence, most of the simulation runs ended up with fungal genotypes that can infect both host cultivars but in many cases do not contain the maximum possible number of virulence alleles due to random drift. A minimum of 20% sexual reproduction between strains from different cultivars is necessary to ensure that the final fixed strains are able to infect both cultivars. Although the number of virulence alleles in the final genotype and the time to fixation are affected by simulation factors, most of the variability was among replicate simulation runs (i.e. stochastic in nature). The time to fixation is generally long relative to cropping cycles. A single fungal genotype will dominate a population due to the bottleneck in overwintering with cost of virulence primarily determining whether the dominant genotype can infect both cultivars. However, the dominant genotype is unlikely to accumulate all the virulence alleles due to

  17. Super-races are not likely to dominate a fungal population within a life time of a perennial crop plantation of cultivar mixtures: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiangming

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deployment of cultivars with different resistance in mixtures is one means to manage plant diseases and prolong the life of resistance genes. One major concern in adopting mixtures is the development of ‘super-races’ that can overcome many resistance genes present in the mixture. A stochastic simulation model was developed to study the dynamics of virulence alleles in two-cultivar mixtures of perennial crops, focusing on the effects of cost of virulence and pathogen reproduction mechanism. The simulated mechanism of virulence has characteristics of both major and minor genes. Results Random genetic drift due to repeated population crashes during the overwintering phase led to fixation of a single fungal genotype (in terms of its virulence, often within 100 seasons. Overall, cost of virulence is most important in determining the virulence dynamics under the present model formulation. With cost of virulence incorporated, nearly all simulation runs ended up with a single fungal genotype that can infect only one of the two cultivars. In absence of cost of virulence, most of the simulation runs ended up with fungal genotypes that can infect both host cultivars but in many cases do not contain the maximum possible number of virulence alleles due to random drift. A minimum of 20% sexual reproduction between strains from different cultivars is necessary to ensure that the final fixed strains are able to infect both cultivars. Although the number of virulence alleles in the final genotype and the time to fixation are affected by simulation factors, most of the variability was among replicate simulation runs (i.e. stochastic in nature. The time to fixation is generally long relative to cropping cycles. Conclusions A single fungal genotype will dominate a population due to the bottleneck in overwintering with cost of virulence primarily determining whether the dominant genotype can infect both cultivars. However, the dominant

  18. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  19. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  20. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  1. Fungal Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Liu, Haoping; Harris, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis in fungi is often induced by extracellular factors and executed by fungal genetic factors. Cell surface changes and alterations of the microenvironment often accompany morphogenetic changes in fungi. In this review, we will first discuss the general traits of yeast and hyphal morphotypes and how morphogenesis affects development and adaptation by fungi to their native niches, including host niches. Then we will focus on the molecular machinery responsible for the two most fundamental growth forms, yeast and hyphae. Last, we will describe how fungi incorporate exogenous environmental and host signals together with genetic factors to determine their morphotype and how morphogenesis, in turn, shapes the fungal microenvironment. PMID:25367976

  2. Mapping phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interactions affecting life-history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, E.W.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Bakker, J.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interactions (GEI) play an important role in the evolution of life histories. Knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of plasticity and GEI provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of life-history changes in different environments. We used a

  3. ENERGY AND OUR ENVIRONMENT: A SYSTEMS AND LIFE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation to the North Carolina BREATE Conference on March 28, 2017. This presentation provides an overview of energy modeling capabilities in ORD, and includes examples related to scenario development, water-energy nexus, bioenergy, etc. The focus is on system approaches as well as life cycle assessment data and tools. Provide an overview of system and life cycle approaches to modeling medium to long-term changes in drivers of changes in emissions sources.

  4. From cytoplasm to environment: the inorganic ingredients for the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Alexey A; Serrano, Paloma; Pacheco, Mírian Liza Alves Forancelli; Chaffin, Michael Scott; O'Malley-James, Jack Thomas; Moreno, Susan Carla; Ribeiro, Filipe Batista

    2013-03-01

    Early in its history, Earth's surface developed from an uninhabitable magma ocean to a place where life could emerge. The first organisms, lacking ion transporters, fixed the composition of their cradle environment in their intracellular fluid. Later, though life adapted and spread, it preserved some qualities of its initial environment within. Modern prokaryotes could thus provide insights into the conditions of early Earth and the requirements for the emergence of life. In this work, we constrain Earth's life-forming environment through detailed analysis of prokaryotic intracellular fluid. Rigorous assessment of the constraints placed on the early Earth environment by intracellular liquid will provide insight into the conditions of abiogenesis, with implications not only for our understanding of early Earth but also the formation of life elsewhere in the Universe.

  5. Impact of a change in protected environment on the occurrence of severe bacterial and fungal infections in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Clara; Goutagny, Marie-Pierre; Bacchetta, Justine; Ploton, Christine; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Bleyzac, Nathalie; Mialou, Valérie; Bertrand, Yves; Domenech, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is a procedure with a high infection risk. Strict isolation of patients is the rule to prevent such condition. We compared the occurrence of severe infections (bacteremia and invasive fungal infection, IFI) in children undergoing alloHSCT before and after the move to a new protected unit with decreases in isolation methods. The study was conducted over a 10-year period. Unit 1 (2002-2007) consisted of laminar airflow rooms where caregivers were required to wear a sterile outfit (gown, gloves, hat, and mask). Unit 2 (2008-2012) included spacious positive air pressure rooms with HEPA filters where only a clean gown and mask were required to be worn. Two hundred eighty-six alloHSCTs were performed (144 in Unit 1 and 142 in Unit 2). We reported a total incidence of 4.78 infections/1000 hospital-days including 4.4 episodes of bacteremia and 0.38 episodes of IFI. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of infections: n = 4.98/1000 hospital-days in Unit 1 vs. n = 4.6/1000 in Unit 2 (P = 0.63). The lack of difference in the occurrence of severe infection supports our decision to decrease unnecessary high protection in alloHSCT units to improve children's daily life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genome Island: A Virtual Science Environment in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Mary Anne CLark describes the organization and uses of Genome Island, a virtual laboratory complex constructed in Second Life. Genome Island was created for teaching genetics to university undergraduates but also provides a public space where anyone interested in genetics can spend a few minutes, or a few hours, interacting with genetic…

  7. The Real Life Application of Pulleys in a Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore students' application of theoretical knowledge in real-life situations using pulley systems in a competition designed for primary school students. The study was conducted with 24 primary school students who had completed year seven, and who volunteered to participate in a summer science camp. In groups, the…

  8. Employing volcanic tuff minerals in interior architecture design to reduce microbial contaminants and airborne fungal carcinogens of indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikoglu, Yaman; Gedikoglu, Gunduz; Berkin, Genco; Ceyhan, Taskin; Altinoz, Meric A

    2012-09-01

    Indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have posed significant risks to human health since people have both shifted to a life spent, for the most part, indoors. Further, changes in materials used in the construction of buildings, furnishings, and tools either leak or encourage the production of VOCs. Whether these enclosed areas are residences, hospitals or workplaces (specifically composting facilities or closed farm buildings for raising livestock), VOCs can rise to levels that threaten people's health. VOCs can either originate from phenolic and benzene-like compounds in building materials and office furniture or from molds (fungi) growing inside improperly ventilated or sealed buildings. Regardless of the source, exposure to VOCs could lead to significant health concerns from sick-building syndrome, 'leukemia houses,' in-hospital fungemia cases or occupation-associated cancer epidemics due to aflatoxicosis. Innovative 21st-century building materials could offer solutions to these challenges. We propose that volcanic materials, clays and minerals (volcanic tuff, modified clay montmorillonite and mineral clinoptilolite), in their original or chemically modified form, could act like synthetic lungs in building walls, breathing and filtering VOCs, and thus limiting human exposure to disease.

  9. The role of dark septate endophytic fungal isolates in the accumulation of cesium by chinese cabbage and tomato plants under contaminated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Diene

    Full Text Available Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm. On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments.

  10. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL: identification of Environment Ontology terms in text and the annotation of the Encyclopedia of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Frankild, Sune P; Schnetzer, Julia; Fanini, Lucia; Faulwetter, Sarah; Pavloudi, Christina; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Leary, Patrick; Hammock, Jennifer; Schulz, Katja; Parr, Cynthia Sims; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-06-01

    The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses, respectively, at http://environments.hcmr.gr. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Unusual fungal niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments.

  12. A life cycle methodology for mapping the flows of pollutants in the urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Azapagic, Adisa; Pettit, Carol; Sinclair, Phil

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated life cycle methodology for mapping the flows of pollutants in the urban environment, following the pollutants from their sources through the environment to receptors. The sources of pollution that can be considered by this methodology include products, processes and human activities. Life cycle assessment (LCA), substance flow analysis (SFA), fate and transport modelling (F&TM) and geographical information systems (GIS) have been used as tools for these p...

  13. The 2012 Fungal Meningitis Outbreak in the United States: Connections Between Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lynn; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2012 the United States found itself facing a fungal meningitis outbreak that was traced back to contaminated steroid injections. The fungus Exserohilium rostratum, which is found in soil, among other locations in the environment, was identified as the main cause of the health issues created by the contaminated steroids. As of November 7, 2012 419 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infections, 10 cases of peripheral joint infections, and 31 deaths linked to the contaminated steroids had been documented. However, the life cycle and soil ecology of E. rostratum is not well understood, and such knowledge would aid human health professionals in understanding the pathogenic potential of E. rostratum. Therefore, soil scientists have a role to play in developing the most effective ways to combat human health challenges such as the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak.

  14. GENOME ISLAND: A Virtual Science Environment in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne CLARK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the organization and uses of Genome Island, a virtual laboratory complex constructed in Second Life. Genome Island was created for teaching genetics to university undergraduates but also provides a public space where anyone interested in genetics can spend a few minutes, or a few hours, interacting with genetic objects -from simple experiments with peas to the organization of whole genomes. Each of the approximately four dozen activities available in the island’s various areas includes background information, model objects with data sets, and suggestions for data analysis. The island also has a presentation theater, an indoor conference setting, and separate meeting spaces suitable for small group conversations. Clark describes some of the activities available on the island, offers advice for their use, and discusses the results of a pilot project that identified some pedagogical and technical challenges arising in this virtual setting.

  15. Bringing Reality into Calculus Classrooms: Mathematizing a Real-life Problem Simulated in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Shipulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores how students, who had completed the AP calculus course, mathematized the optimal navigation real-life problem simulated in the Second Life Virtual Environment. The particular research interest was to investigate whether/how students’ empirical activity in VE influences the way of their mathematizing.

  16. A Framework for Exploring the Sense of Community and Social Life in Residential Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sense of community and social life are two key concepts related to social cohesion, which have been the subject of extensive studies in several disciplines including sociology, psychology and built environment. Social life studies have been mostly conducted in the built environment discipline focusing on city centres; while sense of community studies were mostly the target of sociologists and psychologists focusing on neighbourhoods. As a result, the role of the built environment on the sense of community and social life of neighbourhoods is considered as a missing gap in the literature. This paper, through defining the concepts of social life and sense of community, aims to develop a conceptual framework for further implementation in future research. Accurate implication and interpretation of the concepts show that neighbourhoods can include the sense of community in the residential environment and the social life in the commercial environment. This is because residential environments are where residents’ requirements can be met through their commitment to the community and commercial environments are the fulcrum of interaction and communication.

  17. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  18. Using Five Stage Model to Design of Collaborative Learning Environments in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Sevil; Karaman, M. Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Specifically Second Life (SL) among virtual worlds draws attention of researchers to form collaborative learning environments (Sutcliffe & Alrayes, 2012) since it could be used as a rich platform to simulate a real environment containing many collaborative learning characteristics and interaction tools within itself. Five Stage Model (FSM)…

  19. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  20. Communities & Workplaces as Learning Environments: Reflections on a Life's Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lee Sigmon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the January/February 1998 issue of the Council for Independent College’s newsletter, Independent, the front page headline announced receipt of a $1.5 million grant to enhance community-campus partnerships. Goals were to review the impact of service-learning, internships, and other forms of experiential education on faculty, staff, students and community members. CIC President Splete shared that “We’re going to look more closely at the ways in which colleges develop interdependent, mutually beneficial partnerships with their communities—and we will develop ideas to enhance those connections. Through these efforts we hope to help colleges better understand how these important links with their communities affect such internal processes as the curriculum and the way faculty work.” Robert L. Sigmon was one of the primary researchers on the project. A few years after participating in the project, Sigmon wrote about the value of communities and workplaces as learning environments. With the creative editing assistance of Dr. Lisa Keyne, his original paper has been slightly revised, but re-emphasizes his lifelong passion for strengthening community voice in experiential education initiatives of higher education. KEYWORDSservice-learning; origins

  1. Biota and biomolecules in extreme environments on Earth: implications for life detection on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Joost W; Röling, Wilfred F M; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2014-10-13

    The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids) occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the characterization of extant or extinct life. Due to their indispensability for life on Earth, these biomarkers are also prime targets in the search for life on Mars. Biomarkers degrade over time; in situ environmental conditions influence the preservation of those molecules. Nonetheless, upon shielding (e.g., by mineral surfaces), particular biomarkers can persist for billions of years, making them of vital importance in answering questions about the origins and limits of life on early Earth and Mars. The search for organic material and biosignatures on Mars is particularly challenging due to the hostile environment and its effect on organic compounds near the surface. In support of life detection on Mars, it is crucial to investigate analogue environments on Earth that resemble best past and present Mars conditions. Terrestrial extreme environments offer a rich source of information allowing us to determine how extreme conditions affect life and molecules associated with it. Extremophilic organisms have adapted to the most stunning conditions on Earth in environments with often unique geological and chemical features. One challenge in detecting biomarkers is to optimize extraction, since organic molecules can be low in abundance and can strongly adsorb to mineral surfaces. Methods and analytical tools in the field of life science are continuously improving. Amplification methods are very useful for the detection of low concentrations of genomic material but most other organic molecules are not prone to amplification methods. Therefore, a great deal depends on the extraction efficiency. The questions "what to look for", "where to look", and "how to look for it" require more of

  2. Biota and Biomolecules in Extreme Environments on Earth: Implications for Life Detection on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost W. Aerts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the characterization of extant or extinct life. Due to their indispensability for life on Earth, these biomarkers are also prime targets in the search for life on Mars. Biomarkers degrade over time; in situ environmental conditions influence the preservation of those molecules. Nonetheless, upon shielding (e.g., by mineral surfaces, particular biomarkers can persist for billions of years, making them of vital importance in answering questions about the origins and limits of life on early Earth and Mars. The search for organic material and biosignatures on Mars is particularly challenging due to the hostile environment and its effect on organic compounds near the surface. In support of life detection on Mars, it is crucial to investigate analogue environments on Earth that resemble best past and present Mars conditions. Terrestrial extreme environments offer a rich source of information allowing us to determine how extreme conditions affect life and molecules associated with it. Extremophilic organisms have adapted to the most stunning conditions on Earth in environments with often unique geological and chemical features. One challenge in detecting biomarkers is to optimize extraction, since organic molecules can be low in abundance and can strongly adsorb to mineral surfaces. Methods and analytical tools in the field of life science are continuously improving. Amplification methods are very useful for the detection of low concentrations of genomic material but most other organic molecules are not prone to amplification methods. Therefore, a great deal depends on the extraction efficiency. The questions “what to look for”, “where to look”, and “how to

  3. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  4. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Characterization of the dairy farm environment in Great Britain and the effect of the farm environment on cow life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, M J; Brotherstone, S; Lawrence, A B; White, I M S

    2007-11-01

    Dairy farms vary a great deal in the feeding and management systems that are used. These differences affect the performance of the cows, and some genotypes may be affected more than others. If effects of such genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) are large, then farmers must be made aware of them to make informed breeding decisions. To investigate GxE, a classification system for farm environments was developed based on national- and fine-level data from dairy herds across the United Kingdom. The national data included herd and yield characteristics and local weather information. The fine-level data included information on feeding and management systems on farms, and was obtained from survey results from 778 farms. A principal components analysis of the surveys identified 2 major dimensions characterizing the data. The first dimension explained 14.6% of the variation and was related to the level of production intensity. The second dimension explained 11.5% of the variation and was related to climate. Information on milk yield, herd characteristics, and climate was then extracted from national databases for the survey farms. A canonical correlation analysis was used to relate the survey data to the variables extracted from the national data set to determine the most relevant variables. The canonical correlation between the chosen sets of national data and survey variables was 0.62. This environmental classification was then used to determine how the farm environment affects the life span of dairy cows. The life span of the daughters of 1,000 sires was related to the type of farm environment. The daughters of a majority of sires showed a "plastic" response, with increased life span in less intensive farms. The daughters of a smaller number of sires showed a more generalized response, with life span being less affected by the environment. This GxE suggested that sires vary in the sensitivity of their daughters to different farm environments. This variation in

  6. Evolution of dispersal in spatially and temporally variable environments: The importance of life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massol, François; Débarre, Florence

    2015-07-01

    Spatiotemporal variability of the environment is bound to affect the evolution of dispersal, and yet model predictions strongly differ on this particular effect. Recent studies on the evolution of local adaptation have shown that the life cycle chosen to model the selective effects of spatiotemporal variability of the environment is a critical factor determining evolutionary outcomes. Here, we investigate the effect of the order of events in the life cycle on the evolution of unconditional dispersal in a spatially heterogeneous, temporally varying landscape. Our results show that the occurrence of intermediate singular strategies and disruptive selection are conditioned by the temporal autocorrelation of the environment and by the life cycle. Life cycles with dispersal of adults versus dispersal of juveniles, local versus global density regulation, give radically different evolutionary outcomes that include selection for total philopatry, evolutionary bistability, selection for intermediate stable states, and evolutionary branching points. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for life-cycle specifics when predicting the effects of the environment on evolutionarily selected trait values, such as dispersal, as well as the need to check the robustness of model conclusions against modifications of the life cycle. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Fatigue Life of Stainless Steel in PWR Environments with Strain Holding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taesoon; Kim, Kyuhyung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Myeonggyu; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many components and structures of nuclear power plants are exposed to the water chemistry conditions during the operation. Recently, as design life of nuclear power plant is expanded over 60 years, the environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) due to these water chemistry conditions has been considered as one of the important damage mechanisms of the safety class 1 components. Therefore, many studies to evaluate the effect of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments on fatigue life of materials have been conducted. Many EAF test results including Argonne National Laboratory’s consistently indicated the substantial reduction of fatigue life in the light water reactor environments. However, there is a discrepancy between laboratory test data and plant operating experience regarding the effects of environment on fatigue: while laboratory test data suggest huge accumulation of fatigue damage, very limited experience of cracking caused by the low cycle fatigue in light water reactor. These hold-time effect tests are preformed to characterize the effects of strain holding on the fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels in PWR environments in comparison with the existing fixed strain rate results. Low cycle fatigue life tests were conducted for the type 316 stainless steel in 310℃ air and PWR environments with triangular strain. In agreement with the previous reports, the LCF life was reduced in PWR environments. Also for the slower strain rate, the reduction of LCF life was greater than the faster strain rate. The LCF test conditions for the hold-time effects were determined by the references and consideration of actual plant transient. To simulate the heat-up and cooldown transient, sub-peak strain holding during the down-hill of strain amplitude was chosen instead of peak strain holding which used in the previous researches.

  8. Functional Linkages for the Pace of Life, Life-history, and Environment in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Miller, Richard A.; Harper, James M.; Wiersma, Popko

    2010-01-01

    For vertebrates, body mass underlies much of the variation in metabolism, but among animals of the same body mass, metabolism varies six-fold. Understanding how natural selection can influence variation in metabolism remains a central focus of Physiological Ecologists. Life-history theory postulates that many physiological traits, such as metabolism, may be understood in terms of key maturational and reproductive characteristics over an organism’s life-span. Although it is widely acknowledged that physiological processes serve as a foundation for life-history trade-offs, the physiological mechanisms that underlie the diversification of life-histories remain elusive. Data show that tropical birds have a reduced basal metabolism (BMR), field metabolic rate, and peak metabolic rate compared with temperate counterparts, results consistent with the idea that a low mortality, and therefore increased longevity, and low productivity is associated with low mass-specific metabolic rate. Mass-adjusted BMR of tropical and temperate birds was associated with survival rate, in accordance with the view that animals with a slow pace of life tend to have increased life spans. To understand the mechanisms responsible for a reduced rate of metabolism in tropical birds compared with temperate species, we summarized an unpublished study, based on data from the literature, on organ masses for both groups. Tropical birds had smaller hearts, kidneys, livers, and pectoral muscles than did temperate species of the same body size, but they had a relatively larger skeletal mass. Direct measurements of organ masses for tropical and temperate birds showed that the heart, kidneys, and lungs were significantly smaller in tropical birds, although sample sizes were small. Also from an ongoing study, we summarized results to date on connections between whole-organism metabolism in tropical and temperate birds and attributes of their dermal fibroblasts grown in cell culture. Cells derived from

  9. Biotechnological approaches to develop bacterial chitinases as a bioshield against fungal diseases of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, Chilukoti; Anil, Kondreddy; Purushotham, Pallinti; Suma, Katta; Sarma, Pvsrn; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Podile, Appa Rao

    2010-09-01

    Fungal diseases of plants continue to contribute to heavy crop losses in spite of the best control efforts of plant pathologists. Breeding for disease-resistant varieties and the application of synthetic chemical fungicides are the most widely accepted approaches in plant disease management. An alternative approach to avoid the undesired effects of chemical control could be biological control using antifungal bacteria that exhibit a direct action against fungal pathogens. Several biocontrol agents, with specific fungal targets, have been registered and released in the commercial market with different fungal pathogens as targets. However, these have not yet achieved their full commercial potential due to the inherent limitations in the use of living organisms, such as relatively short shelf life of the products and inconsistent performance in the field. Different mechanisms of action have been identified in microbial biocontrol of fungal plant diseases including competition for space or nutrients, production of antifungal metabolites, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases and glucanases. This review focuses on the bacterial chitinases that hydrolyze the chitinous fungal cell wall, which is the most important targeted structural component of fungal pathogens. The application of the hydrolytic enzyme preparations, devoid of live bacteria, could be more efficacious in fungal control strategies. This approach, however, is still in its infancy, due to prohibitive production costs. Here, we critically examine available sources of bacterial chitinases and the approaches to improve enzymatic properties using biotechnological tools. We project that the combination of microbial and recombinant DNA technologies will yield more effective environment-friendly products of bacterial chitinases to control fungal diseases of crops.

  10. A review of the effects of coolant environments on the fatigue life of LWR structural materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies design curves for the fatigue life of structural materials in nuclear power plants. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments were not explicitly considered in the development of the design curves. The existing fatigue-strain-versus-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data indicate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. Under certain environmental and loading conditions, fatigue lives in water relative to those in air can be a factor of 15 lower for austenitic stainless steels and a factor of {approx}30 lower for carbon and low-alloy steels. This paper reviews the current technical basis for the understanding of the fatigue of piping and pressure vessel steels in LWR environments. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to identify the various material, environmental, and loading parameters that influence fatigue crack initiation and to establish the effects of key parameters on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models are presented for estimating fatigue life as a function of material, loading, and environmental conditions. An environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating the effects of LWR environments into ASME Code fatigue evaluations is described. This paper also presents a critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins of 2 on stress (or strain) and 20 on life and assesses the possible conservatism in the current choice of design margins.

  11. Failure life determination of oilfield elastomer seals in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennelley, K.J.; Abrams, P.I. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (US)); Vicic, J.C. (FMC Corp., Central Engineering Labs., Santa Clara, CA (US)); Cain, D. (FMC Corp., Wellhead Equipment, Houston, TX (US))

    1989-01-01

    Previous screening tests of various oilfield elastomers in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments indicated that hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR), tetrafluoroethylene-propylene (TFE/P), ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM), and perfluorinated rubber (FFKM) elastomers may perform satisfactorily in these environments. This paper describes subsequent failure life tests conducted with the subject elastomers in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide test environment at several elevated temperatures (> 135{degrees}C). The materials were tested in the form of O-rings (size 214), which were used to seal an autoclave containing the test environment at 14 MPa gas pressure. The results were used to extrapolate time to failure at a common reference temperature of 135{degrees}C. The performance of EPDM and HNBR in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide mixture substantially exceeded a projected 20-year service life at 135{degrees}C, while FFKM and TFE/P did not.

  12. Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, C D

    1998-07-01

    There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high-salt, low-water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life.

  13. The early life social environment and DNA methylation: DNA methylation mediating the long-term impact of social environments early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe

    2011-08-01

    Although epidemiological data provides evidence that there is an interaction between genetics (nature) and the social and physical environments (nurture) in human development; the main open question remains the mechanism. The pattern of distribution of methyl groups in DNA is different from cell-type to cell type and is conferring cell specific identity on DNA during cellular differentiation and organogenesis. This is an innate and highly programmed process. However, recent data suggests that DNA methylation is not only involved in cellular differentiation but that it is also involved in modulation of genome function in response to signals from the physical, biological and social environments. We propose that modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental cues early in life serves as a mechanism of life-long genome "adaptation" that molecularly embeds the early experiences of a child ("nurture") in the genome ("nature"). There is an emerging line of data supporting this hypothesis in rodents, non-human primates and humans that will be reviewed here. However, several critical questions remain including the identification of mechanisms that transmit the signals from the social environment to the DNA methylation/demethylation enzymes.

  14. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local...... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...

  15. The limits of extremophilic life expanded under extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, C.; Dalmaso, G.; Teixeira, L.; Bendia, A.; Rosado, A.

    2012-09-01

    Astrobiology is a brand new area of science that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the universe. Several hypotheses to explain life in the cosmic context have been developed throughout human history, but only now technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are found universally. As these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still a challenge to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years-old solar system was born within a 10-billion years-old universe. Thus, simple cells like microorganisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or other suitable molecular places in the universe. One hypothesis to explain the origin of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the universe billions of years ago, traveling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets like ours. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile microorganisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is ongoing at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics to test whether microbial life could withstand those inhospitable environments. Ultra-resistant (known or novel ones) microorganisms collected from terrestrial extreme environments, extremophiles, have been exposed to intense radiation sources simulating solar radiation (at synchrotron accelerators), capable of emitting in a few hours radiation equivalent of million years accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  16. Mini-Review: Probing the limits of extremophilic life in extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Claudia A. S.; Dalmaso, Gabriel Z. L.; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Bendia, Amanda G.; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Galante, Douglas; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Azúa-Bustos, Armando; Pelizzari, Vivian H.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology is a relatively recent scientific field that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the Universe. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain life in the cosmic context throughout human history, but only now, technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are ubiquitous. How these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years old Solar system appeared in a 10 billion years old Universe. Thus, simple cells such as micro-organisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or in other suitable places in the Universe. One hypothesis related to the appearance of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the Universe billions of years ago, travelling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets such as Earth. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile micro-organisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is in progress at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics (UFRJ, Brazil) to test whether microbial life could withstand inhospitable environments. Radiation-resistant (known or novel ones) micro-organisms collected from extreme terrestrial environments have been exposed (at synchrotron accelerators) to intense radiation sources simulating Solar radiation, capable of emitting radiation in a few hours equivalent to many years of accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal an interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  17. Dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the implantation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaizola, B.; Fraile, L.M.; Riisager, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    The possible dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the solid-state environment has been investigated by the simultaneous measurement of implanted 221Fr ions in an insulator (Si) and a metallic substrate (Au) at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Our results indicate that, if existing, the difference...

  18. On the boundary between economy and environment in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Schmidt, Jannick; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the boundary between product systems and their environment has been delineated in life cycle assessment and question the usefulness and ontological relevance of a strict division between the two. Methods: We consider flows, activities and impacts as general terms...

  19. EEASA 2004 Keynote Address - Environment as Life:The Journey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I discuss the constructs environment and human existence in terms of the lessons I have learnt from biological life processes. I draw on personal experiences in my journey as an educator and the influences that local, international and global changes in environmental education have had on my practice and on ...

  20. INTERACTION: training and monitoring of daily-life physical interaction with the environment after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap; Baten, Christian T.M.; Reenalda, J.; Reenalda, Jasper; Nikamp-Simons, Corien Diana Maria; Luft, A.R.; De Rossi, Danilo; Luinge, Hendrik J.; Paradiso, R.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2012-01-01

    Persons who suffered a stroke are trained to improve adequate control over their movements with the objective to optimize their daily-life functional performance. Critical is how good they are able to interact physically with the dailylife environment, including handling objects, controlling body

  1. Social environment affects the life history tactic of a phoretic mite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Müller, Josef K

    2009-01-01

    Phoretic animals use their hosts for travelling to habitat patches suitable for reproduction. Some species, such as the mite Poecilochirus carabi, are phoretic as juveniles and cannot leave their habitat once they reach adulthood. Previous work has shown that mites exercise choice over the habitat...... influence of the social environment on a phoretic's habitat choice and life history....

  2. Auditory Environment across the Life Span of Cochlear Implant Users: Insights from Data Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Tobias; Vanpoucke, Filiep; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96…

  3. Supportive College Environment for Meaning Searching and Meaning in Life among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Yeon; Steger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether American college students who perceive their college environment as supportive for their meaning searching report higher levels of meaning in life. We also examined whether students' perception of college environmental support for meaning searching moderates the relation between the presence of and search for meaning. Students'…

  4. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  5. Organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.

  6. Inverse problem of life cycle assessment (LCA: its application in designing for environment (DfE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybaczewska-Błażejowska Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverse problem of life cycle assessment, used in designing for environment, is about determining the optimal values of environmental inputs that provide the required environmental impacts. The notion of the inverse problem of life cycle assessment is explained here using a case study of a coffee machine (abstract model SimaPro, based on models Sima and Pro described in SimaPro 8.1 software. The dependencies between input and output signals were defined by nonlinear functions of several variables. Next, linearization was used and coefficient aki was calculated. On the basis of 3 hypothetical experiments, recommendations have been made on the reduction of the value of the factors that are the most detrimental for the environment: the consumption of aluminium, electricity, and paper for coffee filters, for the analysed product. The results prove the high applicability and usefulness of the proposed approach during environmental evaluation and enhancement of products over the full product life cycle.

  7. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  8. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1, urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2, ecological resilience (FC3, and free-plague environments (FC4. Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.

  9. Prediction of the Service Life of a Reinforced Concrete Column under Chloride Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Alkam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, service life of a reinforced concrete column exposed to chloride environment has been predicted. This study has been based on numerical simulation of chloride ion diffusion in a concrete column during its anticipated life span. The simulation process has included the concrete cover replacement whenever chloride ion concentration has reached the critical threshold value at the reinforcement surface. Repair scheduling of the concrete column under consideration has been discussed. Effects of the concrete cover thickness and the water cement ratio on the service life of the concrete column at hand have been presented. A new approach for arranging locations of reinforcement steel bars has been introduced. This approach is intended to prolong the service life of the concrete column under consideration against chloride induced corrosion.

  10. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  11. Industrial fungal enzymes: an occupational allergen perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

  12. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

  13. A collaborative working environment for small group meetings in Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cintia Rc; Garcia, Ana Cristina B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the SLMeetingRoom, a virtual reality online environment to support group meetings of geographically dispersed participants. A prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach using the Second Life platform. Ten additional components had to be added to Second Life environment to support group work essential activities such as participants' communication, tasks' and participants' coordination, participants' collaboration and work evolution's perception. Empirical studies, both pilot and experiment, were developed comparing four different meeting settings: face-to-face, videoconference, stand Second Life and SLMeetingRoom. The study involved graduate students enrolled in the Interface and Multimedia discipline at the Fluminense Federal University (UFF) in Brazil. Results indicated that groups working within SLMeetingRoom environment presented similar results as face-to-face meeting as far as sense of presence is concerned and with low cognitive effort. Task completion and degree of participation were not affected by the meeting set up. It was concluded that Second Life, in conjunction with the SLMeetingRoom components, is a good tool for holding synchronous remote meetings and coexists with other electronic meeting technologies.

  14. Enzymes and fungal virulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be common across a variety of fungal pathogens. Most fungal pathogens and ... Fungi utilize the food substances in their immediate vicinity to .... digestion of the fungal secreted enzymes thereby denying access to the host cell. For a pathogen to be successful, it mttst be able to circumvent or overcome these antifungal ...

  15. Gene-environment interactions in early life and adulthood: implications for cocaine intake

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, Rixt van der

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to demonstrate the role of gene-environment interactions in the emergence of individual differences in cocaine use. For this purpose we used two inbred mouse strains, the C57Bl/6 (C57) and DBA/2 (DBA), which are known to differ in drug-intake and to be differentially sensitive to several stressors. We studied the impact of early life experiences (long-term influence) as well as a later life psychosocial stressor (short-term influence)...

  16. School Victimization: Family Environment, Self-esteem, and Life Satisfaction from a Gender Perspetive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amapola Povedano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed from a gender perspective relationships between perceived family climate, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and adolescent victimization by peers in school. The associations between variables were analyzed with a sample of 1,884 adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls, aged 11 through 17 years (M = 13.7, DT = 1.4. Results structural equation modeling analysis showed that family environment, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were significantly and negatively related to school victimization. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships between variables were not different for boys and girls. We discuss the implications of these results.

  17. The spectrum of fungal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Denk, Ursula; Pöll, Verena; Rid, Raphaela; Breitenbach, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and/or mycelial cells may not only cause type I allergy, the most prevalent disease caused by molds, but also a large number of other illnesses, including allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and atopic dermatitis; and, again in contrast to pollen-derived allergies, fungal allergies are frequently linked with allergic asthma. Sensitization to molds has been reported in up to 80% of asthmatic patients. Although research on fungal allergies dates back to the 19th century, major improvements in the diagnosis and therapy of mold allergy have been hampered by the fact that fungal extracts are highly variable in their protein composition due to strain variabilities, batch-to-batch variations, and by the fact that extracts may be prepared from spores and/or mycelial cells. Nonetheless, about 150 individual fungal allergens from approximately 80 mold genera have been identified in the last 20 years. First clinical studies with recombinant mold allergens have demonstrated their potency in clinical diagnosis. This review aims to give an overview of the biology of molds and diseases caused by molds in humans, as well as a detailed summary of the latest results on recombinant fungal allergens. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Submarine hydrothermal environments as sites for the origin and evolution of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, S.; Baross, J.

    1985-01-01

    That life formed and evolved in hydrothermal environments is proposed. This hypothesis is plausible in terms of the tectonic, paleontological, and degassing history of the Earth. Submarine hydrothermal vents are the only contemporary geological environment which may truly be called primeval and which today continue to be a major source of gases and dissolved elements to the ocean. The microbial assemblages in present day hydrothermal systems therefore could be living analogues of the earliest microbial communities to develop on Earth. The evidence for the hypothesis is reviewed.

  19. Childhood social environment, emotional reactivity to stress, and mood and anxiety disorders across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Kubzansky, Laura D; Dunn, Erin C; Waldinger, Robert; Vaillant, George; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-12-01

    Adverse child environments are associated with the onset of mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying these life-course associations remain poorly understood. We investigate whether emotional reactivity to stress is a mechanism in the association between childhood environment characteristics and adult mood and anxiety disorders. Data are from the Study of Adult Development, a longitudinal study of men (N = 268) followed for nearly seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Childhood social environment characteristics were assessed during home visits and interviews with respondents' parents at entry into the study. Stress reactivity was assessed during respondents' sophomore year of college via physician exam. Onset of mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood was ascertained by research psychiatrists who completed chart reviews of interview, questionnaire, and physical exam data collected during repeated assessments from age 20 to 70. Respondents with better overall childhood environments and a greater number of environmental strengths were at lower odds of developing a mood or anxiety disorder in adulthood than respondents with more adverse childhood environments. Higher stress reactivity was observed among respondents from families with lower socio-economic status and with childhood environments characterized by greater conflict and adversity. Elevated stress reactivity, in turn, predicted the onset of adult mood and anxiety disorders. Heightened emotional reactivity in early adulthood is associated with both adverse childhood environments and elevated risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood. Emotional reactivity may be one mechanism linking childhood adversity to mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The potential for fungal biopesticides to reduce malaria transmission under diverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, R L; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Hancock, Penelope A; Thomas, Matthew B

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of conventional malaria vector control is being threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One promising alternative to chemicals is the use of naturally-occurring insect-killing fungi. Numerous laboratory studies have shown that isolates of fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana can infect and kill adult mosquitoes, including those resistant to chemical insecticides.Unlike chemical insecticides, fungi may take up to a week or more to kill mosquitoes following exposure. This slow kill speed can still reduce malaria transmission because the malaria parasite itself takes at least eight days to complete its development within the mosquito. However, both fungal virulence and parasite development rate are strongly temperature-dependent, so it is possible that biopesticide efficacy could vary across different transmission environments.We examined the virulence of a candidate fungal isolate against two key malaria vectors at temperatures from 10-34 °C. Regardless of temperature, the fungus killed more than 90% of exposed mosquitoes within the predicted duration of the malarial extrinsic incubation period, a result that was robust to realistic diurnal temperature variation.We then incorporated temperature sensitivities of a suite of mosquito, parasite and fungus life-history traits that are important determinants of malaria transmission into a stage-structured malaria transmission model. The model predicted that, at achievable daily fungal infection rates, fungal biopesticides have the potential to deliver substantial reductions in the density of malaria-infectious mosquitoes across all temperatures representative of malaria transmission environments.Synthesis and applications. Our study combines empirical data and theoretical modelling to prospectively evaluate the potential of fungal biopesticides to control adult malaria vectors. Our results suggest that Beauveria bassiana could be a potent tool for malaria control and support further

  1. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  2. Harsh Environments, Life History Strategies, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study of Oregon Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Five cohorts of children in Grades 1–5 at recruitment were assessed through one-year post high school. Greater environmental harshness (neighborhood quality and family poverty) in Gra...

  3. Second Life as a Learning and Teaching Environment for Digital Games Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Minhua; Oikonomou, A.; Zheng, H

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that online virtual worlds can contribute to the social aspects of distance learning, improve student engagement, and enhance students’ experience as a whole [4]; [3]. This paper reviews previous research of using online virtual worlds in teaching and learning,\\ud compares Second Life with traditional classroom sessions and the Blackboard, and discusses the benefits and problems of using virtual environments in the post-sixteen education\\ud and how they affect students’ ...

  4. A "Second Life" for gross anatomy: applications for multiuser virtual environments in teaching the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D; Morgenstein, Aaron M; Brueckner, Jennifer K

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life™, in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an anatomical educational tool is provided, along with description of existing anatomy applications and future directions for this innovative teaching modality. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used. RESULTS: Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0% responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0% experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  6. Looking for Life in Extreme Environments on Earth and Beyond: Professional Development Workshop for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppo, R.; Pratt, L.; Suchecki, P. C.

    2010-08-01

    The Looking for Life in Extreme Environments workshop held at Indiana University Bloomington in July of 2009 was the first in a series of workshops for high-school teachers that are currently in development. The workshops' modules are based on the research of faculty members in the Departments of Geological Sciences, Biology, and Astronomy, the School of Education, and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University Bloomington; the modules use lessons from Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life. Earth Analogues for Possible Life on Mars: Lessons and Activities, curricular materials that were produced and edited by Lisa Pratt and Ruth Droppo and published by NASA in 2008. Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life is a workbook, a DVD (with closed-captioning), and a CD with the lessons in digital text format for adaptation to classroom needs and printing. Each lesson includes the National Education Standards that apply to the materials. The workbook's lessons are written with three considerations: Life Domains, Cellular Metabolism, and Extreme Environments and Microbes. Students are challenged to build, draw, measure, discuss, and participate in laboratory processes and experiments that help them understand and describe microbes and their environments. In the Capstone, the students write a grant proposal based on the three lessons' analogues. The DVD is collection of videotaped interviews with scientists in laboratories at Michigan State, Princeton, and Indiana University, who are working on water and gas samples they collected from deep gold mines in South Africa and the Canadian Arctic. The interview materials and some animated graphics are compiled into four video pieces that support and compliment the accompanying workbook lessons and activities, and offer students insight into the excitement of scientific discovery.

  7. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  8. Major identity transformations - movements beyond criminal life and the biker gang environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a social practice theoretical moment-movement methodology for studying major identity transformations, as continuity and change in conduct of life, conflictual processes of belonging, recognition, and struggles of marginalization in and across different contexts and communities....... Empirically the paper illustrates these transitions and transformations with an empirical case of a young man, called Peter, changing his life conduct becoming less of a criminal member of the (biker) gang environment becoming more of a member of academia. The paper explore the action reasons of Peter......, disturbances of Peters telos, which includes transformations into a more responsible young adult becoming ready to commit to family life. The paper explores new belongings, (lack of) meanings in and across contexts, such as educations, struggles with gang exit interventions, which produces severe double bind...

  9. Rehabilitation in the real-life environment of a shopping mall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Delphine; Poldma, Tiiu; Fichten, Catherine; Havel, Alice; Kehayia, Eva; Mazer, Barbara; McKinley, Patricia; Rochette, Annie; Swaine, Bonnie

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how shopping malls could be used during rehabilitation and to identify the facilitators and barriers to their use. Two focus groups, conducted with 15 rehabilitation professionals from various disciplines and working with people with disabilities of all ages were structured around two topics: (i) The usage of malls for rehabilitation and (ii) Factors that facilitate or limit rehabilitation professionals' use of the mall as an environment for clinical assessment and/or intervention. The thematic analysis revealed that shopping malls were used to achieve several rehabilitation goals targeting physical and cognitive skills, psychological health and socialization. This real-life environment is motivating and helps foster independence and normalization. Factors affecting mall use during rehabilitation included personal factors (e.g. clients' personality and level of readiness) and environmental factors (e.g. clinical context, accessibility of the mall and social attitudes of store owners). Shopping malls may be a relevant rehabilitation assessment and treatment environment that could contribute to optimizing community integration of people with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation To ensure successful community reintegration, clients could be trained at some point during their rehabilitation, to perform activities in real-life settings, such as a shopping mall. Shopping malls appear to enable the attainment of rehabilitation goals targeting a variety of skills. This real-life environment appears to be motivating and helps foster independence and normalization. Factors felt to affect mall use during rehabilitation include personal factors (e.g. clients' personality and level of readiness) and environmental factors (e.g. clinical context, accessibility of the mall and social attitudes of store owners). The shopping mall may be an untapped resource as it appears to be a relevant rehabilitation assessment and treatment

  10. Astrobiological significance of the sabkha life and environments of southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivaletta, Nunzia; Barbieri, Roberto; Picard, Christine; Bosco, Marco

    2009-05-01

    In high-salinity and water-scarce environments, such as in hot and dry deserts, species develop adaptive strategies that are necessary for living in such harsh conditions. Continental ephemeral salt lakes (sabkhas) with periodic flooding from subsurface groundwater followed by high salt concentrations, such as the ones of the northern Africa Chotts, rank among the geological settings wherein the combined effect of salt concentration and fluctuation of water availability make the environment unstable and can thereafter lead to extreme changes. The present study investigates the continental sabkha environments of southern Tunisia, in which ecological niches (i.e. water and salt precipitates, including halite, gypsum, and dolomite) host microbial life. Halophilic microorganisms can be trapped in the extensive saline crusts of halite and gypsum, which can be regarded as the first step of their delivery to the fossil record. The study of halophiles can provide clues for the understanding of life strategies in extreme terrestrial environments, such as sabkhas, which are potential good terrestrial analogs for evaporite-bearing Martian deposits.

  11. Designing of peptides with desired half-life in intestine-like environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-08-20

    Background: In past, a number of peptides have been reported to possess highly diverse properties ranging from cell penetrating, tumor homing, anticancer, anti-hypertensive, antiviral to antimicrobials. Owing to their excellent specificity, low-toxicity, rich chemical diversity and availability from natural sources, FDA has successfully approved a number of peptide-based drugs and several are in various stages of drug development. Though peptides are proven good drug candidates, their usage is still hindered mainly because of their high susceptibility towards proteases degradation. We have developed an in silico method to predict the half-life of peptides in intestine-like environment and to design better peptides having optimized physicochemical properties and half-life.Results: In this study, we have used 10mer (HL10) and 16mer (HL16) peptides dataset to develop prediction models for peptide half-life in intestine-like environment. First, SVM based models were developed on HL10 dataset which achieved maximum correlation R/R2 of 0.57/0.32, 0.68/0.46, and 0.69/0.47 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Secondly, models developed on HL16 dataset showed maximum R/R2 of 0.91/0.82, 0.90/0.39, and 0.90/0.31 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Furthermore, models that were developed on selected features, achieved a correlation (R) of 0.70 and 0.98 on HL10 and HL16 dataset, respectively. Preliminary analysis suggests the role of charged residue and amino acid size in peptide half-life/stability. Based on above models, we have developed a web server named HLP (Half Life Prediction), for predicting and designing peptides with desired half-life. The web server provides three facilities; i) half-life prediction, ii) physicochemical properties calculation and iii) designing mutant peptides.Conclusion: In summary, this study describes a web server \\'HLP\\' that has been developed for assisting scientific

  12. Great Expectations - Does worker participation in design enhance the integration of working environment and work life issues into design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak

    Does worker participation in design enhance the integration of working environment and work life aspects into design? The interrelation between worker participation in design and the integration of working environment or work life aspects have been studied for decades within different traditions. I...... processes and that other subjects were important in the cases as well. The search for an answer to the overall question 'Does worker participation in design enhance the integration of working environment and work life aspects into design?' has gone through several questions related to the processes...... of design, and through questions related to learning processes in design. I have found it interesting to examine why and when working environment and work life issues are raised in participatory design processes. I have also found that it is interesting to examine who put the working environment and work...

  13. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Masked expression of life-history traits in a highly variable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Differing life-history strategies may act as a constraint on reproductive expression that ultimately limits the ability of individual species to respond to changes in the magnitude or frequency of environmental variation, and potentially underlies the variation often inherent in phenotypic and evolved responses to anthropogenic change. Alternatively, if there are environmental cues that predict reproductive potential, differential expression of life-history strategies may represent differences in the adaptive capacity to optimize current reproductive value given variation in environmental conditions. We compared several aspects of walleye Sander vitreus spawning ecology at two reservoirs that differ in environmental variability (i.e., annual water-level fluctuation) to identify the capacity of phenotypic expression and the corresponding association with age. Despite significant differences in female body and liver masses between reservoirs that differ in environmental variability, we found no difference in reproductive investment measured by egg size and fecundity. Walleye in a highly variable environment appear to exhibit reproductive traits more typical of a short-lived life-history strategy, which may be resultant from the interaction of environmental and anthropogenic pressures. This finding emphasizes the need to identify the degree to which life-history expression represents physiological constraints versus ecological optimization, particularly as anthropogenic change continues to alter environmental conditions. 

  15. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  16. Fungal pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S F; Sarosi, G A

    1996-12-01

    With AIDS has come a new level of T-cell immunosuppression, beyond that previously seen. The impact of the HIV pandemic on the field of fungal infections includes a major increase in the number of serious fungal infections, an increase in the severity of those infections, and even some entirely new manifestations of fungal illness. In this article fungal pulmonary complications of AIDS are discussed. T-cell opportunists including Cryptococcus neoformans and the endemic mycoses are the most important pathogens. Phagocyte opportunists, including Aspergillus species and agents of mucormycosis, are less important.

  17. Influence of Working Environment on Fatigue Life Time Duration for Runner Blades of Kaplan Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present an analytical analyzes refer to influence of working environment on life time duration in service of runner blades of Kaplan turbines. The study are made using only analytical method, the entry dates being obtained from measurements made in situ for a Kaplan turbine. To calculate the maximum number of stress cycles whereupon the runner blades work without any damage it was used an analytical relation known in specialized literatures under the name of Morrow’s relation. To estimate fatigue life time duration will be used a formula obtained from one of most common cumulative damage methodology taking in consideration the real exploitation conditions of a specified Kaplan turbine.

  18. Direct experimental evidence that early-life farm environment influences regulation of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marie C; Inman, Charlotte F; Patel, Dilip; Schmidt, Bettina; Mulder, Imke; Miller, Bevis; Gill, Bhupinder P; Pluske, John; Kelly, Denise; Stokes, Christopher R; Bailey, Michael

    2012-05-01

      In mammals, early-life environmental variations appear to affect microbial colonization and therefore competent immune development, and exposure to farm environments in infants has been inversely correlated with allergy development. Modelling these effects using manipulation of neonatal rodents is difficult due to their dependency on the mother, but the relatively independent piglet is increasingly identified as a valuable translational model for humans. This study was designed to correlate immune regulation in piglets with early-life environment.   Piglets were nursed by their mother on a commercial farm, while isolator-reared siblings were formula fed. Fluorescence immunohistology was used to quantify T-reg and effector T-cell populations in the intestinal lamina propria and the systemic response to food proteins was quantified by capture ELISA.   There was more CD4(+) and CD4(+) CD25(+) effector T-cell staining in the intestinal mucosa of the isolator-reared piglets compared with their farm-reared counterparts. In contrast, these isolator-reared piglets had a significantly reduced CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell population compared to farm-reared littermates, resulting in a significantly higher T-reg-to-effector ratio in the farm animals. Consistent with these findings, isolator-reared piglets had an increased serum IgG anti-soya response to novel dietary soya protein relative to farm-reared piglets.   Here, we provide the first direct evidence, derived from intervention, that components of the early-life environment present on farms profoundly affects both local development of regulatory components of the mucosal immune system and immune responses to food proteins at weaning. We propose that neonatal piglets provide a tractable model which allows maternal and treatment effects to be statistically separated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Presentation and diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirullah; Nawaz, Ghareeb; Sattar, Syed Fazle

    2010-01-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a form of fungal disease that has recently been considered a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Other forms of fungal sinusitis include acute-fulminant (invasive), chronic indolent (invasive) and mycetoma (non-invasive). Objectives were to assess the presentation and to describe the diagnostic techniques for allergic fungal sinusitis in our setup. Descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head & Neck Surgery, Khyber Medical College and Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2002 to April 2008. Twenty-three cases of allergic fungal sinusitis (ASF) were selected for the study. Data like, name, age, sex, address, clinical features, labs (Eosinophil count) and imaging studies (CT and/or MRI) were recorded, including the pre- and postoperative treatment, operative findings and postoperative results, recurrence of disease were also recorded. Surgical procedures were performed on all cases followed by medical treatment. Study revealed that AFS is a disease of younger age, mainly occurring in 2nd & 3rd decade of life, with male to female ratio 1:1.3. Allergic rhinitis (91%) and nasal polyposis (91%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (96%), nasal discharge (91%), post-nasal discharge (87%) and unilateral multi sinus extension were important clinical features. Increased eosinophil count and increased IgE level was found in 78% cases. Histopathological analysis showed fungal hyphae in all cases and aspergillus was predominant organism on culture. Orbital erosion was seen in 78% and skull base erosion was observed in 9%. Recurrence of disease was seen in nine cases. Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a disease of young immunocompetent adults. Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal allergy and proptosis were the most common presentations. Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires high index of suspicion in patients presenting with chronic rhinosinusitis, such cases should be

  20. Work, work-life conflict and health in an industrial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, O; Bauer, G F

    2014-01-01

    Work-life conflict has been poorly studied as a cause of ill-health in occupational medicine. To study associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions, including work-life conflict on the one hand and general, physical and mental health outcomes on the other. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies in Switzerland. Physical work factors included five demands and exposures such as heavy loads, repetitive work and poor posture. Psychosocial factors included 14 demands and limited resources such as time pressure, overtime, monotonous work, job insecurity, low job autonomy, low social support and work-life conflict. Health outcomes studied were self-rated health, sickness absence, musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disorders, stress and burnout. There was a response rate of 49%; 2014 employees participated. All adverse working conditions were positively associated with several poor health outcomes in both men and women. After mutual adjustment for all work factors and additional covariates, only a few, mainly psychosocial work factors remained significant as risk factors for health. Work-life conflict, a largely neglected work-related psychosocial factor in occupational medicine, turned out to be the only factor that was significantly and strongly associated with all studied health outcomes and was consistently found to be the strongest or second strongest of all the studied risk factors. Even in an industrial work environment, psychosocial work factors, and particularly work-life conflict, play a key role and need to be taken into consideration in research and workplace health promotion.

  1. Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Jim E.; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    The dramatic increase in fungal diseases in recent years can be attributed to the increased aggressiveness of medical therapy and other human activities. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of contracting fungal diseases in healthcare settings and from natural environments. Increased prescribing of antifungals has led to the emergence of resistant fungi, resulting in treatment challenges. These concerns, together with the elucidation of the mechanisms of protective immunity against fungal d...

  2. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Its Potential as a Life-Sustaining Solvent in a Planetary Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljko Budisa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids have different properties compared to regular fluids and could play a role as life-sustaining solvents on other worlds. Even on Earth, some bacterial species have been shown to be tolerant to supercritical fluids. The special properties of supercritical fluids, which include various types of selectivities (e.g., stereo-, regio-, and chemo-selectivity have recently been recognized in biotechnology and used to catalyze reactions that do not occur in water. One suitable example is enzymes when they are exposed to supercritical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide: enzymes become even more stable, because they are conformationally rigid in the dehydrated state. Furthermore, enzymes in anhydrous organic solvents exhibit a “molecular memory”, i.e., the capacity to “remember” a conformational or pH state from being exposed to a previous solvent. Planetary environments with supercritical fluids, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, exist, even on Earth (below the ocean floor, on Venus, and likely on Super-Earth type exoplanets. These planetary environments may present a possible habitat for exotic life.

  3. Low Pressure Tolerance by Methanogens in an Aqueous Environment: Implications for Subsurface Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickol, R. L.; Kral, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The low pressure at the surface of Mars (average: 6 mbar) is one potentially biocidal factor that any extant life on the planet would need to endure. Near subsurface life, while shielded from ultraviolet radiation, would also be exposed to this low pressure environment, as the atmospheric gas-phase pressure increases very gradually with depth. Few studies have focused on low pressure as inhibitory to the growth or survival of organisms. However, recent work has uncovered a potential constraint to bacterial growth below 25 mbar. The study reported here tested the survivability of four methanogen species ( Methanothermobacter wolfeii, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis) under low pressure conditions approaching average martian surface pressure (6 mbar - 143 mbar) in an aqueous environment. Each of the four species survived exposure of varying length (3 days - 21 days) at pressures down to 6 mbar. This research is an important stepping-stone to determining if methanogens can actively metabolize/grow under these low pressures. Additionally, the recently discovered recurring slope lineae suggest that liquid water columns may connect the surface to deeper levels in the subsurface. If that is the case, any organism being transported in the water column would encounter the changing pressures during the transport.

  4. SECOND LIFE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: A Review of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami AYDIN,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next section reviews the studies on Second Life in EFL learning, and focuses on the effects of SL on affective states, interaction and communication in SL, collaborative and autonomous learning in SL, sharing culture in SL, engagement and participation in SL, some other issues and drawbacks. Third, the study compares SL usage in Turkish EFL context to its use in a global scale. Last, the study concludes that there has been a serious lack of research on the use of SL, as current literature reflects how SL might more readily be utilized as EFL learning environment. Finally, the study ends with recommendations for teachers and researchers.

  5. Colonisation of toxic environments drives predictable life-history evolution in livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael; Brian Langerhans, R

    2014-01-01

    New World livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) have repeatedly colonised toxic, hydrogen sulphide-rich waters across their natural distribution. Physiological considerations and life-history theory predict that these adverse conditions should favour the evolution of larger offspring. Here, we examined nine poeciliid species that independently colonised toxic environments, and show that these fishes have indeed repeatedly evolved much larger offspring size at birth in sulphidic waters, thus uncovering a widespread pattern of predictable evolution. However, a second pattern, only indirectly predicted by theory, proved additionally common: a reduction in the number of offspring carried per clutch (i.e. lower fecundity). Our analyses reveal that this secondary pattern represents a mere consequence of a classic life-history trade-off combined with strong selection on offspring size alone. With such strong natural selection in extreme environments, extremophile organisms may commonly exhibit multivariate phenotypic shifts even though not all diverging traits necessarily represent adaptations to the extreme conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide and its potential as a life-sustaining solvent in a planetary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisa, Nediljko; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-08-08

    Supercritical fluids have different properties compared to regular fluids and could play a role as life-sustaining solvents on other worlds. Even on Earth, some bacterial species have been shown to be tolerant to supercritical fluids. The special properties of supercritical fluids, which include various types of selectivities (e.g., stereo-, regio-, and chemo-selectivity) have recently been recognized in biotechnology and used to catalyze reactions that do not occur in water. One suitable example is enzymes when they are exposed to supercritical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide: enzymes become even more stable, because they are conformationally rigid in the dehydrated state. Furthermore, enzymes in anhydrous organic solvents exhibit a "molecular memory", i.e., the capacity to "remember" a conformational or pH state from being exposed to a previous solvent. Planetary environments with supercritical fluids, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, exist, even on Earth (below the ocean floor), on Venus, and likely on Super-Earth type exoplanets. These planetary environments may present a possible habitat for exotic life.

  7. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  8. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  9. Using a Total Environment Framework (Built, Natural, Social Environments) to Assess Life-long Health Effects of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAseeks applications for research on how pollution affects human health in the context of the total environment – built, natural, and social environments interacting together with inherent characteristics and interactions.

  10. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  11. Early life in a barren environment adversely affects spatial cognition in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Tahamtani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task, however the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  12. Psychological Well-Being and Family Environment of Siblings of Children with Life Threatening Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Lisa M; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Rourke, Mary; Kang, Tammy I; Feudtner, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The psychological well-being of siblings of children with life threatening illness remains largely uncharted. Pediatric cancer research suggests that a supportive family environment may protect the psychological well-being of siblings. We hypothesized that (1) siblings of pediatric palliative care patients would show clinical/behavioral scores that were elevated but that rates of serious psychopathology would be comparable to the general population of children their age; and (2) higher family functioning scores would be associated with lower clinical scores and higher adaptive scores for these siblings. We conducted an observational study with families in which a patient receiving palliative care had one or more siblings between the ages of 6 and 11. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) to assess the siblings' psychological well-being and the Family Assessment Device (FAD) to assess the family environment. Twenty-four parents reported data for 30 siblings. Only three siblings scored in the clinical range on a BASC-2 composite clinical scale, and 11 siblings scored in the at-risk range on one or more composite scales. Higher FAD scores predicted significantly higher externalization composite clinical scores (7.54, 95% CI: 1.12, 13.97, p family environment would be associated with higher levels of psychological health was supported.

  13. Interactions between insects and fungal pathogens of forest and ornamental trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riziero Tiberi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Authors have analyzed the interactions between insects and fungal pathogens of chestnut, cypress, elm, oak and pine trees in the natural environment and in urban areas. A brief description of the insect's life cycle is provided by relating some of its phases with the vectored fungus. The purpose of this work is to relate the different insect/pathogen associations with their environment in order to bring out the role of such symbioses in determining, together with abiotic factors, the destabilization of forest and urban ecosystems. The ascertained and possible interactions, as well as the ones that might occur in the future between immigrant and resident insects and fungal pathogens as a consequence of new introductions, are treated separately, taking into account the available control strategies, in particular those that are feasible in human-frequented areas.

  14. Comfort-Supporting Nursing Activities for End-of-Life Patients in an Institutionalized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisvetrová, Helena; Vévodová, Šárka; Školoudík, David

    2017-09-04

    Comfort promotion plays a significant role in end-of-life patient care. The objective of this study was to determine the utilization rate of comfort supporting nursing activities in end-of-life patients in an institutionalized environment in the Czech Republic in relation to the age of the registered nurses (RNs), length of work experience, education level, and type of workplace. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was designed. A questionnaire with Likert scales included 31 activities of dying care and spiritual support interventions. The sample comprised 907 RNs working in 49 institutions in nine regions of the Czech Republic. The Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U post-hoc test with Bonferroni correction of significance, Spearman's correlation analysis, and logical regression model were used for statistical evaluation. The least frequently implemented activity by RNs was "Show the patient's willingness to discuss death" and the most frequent activity was "Threat to the patient's dignity and respect." The highest utilization rate of nursing activities was reported in the physical dimension, while the lowest utilization rate of nursing activities was in the social dimension set. Significant predictors for the high utilization rate of physical dimension set activities were hospice care departments, long-term care facilities (LTCFs), and the age of RNs. Hospice departments were also a predictor of high utilization rate of activities in the psychological, spiritual, and social dimension set activities. With the exception of hospice departments, RNs used activities encouraging psychological, spiritual, and social comfort for end-of-life patients less frequently than the physical dimension. RNs in hospitals and LTCFs focus insufficiently on the spiritual and psychosocial comfort of end-of-life patients. This study is of particular significance to educators who prepare the next generation of nurses. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-03-01

    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  16. Fungal Biofilms and Polymicrobial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Orlandi, Caroline B; Sardi, Janaina C O; Pitangui, Nayla S; de Oliveira, Haroldo C; Scorzoni, Liliana; Galeane, Mariana C; Medina-Alarcón, Kaila P; Melo, Wanessa C M A; Marcelino, Mônica Y; Braz, Jaqueline D; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2017-05-10

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have been correlated with biofilm formation. However, Candida biofilms remain the most widely studied from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Biofilms formed by yeast and filamentous fungi present differences, and studies of polymicrobial communities have become increasingly important. A key feature of resistance is the extracellular matrix, which covers and protects biofilm cells from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete quorum-sensing molecules that control their biological activities and behaviors and play a role in fungal resistance and pathogenicity. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to study fungal biofilms, from colorimetric methods to omics approaches that aim to identify new therapeutic strategies by developing new compounds to combat these microbial communities as well as new diagnostic tools to identify these complex formations in vivo. In this review, recent advances related to pathogenic fungal biofilms are addressed.

  17. Fungal Biofilms and Polymicrobial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Orlandi, Caroline B.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Pitangui, Nayla S.; de Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Scorzoni, Liliana; Galeane, Mariana C.; Medina-Alarcón, Kaila P.; Melo, Wanessa C. M. A.; Marcelino, Mônica Y.; Braz, Jaqueline D.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have been correlated with biofilm formation. However, Candida biofilms remain the most widely studied from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Biofilms formed by yeast and filamentous fungi present differences, and studies of polymicrobial communities have become increasingly important. A key feature of resistance is the extracellular matrix, which covers and protects biofilm cells from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, to achieve cell–cell communication, microorganisms secrete quorum-sensing molecules that control their biological activities and behaviors and play a role in fungal resistance and pathogenicity. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to study fungal biofilms, from colorimetric methods to omics approaches that aim to identify new therapeutic strategies by developing new compounds to combat these microbial communities as well as new diagnostic tools to identify these complex formations in vivo. In this review, recent advances related to pathogenic fungal biofilms are addressed. PMID:29371540

  18. Students' perception of school environment and life satisfaction at Sinhala-medium secondary schools in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Gunawardena, Nalika S; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nanri, Akiko; Rajapakse, Lalini; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between students' perception of physical and psychosocial school environment and satisfaction with life among secondary school students in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Data were collected from 20 Sinhala-medium secondary schools between January and February in 2010. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with students in grade seven (n = 342) and grade ten (n = 446). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to assess the associations between students'satisfaction with life measured by Cantril ladders, and scores of perceived physical and psychosocial school environment that focused on school cleanliness and attractiveness, relations with teachers and peers, satisfaction with school and bullying. Students in the highest quartile of school environment score were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction, compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio 2.32; 95% confidence interval 1.35-3.99). Odds ratio of high life satisfaction increased with increasing school environment scores (p for trendenvironment were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction. Positive changes in the focused areas of school environment have the potential to lead to improved life satisfaction of students.

  19. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... wind and other sources. Thus, fungal spores from the air and soil environment could serve as major sources of fungal contamination of this product. Two garri types (white and yellow) were therefore sampled from six popular markets in the area which included Ogige, Nkwo-Ibagwa, Orie-Orba, Orie-Igboeze, Eke- Ozzi and ...

  20. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nsukka area of southeastern Nigeria, garri is usually displayed in the open market for sale which no doubt exposes the food stuff to dust particles from moving vehicles, wind and other sources. Thus, fungal spores from the air and soil environment could serve as major sources of fungal contamination of this product.

  1. Are patients with cardiac implants protected against electromagnetic interference in daily life and occupational environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Andreas; Stunder, Dominik; Maytin, Melanie; Kraus, Thomas; Marx, Nikolaus; Driessen, Sarah

    2015-07-21

    Utilization of cardiac implants such as pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators is now commonplace among heart disease patients. The ever-increasing technological complexity of these devices is matched by the near omnipresent exposure to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (EMFs), both in everyday life and the occupational environment. Given that electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) are associated with potential risk in device patients, physicians are increasingly confronted with managing device patients with intermittent EMI and chronic occupational exposure. The current review aims to provide a contemporary overview of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, their function and susceptibility of non-medical EMFs and provide recommendations for physicians caring for cardiac device patients presenting with EMI. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Teenager at the life crossroads: socialization, analysis of the factors of developmental environment change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Hlomov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared with their forerunners, the modern teenagers experience adolescence and solve age problems in different way, and face other social risks. The representations of situations of social and psychological adjustment and maladjustment also differ in some aspects. The article discusses the factors which influence the adolescence in modern conditions: spread of the Internet, lack of public demand for a certain desired life trajectory of a growing teenager, high social tension and uncertainty, changes in the structure and essence of the family concept; blurred teenagers identity in the context of variety of identification options. These factors affect the development of the resources available to teenagers and their use of them, which social risks they are exposed to, and what forms of deviant behavior they show. Such changes in the social environment of adolescent development and, as a consequence, in the experiencing adolescence, allow to check and revise the existing representations of the teen age problems

  3. Precision measurement of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to undertake high precision measurements of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments to study the effect of compression on the electron capture nuclear decay rate. Such studies are of general interest having implications in many areas ranging from astrophysics to geophysics. At present, very little data is available on the change of electron capture decay rate under compression and the available data seems to indicate that the observed increase of the electron capture decay rate under compression is much greater than the predictions of the best available density functional calculations as obtained from TB-LMTO or WIEN2K codes. The proposed experiment should generate more data thus clarifying the experimental situation.

  4. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections.

  5. THE ROLE OF TEENAGEERS’ LIFE EXPERIENCE ACTUALIZATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SAFE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Selivanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the problem of social security and emphasizes the urgent need for developing the general theory of social security, its concepts and models designed to meet the requirements of time and specify different aspects and levels of socialization process – federal, regional and municipal. The author regards actualization of teenagers’ life experience as a promising direction for exploring the opportunities for creating the safe social environment.The individual socio-psychological functioning is delineated as a multilevel correlation of internal and external human resources used for resolving difficult situations. According to the author, the prompt mobilization of internal resources of a teenager, training the ability to apply the external resources for solving the problem and developing the safe behavior can improve the quality of life in the modern society. Along with the risks of modern information society, the author emphasizes a number of dangerous social trends: disruption of social institutions, ifantilization of education, distortion of historical cultural channels, and devaluation of the collectivism idea.In author’s opinion, teenagers should get some special knowledge and individual training to develop the skills of safe behavior in actual situations; and the prospects of the modern society considerably depend on the above procedures. 

  6. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Service-life prediction of reinforced concrete structures in subsurface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jung; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This paper focuses on the estimation of durability and service-life of reinforced concrete structures in Wolsong Low- and intermediate-level wastes Disposal Center (WLDC) in Korea. There are six disposal silos located in the saturated environment. The silo concrete is degraded due to reactions with groundwater and chemical attacks, and finally it will lose its properties as a transport barrier. The infiltration of sulfate and magnesium, leaching of potassium hydroxide, and chlorine induced corrosion are the most significant factors for degradation of reinforced concrete structure in underground environment. From the result of evaluation of the degradation time for each factor, the degradation rate of the reinforced concrete due to sulfate and magnesium is 1.308×10{sup -3} cm/yr, and it is estimated to take 48,000 years for full degradation while potassium hydroxide is leached in depth of less than 1.5 cm at 1,000 years after the initiation of degradation. In case of chlorine induced corrosion, it takes 1,648 years to initiate corrosion in the main reinforced bar and 2,288 years to reach the lifetime limit of the structural integrity, and thus it is evaluated as the most significant factor.

  8. Extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria: Their implications for possible life in extraterrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Liu, S.V.; Zhang, C.; Palumbo, A.V.; Phelps, T.J.

    1998-06-01

    Iron reduction is believed to be an early form of respiration and iron-reducing bacteria might have evolved very early on Earth. To support this hypothesis, the authors began to search for both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria because iron-reducing capacity may be a widely distributed trait if ancestral microorganisms include extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria. To date, they have obtained thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing and magnetite-forming enrichment cultures from geologically and hydrologically isolated, millions of years-old deep terrestrial subsurface samples. Three dominant bacteria were identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetical analysis indicated that these bacteria were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanoliticus. Two pure thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria have been isolated and characterized from these enrichments, they also are able to degrade cellulose and xylan. Geological evidence indicated that these bacteria were separated from modern organisms for about 200 million years, and they are the oldest isolated bacteria available now. Evolutionary sequence analysis showed that the 16S rRNA genes evolved extremely slowly in these bacteria. In addition, the authors have obtained about 30 psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria in samples from Siberia and Alaska permafrost soils, Pacific marine sediments and Hawaii deep sea water. These bacteria were also able to reduce other heavy metals. The isolation of both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria from surface and subsurface environments has significant implications for microbial evolution and for studying the origin of life in extraterrestrial environments.

  9. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  10. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  11. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... August 16, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  12. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... December 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  13. Physiological Disorders in Closed Environment-Grown Crops for Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Morrow, Robert

    Crop production for life support systems in space will require controlled environments where temperature, humidity, CO2, and light might differ from natural environments where plants evolved. Physiological disorders, i.e., abnormal plant growth and development, can occur under these controlled environments. Among the most common of these disorders are Ca deficiency injuries such as leaf tipburn (e.g., lettuce), blossom-end-rot in fruits (e.g., tomato and pepper), and internal tissue necrosis in fruits or tubers (e.g., cucumber and potato). Increased Ca nutrition to the plants typically has little effect on these disorders, but slowing overall growth or providing better air circulation to increase transpiration can be effective. A second common disorder is oedema or intumescence, which appears as callus-like growth or galls on leaves (e.g., sweetpotato, potato, pepper, and tomato). This disorder can be reduced by increasing the near UV radiation ( 300-400 nm) to the plants. Leaf injury and necrosis can occur under long photoperiods (e.g., tomato, potato, and pepper) and at super-elevated (i.e., ¿ than 4000 mol mol-1) CO2 concentrations (e.g., soybean, potato, and radish), and these can be managed by reducing the photoperiod and CO2 concentration, respectively. Lack of blue light in the spectrum (e.g., under red LEDs or LPS lamps) can result in leggy growth and/or leaves lacking in chlorophyll (e.g., wheat, bean, and radish). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most commonly ethylene, can accumulate in tightly closed systems and result in a variety of negative responses. Most of these disorders can be mitigated by altering the environmental set-points or by using more resistant cultivars.

  14. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  15. Purine Acquisition and Synthesis by Human Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Chitty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While members of the Kingdom Fungi are found across many of the world’s most hostile environments, only a limited number of species can thrive within the human host. The causative agents of the most common invasive fungal infections are Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. During the infection process, these fungi must not only combat the host immune system while adapting to dramatic changes in temperature and pH, but also acquire sufficient nutrients to enable growth and dissemination in the host. One class of nutrients required by fungi, which is found in varying concentrations in their environmental niches and the human host, is the purines. These nitrogen-containing heterocycles are one of the most abundant organic molecules in nature and are required for roles as diverse as signal transduction, energy metabolism and DNA synthesis. The most common life-threatening fungal pathogens can degrade, salvage and synthesize de novo purines through a number of enzymatic steps that are conserved. While these enable them to adapt to the changing purine availability in the environment, only de novo purine biosynthesis is essential during infection and therefore an attractive antimycotic target.

  16. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    the synthesis of ergosterol. These findings also invalidate use of ergosterol as an indicator of biomass of certain fungal taxa (e.g., Glomeromycota. Data from this study are available from the Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFTOL Structural and Biochemical Database: http://aftol.umn.edu.

  17. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  18. Measuring the genetic influence on human life span: gene-environment interaction and sex-specific genetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli

    2001-01-01

    New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf......New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic...... and demographicinformation in the estimation of the geneticinfluence on life spans. Based on Cox'sproportional hazard assumption, the modelmeasures the risks for each gene as well as forgene–environment and gene–sex interactions,while controlling for confounding factors. Atwo-step MLE is introduced to obtain anon...

  19. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  20. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX): a Semi-immersive Virtual Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Sciences Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    I. Alexander Twombly; Jeffrey D. Smith; Kevin Montgomery; Richard Boyle

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating...

  1. Urban Natural Environments, Obesity, and Health-Related Quality of Life among Hispanic Children Living in Inner-City Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Sohn, Wonmin

    2016-01-01

    Although a substantial body of literature has provided evidence supporting the positive effects of natural environments on well-being, little has been known about the specific spatial patterns of urban nature in promoting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children. This study assessed the association that the urban natural environment measured by landscape spatial patterns may have with obesity and HRQOL among Hispanic children. Ninety-two 4th and 5th grade students were recruited ...

  2. Spacecraft cabin environment effects on the growth and behavior of Chlorella vulgaris for life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David

    2018-02-01

    An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain. In particular, algal photobioreactors that use Chlorella vulgaris have been identified as potential multifunctional components for use as part of such a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, a connection between the biological research examining C. vulgaris behavior and the engineered spacecraft cabin environmental conditions has not yet been thoroughly established. This review article characterizes the ranges of prior and expected cabin parameters (e.g. temperature, lighting, carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen, pressure, growth media, contamination, gravity, and radiation) and reviews algal metabolic response (e.g. growth rate, composition, carbon dioxide fixation rates, and oxygen evolution rates) to changes in those parameters that have been reported in prior space research and from related Earth-based experimental observations. Based on our findings, it appears that C. vulgaris offers many promising advantages for use in a BLSS. Typical atmospheric conditions found in spacecraft such as elevated carbon dioxide levels are, in fact, beneficial for algal cultivation. Other spacecraft cabin parameters, however, introduce unique environmental factors, such as reduced total pressure with elevated oxygen concentration, increased radiation, and altered gravity, whose effects on the biological responses

  3. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  4. Physiological and life history strategies of a fossil large mammal in a resource-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Meike; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2009-12-01

    Because of their physiological and life history characteristics, mammals exploit adaptive zones unavailable to ectothermic reptiles. Yet, they perform best in energy-rich environments because their high and constant growth rates and their sustained levels of resting metabolism require continuous resource supply. In resource-limited ecosystems such as islands, therefore, reptiles frequently displace mammals because their slow and flexible growth rates and low metabolic rates permit them to operate effectively with low energy flow. An apparent contradiction of this general principle is the long-term persistence of certain fossil large mammals on energy-poor Mediterranean islands. The purpose of the present study is to uncover the developmental and physiological strategies that allowed fossil large mammals to cope with the low levels of resource supply that characterize insular ecosystems. Long-bone histology of Myotragus, a Plio-Pleistocene bovid from the Balearic Islands, reveals lamellar-zonal tissue throughout the cortex, a trait exclusive to ectothermic reptiles. The bone microstructure indicates that Myotragus grew unlike any other mammal but similar to crocodiles at slow and flexible rates, ceased growth periodically, and attained somatic maturity extremely late by approximately 12 years. This developmental pattern denotes that Myotragus, much like extant reptiles, synchronized its metabolic requirements with fluctuating resource levels. Our results suggest that developmental and physiological plasticity was crucial to the survival of this and, perhaps, other large mammals on resource-limited Mediterranean Islands, yet it eventually led to their extinction through a major predator, Homo sapiens.

  5. Regular recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production. Recash a Life-Environment Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars; Emilsson, Stig [Swedish Forest Agency, Karlstad (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvest, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. In order to create better conditions for a regular recycling of wood, the Swedish Forest Agency took the initiative for creating a LIFE-Environment demonstration project. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distribute knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large.

  6. Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

  7. Association between participation in life situations of children with cerebral palsy and their physical, social, and attitudinal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colver, Allan; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Colver A, Thyen U, Arnaud C, Beckung E, Fauconnier J, Marcelli M, McManus V, Michelsen SI, Parkes J, Parkinson K, Dickinson HO. Association between participation in life situations of children with cerebral palsy and their physical, social, and attitudinal environment: a cross-sectional multicenter...

  8. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section 971.804 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. Hydrothermal Microflow Technology as a Research Tool for Origin-of-Life Studies in Extreme Earth Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2017-10-02

    Although studies about the origin of life are a frontier in science and a number of effective approaches have been developed, drawbacks still exist. Examples include: (1) simulation of chemical evolution experiments (which were demonstrated for the first time by Stanley Miller); (2) approaches tracing back the most primitive life-like systems (on the basis of investigations of present organisms); and (3) constructive approaches for making life-like systems (on the basis of molecular biology), such as in vitro construction of the RNA world. Naturally, simulation experiments of chemical evolution under plausible ancient Earth environments have been recognized as a potentially fruitful approach. Nevertheless, simulation experiments seem not to be sufficient for identifying the scenario from molecules to life. This is because primitive Earth environments are still not clearly defined and a number of possibilities should be taken into account. In addition, such environments frequently comprise extreme conditions when compared to the environments of present organisms. Therefore, we need to realize the importance of accurate and convenient experimental approaches that use practical research tools, which are resistant to high temperature and pressure, to facilitate chemical evolution studies. This review summarizes improvements made in such experimental approaches over the last two decades, focusing primarily on our hydrothermal microflow reactor technology. Microflow reactor systems are a powerful tool for performing simulation experiments in diverse simulated hydrothermal Earth conditions in order to measure the kinetics of formation and degradation and the interactions of biopolymers.

  10. A Life History Approach to Delineating How Harsh Environments and Hawk Temperament Traits Differentially Shape Children's Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-01-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and…

  11. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  12. Studies on microorganisms in space: a contribution to the discussion on panspermia, search for life on Mars and interaction of life with its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Reitz, G.; Panitz, C.; Rabbow, E.

    2001-08-01

    Space environment is a unique tool to test the interactions of life with environmental extremes: (1) ability of microorganisms to cope with the complex interplay of all space parameters during a hypothetical interplanetary journey and potential protection mechanisms; (2) sensitivity of biologically effective environmental UV radiation to ozone; (3) survival strategies of microorganisms in response to a simulated Martian UV radiation climate. In experiments in Earth orbit, it was found that radiation-resistant microbes could survive a journey from one planet to another in our solar system, if they are shielded against cosmic radiation by meteorite material, and that the ozone layer protects the biosphere by reducing the biologically effective UV dose by three orders of magnitude. Future experiments on the EXPOSE facility of the ISS will contribute to a better understanding of the processes regulating the interactions of life with its environment.

  13. Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Pujalte, George G A; Reese, Stephanie T

    2015-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections grow in dark and moist areas and invade various parts of the body. These infections are easily treatable in immunocompetent individuals. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be quite severe, requiring use of more potent antifungal agents. The treatment for these conditions consists of topical antifungal agents, creams, and oral systemic medications. The use of prednisone can alter the appearance of superficial fungal infections, making them difficult to diagnose. It is important for primary care providers to become adept at understanding the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques, and treatment options available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. METHODS: Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year...... and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit...... prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort...

  15. Enantioselective separation of amino acids as biomarkers indicating life in extraterrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara

    2013-10-01

    Traces of prebiotic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins, are excellent biomarkers that could provide evidence of extinct or extant life in extra-terrestrial environments. In particular, characterization of the enantiomeric excess of amino acids gives relevant information about the biotic or abiotic origin of molecules, because it is generally assumed that life elsewhere could be based on either L or D amino acids, but not both. The analytical procedures used in in-situ space missions for chiral discrimination of amino acids must meet severe requirements imposed by flight conditions: short analysis time, low energy consumption, robustness, storage for long periods under extreme conditions, high efficiency and sensitivity, automation, and remote-control operation. Such methods are based on gas chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis, usually coupled with mass spectrometry; of these, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the only such combination yet used in space missions. Preliminary in-situ sample derivatization is required before GC-MS analysis to convert amino acids into volatile and thermally stable compounds. The silylation reagent most commonly used, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, is unsuitable for detection of homochirality, and alternative derivatization techniques have been developed that preserve the stereochemical configuration of the original compounds and are compatible with spaceflight conditions. These include the reagent N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal, which has already been used in the Rosetta mission, a mixture of alkyl chloroformate, ethanol, and pyridine, a mixture of perfluorinated anhydrides and perfluoro alcohols, and hexafluoroacetone, the first gaseous derivatizing agent. In all the space instruments, solvent extraction of organic matter and chemical derivatization have been combined in a single automatic and remote-controlled procedure in a

  16. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  17. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Fungal diversity in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Calvez, Thomas; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Mahé, Stéphane; Barbier, Georges; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems are considered oases of life in oceans. Since the discovery of these ecosystems in the late 1970s, many endemic species of Bacteria, Archaea, and other organisms, such as annelids and crabs, have been described. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of (micro)organisms in these ecosystems, but the diversity of fungi has not been studied to date. These organisms are considered key organisms in terrestrial ecosystems because of their ecological functions and especially their ability to degrade organic matter. The lack of knowledge about them in the sea reflects the widely held belief that fungi are terrestrial organisms. The first inventory of such organisms in deep-sea hydrothermal environments was obtained in this study. Fungal diversity was investigated by analyzing the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences amplified by culture-independent PCR using DNA extracts from hydrothermal samples and from a culture collection that was established. Our work revealed an unsuspected diversity of species in three of the five fungal phyla. We found a new branch of Chytridiomycota forming an ancient evolutionary lineage. Many of the species identified are unknown, even at higher taxonomic levels in the Chytridiomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. This work opens the way to new studies of the diversity, ecology, and physiology of fungi in oceans and might stimulate new prospecting for biomolecules. From an evolutionary point of view, the diversification of fungi in the oceans can no longer be ignored.

  19. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Barbara; Gorczyca, Rafał; Kołłątaj, Witold; Jędrych, Marian; Sobieszczańska, Anna; Sobieszczański, Jarosław; Karwat, Irena Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of functional barriers resulting from disability through the provision of adequate orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment, and homes adjusted for disability is the precondition for an efficient and independent functioning, and high quality of life of the disabled. The objective of the study was recognition of the needs of the disabled declared by them, and the degree of satisfaction with these needs. The study covered 478 disabled from the Lublin Region. The research instrument was the 'Questionnaire for the Disabled' designed by the authors. Considering the needs expressed by the respondents concerning the provision of orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment and meeting these needs, four groups were distinguished: No Needs - 30.1%, Needs Partially Met - 22.4%, Needs Fully Met - 37.7%, Needs Not Met - 9.8%. The group Needs Not Met was characterized by younger age, in the group Needs Partially Met worse indicators of the state of health were noted, more frequent independent living, loneliness and low material standard. Considering the expressed needs for home adjustments adequate to disability and meeting these needs, three groups were distinguished: No Needs - 59.6%, Needs Not Met - 15.9%, and Needs Met - 24.7%. The group Needs Not Met more rarely covered respondents living in residential homes, compared to those living independently in rural or urban areas. The group Needs Met more rarely included rural inhabitants, while more frequently including the disabled who had a high material standard. Both the provision of orthopaedic equipment and adjustment of the home to disability are insufficient with respect to the needs. The meeting of these needs is significantly conditioned by high or very high material standard. The lack or incomplete satisfaction with the needs for rehabilitation equipment is associated with a relatively younger age, independent, single residence and low material standard. Living in an residential home means better adjustment

  20. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    Life exists almost everywhere on Earth. Presence of liquid water is a prerequisite for life (Oren, 2008). Living organisms are not only found in `normal' habitats (from the anthropocentric view). Many types, especially of microorganisms, not only tolerate harsh environmental conditions, but even thive in them. Such organisms that resist very harsh physical and chemical conditions in their habitats are termed `extremophiles'. Some extremophilic microorganisms are able to overcome more than one type of extreme conditions in their environment. For example, some `polyextremophiles' grow under hundreds of atmospheres of hydrostatic pressure (barophiles) and at very low, or alternatively at very high temperatures. In many hot springs there are acido-thermophiles that tolerate elevated temperatures and very low pH levels (e.g. the Cyanidium caldarium group, see Seckbach 1994). Members of Cyanidium are able to thrive in pure CO2, a condition not tolerated by most algae (Seckbach et al., 1970). Some thermophilic Archaea grow at temperatures up to 1130C and possibly even higher. In the Arctic and Antarctic regions and in the permafrost region in Siberia there are cold-loving microorganisms (psychrophiles) which are able to grow at -200C. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea tolerate extreme dryness, and spores of Bacillus and relatives that have been encapsulated within salt crystals may have survived in a dormant state for thousands and even millions of years, and still can be revived today. Other extremophiles tolerate salt concentrations up to saturation. Halophilic microorganisms such as found in the Dead Sea or in the Great Salt Lake have developed different strategies to cope with the high osmotic pressure of their environment. Some (e.g. the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina) balance the salts in their medium by accumulating organic compounds such as glycerol. Others (halophilic Archaea of the order Halobacteriales, as well as a few representatives of the

  1. [The burden of fungal infections in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    In Algeria, superficial mycoses are very commonly diagnosed. Deep fungal infections are less often observed. Few data from Algeria are found in the literature. We report for the first time the main causes of these diseases in our country and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants and probably at least 568,900 (1.41 %) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2020, invasive aspergillosis in 2865, intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people and are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer among including 1500 in children) and nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients of whom 20.3 % are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  3. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  4. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  5. Oral fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease.

  6. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  7. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  8. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  9. On the possibility of galactic cosmic ray-induced radiolysis-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-10-01

    Photosynthesis is a mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to evolve alternative mechanisms for harvesting available energy. Bacterium Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, found 2.8 km deep in a South African mine, harvests energy from radiolysis, induced by particles emitted from radioactive U, Th and K present in surrounding rock. Another radiation source in the subsurface environments is secondary particles generated by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that it is a steady source of energy comparable to that produced by radioactive substances, and the possibility of a slow metabolizing life flourishing on it cannot be ruled out. Two mechanisms are proposed through which GCR-induced secondary particles can be utilized for biological use in subsurface environments: (i) GCRs injecting energy in the environment through particle-induced radiolysis and (ii) organic synthesis from GCR secondaries interacting with the medium. Laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses are also proposed. Implications of these mechanisms on finding life in the Solar System and elsewhere in the Universe are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-08-17

    To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX: a Semi-immersive Virtual Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Sciences Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alexander Twombly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The "Virtual GloveboX" (VGX integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real-time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  12. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns?Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns.Study Design: Prospective study.Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital.Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them.Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered.Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization.Statistical Analysis: By tests of significanceResults: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life.Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  13. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  14. Biota and biomolecules in extreme environments on Earth: implications for life detection on Mars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.W.; Roling, W.F.M.; Elsaesser, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2014-01-01

    The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids) occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the

  15. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  16. Life history variation in Barents Sea fish: implications for sensitivity to fishing in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Magnus A; Primicerio, Raul; Dolgov, Andrey; Ottesen, Camilla A M; Aschan, Michaela

    2014-09-01

    Under exploitation and environmental change, it is essential to assess the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine ecosystems to such stress. A species' response to stress depends on its life history. Sensitivity to harvesting is related to the life history "fast-slow" continuum, where "slow" species (i.e., large, long lived, and late maturing) are expected to be more sensitive to fishing than "fast" ones. We analyze life history traits variation for all common fish species in the Barents Sea and rank fishes along fast-slow gradients obtained by ordination analyses. In addition, we integrate species' fast-slow ranks with ecosystem survey data for the period 2004-2009, to assess life history variation at the community level in space and time. Arctic fishes were smaller, had shorter life spans, earlier maturation, larger offspring, and lower fecundity than boreal ones. Arctic fishes could thus be considered faster than the boreal species, even when body size was corrected for. Phylogenetically related species possessed similar life histories. Early in the study period, we found a strong spatial gradient, where members of fish assemblages in the southwestern Barents Sea displayed slower life histories than in the northeast. However, in later, warmer years, the gradient weakened caused by a northward movement of boreal species. As a consequence, the northeast experienced increasing proportions of slower fish species. This study is a step toward integrating life history traits in ecosystem-based areal management. On the basis of life history traits, we assess the fish sensitivity to fishing, at the species and community level. We show that climate warming promotes a borealization of fish assemblages in the northeast, associated with slower life histories in that area. The biology of Arctic species is still poorly known, and boreal species that now establish in the Arctic are fishery sensitive, which calls for cautious ecosystem management of these areas.

  17. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  18. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  19. Field Research and Laboratory Sample Analysis of Dust-Water-Organics-Life from Mars Analogue Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; ILEWG EuroMoonMars Team

    2015-08-01

    We describe results from the data analysis from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns 2009* to 2013) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert relevant to habitability and astrobiology in Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL). We discuss results relevant to the scientific study of the habitability factors influenced by the properties of dust, organics, water history and the diagnostics and characterisation of microbial life. We also discuss perspectives for the preparation of future lander and sample return missions. We deployed at Mars Desert Research station, Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution a ected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. We find high diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with signi cant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples. We compare 2009 campaign results to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life.References * in Foing, Stoker Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology

  20. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Correll, Daniel P.; Luzi, Scott A.; Nelson, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot–Leyden crystal...

  1. Debating Life on Mars: The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) in Varied School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Linda

    Technology-enabled learning environments are beginning to come of age. Tools and frameworks are now available that have been shown to improve learning and are being deployed more widely in varied school settings. Teachers are now faced with the formidable challenge of integrating these promising new environments with the everyday context in which…

  2. Fungal diseases of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanong, Roy P E

    2003-05-01

    Fungal diseases of fish have become increasingly important over the past 20 years. The traditional "fungi" are comprised of members from several different taxonomic kingdoms. Saprolegnia and other typical water molds are the "classic" secondary invaders, infecting more superficial areas of the body and requiring compromise of the exterior of the fish, poor water quality, or general immunosuppression. An increasing number of other environmental fungi are being reported from diseased fish, further testament to the opportunistic nature of many fungi. Common procedures such as air bladder deflation for many marine species collected at depth under nonsterile conditions may result in fungal infections of the swim bladder. Some fungi such as Aphanomyces and Fusarium can cause more invasive or systemic disease, often associated with changes in environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Other fungi such as I. hoferi can be even more insidious and chronic, mimicking mycobacteriosis to a degree. Fungal diseases, in general, are very difficult to control or treat once they have taken hold. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Increased knowledge of basic biology will help guide treatment and control methods. Further research on general predisposing factors, species susceptibilities, immune system effects and other protective mechanisms in fish and more effective chemotherapeutics for external and systemic infections are needed.

  3. Restricting microbial exposure in early life negates the immune benefits associated with gut colonization in environments of high microbial diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke E Mulder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota in early life corresponds with the development of the mucosal immune system. Recent work on caesarean-delivered infants revealed that early microbial composition is influenced by birthing method and environment. Furthermore, we have confirmed that early-life environment strongly influences both the adult gut microbiota and development of the gut immune system. Here, we address the impact of limiting microbial exposure after initial colonization on the development of adult gut immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Piglets were born in indoor or outdoor rearing units, allowing natural colonization in the immediate period after birth, prior to transfer to high-health status isolators. Strikingly, gut closure and morphological development were strongly affected by isolator-rearing, independent of indoor or outdoor origins of piglets. Isolator-reared animals showed extensive vacuolation and disorganization of the gut epithelium, inferring that normal gut closure requires maturation factors present in maternal milk. Although morphological maturation and gut closure were delayed in isolator-reared animals, these hard-wired events occurred later in development. Type I IFN, IL-22, IL-23 and Th17 pathways were increased in indoor-isolator compared to outdoor-isolator animals during early life, indicating greater immune activation in pigs originating from indoor environments reflecting differences in the early microbiota. This difference was less apparent later in development due to enhanced immune activation and convergence of the microbiota in all isolator-reared animals. This correlated with elevation of Type I IFN pathways in both groups, although T cell pathways were still more affected in indoor-reared animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Environmental factors, in particular microbial exposure, influence expression of a large number of immune-related genes. However, the homeostatic effects of

  4. Paths to selection on life history loci in different natural environments across the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Wilczek, Amity M; Cooper, Martha D; Roe, Judith L; Anderson, Jillian; Eaton, Deren; Moyers, Brook T; Petipas, Renee H; Schaeffer, Robert N; Pieper, Bjorn; Reymond, Matthieu; Koornneef, Maarten; Welch, Stephen M; Remington, David L; Schmitt, Johanna

    2013-07-01

    Selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) may vary among natural environments due to differences in the genetic architecture of traits, environment-specific allelic effects or changes in the direction and magnitude of selection on specific traits. To dissect the environmental differences in selection on life history QTL across climatic regions, we grew a panel of interconnected recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Arabidopsis thaliana in four field sites across its native European range. For each environment, we mapped QTL for growth, reproductive timing and development. Several QTL were pleiotropic across environments, three colocalizing with known functional polymorphisms in flowering time genes (CRY2, FRI and MAF2-5), but major QTL differed across field sites, showing conditional neutrality. We used structural equation models to trace selection paths from QTL to lifetime fitness in each environment. Only three QTL directly affected fruit number, measuring fitness. Most QTL had an indirect effect on fitness through their effect on bolting time or leaf length. Influence of life history traits on fitness differed dramatically across sites, resulting in different patterns of selection on reproductive timing and underlying QTL. In two oceanic field sites with high prereproductive mortality, QTL alleles contributing to early reproduction resulted in greater fruit production, conferring selective advantage, whereas alleles contributing to later reproduction resulted in larger size and higher fitness in a continental site. This demonstrates how environmental variation leads to change in both QTL effect sizes and direction of selection on traits, justifying the persistence of allelic polymorphism at life history QTL across the species range. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects of Peer Deviance, Parental Knowledge and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Megan E; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latvala, Antti; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to address two methodological issues that have called into question whether previously reported gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects for adolescent alcohol use are 'real'. These issues are (1) the potential correlation between the environmental moderator and the outcome across twins and (2) non-linear transformations of the behavioral outcome. Three environments that have been previously studied (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events) were examined here. For each moderator (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events), a series of models was fit to both a raw and transformed measure of monthly adolescent alcohol use in a sample that included 825 dizygotic (DZ) and 803 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The results showed that the moderating effect of peer deviance was robust to transformation, and that although the significance of moderating effects of parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events were dependent on the scale of the adolescent alcohol use outcome, the overall results were consistent across transformation. In addition, the findings did not vary across statistical models. The consistency of the peer deviance results and the shift of the parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events results between trending and significant, shed some light on why previous findings for certain moderators have been inconsistent and emphasize the importance of considering both methodological issues and previous findings when conducting and interpreting GxE analyses.

  6. The construction of work–life balance: The experience of Black employees in a call-centre environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C.B. Potgieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work–life balance, as a crucial aspect of employee and organisational wellness, remains an interesting field of research, especially due to the changing demographic employee profile.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore Black employees’ construction of work–life balance in a customer care environment.Motivation for the study: The conceptual debate regarding the construct of work–life balance in general as well as limited qualitative research with regard to Black employees’ experience of work–life balance in a South African context motivated the study.Research design, approach and method: This qualitative study was designed from an interpretivist perspective. Ten employees, selected through purposeful sampling, participated in the study. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews and grounded theory was applied during data analysis.Main findings: The grounded theory analysis of the data yielded six themes central to participants’ construction of work–life balance. The findings suggest that work–life balance is conceptualised as a continuous, subjective and holistic valuation of satisfaction derived from multiple roles in relation to the importance to the individual at a given point in time.Practical/managerial implications: Findings provide valuable managerial information to guide suitable strategies enhancing the work–life balance experience and by implication employees’ general wellbeing, job satisfaction and commitment.Contributions/value-add: This study contributes to the evolving body of knowledge with regard to work–life balance and provides a unique context-specific perspective to the conceptual understanding of the construct.

  7. The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I

    2016-08-01

    An annual life cycle is characterized by growth, maturity, and reproduction condensed into a single, short season favourable to development, with production of embryos (seeds, cysts, or eggs) capable of surviving harsh conditions which juveniles or adults cannot tolerate. More typically associated with plants in desert environments, or temperate-zone insects exposed to freezing winters, the evolution of an annual life cycle in vertebrates is fairly novel. Killifish, small sexually dimorphic fishes in the Order Cyprinodontiformes, have adapted to seasonally ephemeral water bodies across much of Africa and South America through the independent evolution of an annual life history. These annual killifish produce hardy desiccation-resistant eggs that undergo diapause (developmental arrest) and remain buried in the soil for long periods when fish have perished due to the drying of their habitat. Killifish are found in aquatic habitats that span a continuum from permanent and stable to seasonal and variable, thus providing a useful system in which to piece together the evolutionary history of this life cycle using natural comparative variation. I first review adaptations for life in ephemeral aquatic environments in killifish, with particular emphasis on the evolution of embryonic diapause. I then bring together available evidence from a variety of approaches and provide a scenario for how this annual life cycle evolved. There are a number of features within Aplocheiloidei killifish including their inhabitation of marginal or edge aquatic habitat, their small size and rapid attainment of maturity, and egg properties that make them particularly well suited to the colonization of ephemeral waters. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Extreme Environment Damage Index and Accumulation Model for CMC Laminate Fatigue Life Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Materials Research & Design (MR&D) is proposing in the SBIR Phase II an effort to develop a tool for predicting the fatigue life of C/SiC composite...

  9. Life cycle cost optimization of buildings with regard to energy use, thermal indoor environment and daylight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Buildings represent a large economical investment and have long service lives through which expenses for heating, cooling, maintenance and replacement depends on the chosen building design. Therefore, the building cost should not only be evaluated by the initial investment cost but rather...... by the life cycle cost taking all expenses in the buildings service life into consideration. Also the performance of buildings is important as the performance influences the comfort of the occupants, heating demand etc. Different performance requirements are stated in building codes, standards...... and by the customer. The influence of different design variables on life cycle cost and building performance is very complicated and the design variables can be combined in an almost unlimited number of ways. Optimization can be applied to achieve a building design with low life cycle cost and good performance...

  10. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: Influence of stress and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandra, A.; Ryu, J.J.; Karra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy...... views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given...... mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient...

  11. The Role of the Early-Life Environment in the Development of Allergic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2014-01-01

    A consensus has been reached that the development of incident allergic disorders are likely strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, Vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Despite a large proportion of the studi...

  12. Urban Natural Environments, Obesity, and Health-Related Quality of Life among Hispanic Children Living in Inner-City Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Sohn, Wonmin

    2016-01-01

    Although a substantial body of literature has provided evidence supporting the positive effects of natural environments on well-being, little has been known about the specific spatial patterns of urban nature in promoting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children. This study assessed the association that the urban natural environment measured by landscape spatial patterns may have with obesity and HRQOL among Hispanic children. Ninety-two 4th and 5th grade students were recruited from Houston, Texas, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was used to capture the children’s HRQOL. The quality of urban natural environments was assessed by quantifying the landscape spatial patterns, using landscape indices generated by Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. From the bivariate analyses, children’s body mass index showed a significantly negative association with their HRQOL. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, the results revealed that larger and more tree areas were positively correlated with children’s HRQOL. In addition, those children living in areas with tree patches further apart from each other showed higher HRQOL. This research adds to the current multi-disciplinary area of research on environment-health relationships by investigating the roles of urban greeneries and linking their spatial structures with children’s HRQOL. PMID:26771623

  13. Urban Natural Environments, Obesity, and Health-Related Quality of Life among Hispanic Children Living in Inner-City Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Sohn, Wonmin

    2016-01-12

    Although a substantial body of literature has provided evidence supporting the positive effects of natural environments on well-being, little has been known about the specific spatial patterns of urban nature in promoting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children. This study assessed the association that the urban natural environment measured by landscape spatial patterns may have with obesity and HRQOL among Hispanic children. Ninety-two 4th and 5th grade students were recruited from Houston, Texas, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was used to capture the children's HRQOL. The quality of urban natural environments was assessed by quantifying the landscape spatial patterns, using landscape indices generated by Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. From the bivariate analyses, children's body mass index showed a significantly negative association with their HRQOL. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, the results revealed that larger and more tree areas were positively correlated with children's HRQOL. In addition, those children living in areas with tree patches further apart from each other showed higher HRQOL. This research adds to the current multi-disciplinary area of research on environment-health relationships by investigating the roles of urban greeneries and linking their spatial structures with children's HRQOL.

  14. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  15. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    the ant gut without being digested, and are excreted by the ants in their fecal fluid which they mix with freshly foraged plant material placed on the top of the fungus garden. The enzymes are still active and have therefore an important role in the biodegradation of the plant material. With this I show...... that forage on crude substrates such as insect frass and dry plant material, to large colonies of the leaf-cutting ants with several thousands to several million workers that provide live plant material to their fungus gardens. Leaf-cutting ants are the dominant herbivores of the Neo-tropics, and have a major......-cutting ant genera forage for rather different plant material, with Atta species specializing on tree-leaves and Acromyrmex focusing more on flower material and herbal plant material. This difference is reflected in the overall enzyme activity patterns in the fungus gardens, with Atta specializing more...

  16. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  17. Microbial Diversity in Surface Iron-Rich Aqueous Environments: Implications for Seeking Signs of Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The success of selecting future landing sites on Mars to discover extinct and/or extant extraterrestrial life is dependent on the correct approximation of available knowledge about terrestrial paleogeochemistry and life evolution to Martian (paleo) geology and geochemistry. It is well known that both Earth and Mars are Fe rich. This widespread occurrence suggests that Fe may have played a key role in early life forms, where it probably served as a key constituent in early prosthetic moieties in many proteins of ancient microbes on Earth and likely Mars. The second critical idea is the premise that Life on Mars could most likely have developed when Mars experienced tectonic activity [1] which dramatically decreased around 1 bin years after Martian creation. After that Martian life could have gone extinct or hibernated in the deep subsurface, which would be expensive to reach in contrast to the successful work of Martian surface rovers. Here we analyze the diversity of microbes in several terrestrial Fe rich surface environments in conjunction with the phylogeny and molecular timing of emergence of those microbes on Earth. Anticipated results should help evaluate future landing sites on Mars in searches for biosignatures.

  18. A depth video sensor-based life-logging human activity recognition system for elderly care in smart indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-07-02

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital.

  19. Habitats for life in the Venusian Environment? Can the VENUS EXPRESS payload answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Venusian conditions are unique in the solar system. Venus abounds in molecules which could feed a life form except that the usual missing factor, energy, is present in excessive amounts from both active geothermic phenomena and from the nearby solar radiation trapped in a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Its surface conditions are hotter than the best practiced in hospital sterilisation; volcanism injects highly toxic gases which in the absence of water can accumulate in the atmosphere. Its upper atmosphere lays bare to solar radiation with only carbon dioxide to act as a confirmed EUV filter, so any consideration of life might seem excessive compared to what was known from life on earth before extremophile bacterias were discovered in dark undersea high temperature sulphur rich volcanic vents. However, some regions of the atmosphere might show conditions similar to the earth surface and could be a habitat of earth like microbial life. A synergy between the different atmospheric instruments of the VENUS-Express payload: SPICAM, VIRTIS and PFS can provide the way to probe the actual environmental conditions of this region and to check its capabilities of preserving an extant life or providing nutrients to a new one.

  20. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Shahabpoor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the ‘accuracy’ and ‘practicality’ of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1 methods based on measured kinematic data; (2 methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3 methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1 reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2 improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3 minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4 increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5 enhancing the robustness and

  1. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar

    2017-09-12

    Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the 'accuracy' and 'practicality' of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1) methods based on measured kinematic data; (2) methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3) methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1) reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2) improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3) minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4) increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5) enhancing the robustness and versatility of the

  2. Developed Fungal-Bacterial Biofilms as A Novel Tool for Bioremoval of Hexavelant Chromium from Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herath, Lasantha; Rajapaksha, R. M. A. U.; Vithanage, M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation measures for hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] are required for a safe environment. As a recent development in microbiology, bacterial biofilms are being studied as effective bioremediation agents. When bacteria are in fungal surface-attached biofilm mode, they are called fungal-bacterial ......Remediation measures for hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] are required for a safe environment. As a recent development in microbiology, bacterial biofilms are being studied as effective bioremediation agents. When bacteria are in fungal surface-attached biofilm mode, they are called fungal...

  3. Fungal phylogenetic diversity in estuarine sediments of Gautami Godavari River, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandavilli, R.; Meena, R.; Shenoy, B.D.

    for the survival of several species of flora and fauna, which are native to this environment (Krishnamurthy et al. 1987). Mangroves provide a supportive environment for several practices such as fish farming etc. Fungal biodiversity, especially in dynamic...

  4. Detection of Extant Life in Extreme Environmentsby Phosphatase ActivitiesDetection of Extant Life in Extreme Environments by Measuring Phosphatase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Sato, Shuji; Naganawa, Kazuki; Itoh, Yuki; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Yukishige

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a candidate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica soils, and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002, and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems, the Pacific Ocean in 2003, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline (or acid) Phosphatase activity in solid samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0 (or pH 6.5)) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC and GC/MS. Significant enzymatic activities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. The ALP activity was diminished with EDTA and was recovered with addition of zinc ion. The present results showed that zinc-containing metalloenzymes are present in such environments as hydrothermal vent chimneys and Antarctica soils. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase

  5. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency....

  6. The role of the early-life environment in the development of allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-02-01

    A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical interventions for fungal keratitis.

    OpenAIRE

    FlorCruz, NV; Evans, JR

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea. It is common in lower income countries, particularly in agricultural areas but relatively uncommon in higher income countries. Although there are medications available, their effectiveness is unclear. To assess the effects of different antifungal drugs in the management of fungal keratitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Othe...

  8. Laser Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): In Situ Non-Destructive Detection of Microbial Life on Supraglacial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, B.; Tilg, M.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Remias, D.; Psenner, R.

    2012-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) is an in situ laser scanning technique to detect photoautotrophic pigments such as phycoerythrin of an ice ecosystem such as supraglacial environments without contamination. The sensitivity of many psychrophiles to even moderate changes in temperature, and the logistical difficulties associated with either in situ analysis or sampling makes it difficult to study microbial metabolism in ice ecosystems in a high resolution. Surface communities of cold ecosystems are highly autotrophic and therefor ideal systems for L.I.F.E examinations. 532nm green lasers excite photopigments in cyanobacteria and produce multiple fluorescence signatures between 550nm and 750nm including carotenoids, phycobiliproteins which would enable a non-invasive in-situ measurement. The sensitivity of many psychrophiles to even moderate changes in temperature, and the logistical difficulties associated with either in situ analysis or sampling makes it difficult to study these cryosphere ecosystems. In general, the ice habitat has to be disrupted using techniques that usually include coring, sawing, and melting. Samples are also often chosen blindly, with little indication of probable biomass. The need for an in situ non-invasive, non-destructive technique to detect, localize, and sample cryosphere biomass in the field is therefore of considerable importance. L.I.F.E has already been tested in remote ecosystems like Antarctica (Lake Untersee, Lake Fryxell), supraglacial environments in the Kongsfjord region in the High Arctic and High Alpine glaciers but until now no calibration was set to convert the L.I.F.E. signal into pigment concentration. Here we describe the standardization for detection of Phycobiliproteins (Phycoerythrine) which are found in red algae, cyanobacteria, and cryptomonads. Similar methods are already used for detection of phytoplankton in liquid systems like oceans and lakes by NASÁs Airborne Oceanographic LIDAR since 1979. The

  9. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  10. Environment-physiology, diet quality and energy balance: the influence of early life nutrition on future energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A

    2014-07-01

    Diseases caused by impaired regulation of energy balance, in particular obesity, represent a major global health burden. Although polymorphisms, lifestyle and dietary choices have been associated with differential risk of obesity and related conditions, a substantial proportion of the variation in disease risk remains unexplained. Evidence from epidemiological studies, natural experiments and from studies in animal models has shown that a poor intra-uterine environment is associated causally with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in adulthood. Induction of phenotypes that increase disease risk involves the fetus receiving cues from the mother about the environment which, via developmental plasticity, modify the phenotype of the offspring to match her environment. However, inaccurate information may induce an offspring phenotype that is mismatched to the future environment. Such mismatch has been suggested to underlie increased risk of metabolic disease associated with a poor early life environment. Recent studies have shown that induction of modified phenotypes in the offspring involves altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Identification of a central role of epigenetics in the aetiology of obesity and metabolic disease may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic interventions and of biomarkers of disease risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical interventions for fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FlorCruz, Nilo Vincent; Evans, Jennifer R

    2015-04-09

    Fungal keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea. It is common in lower income countries, particularly in agricultural areas but relatively uncommon in higher income countries. Although there are medications available, their effectiveness is unclear. To assess the effects of different antifungal drugs in the management of fungal keratitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to March 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 16 March 2015. We included randomised controlled trials of medical therapy for fungal keratitis. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion in the review, assessed trials for risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was clinical cure at two to three months. Secondary outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity, time to clinical cure, compliance with treatment, adverse outcomes and quality of life. We included 12 trials in this review; 10 trials were conducted in India, one in Bangladesh and one in Egypt. Seven of these trials were at high risk of bias in one or more domains, two of these studies were at low risk of bias in all domains. Participants were randomised to the following comparisons: topical 5% natamycin compared to topical 1% voriconazole; topical 5% natamycin compared to topical 2% econazole; topical 5% natamycin compared to topical chlorhexidine gluconate (0

  12. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stanley

    Full Text Available During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  13. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Deyoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  14. Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment is a crucial step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars and biofuels. Compared to thermal/chemical pretreatment, fungal pretreatment reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass by lignin-degrading microorganisms and thus potentially provides an environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient pretreatment technology for biofuel production. This paper provides an overview of the current state of fungal pretreatment by white rot fungi for biofuel production. The specific topics discussed are: 1) enzymes involved in biodegradation during the fungal pretreatment; 2) operating parameters governing performance of the fungal pretreatment; 3) the effect of fungal pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production; 4) efforts for improving enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production through combinations of fungal pretreatment and physical/chemical pretreatment; 5) the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with lignin-degrading enzymes isolated from fungal pretreatment, with a comparison to fungal pretreatment; 6) modeling, reactor design, and scale-up of solid state fungal pretreatment; and 7) the limitations and future perspective of this technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Professional Quality of Life of Veterans Affairs Staff and Providers in a Patient-Centered Care Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; LaVela, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Changes to the work environment prompted by the movement toward patient-centered care have the potential to improve occupational stress among health care workers by improving team-based work activities, collaboration, and employee-driven quality improvement. This study was conducted to examine professional quality of life among providers at patient-centered care pilot facilities. Surveys were conducted with 76 Veterans Affairs employees/providers at facilities piloting patient-centered care interventions, to assess demographics, workplace practices and views (team-based environment, employee voice, quality of communication, and turnover intention), and professional quality of life (compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress).Professional quality-of-life subscales were not related to employee position type, age, or gender. Employee voice measures were related to lower burnout and higher compassion satisfaction. In addition, employees who were considering leaving their position showed higher burnout and lower compassion satisfaction scores. None of the work practices showed relationships with secondary traumatic stress.

  16. A decision-making framework for effective maintenance management using life cycle costing (LCC in a rolling stock environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie, Cornelius Jacobus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a life cycle costing (LCC framework for effective maintenance management is investigated and developed for use in a railway rolling stock environment. The framework consists of combining typical mission-critical components together with their failure and maintenance history. All costs related to the operation and maintenance of these components throughout their life cycle are also determined. The next step involves considering different scenarios under which the components can be used in relation to operations, maintenance, and replacements. The decision about which scenario to take is based on the one with the most favourable net present value after life cycle costing is performed over a specified period of time. A typical railway rolling-stock maintenance organisation in South Africa was used to highlight the practical implications of such a framework and how the company could make informed and appropriate decisions. The conclusion of this study is that such a framework is useful, and that it can be used as a basis for estimating LCC across a spectrum of critical assets found in the rolling stock environment.

  17. In an Unpredictable and Changing Environment: Intrapreneurial Self-Capital As a Key Resource for Life Satisfaction and Flourishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Di Fabio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The twenty-first century is characterized by an unpredictable and challenging work environment, and the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital (ISC career and life construct can be seen as a core of individual intrapreneurial resources that enables people to cope with ongoing challenges, changes, and transitions founding innovative solutions when confronted with the constraints imposed by such an environment. The ISC is a challenging construct since it can enhance behavior and attitudes through specific training, unlike personality traits, which are considered substantially stable in the literature. Against this background, the present study examined the relationship between ISC and well-being (hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being controlling for the effects of personality traits. The Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISCS, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, and the Flourishing Scale (FS were administered to 258 Italian workers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that ISC explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond that explained by personality traits in relation to both life satisfaction and flourishing. These results indicate that ISC is a key resource for hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being and that it offers new research and intervention opportunities.

  18. Life history flexibility allows Sargassum polyceratium to persist in different environments subjected to stochastic disturbance events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, AH; Breeman, AM; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Aberg, P

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic, stage-based matrix models were used to investigate the life history strategy of the seaweed Sargassum polyceratium in shallow intertidal and deep-water (18 m) populations. Matrix models were parameterized with 3 years of yearly transitions among four plant stages quantified from three

  19. Parental Perspectives of the Quality of Life in School Environments for Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Bethany Jackson; Renwick, Rebecca; Fudge Schormans, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Findings reported here are from a secondary analysis of in-home, semistructured interviews with a subsample of 9 participants from a larger study examining the perspectives of parents of children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) concerning what contributes to and detracts from their children's quality of life at school. Audiotaped interview data used…

  20. Making Public the Private Life of Plants: The Contribution of Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn L.

    2007-01-01

    Plants are essential to life on Earth and yet are often deemed invisible by the human populace. Botanic gardens are an under-researched educational context and, as such, have occupied a peripheral arena in biology education discussions. This article seeks to readdress this absence and present the case for a more sustained use of informal learning…

  1. The first 1000 days and beyond : From early life environment to epigenetics and childhood overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küpers, Leanne Karen

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days of life (from conception to two years of age) are highlighted in this thesis as a crucial period for the prevention of overweight. This PhD thesis showed that a healthy respectively unhealthy lifestyle of mothers during pregnancy could change the DNA methylation of their children

  2. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  3. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  4. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  5. It's Not Easy Being Green: Bringing Real Life to the Undergraduate Legal Environment of Business Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Tanya M.; Perry, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Legal Environment of Business course in a traditional undergraduate business curriculum, students are expected to acquire knowledge about many areas of the law and the application of law to business, society, and the international marketplace. Current concepts in undergraduate business education, such as ethics and sustainability, must also…

  6. Life-long optimization of the symbolic model of indoor environments for a mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Cipriano; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio; González, Javier; Saffiotti, Alessandro; Buschka, Pär

    2007-10-01

    The use of a symbolic model of the spatial environment becomes crucial for a mobile robot that is intended to operate optimally and intelligently in indoor scenarios. Constructing such a model involves important problems that are not solved completely at present. One is called anchoring, which implies to maintain a correct dynamic correspondence between the real world and the symbols in the model. The other problem is adaptation: among the numerous possible models that could be constructed for representing a given environment, optimization involves the selection of one that improves as much as possible the operations of the robot. To cope with both problems, in this paper, we propose a framework that allows an indoor mobile robot to learn automatically a symbolic model of its environment and to optimize it over time with respect to changes in both the environment and the robot operational needs through an evolutionary algorithm. For coping efficiently with the large amounts of information that the real world provides, we use abstraction, which also helps in improving task planning. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is suitable for providing an indoor mobile robot with a good symbolic model and adaptation capabilities.

  7. Gene-environment interactions in early life and adulthood : implications for cocaine intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Rixt van der

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to demonstrate the role of gene-environment interactions in the emergence of individual differences in cocaine use. For this purpose we used two inbred mouse strains, the C57Bl/6 (C57) and DBA/2 (DBA), which are known to differ in

  8. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  9. Fourier transform infrared spectral detection of life in polar subsurface environments and its application to Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Louisa J; Johnson, Diane; Cockell, Charles S; Grady, Monica M

    2015-09-01

    Cryptoendolithic lichen communities of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, survive in an extremely inhospitable environment, finding refuge in microscopic niches where conditions suitable for life exist. Such "within-rock" communities may have evolved on Mars when conditions for life on the surface deteriorated to such an extent that they could no longer survive. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of unprepared whole-rock Antarctic Beacon sandstones was used to vertically profile molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, and carboxylic acids created by endolithic communities. Spectral biosignatures were found localized to lichen-rich areas and were absent in crustal regions and the bulk rock substrate. These cryptoendolithic profiles will aid similar spectroscopic investigations of organic biosignatures during future Martian subsurface studies and will help in the identification of similar communities in other localities across the Earth.

  10. Animal-Assisted Therapies and Dementia: A Systematic Mapping Review Using the Lived Environment Life Quality (LELQ) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Fields, Beth; Rose, Michelle; McLure, Merinda

    The authors mapped the literature on animal-assisted therapies (AATs) and institutionalized adults with dementia onto the Lived Environment Life Quality (LELQ) Model as a guide for future services and research. Refereed literature addressing AATs and institutionalized people with dementia was comprehensively gathered, described, categorized, and synthesized in this systematic mapping review. From 1,342 screened records, the authors included 10 research articles that incorporated dogs in therapy for institutionalized adults with dementia. These canine-assisted therapies offered occupational opportunities and environmental supports conducive to experiences of relative well-being, occupational engagement, and optimal functioning. The findings offer proof of the concept that canine-assisted therapies are feasible and can elicit positive quality-of-life experiences in institutionalized people with dementia. Researchers and practitioners need to elucidate the theoretical foundations of AATs. The LELQ Model may serve as a guide for client-centered, occupation-focused, and ecologically valid approaches to animal-assisted occupational therapy.

  11. Transgenerational latent early-life associated regulation unites environment and genetics across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Bayon, Baindu L; Chopra, Nipun; White, Fletcher A; Greig, Nigel H; Nurnberger, John I

    2016-03-01

    The origin of idiopathic diseases is still poorly understood. The latent early-life associated regulation (LEARn) model unites environmental exposures and gene expression while providing a mechanistic underpinning for later-occurring disorders. We propose that this process can occur across generations via transgenerational LEARn (tLEARn). In tLEARn, each person is a 'unit' accumulating preclinical or subclinical 'hits' as in the original LEARn model. These changes can then be epigenomically passed along to offspring. Transgenerational accumulation of 'hits' determines a sporadic disease state. Few significant transgenerational hits would accompany conception or gestation of most people, but these may suffice to 'prime' someone to respond to later-life hits. Hits need not produce symptoms or microphenotypes to have a transgenerational effect. Testing tLEARn requires longitudinal approaches. A recently proposed longitudinal epigenome/envirome-wide association study would unite genetic sequence, epigenomic markers, environmental exposures, patient personal history taken at multiple time points and family history.

  12. Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment. A systems approach to Nanotechnology and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöpffer, Walter; Curran, Mary Ann; Frankl, Paolo

    This report summarizes the results of “Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment,” a twoday workshop jointly convened by the Woodrow Wilson Center Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development; and the European Commission......, RTD.G4 “Nano S&T: Converging Science and Technologies.” Held in October 2006, the workshop involved international experts from the fields of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and nanotechnology. The main program of the workshop consisted of introductory lectures, group discussions and a final plenary...... identified and discussed by the groups. The purpose of the workshop was to determine whether existing LCA tools and methods are adequate to use on a new technology. This document provides an overview of LCA and nanotechnology, discusses the current state of the art, identifies current knowledge gaps that may...

  13. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Its Potential as a Life-Sustaining Solvent in a Planetary Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljko Budisa; Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluids have different properties compared to regular fluids and could play a role as life-sustaining solvents on other worlds. Even on Earth, some bacterial species have been shown to be tolerant to supercritical fluids. The special properties of supercritical fluids, which include various types of selectivities (e.g., stereo-, regio-, and chemo-selectivity) have recently been recognized in biotechnology and used to catalyze reactions that do not occur in water. One suitable exa...

  14. Teenager at the life crossroads: socialization, analysis of the factors of developmental environment change

    OpenAIRE

    K.D. Hlomov

    2014-01-01

    Compared with their forerunners, the modern teenagers experience adolescence and solve age problems in different way, and face other social risks. The representations of situations of social and psychological adjustment and maladjustment also differ in some aspects. The article discusses the factors which influence the adolescence in modern conditions: spread of the Internet, lack of public demand for a certain desired life trajectory of a growing teenager, high social tension and uncertainty...

  15. Biodiesel production in a semiarid environment: a life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Wahidul K; Barton, Louise; Carter, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    While the use of biodiesel appears to be a promising alternative to petroleum fuel, the replacement of fossil fuel by biofuel may not bring about the intended climate cooling because of the increased soil N2O emissions due to N-fertilizer applications. Using a life cycle assessment approach, we assessed the influence of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions on the life cycle global warming potential of the production and combustion of biodiesel from canola oil produced in a semiarid climate. Utilizing locally measured soil N2O emissions, rather than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default values, decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production and combustion of 1 GJ biodiesel from 63 to 37 carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e)/GJ. GHG were 1.1 to 2.1 times lower than those from petroleum or petroleum-based diesel depending on which soil N2O emission factors were included in the analysis. The advantages of utilizing biodiesel rapidly declined when blended with petroleum diesel. Mitigation strategies that decrease emissions from the production and application of N fertilizers may further decrease the life cycle GHG emissions in the production and combustion of biodiesel.

  16. Evaluation of fungal air contamination in selected wards of two tertiary hospitals in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kamali Sarwestani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the frequency and diversity of fungal spores in hospital wards were different. In addition, since the fungal contamination in the hospital environment are affected by various environmental factors and the efficiency of ventilation systems, some of these wards require better ventilation system as well as regular monitoring to remove these fungal bioaerosols in order to maintain the health of patients and health care workers.

  17. Adverse early life environment increases hippocampal microglia abundance in conjunction with decreased neural stem cells in juvenile mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Susan; Ke, Xingrao; Liu, Qiuli; Fu, Qi; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP. These increases in microglia cell count and TLR-9 expression would be associated with decrease neural stem cell count and neuronal cell count. We developed a mouse model of AELE combining Western diet and a stress environment. Stress environment consisted of random change from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 as well as static change in maternal environment from E13 to postnatal day 21(P21). At P21, we measured hippocampal cell numbers of microglia, neural stem cell and neuron, as well as hippocampal TLR-9 expression. AELE significantly increased total microglia number and TLR-9 expression in the hippocampus. Concurrently, AELE significantly decreased neural stem cell and neuronal numbers. AELE increased the neuro-inflammatory cellular response in the juvenile HP. We speculate that increased neuro-inflammatory responses may contribute to impaired neurogenesis seen in this model. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2015-09-01

    Both the provision of orthopaedic equipment and adjustment of the home to disability are insufficient with respect to the needs. The meeting of these needs is significantly conditioned by high or very high material standard. The lack or incomplete satisfaction with the needs for rehabilitation equipment is associated with a relatively younger age, independent, single residence and low material standard. Living in an residential home means better adjustment of the living environment, and better provision with orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment.

  19. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  20. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  1. Assessment of environment impacts of egg production chain using life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Atena; Ahmadi, Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have to deal with the assessment of environment impacts of laying hen in the Alborz province, Iran. This assessment was carried out for one kg of egg during a period of 420 days for 1000 chickens. Then due to significant consumption of diet during period of question, three main products including corn, soybean and wheat which are consist of 80 percent of the combination of laying chicken diet, also collected the information about their production and it has been evaluated the indicators of their environment individually and eventually, the results has been considered as a title for inputs of poultry. Data for production of inputs were taken from EcoInvent 2.0 database, and SimaPro software was used for analysis. Ten classification impacts including Abiotic Depletion potential, Acidification potential, Eutrophication potential, Global Warming potential for time horizon 100 years, Ozone Depletion potential, Human Toxicity potential, Freshwater and Marine Aquatic Eco-toxicity potential, Terrestrial Eco-toxicity potential, and Photochemical Oxidation potential were selected based on the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method. Due to the results, for each kilograms of egg, 30/09 MJ and also the value of greenhouse gas emissions is 4/07 Kg CO 2 eq was calculated. According to the obtained results, the production of diet has made the most negative charge of environment among the inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout for Wind Turbine Grouted Connection in Wet or Dry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Westhof, Luc; Yde, Elo

    Grouted connections of monopile supported offshore wind turbine structures are subjected to loads leading to very high oscillating service stresses in the grout material. The fatigue capacity of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens...... at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series: one with the specimens in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when...... tested in water than when tested in air....

  3. Fungal peroxisomes as biosynthetic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Thorsten; Sandrock, Björn; Ast, Julia; Freitag, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Peroxisomes are nearly ubiquitous single-membrane organelles harboring multiple metabolic pathways beside their prominent role in the β-oxidation of fatty acids. Here we review the diverse metabolic functions of peroxisomes in fungi. A variety of fungal metabolites are at least partially synthesized inside peroxisomes. These include the essential co-factor biotin but also different types of secondary metabolites. Peroxisomal metabolites are often derived from acyl-CoA esters for example β-oxidation intermediates. In several ascomycetes a subtype of peroxisomes has been identified that is metabolically inactive but is required to plug the septal pores of wounded hyphae. Thus, peroxisomes are versatile organelles that can adapt their function to the life style of an organism. This remarkable variability suggests that the full extent of the biosynthetic capacity of peroxisomes is still elusive. Moreover, in fungi peroxisomes are non-essential under laboratory conditions making them attractive organelles for biotechnological approaches and the design of novel metabolic pathways in customized peroxisomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

  5. Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE): a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment method for resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Bösch, M E; De Meester, B; Van der Vorst, G; Van Langenhove, H; Hellweg, S; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the paper is to establish a comprehensive resource-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method which is scientifically sound and that enables to assess all kinds of resources that are deprived from the natural ecosystem, all quantified on one single scale, free of weighting factors. The method is based on the exergy concept. Consistent exergy data on fossils, nuclear and metal ores, minerals, air, water, land occupation, and renewable energy sources were elaborated, with well defined system boundaries. Based on these data, the method quantifies the exergy "taken away" from natural ecosystems, and is thus called the cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE). The acquired data set was coupled with a state-of-the art life cycle inventory database, ecoinvent. In this way, the method is able to quantitatively distinguish eight categories of resources withdrawn from the natural environment: renewable resources, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, metal ores, minerals, water resources, land resources, and atmospheric resources. Third, the CEENE method is illustrated for a number of products that are available in ecoinvent, and results are compared with common resource oriented LCIA methods. The application to the materials in the ecoinvent database showed that fossil resources and land use are of particular importance with regard to the total CEENE score, although the other resource categories may also be significant.

  6. Radon Gas-Hazardous Element for Human Life Really Found in the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rizo Maestre, Carlos; Chinchón Yepes, Servando

    2015-01-01

    Radon is a gas that is considered as an extremely harmful element to people’s health by the World Health Organization (WHO). Radon is a type of radioactive gaseous element that is present in almost all materials with which buildings are constructed, as well as in the areas in which they are raised. For this reason, one should take into consideration in what proportion is radon harmful and in what proportion it surrounds the human environment. In Spain, the CTE (Technical Building Code) does n...

  7. Stimulating grassroot creativity for quality of life and quality of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment on creativity development, a systematic endeavour aimed at empowering teachers and school principals through enhancement of their capacities to introduce and manage change at their schools. It focuses on enabling them to create learning processes and climates that stimulate creativity, especially creativity that enables students to self-help and to care for the environment. The experiment uses universities as 'beach-heads'. A group of university lecturers interested to join the program is functioning as trainer, consultant, motivator, network builder, partner, and facilitator for the teachers. The undertaking applies a multifaceted approach, involving the creation of a sense of urgency to change, restoring self-respect of the teachers. It also includes ways of starting the change from oneself, encouraging small but many practical meaningful activities, process oriented, recognizing efforts, collaborative network, cascading expansion, snowballing effects, self-selection and creating common ownership. This experiment had developed many self-organizing learning communities, inter-related and mutually benefiting in a national network for creativity. The teachers' involvement in creativity activities had brought changes in their attitudes toward students, their profession, environment, and toward change itself.

  8. Nurse Knowledge, Work Environment, and Turnover in Highly Specialized Pediatric End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Cozad, Melanie J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the relationship between nurse knowledge, work environment, and registered nurse (RN) turnover in perinatal hospice and palliative care organizations. Using nurse intellectual capital theory, a multivariate analysis was conducted with 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey data. Perinatal hospice and palliative care organizations experienced a 5% turnover rate. The professional experience of advanced practice nurses (APNs) was significantly related to turnover among RNs (β = -.032, P < .05). Compared to organizations with no APNs professional experience, clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners significantly reduced RN turnover by 3 percentage points. No other nurse knowledge or work environment variables were associated with RN turnover. Several of the control variables were also associated with RN turnover in the study; Organizations serving micropolitan (β = -.041, P < .05) and rural areas (β = -.037, P < .05) had lower RN turnover compared to urban areas. Organizations with a technology climate where nurses used electronic medical records had a higher turnover rate than those without (β = .036, P < .05). The findings revealed that advanced professional experience in the form of APNs was associated with reductions in RN turnover. This suggests that having a clinical nurse specialist or nurse practitioner on staff may provide knowledge and experience to other RNs, creating stability within the organization.

  9. Environment enhanced fatigue crack propagation in metals: Inputs to fracture mechanics life prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Kim, Sang-Shik

    1993-01-01

    This report is a critical review of both environment-enhanced fatigue crack propagation data and the predictive capabilities of crack growth rate models. This information provides the necessary foundation for incorporating environmental effects in NASA FLAGRO and will better enable predictions of aerospace component fatigue lives. The review presents extensive literature data on 'stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue.' The linear elastic fracture mechanics approach, based on stress intensity range (Delta(K)) similitude with microscopic crack propagation threshold and growth rates, provides a basis for these data. Results are presented showing enhanced growth rates for gases (viz., H2 and H2O) and electrolytes (e.g. NaCl and H2O) in aerospace alloys including: C-Mn and heat treated alloy steels, aluminum alloys, nickel-based superalloys, and titanium alloys. Environment causes purely time-dependent accelerated fatigue crack growth above the monotonic load cracking threshold (KIEAC) and promotes cycle-time dependent cracking below (KIEAC). These phenomenon are discussed in terms of hydrogen embrittlement, dissolution, and film rupture crack tip damage mechanisms.

  10. Fungal aquaporins: cellular functions and ecophysiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Dietz, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three aspects have to be taken into consideration when discussing cellular water and solute permeability of fungal cells: cell wall properties, membrane permeability, and transport through proteinaceous pores (the main focus of this review). Yet, characterized major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) can be grouped into three functional categories: (mainly) water transporting aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins that confer preferentially solute permeability (e.g., glycerol and ammonia), and bifunctional aquaglyceroporins that can facilitate efficient water and solute transfer. Two ancestor proteins, a water (orthodox aquaporin) and a solute facilitator (aquaglyceroporin), are supposed to give rise to today's MIPs. Based on primary sequences of fungal MIPs, orthodox aquaporins/X-intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and FPS1-like/Yfl054-like/other aquaglyceroporins are supposed to be respective sister groups. However, at least within the fungal kingdom, no easy functional conclusion can be drawn from the phylogenetic position of a given protein within the MIP pedigree. In consequence, ecophysiological prediction of MIP relevance is not feasible without detailed functional analysis of the respective protein and expression studies. To illuminate the diverse MIP implications in fungal lifestyle, our current knowledge about protein function in two organisms, baker's yeast and the Basidiomycotic Laccaria bicolor, an ectomycorrhizal model fungus, was exemplarily summarized in this review. MIP function has been investigated in such a depth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that a system-wide view is possible. Yeast lifestyle, however, is special in many circumstances. Therefore, L. bicolor as filamentous Basidiomycete was added and allows insight into a very different way of life. Special emphasis was laid in this review onto ecophysiological interpretation of MIP function.

  11. Assessment of the efficacy of second life, a virtual learning environment, in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tantawi, Maha M A; El Kashlan, Mona K; Saeed, Yasmin M

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of Second Life (SL) in delivering lectures and demonstrating clinical procedures. Sixteen students in a dental school in Alexandria, Egypt, volunteered to participate in SL to learn about topical fluoride through lectures and YouTube videos demonstrating the application of fluoride gel. This was followed by face to face (F2F) sessions about pits and fissures sealant including lectures and F2F demonstration. Knowledge improvement was assessed by pre- and posttests; practical skills were assessed by a checklist; and percent scores were calculated. The relation between these scores and some background variables was assessed. Students' satisfaction with and perceptions of SL were also assessed. Knowledge improved significantly after both SL and F2F experiences (pteaching, especially for underachieving students and in higher education institutions with problems of increasing numbers of students and limited space.

  12. Effect of Fe ion concentration on fatigue life of carbon steel in aqueous CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ......, fatigue samples experienced the same corrosion rate as samples that were not subjected to dynamic loading.......In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ex...... situ measurements of Fe2+ and pH. Characterisation of the corrosion scales and crack formations was performed using microscopic and diffraction techniques. Fatigue results showed two times better fatigue life, at the stress ranges of 250 MPa, for samples tested in solutions containing the concentration...

  13. Service life estimation of liquid silicone rubber seals in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Tong; Van Zee, J.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Lin, C.-W. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Chien, C.H. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Chao, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising power source for many applications such as automobiles. Sealing around the perimeter of the cell is required to prevent the gases/liquids inside the cell from leaking and polymers are usually used for the seal or gasket materials. They in general possess the viscoelastic property which induces stress relaxation of the material under constant strain. The stress relaxation behavior of liquid silicone rubber, a type of polymer used as seals in PEMFCs, is studied in this work. A Prony series is used to predict the compression stress relaxation curve at different strain levels. Applying the time-temperature superposition, master curves are generated and used for predicting the service life of this material as seals in PEMFCs. The estimated lives in water and in air are compared. (author)

  14. Service life estimation of liquid silicone rubber seals in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Lin, C.-W.; Chien, C. H.; Chao, Y. J.; Van Zee, J. W.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising power source for many applications such as automobiles. Sealing around the perimeter of the cell is required to prevent the gases/liquids inside the cell from leaking and polymers are usually used for the seal or gasket materials. They in general possess the viscoelastic property which induces stress relaxation of the material under constant strain. The stress relaxation behavior of liquid silicone rubber, a type of polymer used as seals in PEMFCs, is studied in this work. A Prony series is used to predict the compression stress relaxation curve at different strain levels. Applying the time-temperature superposition, master curves are generated and used for predicting the service life of this material as seals in PEMFCs. The estimated lives in water and in air are compared.

  15. Effect of Fe ion concentration on fatigue life of carbon steel in aqueous CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ex...... situ measurements of Fe2+ and pH. Characterisation of the corrosion scales and crack formations was performed using microscopic and diffraction techniques. Fatigue results showed two times better fatigue life, at the stress ranges of 250 MPa, for samples tested in solutions containing the concentration...... of Fe2+ marginally above the solubility limit of FeCO3 compared to the samples tested in highly supersaturated solution of Fe2+. Results revealed that the impact of the alternating stresses on the corrosion behaviour of samples reduces with lowering the applied stresses. At the stress range of 100 MPa...

  16. Migrant mothers in unstable environments balancing healthy life styles and parenting responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    Overweight is an increasing problem among children in the Western World. International research points to an overrepresentation among children in migrant families of non-western origin, and the importance of early interventions and focus on overweight toddlers. Key concepts are parenting style...... the notion of a universal, adequate parenting style and practice. The paper will address the overall question of how migrant mothers deal with health related concerns for their children, while living in precarious conditions. The following themes will be explored in the presentation: “Appropriate parenting...... and the promotion of healthy life styles. This paper is based on a qualitative study exploring parenting styles and everyday health practices in families with non-Western ethnic minority background. A grounded theory approach is adopted in the explorative study, which is based on observations and qualitative semi...

  17. Life style and home environment are associated with racial disparities of asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuexia, E-mail: ysun@engr.psu.edu [Texas Institute of Allergy, Indoor Environment and Energy (TxAIRE), University of Texas at Tyler, 3900 University Blvd, Tyler, Tx 75799 (United States); Architecture Engineering Department, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Engineering Unit A, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Sundell, Jan, E-mail: ja.sundell@gmail.com [Dept of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing City 100084 (China); The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing City 400030 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A high prevalence and racial disparities in asthma and allergy have been observed in American children. This study aimed to identify risk factors for asthma and allergy among children, and their contribution to racial disparities in allergy prevalence. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1-8 years in Northeast Texas 2008-2009. The health conditions, life style and home environment of 3766 children were surveyed by parental questionnaires through e.g. daycares, elementary school, and medical clinics. Among participants who indicated their ethnicity, 255 were Mexican-Americans, 178 Afro-Americans and 969 Caucasians. Afro-American children had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma and eczema. Caucasian had the highest prevalence of rhinitis. Compared to Mexican-American children, Afro-American and Caucasian children were breast fed shorter time, more often went to day care center, had pets and environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home more often. For all children, being at a day care center, being exposed to dampness and environmental tobacco smoke at home were strong risk factors for asthma and allergy. Central air conditioning system was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze among Mexican-American children, while pets were associated with an increased risk of rhinitis among Afro-American and Caucasian children. Caucasian children were generally not healthier than relatively poor Mexican-American children. Differences in the prevalence of asthma and allergy between races cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. Life style and home environmental exposures are important risk factors for asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children. - Highlights: {yields} This is a general population cross-sectional study in Northeast Texas. {yields} Racial disparity of allergy cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. {yields} Life style and home environment caused racial disparity of allergy in children

  18. A tale of two scales: Evaluating the relationship among life satisfaction, social capital, income, and the natural environment at individual and neighborhood levels in metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda W. Vemuri; J. Morgan Grove; Matthew A. Wilson; William R. Jr. Burch

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of cities worldwide, there is a need to better understand factors contributing to life satisfaction in urban environments. Using data from a long-term study of the Baltimore metropolitan region, we build on existing social scientific literature to examine a suite of theoretical factors that have been proposed to explain higher life satisfaction....

  19. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M-Dwarfs: Implications for Origins-of-Life Chemistry and Need for Experimental Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, S.; Wordsworth, R. D.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth. However, temperate M-dwarf planets are UV-poor environments. I discuss the implications for origin-of-life scenarios on M-dwarf planets.

  20. Fungal diseases of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L

    2003-05-01

    Aspergillosis and candidiasis are ranked among the most common infectious diseases in birds of prey. The prevention of these fungal diseases is often easier than treatment. Thus the clinician should strive to prevent infection by minimizing stress, maintaining a healthy environment, limiting long-term use of antibiotics and corticosteroids, and reducing exposure to fungal organisms. Although less commonly diagnosed among wild, free-ranging birds of prey, a high incidence in a free-ranging population should make the clinician think of an immunocompromising factor (i.e., toxins, human encroachment or low prey base) that may be contributing to infection. The diagnosis of aspergillosis and candidiasis often requires more than just the identification of the agent, as these ubiquitous organisms often are cultured from healthy birds of prey. In those birds of prey in which a fungal infection is highly suspected or proven, antifungal drugs remain the mainstay of treatment, although available drugs and modes of delivery have improved in recent years.

  1. The construction of work–life balance: The experience of Black employees in a call-centre environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia C.B. Potgieter; Antoni Barnard

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Work–life balance, as a crucial aspect of employee and organisational wellness, remains an interesting field of research, especially due to the changing demographic employee profile.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore Black employees’ construction of work–life balance in a customer care environment.Motivation for the study: The conceptual debate regarding the construct of work–life balance in general as well as limited qualitative research with regard to B...

  2. Is life-history buffering or lability adaptive in stochastic environments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David N.; Pavard, Samuel; Baudisch, Annette

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly thought that temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters should be selected against because of the deleterious impacts variation can have on fitness. A critical underpinning of this prediction is the assumption that changes in environmental conditions map linearly into changes...... in demographic parameters over time. We detail why this assumption may often break down and why selection should not always favor buffering of demographic parameters against environmental stochasticity. To the contrary, nonlinear relationships between the environment and demographic performance can produce...... asymmetric temporal variation in demographic parameters that actually enhances fitness. We extend this result to structured populations using simulation and show that 'demographic lability' rather than 'buffering' may be adaptive, particularly in organisms with low juvenile or adult survival. Finally, we...

  3. Antibiotics, gut microbiota, environment in early life and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjia; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota interact with innate immune cells and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Many factors may influence the composition of the microbiota such as mode of birth, diet, infections and medication including antibiotics. In diseases with a multifactorial etiology, like type 1 diabetes, manipulation and alterations of the microbiota in animal models have been shown to influence the incidence and onset of disease. The microbiota are an important part of the internal environment and understanding how these bacteria interact with the innate immune cells to generate immune tolerance may open up opportunities for development of new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss recent findings in relation to the microbiota, particularly in the context of type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting an equal and healthy environment: Swedish students' views of daily life at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Maria; Snyder, Kristen; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2013-10-01

    Education is an important factor in health equity, but many students still do not complete high school. A focus on the school context rather than on individual problems might help to create a supportive environment for health and learning. In this study we explored factors that promote health and learning from the perspective of vocational and low-achieving high school students in Sweden. We used grounded theory with a constructivist orientation, informed and sensitized by the concept of salutogenesis. Students from a school in a mid-sized municipality in Sweden participated, and we collected data using the photovoice method and interviews. Students identified general factors as significant to their well-being and success in school. The main theme, "promoting driving forces for health and learning," emerged from the categories "longing to be seen by teachers," "longing for support," and "longing for recuperation."

  5. Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in closed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waarde, J. J.; Team

    Environmental quality assurance and recycling of raw materials are essential elements in manned space craft missions. Indoor air quality plays an important role, since the limited amount of air in the space craft is continuously recycled. Both astronaut activities and materials and equipment onboard the space craft are sources of air contamination. A wide range of volatile organic contaminants has been observed in these closed environments, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic components. Most of these components are biodegradable but the concentrations are usually low (mg/m^3). A biological system to remove these components needs to meet several criteria: active at low concentrations; combined removal of a wide range of organic contaminants; removal to levels below the space maximum allowable concentration (SMAC); stable activity over long periods (months); small volume and low weight; no contact between bacteria and astronauts.

  6. Microplastics alter composition of fungal communities in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Marie Therese; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Labrenz, Matthias; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2017-08-14

    Despite increasing concerns about microplastic (MP) pollution in aquatic ecosystems, there is insufficient knowledge on how MP affect fungal communities. In this study, we explored the diversity and community composition of fungi attached to polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) particles incubated in different aquatic systems in north-east Germany: the Baltic Sea, the River Warnow and a wastewater treatment plant. Based on next generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing, 347 different operational taxonomic units assigned to 81 fungal taxa were identified on PE and PS. The MP-associated communities were distinct from fungal communities in the surrounding water and on the natural substrate wood. They also differed significantly among sampling locations, pointing towards a substrate and location specific fungal colonization. Members of Chytridiomycota, Cryptomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal assemblages, suggesting that both parasitic and saprophytic fungi thrive in MP biofilms. Thus, considering the worldwide increasing accumulation of plastic particles as well as the substantial vector potential of MP, especially these fungal taxa might benefit from MP pollution in the aquatic environment with yet unknown impacts on their worldwide distribution, as well as biodiversity and food web dynamics at large. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The potential for lithoautotrophic life on Mars: application to shallow interfacial water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Steven M; Priscu, John C; Grimm, Robert E; Bullock, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    We developed a numerical model to assess the lithoautotrophic habitability of Mars based on metabolic energy, nutrients, water availability, and temperature. Available metabolic energy and nutrient sources were based on a laboratory-produced Mars-analog inorganic chemistry. For this specific reference chemistry, the most efficient lithoautotrophic microorganisms would use Fe(2+) as a primary metabolic electron donor and NO(3)(-) or gaseous O(2) as a terminal electron acceptor. In a closed model system, biomass production was limited by the electron donor Fe(2+) and metabolically required P, and typically amounted to approximately 800 pg of dry biomass/ml ( approximately 8,500 cells/ml). Continued growth requires propagation of microbes to new fecund environments, delivery of fresh pore fluid, or continued reaction with the host material. Within the shallow cryosphere--where oxygen can be accessed by microbes and microbes can be accessed by exploration-lithoautotrophs can function within as little as three monolayers of interfacial water formed either by adsorption from the atmosphere or in regions of ice stability where temperatures are within some tens of degrees of the ice melting point. For the selected reference host material (shergottite analog) and associated inorganic fluid chemistry, complete local reaction of the host material potentially yields a time-integrated biomass of approximately 0.1 mg of dry biomass/g of host material ( approximately 10(9) cells/g). Biomass could also be sustained where solutes can be delivered by advection (cryosuction) or diffusion in interfacial water; however, both of these processes are relatively inefficient. Lithoautotrophs in near-surface thin films of water, therefore, would optimize their metabolism by deriving energy and nutrients locally. Although the selected chemistry and associated model output indicate that lithoautotrophic microbial biomass could accrue within shallow interfacial water on Mars, it is likely that

  8. Time-dependent bridging and life prediction of SiC/SiC in a hypothetical fusion environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Lewinsohn, C.A.; Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Growth of subcritical cracks in SiC/SiC composites of CG-Nicalon fibers with a {approximately}1 {mu}m C-interphase has been measured on a related Basic Energy Sciences program using environments of purified argon and mixtures of argon and oxygen at 1073K to 1373K. Companion thermo-gravimetric (TGA) testing measured mass loss in identical environments. The TGA mass loss was from C-interphase oxidation to CO and CO{sub 2}, which was undetectable in argon and linear with oxygen concentration in argon-oxygen mixtures, and was converted into an interphase linear recession rate. Crack growth in pure argon indicated that fiber creep was causing time-dependent crack bridging to occur, while crack growth in argon-oxygen mixtures indicated that time-dependent C-interphase recession was also causing time-dependent bridging with different kinetics. A model of time-dependent bridging was used to compute crack growth rates in argon and in argon-oxygen mixtures and gave an estimate of useable life of about 230 days at 1073K in a He + 1.01 Pa O{sub 2} (10 ppm) environment.

  9. Fungal transcriptomics from host samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eAmorim-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is however technically challenging due to the low proportion of fungal RNA in host tissues. Two emerging technologies were used recently to circumvent this problem. One consists of the detection of low abundance fungal RNA using capture and reporter gene probes which is followed by emission and quantification of resulting fluorescent signals (nanoString. The other is based first on the capture of fungal RNA by short biotinylated oligonucleotide baits covering the C. albicans ORFome permitting fungal RNA purification. Next, the enriched fungal RNA is amplified and subjected RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. Here we detail these two transcriptome approaches and discuss their advantages and limitations and future perspectives in microbial transcriptomics from host material.

  10. a preliminary study of soil fung study of soil fungal diversity of dye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. A wide variety of fungal species have environments due to their ability to degrad detecting the presence of fungal species ca also monitored their capability to decolo dilution and pour-plating methods. The contaminated soil samples collected from count (6.30×103cfu/g), followed by. (1.20×102cfu/g). Eight (8) ...

  11. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  12. Factors Affecting Study-Related Burnout among Finnish University Students: Teaching-Learning Environment, Achievement Motivation and the Meaning of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study of a large sample (n = 3035) examined relationships between study-related burnout and components of the teaching-learning environment, achievement motivation and the perceived meaning of life. The overall model, tested with structural equation modelling, revealed that the factor of the teaching-learning environment correlated with both…

  13. Life history diversity of Snake River finespotted cutthroat trout: managing for persistence in a rapidly changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Kristen M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, native trout have experienced dramatic population declines, particularly in larger river systems where habitats associated with different spawning life history forms have been lost through habitat degradation and fragmentation. The resulting decrease in life history diversity has affected the capacity of populations to respond to environmental variability and disturbance. Unfortunately, because few large rivers are intact enough to permit full expression of life history diversity, it is unclear what patterns of diversity should be a conservation target. In this study, radiotelemetry was used to identify spawning and migration patterns of Snake River Finespotted Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii behnkei in the upper Snake River. Individuals were implanted with radio tags in October 2007 and 2008, and monitored through October 2009. Radio-tagged cutthroat trout in the upper Snake River exhibited variation in spawning habitat type and location, migration distance, spawn timing, postspawning behavior, and susceptibility to mortality sources. Between May and July, Cutthroat Trout spawned in runoff-dominated tributaries, groundwater-dominated spring creeks, and side channels of the Snake River. Individuals migrated up to 101 km from tagging locations in the upper Snake River to access spawning habitats, indicating that the upper Snake River provided seasonal habitat for spawners originating throughout the watershed. Postspawning behavior also varied; by August each year, 28% of spring-creek spawners remained in their spawning location, compared with 0% of side-channel spawners and 7% of tributary spawners. These spawning and migration patterns reflect the connectivity, habitat diversity, and dynamic template of the Snake River. Ultimately, promoting life history diversity through restoration of complex habitats may provide the most opportunities for cutthroat trout persistence in an environment likely to experience increased variability from

  14. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    This study is concerned with the preparation of metal complex that has ability of extending the shelf life of bread. It will also determine whether the complexes act as fungi-static or fungi-toxic. The correlation between the individual molecule of the metal complexes and their fungal activity are also studied. EXPERIMENTAL.

  16. Transitions during cephalopod life history: the role of habitat, environment, functional morphology and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jean-Paul; Roberts, Michael; Zeidberg, Lou; Bloor, Isobel; Rodriguez, Almendra; Briceño, Felipe; Downey, Nicola; Mascaró, Maite; Navarro, Mike; Guerra, Angel; Hofmeister, Jennifer; Barcellos, Diogo D; Lourenço, Silvia A P; Roper, Clyde F E; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Green, Corey P; Mather, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod life cycles generally share a set of stages that take place in different habitats and are adapted to specific, though variable, environmental conditions. Throughout the lifespan, individuals undertake a series of brief transitions from one stage to the next. Four transitions were identified: fertilisation of eggs to their release from the female (1), from eggs to paralarvae (2), from paralarvae to subadults (3) and from subadults to adults (4). An analysis of each transition identified that the changes can be radical (i.e. involving a range of morphological, physiological and behavioural phenomena and shifts in habitats) and critical (i.e. depending on environmental conditions essential for cohort survival). This analysis underlines that transitions from eggs to paralarvae (2) and from paralarvae to subadults (3) present major risk of mortality, while changes in the other transitions can have evolutionary significance. This synthesis suggests that more accurate evaluation of the sensitivity of cephalopod populations to environmental variation could be achieved by taking into account the ontogeny of the organisms. The comparison of most described species advocates for studies linking development and ecology in this particular group. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  17. Sustaining the shelf life of fresh food in cold chain – A burden on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludaisi Adekomaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cold chains has been predicted to rise significantly in view of the increasing world population. Of critical attention is the increasing number of road transport refrigeration which is highly gaining enormous ground globally. In view of the fact that 40% of all foods require refrigeration, 15% of world fossil fuel energy is used in food transport refrigeration. This concern necessitates this study to examine cold chain system with the emphasis on the impact of energy consumption in sustaining the shelf life of fresh food. As the world continues to battle with the global warming occasioned by emission of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel, this study identifies alternative means of saving energy in food transportation system through minimizing energy consumption in diesel engine driven vapour compression system. Preserving perishable fresh food (mainly vegetable under sub-zero weather is another debacle the authors envisaged in the quest to reduce fossil fuel consumption. This process requires heating the mechanical refrigeration unit in a reverse-cycle to raise the temperature at 0 °C which may further result in more energy demand. The conclusion drawn from this study could be useful in re-designing food transport system for optimal energy saving.

  18. Neighborhood environment walkability and health-related quality of life among older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanan; Chung, Pak-Kwong

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the associations between walkability related environmental attributes (WREA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among older adults in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 participants (women = 233; mean age = 74.4 years) living in urban communities. Independent variables included residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking, aesthetics, traffic hazards, crime, access to parking, lack of cul-de-sacs, hilliness, and physical barriers. Physical and mental dimensions of HRQoL were the dependent variables. Results revealed significant associations between WREA and HRQoL and demonstrated that aesthetics and physical barriers were significant determinants of physical health after adjusting age and sex, and crime and physical barriers were significant determinants of mental health after adjusting sex. This study provided empirical evidence that environmental walkability was associated with HRQoL among older adults in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The bubbles or the boiling pot? An ecosystemic approach to culture, environment and quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, André Francisco

    2009-03-01

    For the diagnosis and prognosis of the problems of quality of life, a multidisciplinary ecosystemic approach encompasses four dimensions of being-in-the-world, as donors and recipients: intimate, interactive, social and biophysical. Social, cultural and environmental vulnerabilities are understood and dealt with, in different circumstances of space and time, as the conjugated effect of all dimensions of being-in-the-world, as they induce the events (deficits and assets), cope with consequences (desired or undesired) and contribute for change. Instead of fragmented and reduced representations of reality, diagnosis and prognosis of cultural, educational, environmental and health problems considers the connections (assets) and ruptures (deficits) between the different dimensions, providing a planning model to develop and evaluate research, teaching programmes, public policies and field projects. The methodology is participatory, experiential and reflexive; heuristic-hermeneutic processes unveil cultural and epistemic paradigms that orient subject-object relationships; giving people the opportunity to reflect on their own realities, engage in new experiences and find new ways to live better in a better world. The proposal is a creative model for thought and practice, providing many opportunities for discussion, debate and development of holistic projects integrating different scientific domains (social sciences, psychology, education, philosophy, etc.).

  20. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  1. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D’Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. Methods Thirty-nine articles that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were independently reviewed by two calibrated reviewers, each using a standard form. Information was extracted on a number of variables, including study design, study population, sample size, interventions, blinding, outcome measures, methods, results, and conclusions for each article. Areas of discrepancy between the two reviews were resolved by consensus. Studies were weighted as to the quality of the study design, and recommendations were based on the relative strength of each paper. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the weighted prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization. Results For all cancer treatments, the weighted prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection was found to be 7.5% pretreatment, 39.1% during treatment, and 32.6% after the end of cancer therapy. Head and neck radiotherapy and chemotherapy were each independently associated with a significantly increased risk for oral fungal infection. For all cancer treatments, the prevalence of oral colonization with fungal organisms was 48.2% before treatment, 72.2% during treatment, and 70.1% after treatment. The prophylactic use of fluconazole during cancer therapy resulted in a prevalence of clinical fungal infection of 1.9%. No information specific to oral fungal infections was found on quality of life or cost of care. Conclusions There is an increased risk of clinically significant oral fungal infection during cancer therapy. Systemic antifungals are effective in the prevention of clinical oral fungal infection in patients receiving cancer therapy. Currently available topical antifungal

  2. Maternal environment shapes the life history and susceptibility to malaria of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lena M; Koella, Jacob C

    2011-12-21

    It is becoming generally recognized that an individual's phenotype can be shaped not only by its own genotype and environmental experience, but also by its mother's environment and condition. Maternal environmental factors can influence mosquitoes' population dynamics and susceptibility to malaria, and therefore directly and indirectly the epidemiology of malaria. In a full factorial experiment, the effects of two environmental stressors - food availability and infection with the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis - of female mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) on their offspring's development, survival and susceptibility to malaria were studied. The offspring of A. gambiae s.s. mothers infected with V. culicis developed into adults more slowly than those of uninfected mothers. This effect was exacerbated when mothers were reared on low food. Maternal food availability had no effect on the survival of their offspring up to emergence, and microsporidian infection decreased survival only slightly. Low food availability for mothers increased and V. culicis-infection of mothers decreased the likelihood that the offspring fed on malaria-infected blood harboured malaria parasites (but neither maternal treatment influenced their survival up to dissection). Resource availability and infection with V. culicis of A. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes not only acted as direct environmental stimuli for changes in the success of one generation, but could also lead to maternal effects. Maternal V. culicis infection could make offspring more resistant and less likely to transmit malaria, thus enhancing the efficacy of the microsporidian for the biological control of malaria.

  3. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J.; Bottjer, David J.; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-06-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic.

  4. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J; Bottjer, David J; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-06-09

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic.

  5. Maternal environment shapes the life history and susceptibility to malaria of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Lena M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming generally recognized that an individual's phenotype can be shaped not only by its own genotype and environmental experience, but also by its mother's environment and condition. Maternal environmental factors can influence mosquitoes' population dynamics and susceptibility to malaria, and therefore directly and indirectly the epidemiology of malaria. Methods In a full factorial experiment, the effects of two environmental stressors - food availability and infection with the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis - of female mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto on their offspring's development, survival and susceptibility to malaria were studied. Results The offspring of A. gambiae s.s. mothers infected with V. culicis developed into adults more slowly than those of uninfected mothers. This effect was exacerbated when mothers were reared on low food. Maternal food availability had no effect on the survival of their offspring up to emergence, and microsporidian infection decreased survival only slightly. Low food availability for mothers increased and V. culicis-infection of mothers decreased the likelihood that the offspring fed on malaria-infected blood harboured malaria parasites (but neither maternal treatment influenced their survival up to dissection. Conclusions Resource availability and infection with V. culicis of A. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes not only acted as direct environmental stimuli for changes in the success of one generation, but could also lead to maternal effects. Maternal V. culicis infection could make offspring more resistant and less likely to transmit malaria, thus enhancing the efficacy of the microsporidian for the biological control of malaria.

  6. Towards the measurement of event-related EEG activity in real-life working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Heppner, Holger; Hoffmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In applied contexts, psychophysiological measures have a long tradition to evaluate the user state. EEG correlates that indicate mechanisms of information processing, however, are hardly accessible since discrete time stamps that are necessary for this approach are commonly not available in natural situations. However, eye blinks may close this gap. Eye blinks are assumed to mark distinct points in information processing, necessary to segment the incoming data stream. By using mobile EEG in a simulated working situation we demonstrate that eye-blink-related potentials provide reliable information about cognitive processing in distinct working environments. During cognitive tasks, an increase in the fronto-central N2 component as well as evoked theta activity can be shown, both indices of enhanced cognitive control. The posterior P3 is reduced during physical tasks (sorting of boxes), probably reflecting the more continuous nature of this task. The data are discussed within a model of dopaminergic modulation of blink activity that involves both task specific aspects like executive control and modulating influences of motivation or fatigue. © 2013.

  7. The quality of dental faculty work-life: report on the 2007 dental school faculty work environment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William; Ranney, Richard R; Vargas, Adriana; Cardenas, Lina; Rose, William; Ross, Ridley; Funk, Edward

    2008-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of articles on the dental school work environment commissioned by the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education. The report is based on the most extensive research to date on faculty satisfaction in the dental school environment. The purpose of the study was to assess faculty perceptions and recommendations related to work environment, sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and professional development needs. More broadly, the study intends to provide insight into the "change readiness" of dental schools to move forward with curricular improvements and innovations. Findings are based on 1,748 responses from forty-nine U.S. dental schools obtained during the time frame of February to April 2007. The total number of respondents constituted 17 percent of all U.S. dental school faculty. The average response rate per school was thirty-six (21 percent). To elucidate the data in terms of issues related to the quality of faculty work-life based on demographics, the authors compared perceptions of various aspects of the work culture in academic dentistry among faculty with different academic ranks and academic degrees and by other variables such as age and gender, tenure versus non-tenure appointments, and full- versus part-time status. Quantitative and qualitative analyses show that the majority of faculty members described themselves as very satisfied to satisfied with their dental school overall and with their department as a place to work. Tenured associate professors expressed the greatest level of dissatisfaction. Opportunities for and support of professional development emerged as an area requiring substantially more attention from dental schools. The authors of the study suggest that dental school leaders use these findings to assess their individual dental school's work environment and to plan changes as needed.

  8. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Soledad R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/19545264X; van Eijk, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255160216; Haagsman, Henk P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069273278

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that

  9. Relationship between the cognitive environment and vocabulary development during the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Bonnie W; Cunningham, Maureen; Berman, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    To examine the relationship between characteristics of the cognitive environment at age 10 to 18 months and vocabulary at age 18 to 30 months. Analysis of baseline and follow-up data on 157 families participating in a comparison of 2 anticipatory guidance programs. Children's Hospital outpatient department serving low-income families. Parents of children aged 10 to 18 months at baseline who participated in a follow-up telephone interview at age 18 to 30 months. Three subscales of the StimQ (reading, parental involvement in developmental activities, and parental verbal responsivity [PVR]) and the short form of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. Vocabulary score percentiles dropped significantly between baseline and follow-up, with scores for bilingual families showing a greater decrease than those for English speaking-only families. StimQ subscale scores increased with maternal education and increased between baseline and follow-up. Multiple regression analysis showed that baseline variables accounted for 25% of the variance in follow-up vocabulary score percentile, with significant contributions from baseline expressive vocabulary (P vocabulary scores at or less than the 25th percentile, with an associated likelihood ratio of 4.33. However, 35% of children with a PVR score of 4 also had vocabulary scores less than the 25th percentile at follow-up, with an associated likelihood ratio of 0.67. The StimQ is a clinically useful method for assessing early environmental factors that influence vocabulary development. The PVR subscale score was the best StimQ predictor of later vocabulary delay and may be useful in identifying children needing referral for evaluation.

  10. Anoxic atmospheres on Mars driven by volcanism: Implications for past environments and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholes, Steven F.; Smith, Megan L.; Claire, Mark W.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Catling, David C.

    2017-07-01

    Mars today has no active volcanism and its atmosphere is oxidizing, dominated by the photochemistry of CO2 and H2O. Mars experienced widespread volcanism in the past and volcanic emissions should have included reducing gases, such as H2 and CO, as well as sulfur-bearing gases. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model, we consider whether plausible volcanic gas fluxes could have switched the redox-state of the past martian atmosphere to reducing conditions. In our model, the total quantity and proportions of volcanic gases depend on the water content, outgassing pressure, and oxygen fugacity of the source melt. We find that, with reasonable melt parameters, the past martian atmosphere (∼3.5 Gyr to present) could have easily reached reducing and anoxic conditions with modest levels of volcanism, >0.14 km3 yr-1, which are well within the range of estimates from thermal evolution models or photogeological studies. Counter-intuitively we also find that more reducing melts with lower oxygen fugacity require greater amounts of volcanism to switch a paleo-atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing. The reason is that sulfur is more stable in such melts and lower absolute fluxes of sulfur-bearing gases more than compensate for increases in the proportions of H2 and CO. These results imply that ancient Mars should have experienced periods with anoxic and reducing atmospheres even through the mid-Amazonian whenever volcanic outgassing was sustained at sufficient levels. Reducing anoxic conditions are potentially conducive to the synthesis of prebiotic organic compounds, such as amino acids, and are therefore relevant to the possibility of life on Mars. Also, anoxic reducing conditions should have influenced the type of minerals that were formed on the surface or deposited from the atmosphere. We suggest looking for elemental polysulfur (S8) as a signature of past reducing atmospheres. Finally, our models allow us to estimate the amount of volcanically sourced atmospheric

  11. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  12. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... August 16, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  13. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  14. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  15. Epigenetic genes and emotional reactivity to daily life events: a multi-step gene-environment interaction study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Pishva

    Full Text Available Recent human and animal studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the impact of environment on development of mental disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in epigenetic-regulatory genes impact stress-induced emotional changes. A multi-step, multi-sample gene-environment interaction analysis was conducted to test whether 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in epigenetic-regulatory genes, i.e. three DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, moderate emotional responses to stressful and pleasant stimuli in daily life as measured by Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM. In the first step, main and interactive effects were tested in a sample of 112 healthy individuals. Significant associations in this discovery sample were then investigated in a population-based sample of 434 individuals for replication. SNPs showing significant effects in both the discovery and replication samples were subsequently tested in three other samples of: (i 85 unaffected siblings of patients with psychosis, (ii 110 patients with psychotic disorders, and iii 126 patients with a history of major depressive disorder. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed no significant association between SNPs and negative affect or positive affect. No SNPs moderated the effect of pleasant stimuli on positive affect. Three SNPs of DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825 and 1 SNP of MTHFR (rs1801131 moderated the effect of stressful events on negative affect. Only rs11683424 of DNMT3A showed consistent directions of effect in the majority of the 5 samples. These data provide the first evidence that emotional responses to daily life stressors may be moderated by genetic variation in the genes involved in the epigenetic machinery.

  16. The selection exerted by oil contamination on mangrove fungal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Rigonato, Janaina; Fiore, Marli de Fatima; Soares, Fabio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dini Andreote, Fernando

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical environments that are characterized by the interaction between the land and the sea. As such, this ecosystem is vulnerable to oil spills. Here, we show a culture-independent survey of fungal communities that are found in the sediments of the following two mangroves

  17. Fungal isolates and their toxicity from different ecosystems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fact that toxic species do not always produce toxins and that other species not known to produce toxins were found to be toxic in some environments have been previously reported. However, different fungal species behave unexpectedly in different ecosystems. That is why the main objective of this work was to detect ...

  18. Cinder Pool's Sulfur Chemistry: Implications for the Origin of Life in Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydow, L.; Bennett, P.; Nordstrom, D.

    2012-12-01

    One theory of the origin of life posits the abiotic formation of alkyl thiols as an initial step to forming biomolecules and eventually a simple chemoautotrophic cell. The premise of this theory is that a recurring reaction on the charged surfaces of pyrite served as a primordial metabolism analogous to the Acetyl-CoA pathway (Wächtershäuser 1988) and was later enveloped by a primitive cellular membrane. However, alkyl thiols have not previously been identified in terrestrial hot springs as unequivocally abiogenic. We have identified methanethiol (CH3SH), the simplest of the alkyl thiols, as well as dimethyl sulfide and dimethyldisulfide, in Cinder Pool, an acid-sulfate-chloride hot spring in the One Hundred Spring Plain of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. It is unusual in that it contains a molten sulfur layer on the bottom (~20 m depth) and thousands of iron-sulfur-spherules floating on the surface (the iconic "cinders" the pool is named for), created by gas bubbling through the molten basement of the spring. These unique features make it a good candidate for abiotically generated CH3SH. Gas samples were collected from Cinder pool as well as an adjacent hydrothermal feature in the autumn of 2011 using the bubble strip method modified for use with hydrothermal waters. Several samples contained measurable quantities of methanethiol and other organic sulfur gases, with concentrations increasing with depth in the pool. Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to investigate the geochemical conditions required to abiotically form CH3SH. Sterile, artificial Cinder Pool water was injected into sterilized 60 mL serum bottles containing different iron-sulfur compounds, including cinders collected from the pool itself, as catalytic surfaces for the methanethiol-generating reaction. The bottles were then charged with hydrogen and carbon dioxide as reaction gases and incubated for a week at temperatures between 60 and 120oC. Bottles using FeS as a

  19. Energy-Efficient Through-Life Smart Design, Manufacturing and Operation of Ships in an Industry 4.0 Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hock Ang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an important factor in the marine industry to help reduce manufacturing and operational costs as well as the impact on the environment. In the face of global competition and cost-effectiveness, ship builders and operators today require a major overhaul in the entire ship design, manufacturing and operation process to achieve these goals. This paper highlights smart design, manufacturing and operation as the way forward in an industry 4.0 (i4 era from designing for better energy efficiency to more intelligent ships and smart operation through-life. The paper (i draws parallels between ship design, manufacturing and operation processes, (ii identifies key challenges facing such a temporal (lifecycle as opposed to spatial (mass products, (iii proposes a closed-loop ship lifecycle framework and (iv outlines potential future directions in smart design, manufacturing and operation of ships in an industry 4.0 value chain so as to achieve more energy-efficient vessels. Through computational intelligence and cyber-physical integration, we envision that industry 4.0 can revolutionise ship design, manufacturing and operations in a smart product through-life process in the near future.

  20. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites—remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  1. Quality of Life in Physical and Psychological Health and Social Environment at Posthospitalization Period in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Narumi; Sasaki, Aya; Hondoh, Fumika; Odagiri, Chiyo; Hagii, Joji; Seino, Satoshi; Yasujima, Minoru; Osanai, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    Interaction of quality of life (QOL) in physical and psychological health and social environment has not been tested in stroke during a posthospitalization period, and a better understanding of the components of QOL would lead to a more integrated and person-centered approach to health management and outcome optimization. We investigated how QOL emerges from the sequelae of stroke and interacts with each other during the posthospitalization period. We performed a cross-sectional study in 53 outpatients of stroke survivors (39 men and 14 women with a mean age of 66 years, 46 infarctions, and 7 hemorrhages). Eight QOL domains of psychological health were scored by interview, and 2 of them ("desire to distend what they can do" or "desire to do rehabilitation") were associated with the improvement of physical health during the posthospitalization period (P health improvement, to go home, to go back to work, and to see grandchildren" as goals to achieve their desire (P health and social environment, another psychological domain "to gain satisfaction from the experience" was closely related to the presence of hobby or work before stroke attack (P health may support that of physical health, being associated with the presence of hobby or work before stroke attack. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Poor health and loneliness in later life: the role of depressive symptoms, social resources, and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We draw on cognitive discrepancy theory to hypothesize and test a pathway from poor health to loneliness in later life. We hypothesize that poor health will have a negative influence on social participation and social resources, and these factors will mediate between health and loneliness. We hypothesize that rural environments will amplify any difficulties associated with social participation or accessing social resources and that depression will moderate how intensely people react to levels of social contact and support. We conceptualize a mediation model and a moderated-mediation model. Nationally representative data on older people living in the Republic of Ireland are used to validate the hypothesized pathways. In the mediation model, health has a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variables social resources and social participation. In the moderated-mediation model, rurality moderates the pathway between health and social resources but not social participation. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of social resources on loneliness but not social participation. The results provide further credence to cognitive discrepancy theory, suggesting that depressive symptoms influence cognitive processes, interfering with judgments about the adequacy of social interaction. The theory is extended by demonstrating the impact of the environment on loneliness.

  3. The Cumulative Disadvantages of Socially Toxic Family Environments: A Comparison of Early Life Experiences of Incarcerated Men and University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michalski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.

  4. Poor Health and Loneliness in Later Life: The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Social Resources, and Rural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We draw on cognitive discrepancy theory to hypothesize and test a pathway from poor health to loneliness in later life. We hypothesize that poor health will have a negative influence on social participation and social resources, and these factors will mediate between health and loneliness. We hypothesize that rural environments will amplify any difficulties associated with social participation or accessing social resources and that depression will moderate how intensely people react to levels of social contact and support. Methods. We conceptualize a mediation model and a moderated-mediation model. Nationally representative data on older people living in the Republic of Ireland are used to validate the hypothesized pathways. Results. In the mediation model, health has a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variables social resources and social participation. In the moderated-mediation model, rurality moderates the pathway between health and social resources but not social participation. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of social resources on loneliness but not social participation. Discussion. The results provide further credence to cognitive discrepancy theory, suggesting that depressive symptoms influence cognitive processes, interfering with judgments about the adequacy of social interaction. The theory is extended by demonstrating the impact of the environment on loneliness. PMID:24326076

  5. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, life stress and depression: A meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhe; Chen, Lu; Yang, Jiarun; Han, Dong; Fang, Deyu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Ma, Jingsong; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Shixiang; Song, Xuejia; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Mingqi; Qi, Dong; Yang, Yanjie; Pan, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Depression is thought to be multifactorial in etiology, including genetic and environmental components. While a number of gene-environment interaction studies have been carried out, meta-analyses are scarce. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantify evidence on the interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and stress in depression. Included were 31 peer-reviewed with a pooled total of 21060 participants published before October 2016 and literature searches were conducted using PubMed, Wolters Kluwer, Web of Science, EBSCO, Elsevier Science Direct and Baidu Scholar databases. The results indicated that the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the relationship between stress and depression (Z=2.666, p = 0.003). The results of subgroup analysis concluded that stressful life events and childhood adversity separately interacted with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in depression (Z = 2.552, p = 0.005; Z = 1.775, p = 0.03). The results could be affected by errors or bias in primary studies which had small sample sizes with relatively lower statistic power. We could not estimate how strong the interaction effect between gene and environment was. We found evidence that supported the hypothesis that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderated the relationship between stress and depression, despite the fact that many included individual studies did not show this effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of parents' occupational and life environment exposure during six months before pregnancy on executive function of preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lingling; Shao, Ting; Tao, Huihui; Sun, Yanli; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effect of parents' occupational and life exposure during six months before pregnancy on executive function of preschool children. Pregnant women involved in the study came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study,a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study. Between October 2008 and October 2010, pregnant women who accepted pregnancy care in four municipal medical and health institutions in Ma'anshan city were recruited as study objects. A total of 5,084 pregnant women and 4,669 singleton live births entered in this cohort. Between April 2014 and April 2015, a total of 3,803 pre-school children were followed up. Finally, except 32 preschool children did not have EF evaluation result, there were 3,771 children included in this study. By using self-designed " Maternal health handbook", we researched parents' general demographic characteristics, and life and occupational exposure during six months before pregnancy. To research preschool children's executive function, we used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Univariate and multivariate statistical method was used to analyze the association of parents' life and occupational exposure during six months before pregnancy and preschool children's EF. 3,771 preschool children's detected rate of inhibitory self-control index (ISCI), flexibility index (FI), emergent metacognition index (EMI) and global executive composite (GEC) dysplasia were 4.8% (182), 2.3% (88), 16.5% (623) and 8.6% (324) respectively. During six months before pregnancy, children whose parents were lived in a noise environment (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.36-2.54), whose maternal were exposed to pesticides were the risk of ISCI dysplasia(OR=3.60, 95% CI: 1.45-8.95). During six months before pregnancy, children whose maternal were exposed to pesticides (OR=6.72, 95% CI: 2.50-18.07) and whose father were exposed to occupational lead (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.25-3.54) were the risk of FI dysplasia. During six months

  7. Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christine; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress, such as childhood abuse, neglect and loss, is a well established major risk factor for developing depressive disorders later in life. We here summarize and discuss current developments in human research regarding the link between early life stress and depression. Specifically, we review the evidence for the existence of sensitive periods for the adverse effects of early life stress in humans. We further review the current state of knowledge regarding gene×environment (G×E) interactions in the effects of early life stress. While multiple genes operate in multiple environments to induce risk for depression after early life stress, these same genes also seem to enhance the beneficial effects of a positive early environment. Also, we discuss the epigenetic mechanisms that might underlie these G×E interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential importance of identifying sensitive time periods of opportunity, as well as G×E interactions and epigenetic mechanisms, for early interventions that might prevent or reverse the detrimental outcomes of early life stress and its transmission across generations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.

  9. Modulation of Human Immune Response by Fungal Biocontrol Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovas, Cibele; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago A.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lima-Santos, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Although the vast majority of biological control agents is generally regarded as safe for humans and environment, the increased exposure of agriculture workers, and consumer population to fungal substances may affect the immune system. Those compounds may be associated with both intense stimulation, resulting in IgE-mediated allergy and immune downmodulation induced by molecules such as cyclosporin A and mycotoxins. This review discusses the potential effects of biocontrol fungal components on human immune responses, possibly associated to infectious, inflammatory diseases, and defective defenses. PMID:28217107

  10. Fungal melanin: what do we know about structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Nosanchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of melanin significantly enhances the virulence of many important human pathogenic fungi. Despite fungal melanin’s importance in human disease, as well as melanin’s contribution to the ability of fungi to survive in diverse hostile environments, the structure of melanin remains unsolved. Nevertheless, ongoing research efforts have progressively revealed several notable structural characteristics of this enigmatic pigment, which will be the focus of this review. These compositional and organizational insights could further our ability to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat fungal disease and enhance our understanding of how melanin is inserted into the cell wall.

  11. Work/Life Boundary Management in an Integrative Environment: A Study of Residence Life Professionals who Live at Their Place of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Pressley Robinson, IV

    2013-01-01

    How individuals manage work/life boundaries when they live at the place they work, as opposed to working from home, is a gap in both work/life literature and in higher education literature. An obvious example from higher education is the resident life professional that lives in the residential facility that she or he oversees. Living in a…

  12. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  13. The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delpierre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Methods Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother’s pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. Results 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant’s adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. Conclusions The early nutritional environment, represented by mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for

  14. The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, C; Fantin, R; Barboza-Solis, C; Lepage, B; Darnaudéry, M; Kelly-Irving, M

    2016-08-18

    Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother's pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant's adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. The early nutritional environment, represented by mother's pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for explaining the influence of mother's pre-pregnancy BMI which implies the

  15. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Candida albicans: A Model Organism for Studying Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M. Anaul; Hussain, Mohammad Asif; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes candidiasis. As healthcare has been improved worldwide, the number of immunocompromised patients has been increased to a greater extent and they are highly susceptible to various pathogenic microbes and C. albicans has been prominent among the fungal pathogens. The complete genome sequence of this pathogen is now available and has been extremely useful for the identification of repertoire of genes present in this pathogen. The major challenge is now to assign the functions to these genes of which 13% are specific to C. albicans. Due to its close relationship with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an edge over other fungal pathogens because most of the technologies can be directly transferred to C. albicans from S. cerevisiae and it is amenable to mutation, gene disruption, and transformation. The last two decades have witnessed enormous amount of research activities on this pathogen that leads to the understanding of host-parasite interaction, infections, and disease propagation. Clearly, C. albicans has emerged as a model organism for studying fungal pathogens along with other two fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Understanding its complete life style of C. albicans will undoubtedly be useful for developing potential antifungal drugs and tackling Candida infections. This will also shed light on the functioning of other fungal pathogens. PMID:23762753

  17. The Long Reach of Nurturing Family Environments: Links With Midlife Emotion-Regulatory Styles and Late-Life Security in Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Robert J; Schulz, Marc S

    2016-11-01

    Does the warmth of children's family environments predict the quality of their intimate relationships at the other end of the life span? Using data collected prospectively on 81 men from adolescence through the eighth and ninth decades of life, this study tested the hypotheses that warmer relationships with parents in childhood predict greater security of attachment to intimate partners in late life, and that this link is mediated in part by the degree to which individuals in midlife rely on emotion-regulatory styles that facilitate or inhibit close relationship connections. Findings supported this mediational model, showing a positive link between more nurturing family environments in childhood and greater security of attachment to spouses more than 60 years later. This link was partially mediated by reliance on more engaging and less distorting styles of emotion regulation in midlife. The findings underscore the far-reaching influence of childhood environment on well-being in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Resource competition between two fungal parasites in subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Efstathion, Caroline A.; Elliott, Monica L.; Su, Nan-Yao

    2012-11-01

    Subterranean termites live in large groups in underground nests where the pathogenic pressure of the soil environment has led to the evolution of a complex interaction among individual and social immune mechanisms in the colonies. However, groups of termites under stress can show increased susceptibility to opportunistic parasites. In this study, an isolate of Aspergillus nomius Kurtzman, Horn & Hessltine was obtained from a collapsed termite laboratory colony. We determined that it was primarily a saprophyte and, secondarily, a facultative parasite if the termite immunity is undergoing a form of stress. This was determined by stressing individuals of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki via a co-exposure to the virulent fungal parasite Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin. We also examined the dynamics of a mixed infection of A. nomius and M. anisopliae in a single termite host. The virulent parasite M. anisopliae debilitated the termite immune system, but the facultative, fast growing parasite A. nomius dominated the mixed infection process. The resource utilization strategy of A. nomius during the infection resulted in successful conidia production, while the chance for M. anisopliae to complete its life cycle was reduced. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of opportunistic parasites such as A. nomius in collapsing termite laboratory colonies is the consequence of a previous stress, not the cause of the stress.

  19. PRESENCE OF FUNGAL CONTAMINATION IN THE PRODUCTION CHAIN OF FRESH FILLED PASTA, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO THE PENICILLIUM GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lomonaco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A shelf-life study was carried out on fresh filled pasta in order to evaluate the presence of fungal contamination in the production process (environment, raw materials and finished products, with particular regard to the Penicillium genus. Analyses were conducted on three types of products, while air sampling was carried out in shaping processes and packaging areas. After isolation of molds, phenotypic identification of Penicillium genus and genotyping confirmation were carried out. As for the isolated strains, the species identified are those expected from this type of matrix: 40.7% P. viridicatum, 14.8% P. griseofulvum, 11.1% P. chrysogenum, 7.4% for P. citrinum, P. nalgiovense and P. crustosum and finally 3.7% for each of the three remaining species (P. roqueforti, P. formosanum, P. atramentosum. Results showed environmental contamination, particularly at the end of the work day. In fact, 59% of identified Penicillia originated from air samples, while only 10% from foods. Moreover, even if fungal contamination was observed at all considered times, level of contamination were generally low and never resulted in spoilage of the product as no macroscopically visible colonies were observed. It is therefore clear that pasteurization and modified atmosphere packaging are able to control the growth of potentially present fungal contamination.

  20. The Life History of Flabellula baltica Smirnov (Gymnamoebae, Rhizopoda): Adaptations to a Spatially and Temporally Heterogeneous Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The polymorphic life history of the marine naked amoeba Flabellula baltica was studied. It can be interpreted in terms of adaptations to an environment that is patchy in time and space and it represents trade-off between longevity during starvation and the ability to initiate multiplication soon ...... after food resource become available. The life history also represents bet hedging in that different cells within a clonal culture may respond in different ways when food is depleted....

  1. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  2. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2013-12-01

    We review the primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. An increasing number of PIDs are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of interferon-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of interleukin-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), while inborn errors of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. CMC, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by PIDs. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of PID. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases.

  3. Life style and home environment are associated with racial disparities of asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2011-09-15

    A high prevalence and racial disparities in asthma and allergy have been observed in American children. This study aimed to identify risk factors for asthma and allergy among children, and their contribution to racial disparities in allergy prevalence. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1-8 years in Northeast Texas 2008-2009. The health conditions, life style and home environment of 3766 children were surveyed by parental questionnaires through e.g. daycares, elementary school, and medical clinics. Among participants who indicated their ethnicity, 255 were Mexican-Americans, 178 Afro-Americans and 969 Caucasians. Afro-American children had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma and eczema. Caucasian had the highest prevalence of rhinitis. Compared to Mexican-American children, Afro-American and Caucasian children were breast fed shorter time, more often went to day care center, had pets and environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home more often. For all children, being at a day care center, being exposed to dampness and environmental tobacco smoke at home were strong risk factors for asthma and allergy. Central air conditioning system was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze among Mexican-American children, while pets were associated with an increased risk of rhinitis among Afro-American and Caucasian children. Caucasian children were generally not healthier than relatively poor Mexican-American children. Differences in the prevalence of asthma and allergy between races cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. Life style and home environmental exposures are important risk factors for asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. County-level social environment determinants of health-related quality of life among US adults: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Moriarty, David G; Kanarek, Norma

    2009-10-01

    To show that an individual's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is not determined only by their personal-level characteristics, but also is socially determined by both physical and social environmental characteristics of their communities. This analysis examined the association of selected county-level indicators on respondents' unhealthy days and assessed the utility of mean unhealthy days for US counties as community health indicators. Data came from the 1999-2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used multilevel models to calculate the proportion of between-county variation in HRQOL that was explained by county-level contextual variables and examine the causal heterogeneity of some personal-level factors modified by these contextual variables. Counties with worse socioeconomic indicators, high mortality rate, and low life expectancy were associated with higher numbers of unhealthy days. These indicators explained 13-22% variance of county-level physically unhealthy days and 4.5-9.5% variance of county-level mentally unhealthy days. The GINI index, suicide rate, percent uninsured, primary care facilities-to-population ratio, and most county-level demographic and housing indicators also had significant but smaller impact on respondents' unhealthy days. Also, the counties with poorer socioeconomic scores had additional negative HRQOL impact on older persons. This study provides important new empirical information on whether various commonly-measured characteristics of the social environment, which are believed to be social determinants of health, are in fact associated with the perceived physical and mental health of its residents. Our findings provide additional support for the construct validity of county-level HRQOL as a community health indicator.

  5. Estimating the burden of fungal disease in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, J; Denning, D W; Chau, N V; Yen, N T B; Crump, J A; Day, J N

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding the prevalence of fungal infections in Vietnam are limited yet they are likely to occur more frequently as increasingly sophisticated healthcare creates more iatrogenic risk factors. In this study, we sought to estimate baseline incidence and prevalence of selected serious fungal infections for the year 2012. We made estimates with a previously described actuarial method, using reports on the incidence and prevalence of various established risk factors for fungal infections from Vietnam, or similar environments, supplemented by personal communications. Global data were used if local data were unavailable. We estimated 2,352,748 episodes of serious fungal infection occurred in Vietnam in 2012. Frequent conditions included recurrent vaginal candidiasis (3893/100,000 women annually), tinea capitis (457/100,000 annually) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (61/100,000/5 year period). We estimated 140 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 206 of penicilliosis and 608 of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This is the first summary of Vietnamese fungal infections. The majority of severe disease is due to Aspergillus species, driven by the high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. The AIDS epidemic highlights opportunistic infections, such as penicilliosis and cryptococcosis, which may complicate immunosuppressive treatments. These estimates provide a useful indication of disease prevalence to inform future research and resource allocation but should be verified by further epidemiological approaches. © 2015 The Authors Mycoses Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Fungal diversity in cow, goat and ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, Emilie; Mounier, Jerome; Asmani, Katia; Jany, Jean-Luc; Barbier, Georges; Le Blay, Gwenaelle

    2011-12-02

    Knowledge of fungal diversity in the environment is poor compared with bacterial biodiversity. In this study, we applied the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) technique, combined with the amplification of the ITS1 region from fungal rDNA, for the rapid identification of major fungal species in 9 raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat, collected at different periods of the year. A total of 27 fungal species were identified. Yeast species belonged to Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Geotrichum, Kluyveromyces, Malassezia, Pichia, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon genera; and mold species belonged to Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Engyodontium, Fusarium, Penicillium and Torrubiella genera. Cow milk samples harbored the highest fungal diversity with a maximum of 15 species in a single sample, whereas a maximum of 4 and 6 different species were recovered in goat and ewe milk respectively. Commonly encountered genera in cow and goat milk were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida spp. (C. catenulata and C. inconspicua); whereas Candida parapsilosis was frequently found in ewe milk samples. Most of detected species were previously described in literature data. A few species were uncultured fungi and others (Torrubiella and Malassezia) were described for the first time in milk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental opportunities questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2013-09-01

    The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. The environmental opportunities questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development.

  8. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eSohlberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 m to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community.

  9. Platelet immunology in fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    Up to date, perception of platelets has changed from key players in coagulation to multitaskers within the immune network, connecting its most diverse elements and crucially shaping their interplay with invading pathogens such as fungi. In addition, antimicrobial effector molecules and mechanisms in platelets enable a direct inhibitory effect on fungi, thus completing their immune capacity. To precisely assess the impact of platelets on the course of invasive fungal infections is complicated by some critical parameters. First, there is a fragile balance between protective antimicrobial effects and detrimental reactions that aggravate the fungal pathogenesis. Second, some platelet effects are exerted indirectly by other immune mediators and are thus difficult to quantify. Third, drugs such as antimycotics, antibiotics, or cytostatics, are commonly administered to the patients and might modulate the interplay between platelets and fungi. Our article highlights selected aspects of the complex interactions between platelets and fungi and the relevance of these processes for the pathogenesis of fungal infections.

  10. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  11. Association between participation in life situations of children with cerebral palsy and their physical, social, and attitudinal environment: a cross-sectional multicenter European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Allan; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Dickinson, Heather O

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate how participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) varied with their environment. Home visits to children. Administration of Assessment of Life Habits and European Child Environment Questionnaires. Structural equation modeling of putative associations between specific domains of participation and environment, while allowing for severity of child's impairments and pain. European regions with population-based registries of children with CP. Children (n=1174) aged 8 to 12 years were randomly selected from 8 population-based registries of children with CP in 6 European countries. Of these, 743 (63%) agreed to participate; 1 further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. Thus, there were 818 children in the study. Not applicable. Participation in life situations. For the hypothesized associations, the models confirmed that higher participation was associated with better availability of environmental items. Higher participation in daily activities-mealtimes, health hygiene, personal care, and home life-was significantly associated with a better physical environment at home (Penvironment in the community. Participation in social roles (responsibilities, relationships, recreation) was associated with attitudes of classmates and social support at home. School participation was associated with attitudes of teachers and therapists. Environment explained between 14% and 52% of the variation in participation. The findings confirmed the social model of disability. The physical, social, and attitudinal environment of disabled children influences their participation in everyday activities and social roles. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Life Cycle Management in the Textile Sector a Study of Up-streram Requirements on Environment, Working Environment, Child Labour, Pesticides and Organic Grown Cotton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne

    2000-01-01

    : environment, working environment, child labour, use of pesticides in the cotton growing, and use of organic cotton. On the basis of the gathered experiences the team has formulated ideas minimising the barriers and made recommendations for further actions. Focussing on different aspects as environment......, working environment, child labour, use of pesticides and use of organic grown cotton the project have resulted in a large number of findings divided on the different aspects. However, the following common findings should be mentioned: - International trade quota and tariffs and changes in currency...

  13. The Coevolution of Life and Environment on Mars: An Ecosystem Perspective on the Robotic Exploration of Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Earth's biological and environmental evolution are intertwined and inseparable. This coevolution has become a fundamental concept in astrobiology and is key to the search for life beyond our planet. In the case of Mars, whether a coevolution took place is unknown, but analyzing the factors at play shows the uniqueness of each planetary experiment regardless of similarities. Early Earth and early Mars shared traits. However, biological processes on Mars, if any, would have had to proceed within the distinctive context of an irreversible atmospheric collapse, greater climate variability, and specific planetary characteristics. In that, Mars is an important test bed for comparing the effects of a unique set of spatiotemporal changes on an Earth-like, yet different, planet. Many questions remain unanswered about Mars' early environment. Nevertheless, existing data sets provide a foundation for an intellectual framework where notional coevolution models can be explored. In this framework, the focus is shifted from planetary-scale habitability to the prospect of habitats, microbial ecotones, pathways to biological dispersal, biomass repositories, and their meaning for exploration. Critically, as we search for biosignatures, this focus demonstrates the importance of starting to think of early Mars as a biosphere and vigorously integrating an ecosystem approach to landing site selection and exploration. Key Words: Astrobiology—Biosignatures—Coevolution of Earth and life—Mars. Astrobiology 18, 1–27. PMID:29252008

  14. The Coevolution of Life and Environment on Mars: An Ecosystem Perspective on the Robotic Exploration of Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.

    2018-01-01

    Earth's biological and environmental evolution are intertwined and inseparable. This coevolution has become a fundamental concept in astrobiology and is key to the search for life beyond our planet. In the case of Mars, whether a coevolution took place is unknown, but analyzing the factors at play shows the uniqueness of each planetary experiment regardless of similarities. Early Earth and early Mars shared traits. However, biological processes on Mars, if any, would have had to proceed within the distinctive context of an irreversible atmospheric collapse, greater climate variability, and specific planetary characteristics. In that, Mars is an important test bed for comparing the effects of a unique set of spatiotemporal changes on an Earth-like, yet different, planet. Many questions remain unanswered about Mars' early environment. Nevertheless, existing data sets provide a foundation for an intellectual framework where notional coevolution models can be explored. In this framework, the focus is shifted from planetary-scale habitability to the prospect of habitats, microbial ecotones, pathways to biological dispersal, biomass repositories, and their meaning for exploration. Critically, as we search for biosignatures, this focus demonstrates the importance of starting to think of early Mars as a biosphere and vigorously integrating an ecosystem approach to landing site selection and exploration.

  15. Regular recycling of wood ash to prevent waste production. RecAsh - A Life-environment demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars; Emilsson, Stig [Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland-Oerebro, Karlstad (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvest, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. In order to create better conditions for a regular recycling of wood, the Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland - Oerebro and the National Board of Forestry took the initiative for creating a LIFE-Environment demonstration project. The project will develop, analyse and demonstrate at least two regular ash-recycling systems. It will also distribute knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large.

  16. Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2014-01-01

    Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult. PMID:24789890

  17. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex III: Neutron Devices and Computational and Sample Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakasai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

  18. Genomic Organization of Fungal Plant Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent large scale genomic sequencing of fungal phytopathogens has revolutionized the study of plant pathogenesis. Initially, having whole genome sequence (WGS) data for individual fungal genomes has accelerated classical forward and reverse genetic approaches for identifying pathogenicity genes...

  19. Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N

    1994-10-14

    The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input.

  20. Fungal Exposure and Asthma: IgE and Non-IgE-Mediated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor environments and have been associated with respiratory disease including childhood and adult asthma. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies has revealed a link between fungal exposure, especially indoor fungal exposure, with asthma initiation, persistence, and exacerbation. Despite the overwhelming evidence linking mold exposure and asthma, the mechanistic basis for the association has remained elusive. It is now clear that fungi need not be intact to impart negative health effects. Fungal components and fungal fragments are biologically active and contribute to asthma development and severity. Recent mechanistic studies have demonstrated that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. This paper will review the connection between fungal exposure and asthma with a focus on the immunological mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  1. TEMPORALLY VARIABLE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE EFFECTS CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSEMBLY OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED FUNGAL COMMUNITIES

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    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance between fungal communities on composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal biogeography.

  2. Temporally Variable Geographical Distance Effects Contribute to the Assembly of Root-Associated Fungal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J; van der Gast, Christopher J; Burns, Caitlin A; McNamara, Niall P; Bending, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however, the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC) willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance among fungal communities in terms of composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal ecology.

  3. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

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    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  4. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  5. Humanity’s perceived right to life and the impact thereof on the environment: A perspective from Deuteronomy 20:19–20

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    Chris Van der Walt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humanity’s day to day activities are currently impacting on the natural environment in a way unknown before. Although the destruction of natural resources in times of war is prohibited by the Geneva Conventions, it is currently also happening during periods of peace. The reason for this is the undisputed right to life that humans appropriate themselves regardless of the impact of their acts on the environment. According to Deuteronomy 20 all human life is not of equal value and not necessarily superior to life in nature. Deuteronomy 20 challenges conventional thinking on the subject of human-nature relationships. It is also challenged in Jewish Halachic thinking, the practicality of primitive Eskimo’s attitude towards life and nature, as well as Assyrian acts during war. In these societies the dependence of humans on nature in order to ensure survival, was acknowledged. Currently a paradigm shift away from the anthropocentric attitude towards nature is needed to accommodate the conviction that functionality and potentiality should form part of our philosophy concerning the right to life. A new set of moral rules should be established, taking into account the fact that an endeavour to prolong human life indefinitely should not be desirable because it is to the detriment of nature and thus to humanity itself.

  6. Immune Recognition of Fungal Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan D. Snarr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased in recent years, in large part due to increased use of immunosuppressive medications, as well as aggressive medical and surgical interventions that compromise natural skin and mucosal barriers. There are relatively few currently licensed antifungal drugs, and rising resistance to these agents has led to interest in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies targeting these devastating infections. One approach to combat fungal infections is to augment the host immune response towards these organisms. The polysaccharide-rich cell wall is the initial point of contact between fungi and the host immune system, and therefore, represents an important target for immunotherapeutic approaches. This review highlights the advances made in our understanding of the mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes and interacts with exopolysaccharides produced by four of the most common fungal pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Work to date suggests that inner cell wall polysaccharides that play an important structural role are the most conserved across diverse members of the fungal kingdom, and elicit the strongest innate immune responses. The immune system senses these carbohydrates through receptors, such as lectins and complement proteins. In contrast, a greater diversity of polysaccharides is found within the outer cell walls of pathogenic fungi. These glycans play an important role in immune evasion, and can even induce anti-inflammatory host responses. Further study of the complex interactions between the host immune system and the fungal polysaccharides will be necessary to develop more effective therapeutic strategies, as well as to explore the use of immunosuppressive polysaccharides as therapeutic agents to modulate inflammation.

  7. Perspectives on Comets, Comet-like Asteroids, and Their Predisposition to Provide an Environment That Is Friendly to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiek, Katharina; Hausmann, Michael; Hildenbrand, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, studies have shown that there are many similarities between comets and asteroids. In some cases, it cannot even be determined to which of these groups an object belongs. This is especially true for objects found beyond the main asteroid belt. Because of the lack of comet fragments, more progress has been made concerning the chemical composition of asteroids. In particular, the SMASSII classification establishes a link between the reflecting spectra and chemical composition of asteroids and meteorites. To find clues for the chemical structure of comets, the parameters of all known asteroids of the SMASSII classification were compared to those of comet groups like the Encke-type comets, the Jupiter-family comets, and the Halley-type comets, as well as comet-like objects like the damocloids and the centaurs. Fifty-six SMASSII objects similar to comets were found and are categorized as comet-like asteroids in this work. Aside from the chemistry, it is assumed that the available energy on these celestial bodies plays an important role concerning habitability. For the determination of the available energy, the effective temperature was calculated. Additionally, the size of these objects was considered in order to evaluate the possibility of a liquid water core, which provides an environment that is more likely to support processes necessary to create the building blocks of life. Further study of such objects could be notable for the period of the Late Heavy Bombardment and could therefore provide important implications for our understanding of the inner workings of the prebiotic evolution within the Solar System since the beginning.

  8. [Impact of liver cancer deaths on life expectancy in 14 counties (districts) from the Huai River Basin, 2013: relationship between the water environment and liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N; Liu, Y N; Yin, P; Wang, L J; Dou, Y S; Yang, W J; Zhou, M G

    2016-07-06

    To investigate the relationship between liver cancer and the water environment, we analyzed the life expectancy in 14 counties (districts), which form the Huai River Basin with respect to liver cancer deaths in 2013 and changes in the surface water quality from 2004 to 2010. The study area included the 14 counties (districts) of the Huai River Basin in China. We obtained surveillance data for all causes of death in the study area during 2013, as well as data for International Classification of Diseases,Tenth Edition(ICD-10) code C22 or liver cancer. Life expectancy and life expectancy after elimination of liver cancer were then calculated. Based on water quality monitoring data from the China Environment Yearbook 2005-2011, we analyzed the water environment of the Huai River Basin, and changes in the water quality. According to the " Encyclopedia of Rivers and Lakes in China" (Huai River Basin section), we divided the river basin into five categories: upstream basin (upstream); midstream, north shore of the basin (midstream-north); midstream, south shore of the basin (midstream-south); downstream basin (downstream); and the Yishusi River Basin. To calculate the life expectancy and life expectancy after elimination of liver cancer in the study area, we used the Nemerow Pollution Index (NPI), to investigate the relationship between liver cancer and the water environment. Life expectancy in the 14 study districts varied from 68.99 years (Shenqiu County) to 78.85 years (Jinhu County). Gains in life expectancy after elimination of liver cancer varied from 0.86 to 0.31 years. Midstream-north showed the greatest improvement, with overall gain in life expectancy of 0.77 years; this gain was 1.04 years for males and 0.40 years for females. Yishusi River Basin showed the least improvement, with overall gain in life expectancy of 0.41 years; this gain was 0.54 years for males and 0.24 years for females. For the 7 years from 2004 to 2010, midstream-north had the highest annual

  9. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  10. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

  11. Serious fungal diseases in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilavberdiev, S A; Denning, D W; Klimko, N N

    2017-06-01

    We have undertaken the first and preliminary estimation of severe and chronic mycotic diseases in the Republic of Uzbekistan, using a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculation was carried out based on data from 2014. Published results describing mycoses in Uzbekistan were identified. In the absence of published or official data, information about the frequency of mycoses from scientific literature elsewhere in groups at risk of development of fungal infections were taken into account. We also utilized methodology used in analogous estimations of mycoses in the Russian Federation. We estimate that of the 30.8 million population, 536,978 people (1.8% of the population) were affected by severe and chronic mycotic diseases. In 2014, there were 12,351 cases of acute invasive fungal diseases and 524,627 cases of chronic fungal diseases, including 1,941 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The most frequent problems were recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (513,600 cases), trichophytosis of the scalp (6,414), and relapsed oral candidiasis (4,950). Results of the investigation indicate a significant prevalence of mycoses in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

  12. Pathways from earlier marijuana use in the familial and non-familial environments to self-marijuana use in the fourth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W

    2008-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal pathways from marijuana use in the familial environment (parents and siblings) and non-familial environment (peers and significant other), throughout adolescence and young adulthood, to the participants' own marijuana use in their fourth decade of life (n = 586). Longitudinal pathways to marijuana use were assessed using structural equation modeling. Familial factors were mediated by non-familial factors; sibling marijuana use also had a direct effect on the participants' marijuana use. In the non-familial environment, significant other marijuana use had only a direct effect, while peer marijuana use had direct as well as indirect effects on the participants' marijuana use. Results illustrate the importance of both modeling and selection effects in contributing to marijuana use. Regarding prevention and treatment, this study suggests the need to consider aspects of familial and non-familial social environments.

  13. Adaptive strategies after health decline in later life: Increasing the person-environment fit by adjusting the social and physical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomese, G.C.F.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Following the press-competence model (PCM) of Lawton and associates, we tested two expectations as to the adaptations older adults make to their socio-physical environment following health decline: (1) depending on the change in their functional limitations, older adults use adaptive strategies

  14. Using antibodies against ATPase and microarray immunoassays for the search for potential extraterrestrial life in saline environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Andreas; Gruber, Claudia; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    For the search for extraterrestrial life it is proposed to use receptors such as labelled antibodies for the detection of organic biomarkers. One of these organic molecules to be tested is the universal enzyme ATP synthase which is present in highly conserved forms in all organisms on earth. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate antibodies against ATPase respectively ATP synthase and their subunits. As it is known, that there are halite deposits on Mars the experiments in this study have been carried out with regard to halophile microorganisms and saline environments. Standard F1F0 ATPase from Escherichia coli LE 392 and Bacillus megaterium as well as haloarchaeal A-ATPase from Halorubrum saccharovorum and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 were used. The cultivated cells, except Bacillus, were broken by passage through a French Pressure Cell. Separation of enzyme subunits was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western Blotting with antisera produced in rabbit against A-ATPase subunits A (85 kD) and subunits B (60 kD) from Halorubrrum saccharovorum (1) showed positive reactions with the membrane fraction, which should be enriched with ATPase from Halorubrum saccharovorum, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 and Escherichia coli LE 392. Particular attention was given to the question if ATPase subunits can be detected in whole cells. Therefore whole cell preparations of all cells and spore suspensions from Geobacillus stearothermophilus were tested against the antiserum as well as against protein-A-purified antibody against A-ATPase subunit A from Halorubrum saccharovorum. A positive immuno reaction of all cell preparations with the antiserum as well as with the purified antibody was detected. The spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus reacted positively with the antiserum against subunit A of the A-ATPase from Hrr. saccharovorum. A commercial antibody Rabbit Anti-V-ATPase subunit A polyclonal antibody from the GenScript Corporation reacted positively with

  15. Pathogenesis of indoor fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Michael R

    2004-04-01

    Mold growth within homes and other buildings has been associated to varying degrees with human health problems. These problems vary from allergenic disease to toxicosis. Case definitions for mold exposure have not been adequately defined to allow for a pathognomonic diagnosis of mold-caused disease following indoor exposure. Some important factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of indoor mold induced disease include beta (1,3)-D-glucans, outer cell wall fungal hydrophobins, 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin, fungal volatile organic compounds, mycotoxins, and stachylysin. The information in this contribution was presented as the ISHAM Presidential address as a means to clarify some of the confusing surrounding indoor mold-related health issues.

  16. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  17. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage. Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface

  18. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  19. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Rittenour, William R.; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Green, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occ...

  20. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Dedesko, Sandra; Jeffrey A Siegel

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled excess moisture in buildings is a common problem that can lead to changes in fungal communities. In buildings, moisture parameters can be classified by location and include assessments of moisture in the air, at a surface, or within a material. These parameters are not equivalent in dynamic indoor environments, which makes moisture-induced fungal growth in buildings a complex occurrence. In order to determine the circumstances that lead to such growth, it is essential to have a t...

  1. Fungal Iron Biomineralization in Río Tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monike Oggerin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many studies on biomineralization processes, most of them focus on the role of prokaryotes. As fungi play an important role in different geological and biogeochemical processes, it was considered of interest to evaluate their role in a natural extreme acidic environment, Río Tinto, which has a high level of fungal diversity and a high concentration of metals. In this work we report, for the first time, the generation of iron oxyhydroxide minerals by the fungal community in a specific location of the Tinto basin. Using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and High Angle Angular Dark Field coupled with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX, we observed fungal structures involved in the formation of iron oxyhydroxide minerals in mineralized sediment samples from the Río Tinto basin. Although Río Tinto waters are supersaturated in these minerals, they do not precipitate due to their slow precipitation kinetics. The presence of fungi, which simply provide charged surfaces for metal binding, favors the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides by overcoming these kinetic barriers. These results prove that the fungal community of Río Tinto participates very actively in the geochemical processes that take place there.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Moll

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit, occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  4. A statistical approach to the life cycle analysis of cumulus clouds selected in a virtual reality environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, T.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Van den Akker, H.E.A.; Griffith, E.J.; Koutek, M.; Post, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a new method is developed to investigate the entire life cycle of shallow cumuli in large eddy simulations. Although trained observers have no problem in distinguishing the different life stages of a cloud, this process proves difficult to automate, because cloud-splitting and

  5. Silver linings: a personal memoir about Hurricane Katrina and fungal volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the levees protecting New Orleans, Louisiana failed. Because approximately 80% of the city was under sea level, widespread flooding ensued. As a resident of New Orleans who had evacuated before the storm and a life-long researcher on filamentous fungi, I had known what to expect. After the hurricane I traveled home with a suitcase full of Petri dishes and sampling equipment so as to study the fungi that were “eating my house.” Not only were surfaces covered with fungal growth, the air itself was full of concentrated mold odor, a smell that was orders of magnitude more funky than any damp, musty basement I had ever encountered. The smell made me feel bad and I had to take regular breaks as I sampled. Being a mycotoxin expert, I knew a fair amount about “sick building syndrome” but believed that it was difficult to get enough respiratory exposure to toxins to cause the array of symptoms associated with the syndrome. So why was I feeling sick? Some Scandinavian experts had hypothesized that mold volatile organic compounds (VOCs) might be the fungal metabolites to blame for sick building syndrome and the time in my smelly, mold infested home made me think they might be right. After securing a new job and establishing a new laboratory, I endeavored to test the hypothesis that some volatile mold metabolites might be toxic. My laboratory at Rutgers University has interrogated the role of VOCs in possible interkingdom toxicity by developing controlled microcosms for exposing simple genetic model organisms to the vapor phase of growing fungi. Both Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster exhibit a range of toxic symptoms that vary with the species of fungus, the duration of exposure, and other experimental parameters. Moreover, low concentrations of chemical standards of individual fungal VOCs such as 1-octen-3-ol also exhibit varying toxicity and cause neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model. Collectively, these data

  6. Silver linings: a personal memoir about Hurricane Katrina and fungal volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the levees protecting New Orleans, Louisiana failed. Because approximately 80% of the city was under sea level, widespread flooding ensued. As a resident of New Orleans who had evacuated before the storm and a life-long researcher on filamentous fungi, I had known what to expect. After the hurricane I traveled home with a suitcase full of Petri dishes and sampling equipment so as to study the fungi that were "eating my house." Not only were surfaces covered with fungal growth, the air itself was full of concentrated mold odor, a smell that was orders of magnitude more funky than any damp, musty basement I had ever encountered. The smell made me feel bad and I had to take regular breaks as I sampled. Being a mycotoxin expert, I knew a fair amount about "sick building syndrome" but believed that it was difficult to get enough respiratory exposure to toxins to cause the array of symptoms associated with the syndrome. So why was I feeling sick? Some Scandinavian experts had hypothesized that mold volatile organic compounds (VOCs) might be the fungal metabolites to blame for sick building syndrome and the time in my smelly, mold infested home made me think they might be right. After securing a new job and establishing a new laboratory, I endeavored to test the hypothesis that some volatile mold metabolites might be toxic. My laboratory at Rutgers University has interrogated the role of VOCs in possible interkingdom toxicity by developing controlled microcosms for exposing simple genetic model organisms to the vapor phase of growing fungi. Both Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster exhibit a range of toxic symptoms that vary with the species of fungus, the duration of exposure, and other experimental parameters. Moreover, low concentrations of chemical standards of individual fungal VOCs such as 1-octen-3-ol also exhibit varying toxicity and cause neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model. Collectively, these data suggest that

  7. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  8. The association between health-related quality of life/dietary satisfaction and perceived food environment among Japanese individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K; Inayama, T; Yoshiike, N

    2017-08-01

    Cross-sectional. To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL)/dietary satisfaction and perceived food environment in community-dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Members of the Spinal Injuries Japan organization. Subjects were 2007 Japanese individuals with SCI. A questionnaire conducted in 2015 included items addressing sociodemographic characteristics, HRQOL, dietary satisfaction and eight perceived food environment items. Responses from 506 individuals were analyzed (valid response rate=25%). Dependent variables were the physical and mental summary scores of the HRQOL and dietary satisfaction. The independent variable was the perceived food environment. We used a univariate analysis (in Model 1) and a multivariate analysis (in Models 2 and 3) as part of a binominal logistic regression analysis. In Model 3, we divided and analyzed the perceived food environment variable into 'access to food' and 'access to information'. Both physical and mental summary scores were related to 'dietary information acquisition in the community'. Dietary satisfaction was related to 'balanced meals in the household', 'food and health information available from family' and 'right health and dietary information acquisition from the media'. HRQOL and dietary satisfaction were differentially associated with perceived food environment factors in community-dwelling individuals with SCI. HRQOL was positively related to dietary information of perceived food environment in the community. Dietary satisfaction was positively related to perceived food environment in the household.

  9. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  10. High fungal diversity and abundance recovered in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge about the presence and ecological significance of bacteria and archaea in the deep-sea environments has been well recognized, but the eukaryotic microorganisms, such as fungi, have rarely been reported. The present study investigated the composition and abundance of fungal community in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean. In this study, a total of 1,947 internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA gene clones were recovered from five sediment samples at the Pacific Ocean (water depths ranging from 5,017 to 6,986 m) using three different PCR primer sets. There were 16, 17, and 15 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from fungal-universal, Ascomycota-, and Basidiomycota-specific clone libraries, respectively. Majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of Ascomycota (25 phylotypes) and Basidiomycota (18 phylotypes). The multiple primer approach totally recovered 27 phylotypes which showed low similarities (≤97 %) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea environments or belonging to taxa not represented in the GenBank. Our results also recovered high fungal LSU rRNA gene copy numbers (3.52 × 10(6) to 5.23 × 10(7)copies/g wet sediment) from the Pacific Ocean sediment samples, suggesting that the fungi might be involved in important ecological functions in the deep-sea environments.

  11. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sandeep; Arumugam, Dayanand; Zacharias, George; Palaninathan, Sengottaiah; Vishwanathan, Ravisankar; Venkatraman, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. This was a prospective study in which evaluation of 100 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis was done. Specimens collected were subjected to both microbiology and pathologic examination; data collected, including clinical and radiologic features, were analyzed by the Pearson χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis in our study was 30% (n = 30). Mucor was the most commonly isolated species (n = 15 [50%]) of fungus. Pathologic examination had a higher sensitivity (76.67%) compared with microbiology tests (50%) in the diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. Fungus ball (n = 14 [46.6%]) was the most prevalent entity in the spectrum of fungal rhinosinusitis. Forty percent of cases (n = 12) were of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis was higher among individuals who were immunocompetent (n = 17 [56.6%]). Of patients who were immunocompromised, 84.6% (n = 11) had mucormycosis. Unilateral involvement of paranasal sinuses was more in favor of fungal etiology. Complications were more common in fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Mucor species. Mucormycosis, a rare clinical entity, in subjects who were immunocompetent, had a high prevalence in our study.

  12. The development of learning competency and skills for the 21st century to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in students grade 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedaman, Pornchai; Kinboon, Nittayaporn; Suksup, Chareon; Kinboon, Wutcharapong

    2018-01-01

    The teaching strategies of append were the technological pedagogical content knowledge; TPCK. This description knowledge in a content to corresponds of a effective teaching. This article aims to address the relevance of; 1) the learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment in the students grade 11, 2) the effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in the students grade 11 were the passing score of a percentage 80 upwards (EI.), and 3) the attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches for 9teachers of third schools were the participatory action research (PAR) in collecting data including a instructional, a testing, and a questionnaire surveywith 33 students grade 11 of Phuwiengwittayakom school. The participants werecluster random sampling. The data analysis of descriptive statistical, percentage, mean average, standard deviation. The findings in the study were to learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment on TK, PK, CK, and TCK at a excellent levels (X¯ = 3.62, 3.57, 3.54, 3.51) respectively, and PCK, TPK,TPCK at a good levels (X¯ = 3.36, 3.23, 3.17) respectively. The effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in 30 students grade 11 were the passing score (EI.) of a percentage at 90.91. The attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11 at a high levels (X¯ =3.29). In addition of the students grade 11 to understanding of the importance were a local learning resources including the value integrating technology of the knowledge technology and to choose the right were create of an effective information.

  13. Teaching in the Field: What Teacher Professional Life Histories Tell About How They Learn to Teach in the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feille, Kelly K.

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the professional life histories of upper elementary science teachers who were identified as effective both within the classroom and in the outdoor learning environment (OLE). The narratives of five teachers, collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews, provided the data for the study. Professional life histories were constructed for each teacher participant and an analysis of the teacher narratives identified the themes of teacher development across the voices of the participants. Narrative reasoning was used to unify those themes into a hypothetical professional life history as reported in this manuscript. Implications of this research can be realized for stakeholders in the preparation of pre-service teachers as well as the development of in-service teachers. Future research regarding the early induction years of new teachers, impacts of inclusion of the OLE in pre-service teacher instruction, and teacher experiences regarding professional development relating to efforts to include the OLE in formal education should be investigated.

  14. Life-course exposure to early socioeconomic environment, education in relation to late-life cognitive function among older Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hazzouri, Adina Zeki; Haan, Mary N; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E

    2011-10-01

    To examine the associations between life-course education and late-life cognitive function along with the modifying role of migration history. The combined sample includes 1,789 participants from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging and 5,253 participants from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Aged 60+ at baseline, participants were classified as Mexican residents, Mexicans-return migrants, Mexicans-immigrants to the United States, and Mexicans-U.S. born. Cognitive function was measured using standardized z scores of a short-term verbal recall test. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted. Participants' z scores were higher among those whose mother had more than elementary education (β = 0.28, p education mediated this association. For 5-year difference in education, the cognitive z score increased by 0.3 points for a U.S. born. Results were similar with father's education. Adult educational attainment mediates the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on late-life cognition. Migration plays a role in shaping cognitive aging.

  15. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-12-05

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems. Because international trade in plant products and introduction of pathogens to new areas is likely to continue, the manner in which fungal pathogens are identified should urgently be reconsidered. The technologies that would provide appropriate information for biosecurity and quarantine already exist, yet the scientific community and the regulatory authorities are slow to embrace them. International agreements are urgently needed to enforce new guidelines for describing plant pathogenic fungi (including key DNA information), to ensure availability of relevant data and to modernize the phytosanitary systems that must deal with the risks relating to trade-associated plant pathogens.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. The influence of hydrogen on the fatigue life of metallic leaf spring components in a vacuum environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Slot, H.M.; Zwieten, W. van; Veer, J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is used as a process gas in vacuum environments for semiconductor manufacturing equipment. If hydrogen dissolves in metallic components during operation it can result in hydrogen embrittlement. In order to assess if hydrogen embrittlement occurs in such a vacuum environment a special

  18. Paths to selection on life history loci in different natural environments across the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier-Level, A.; Wilczek, A.M.; Cooper, M.D.; Roe, J.L.; Anderson, J.; Eaton, D.; Moyers, B.T.; Petipas, R.H.; Schaeffer, R.N.; Pieper, B.; Reymond, M.; Koornneef, M.; Welch, S.M.; Remington, D.L.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-01-01

    Selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) may vary among natural environments due to differences in the genetic architecture of traits, environment-specific allelic effects or changes in the direction and magnitude of selection on specific traits. To dissect the environmental differences in

  19. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  20. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy, focusing on

  1. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults.Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test.Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life.If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy

  2. Relationship of the Perceived Social and Physical Environment with Mental Health-Related Quality of Life in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Mediating Effects of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Methods Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55–65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Results Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. Conclusions If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should

  3. The construction of work–life balance: The experience of Black employees in a call-centre environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potgieter, Sonia C.B; Barnard, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Work–life balance, as a crucial aspect of employee and organisational wellness, remains an interesting field of research, especially due to the changing demographic employee profile.Research purpose...

  4. Primordial Enemies: Fungal Pathogens in Thrips Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Christine; Wilson, Peter D.; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Smith, Shannon; Beattie, Doug; Hussey, Sam; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general? PMID:23185420

  5. Primordial enemies: fungal pathogens in thrips societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Turnbull

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general?

  6. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  7. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  8. The fungal community structure of barley malts from diverse geographical regions correlates with malt quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Evans, David E

    2015-12-23

    Malt is a preferred base for fermentations that produce beer or whisky. Barley for malt is grown under diverse environments in different geographical locations. Malt provides an ecological niche for a varied range of microorganisms with both positive and negative effects on its quality for brewing. Little information exists in the literature on the microbial community structure of Australian malt as well as broader global geographical differences in the associated fungal and bacterial communities. The aims of the present study were to compare the bacterial and fungal community structures of Australian commercial malt with its international counterparts originating from different geographical regions using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) fingerprinting and clone library analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Further, the relationship between malt associated microbial communities and conventional malt quality parameters was also compared. Results showed that differences in fungal communities of malts from different geographical location were more pronounced than bacterial communities. TRFLP analysis discriminated high quality commercial malts with low fungal loads from malts deliberately infected with fungal inocula (Fusarium/Penicillium). Malt moisture, beta-amylase, α-amylase and limit dextrinase contents showed significant correlations with fungal community structure. This investigation concluded that fungal community structure was more important to subsequent malt quality outcomes than bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, C.A.; Theimer, T.C.; Whitham, T.G.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1998-07-01

    The authors used molecular techniques to examine the ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) growing in two soil types in a semiarid region of northern Arizona. Pinyon performance (e.g., growth, reproduction, water stress) has been shown to be markedly lower in cinder than in sandy-loam environments. Fungal community composition and richness were determined using RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of ectomycorrhizal root tips collected from three sites within each soil type. Several patterns emerged from these analyses. First, communities in both cinder and sandy-loam soils were dominated by one or a few abundant ectomytcorrhizal types, a species abundance pattern common to many plant and animal communities. Second, unlike the pattern for many other organisms, ectomycorrhizal fungal type richness was not correlated with measures of ecosystem productivity such as soil nutrient and moisture levels; cinder and sandy-loam soils had similar numbers of ectomycorrhizal fungal types. Third, soil type and fungal community composition were linked, as cluster analysis demonstrated greater similarity of fungal communities from sites within soil types than between them. Fourth, a preliminary survey of 14--45 ectomycorrhizal root tips from each of 20 trees at one cinder site indicated that trees were dominated by one or a few ectomycorrhizal RFLP types. Fifth, the RFLP patterns of some fungal sporocarps matched those of ectomycorrhizal root tips, but many did not, indicating that many of the ectomycorrhizal fungi at these sites fruit infrequently, whereas other fungi with more abundant sporocarps may not form ectomycorrhiza.

  10. Multi-stressor impacts on fungal diversity and ecosystem functions in streams: natural vs. anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkkinen, M; Mykrä, H; Annala, M; Markkola, A M; Vuori, K M; Muotka, T

    2015-03-01

    Biological assemblages are often subjected to multiple stressors emerging from both anthropogenic activities and naturally stressful conditions, and species' responses to simultaneous stressors may differ from those predicted based on the individual effects of each stressor alone. We studied the influence of land-use disturbance (forest drainage) on fungal decomposer assemblages and leaf decomposition rates in naturally harsh (low pH caused by black-shale dominated geology) vs. circumneutral streams. We used pyrosequencing to determine fungal richness and assemblage structure. Decomposition rates did not differ between circumneutral and naturally acidic reference sites. However, the effect of forest drainage on microbial decomposition was more pronounced in the naturally acidic streams than in circumneutral streams. Single-effect responses of fungal assemblages were mainly related to geology. Community similarity was significantly higher in the naturally acidic disturbed sites than in corresponding reference sites, suggesting that land-use disturbance simplifies fungal assemblages in naturally stressful conditions. Naturally acidic streams supported distinct fungal assemblages with many OTUs (operational taxonomic unit) unique to these streams. Our results indicate that fungal assemblages in streams are sensitive to both structural and functional impairment in response to multiple stressors. Anthropogenic degradation of naturally acidic streams may decrease regional fungal diversity and impair ecosystem functions, and these globally occurring environments therefore deserve special attention in conservation planning.

  11. Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Bálint

    Full Text Available Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction.

  12. Mold exposure and respiratory health in damp indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M

    2011-01-01

    Almost all modern buildings experience at least minor, and sometimes serious, water damage during their life span. Excess moisture in buildings becomes a critical factor for mold (fungal) proliferation in nutrient-rich environments. As a result, building occupants may be exposed to increased levels of microbial agents such as fungal spores, cell fragments, cell wall components, or toxins. Such exposures may result in various diseases and symptoms, both respiratory and non-respiratory. Respiratory health complaints are common in damp buildings and have been more thoroughly studied than non-respiratory complaints. Respiratory diseases and symptoms which may be produced by exposure to indoor fungi include asthma development, exacerbation of asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, cough, wheeze, dyspnea (shortness of breath), nasal and throat symptoms, and respiratory infections. In addition to these illnesses, rhinosinusitis and sarcoidosis in water-damaged building occupants are also drawing more scientific attention. In this article, we explore the evidence for adverse effects of fungal exposure on respiratory health in damp indoor environments and potential disease mechanisms related to the exposure.

  13. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Sandeep; Arumugam, Dayanand; Zacharias, George; Palaninathan, Sengottaiah; Vishwanathan, Ravisankar; Venkatraman, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. Methods: This was a prospective study ...

  14. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme...... treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps...... contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types...

  15. Optimizing Outcomes in Immunocompromised Hosts: Understanding the Role of Immunotherapy in Invasive Fungal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada eRavikumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A major global concern is the emergence and spread of systemic life –threatening fungal infections in critically ill patients. The increase in invasive fungal infections, caused most commonly by Candida and Aspergillus species, occurs in patients with impaired defenses due to a number of reasons such as underlying disease, the use of chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents, broad-spectrum antibiotics, prosthetic devices and grafts, burns, neutropenia and HIV infection. The high morbidity and mortality associated with these infections is compounded by the limited therapeutic options and the emergence of drug resistant fungi. Hence, creative approaches to bridge the significant gap in antifungal drug development needs to be explored. Here, we review the potential anti-fungal targets for patient-centered therapies and immune-enhancing strategies for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal diseases.

  16. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus can complete its sexual cycle during a pathogenic association with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaoyang; Tada, Yasuomi; Dong, Xinnian; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-06-14

    Cryptococcus is a globally distributed human fungal pathogen that primarily afflicts immunocompromised individuals. How and why this human fungal pathogen associates with plants and how this environmental niche influences its life cycle remains a mystery. We established Cryptococcus-Arabidopsis and Cryptococcus-Eucalyptus systems and discovered that Cryptococcus proliferates and mates on plant surfaces. Mating efficiency of C. gattii was markedly enhanced on plants and myo-inositol and indole acetic acid were specific plant products that stimulated mating. On Arabidopsis, dwarfing and chlorosis were observed following infection with a fungal mixture of two opposite mating-type strains, but not with either mating-type alone. This infection process is countered by the plant jasmonate-mediated defense mechanism. These findings reveal that Cryptococcus can parasitically interact with plants to complete its sexual cycle, which may impact an understanding of the origin and evolution of both plant and animal fungal pathogens in nature.

  17. Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life.

  18. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a freeze-dried fungal wettable powder preparation able to biodegrade chlorpyrifos on vegetables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711, a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM. The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues.

  20. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  1. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  2. Older adults' quality of life - Exploring the role of the built environment and social cohesion in community-dwelling seniors on low income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, L; Chudyk, A M; Ashe, M C; McKay, H A; Whitehurst, D G T; Bryan, S

    2016-09-01

    The built environment and social cohesion are increasingly recognized as being associated with older adults' quality of life (QoL). However, limited research in this area still exists and the relationship has remained unexplored in the area of Metro Vancouver, Canada. This study examined the association between the built environment and social cohesion with QoL of 160 community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) on low income from Metro Vancouver. Cross-sectional data acquired from the Walk the Talk (WTT) study were used. Health-related QoL (HRQoL) and capability wellbeing were assessed using the EQ-5D-5L and the ICECAP-O, respectively. Measures of the environment comprised the NEWS-A (perceived built environment measure), the Street Smart Walk Score (objective built environment measure), and the SC-5PT (a measure of social cohesion). The primary analysis consists of Tobit regression models to explore the associations between environmental features and HRQoL as well as capability wellbeing. Key findings indicate that after adjusting for covariates, older adults' capability wellbeing was associated with street connectivity and social cohesion, while no statistically significant associations were found between environmental factors and HRQoL. Our results should be considered as hypothesis-generating and need confirmation in a larger longitudinal study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How Did Host Domestication Modify Life History Traits of Its Pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie De Gracia

    Full Text Available Understanding evolutionary dynamics of pathogens during domestication of their hosts and rise of agro-ecosystems is essential for durable disease management. Here, we investigated changes in life-history traits of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis during domestication of the apple. Life traits linked to fungal dispersal were compared between 60 strains that were sampled in domestic and wild habitats in Kazakhstan, the center of origin of both host and pathogen. Our two main findings are that transition from wild to agro-ecosystems was associated with an increase of both spore size and sporulation capacity; and that distribution of quantitative traits of the domestic population mostly overlapped with those of the wild population. Our results suggest that apple domestication had a considerable impact on fungal characters linked to its dispersal through selection from standing phenotypic diversity. We showed that pestification of V. inaequalis in orchards led to an enhanced allocation in colonization ability from standing variation in the wild area. This study emphasizes the potential threat that pathogenic fungal populations living in wild environments represent for durability of resistance in agro-ecosystems.

  4. Agriculture and worship a contribution to the study of daily life in Roman Singidunum and its environs

    OpenAIRE

    Pilipović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The paper relies on epigraphic and archaeological evidence for understanding two aspects of everyday life in Roman Singidunum, agriculture and the worship of agricultural deities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  5. How does a neuron know to modulate its epigenetic machinery in response to early-life environment/experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A Karsten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently re-programmed via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early life experience on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting re-wiring of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other stress-related disorders.

  6. Highlights in pathogenic fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina De Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla De Souza; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of fungi have demonstrated the ability to colonize surfaces and form biofilms. Most studies on fungal biofilms have focused on Candida albicans and more recently, several authors have reported the involvement of other genera of yeasts and Candida species, as well as of filamentous fungi in the formation of biofilms, including: Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Rhodotorula species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Malassezia pachydermatis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Pneumocystis species, Coccidioides immitis, Fusarium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii, Mucorales and Blastoschizomyces. There is a current interest in describing the particular characteristics of the biofilm formation by of these fungi. A major concern is the control of biofilms, requiring knowledge of the biofilm mechanisms. However, our knowledge of these microbial communities is limited, due to the complexity of these systems and metabolic interactions that remain unknown. This mini-review aims to highlight recently discovered fungal biofilms and to compare them with the current knowledge on biofilms. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  8. Influence of Exposure to an Aggressive Environment on Cyclic Fatigue Response and Life of an Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumalai Srivatsan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion or environment-induced degradation often occurs in structural steel as an electrochemical process which leads to gradual loss in mass over a period when subjected to prolonged exposure to an aggressive environment. Immediate effects of this environment-induced degradation, also referred to in industry circles as corrosion, includes a progressive reduction of the cross section, which in turn has a detrimental influence on stiffness and load carrying capacity of the components in a structure, such as a bridge, a stiffened panel or a building. Due to its high strength, low alloy A572 Grade 50 steel is a potentially viable candidate for a wide range of applications in the construction industry. However, like in other high strength alloy steels, A572 is vulnerable to the effects of degradation-induced by the environment owing to its chemical composition. This paper discusses the details of tests conducted to determine the fatigue properties of A572 steel after inducing uniform environment-induced degradation or corrosion.  Flat (rectangular dog-bone shaped specimens, conforming to specifications detailed in ASTM E8 standard, were used in this study.  A technique that was developed by the ASTM and General Motors Corporation (GM [called GMW14872] for a controlled corrosion process based on use of the spray technique was used to induce accelerated corrosion on selected test specimens in an environment chamber.  Stress-controlled high cycle fatigue tests were conducted on the corroded test specimens and compared with the as-new, uncorroded counterpart.

  9. Use of a virtual world computer environment for international distance education: lessons from a pilot project using Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheim, Marloes; Heyden, Robin; Wiecha, John M

    2014-02-21

    Virtual worlds (VWs), in which participants navigate as avatars through three-dimensional, computer-generated, realistic-looking environments, are emerging as important new technologies for distance health education. However, there is relatively little documented experience using VWs for international healthcare training. The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) conducted a VW training for healthcare professionals enrolled in a GFMER training course. This paper describes the development, delivery, and results of a pilot project undertaken to explore the potential of VWs as an environment for distance healthcare education for an international audience that has generally limited access to conventionally delivered education.

  10. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  11. Developing graduate student competency in providing culturally sensitive end of life care in critical care environments - a pilot study of a teaching innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Holly L; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Grealish, Laurie; Mak, Anita S

    2015-11-01

    Australia's immigration policy has generated a rich diverse cultural community of staff and patients in critical care environments. Many different cultural perspectives inform individual actions in the context of critical care, including the highly sensitive area of end of life care, with nurses feeling poorly prepared to provide culturally sensitive end of life care. This article describes and evaluates the effectiveness of an educational innovation designed to develop graduate-level critical care nurses' capacity for effective interpersonal communication, as members of a multi-disciplinary team in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. A mixed method pilot study was conducted using a curriculum innovation intervention informed by The Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program (EXCELL),(1) which is a higher education intervention which was applied to develop the nurses' intercultural communication skills. 12 graduate nursing students studying critical care nursing participated in the study. 42% (n=5) of the participants were from an international background. Information about students' cultural learning was recorded before and after the intervention, using a cultural learning development scale. Student discussions of end of life care were recorded at Week 2 and 14 of the curriculum. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Students demonstrated an increase in cultural learning in a range of areas in the pre-post surveys including understandings of cultural diversity, interpersonal skills, cross cultural interactions and participating in multicultural groups. Thematic analysis of the end of life discussions revealed an increase in the levels of nurse confidence in approaching end of life care in critical care environments. The EXCELL program provides an effective and supportive educational framework to increase graduate nurses' cultural learning

  12. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  13. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review ...

  15. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    indicated for mucosal candidiasis. AST may be requested in treatment-refractory cases,9 if the laboratory has the capacity to perform testing using a standardised method. FUNGAL INFECTIONS – LABORATORY. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections: a guide to using the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  16. Knowledge Building by Full Integration with Virtual Reality Environments and Its Effects on Personal and Social Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Francisco Antonio Pereira; Catapan, Araci Hack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the creation of distributed environments for constructivist learning is a challenge which requires a multidisciplinary development and support team. Outlines recommended strategies for the collective creation of virtual worlds which can improve learning. Contains 11 references. (Author/WRM)

  17. From ABCs to DVDs: Profiles of infants' home media environments in the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.E.; Neuman, S.B.; Strouse, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The very definition of print exposure has evolved in recent years as has the production of new media for infants and toddlers. Recognising that parents now have a confluence of media to select from, our study was designed to provide a richer understanding of home-literacy environments among 100

  18. From ABCs to DVDs: Profiles of Infants' Home Media Environments in the First Two Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Neuman, Susan B.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.

    2014-01-01

    The very definition of print exposure has evolved in recent years as has the production of new media for infants and toddlers. Recognising that parents now have a confluence of media to select from, our study was designed to provide a richer understanding of home-literacy environments among 100 infants. Three profiles of families' home media…

  19. Neighborhood environment, physical activity, and quality of life in adults: Intermediary effects of personal and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theodoropoulou

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that the most important mediators in the examined models were exercise self-efficacy and health. Further, findings demonstrated the role of neighborhood environment in enhancing PA and QoL. Future studies should be carried out applying longitudinal data for a better understanding of these associations over time.

  20. Estimation of Corrosion-Free Life for Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag under a Chloride-Bearing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of chloride transport by diffusion in concrete containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS was mathematically estimated to predict the corrosion-free service life of concrete structures exposed to seawater environment. As a factor to corrosiveness of steel embedment, replacement ratio of GGBS was selected, accounting for 25 and 50% to total binder. As a result, it was found that an increase in the GGBS content resulted in an increase in the chloride binding capacity, which would give rise to a lower chloride diffusion rate, thereby reducing the risk of chloride-induced corrosion. When it comes to the sensitivity of parameters to service life, the effective diffusivity showed a marginal influence on serviceability, irrespective of GGBS contents while surface chloride content and critical threshold concentration revealed more crucial factors to long term chloride diffusion. As the GGBS replacement increased, the variation in service life has become less influential with changing parameters. Substantially, GGBS concrete at high replacement ratio enhanced the service life due to a combination of dense pore structure and enhanced chloride binding capacity.

  1. Maternal obesity mediated predisposition to respiratory complications at birth and in later life: understanding the implications of the obesogenic intrauterine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillick, Erin V; Lock, Mitchell C; Orgeig, Sandra; Morrison, Janna L

    2017-01-01

    More women than not are entering pregnancy either overweight or obese. This presents a significant health care burden with respect to maternal morbidities and offspring complications at birth and in later life. In recent years it has also become clear that maternal obesity is an even greater global health problem than anticipated, because the effects are not limited to the mother but are also programmed in the fetus, known as the 'intergenerational cycle of obestiy'. Despite a large body of epidemiological evidence reporting outcomes of obese pregnancies, including offspring respiratory complications, much less is known about the molecular effects of maternal obesity on fetal lung development. This review focuses on the influence of altered substrate supply associated with the obesogenic intrauterine environment on fetal lung development. Understanding the molecular mechanisms contributing to altered fetal lung development will lead to improved respiratory outcomes for offspring at birth and in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical...... and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. METHODS/DESIGN: Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively...... in a national register (DREAM), containing information on a week-to-week basis about social transfer payments for about 5 million Danish residents. Using Cox regression, we will model the risk of long-term sickness absence, disability pension, early retirement and unemployment within a 4 to 6 year period from...

  3. Facebook, Quality of Life, and Mental Health Outcomes in Post-Disaster Urban Environments: The L’Aquila Earthquake Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Masedu, Francesco; Mazza, Monica; Di Giovanni, Chiara; Calvarese, Anna; Tiberti, Sergio; Sconci, Vittorio; Valenti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background: An understudied area of interest in post-disaster public health is individuals’ use of social networks as a potential determinant of quality of life (QOL) and mental health outcomes. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out to examine whether continual use of online social networking (Facebook) in an adult population following a massive earthquake was correlated with prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and QOL outcomes. Methods: P...

  4. Facebook, quality of life and mental health outcomes in post-disaster urban environments: the L’Aquila earthquake experience

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco eMasedu; Monica eMazza; Chiara eDi Giovanni; Anna eCalvarese; Sergio eTiberti; Vittorio eSconci; MARCO eVALENTI

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundAn understudied area of interest in post-disaster public health is individuals’ use of social networks as a potential determinant of quality of life (QOL) and mental health outcomes. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out to examine whether continual use of online social networking (Facebook) in an adult population following a massive earthquake was correlated with prevalence of depression and PTSD and QOL outcomes. MethodsParticipants were a sample of 890 adults a...

  5. Health impact assessment from building life cycles and trace metals in coarse particulate matter in urban office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Murnira; Latif, Mohd Talib; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2018-02-01

    This study intends to determine the health impacts from two office life cycles (St.1 and St.2) using life cycle assessment (LCA) and health risk assessment of indoor metals in coarse particulates (particulate matter with diameters of less than 10µm). The first building (St.1) is located in the city centre and the second building (St.2) is located within a new development 7km away from the city centre. All life cycle stages are considered and was analysed using SimaPro software. The trace metal concentrations were determined by inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particle deposition in the human lung was estimated using the multiple-path particle dosimetry model (MPPD). The results showed that the total human health impact for St.1 (0.027 DALY m -2 ) was higher than St.2 (0.005 DALY m -2 ) for a 50-year lifespan, with the highest contribution from the operational phase. The potential health risk to indoor workers was quantified as a hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic elements, where the total values for ingestion contact were 4.38E-08 (St.1) and 2.59E-08 (St.2) while for dermal contact the values were 5.12E-09 (St.1) and 2.58E-09 (St.2). For the carcinogenic risk, the values for dermal and ingestion routes for both St.1 and St.2 were lower than the acceptable limit which indicated no carcinogenic risk. Particle deposition for coarse particles in indoor workers was concentrated in the head, followed by the pulmonary region and tracheobronchial tract deposition. The results from this study showed that human health can be significantly affected by all the processes in office building life cycle, thus the minimisation of energy consumption and pollutant exposures are crucially required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life history traits of the invasive estuarine shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Caridea: Palaemonidae in a marine environment (Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Vázquez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The invasive oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus has been extensively recorded around the world, mainly in estuarine zones. In this study, the life history of this species was studied in Mar del Plata harbour (Argentina, a fully marine area where a stable and dense population has been established. Growth, sex proportion, morphological relationships, size at maturity and reproductive cycle were analysed between March 2007 and March 2009. A total of 9 and 7 modal classes (M1-M9 were detected in the size frequency distributions of females and males, respectively. The modes of both sexes were the same until M4 but from M5 to M7 females were larger than males. The life span was about one year with a clear seasonal growth. Recruitment and reproductive periods were recorded from December to March and October to March, respectively. The total sex ratio was biased to females. Nevertheless, a clear predominance of males was observed in classes smaller than 5.25 mm carapace length (CL. Females reached maturity at a larger size in spring to early summer (October–January than in late summer (February–March; the estimated sizes for 50% sexual maturity were 6.79 mm and 5.91 mm CL, respectively. The results showed great differences from a presumably native estuarine population (Japan, such as shorter life span, smaller maximum size and smaller size at maturity.

  7. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  8. Allergic fungal sinusitis causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles; Kacker, Ashutosh; Chee, Ru-Ik; Lelli, Gary J

    2013-04-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is thought to represent a chronic autoimmune reaction directed against fungal elements within the sinuses, and is commonly seen in individuals with a history of chronic sinusitis that is refractory to medical therapy. The authors present a case of allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal drainage system. A 54-year-old woman initially presented with recurrent erythema and induration of the left nasolacrimal sac due to dacryocystitis, which was unresponsive to treatment with topical and systemic antibiotics. Radiological evaluation demonstrated the presence of multiple soft tissue masses along the medial canthi. During subsequent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, significant amounts of allergic mucin were found within the sinuses and marked eosinophilia was present within tissue obtained from the lacrimal sac, findings highly suggestive of allergic fungal sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis should be considered in patients presenting with epiphora in the appropriate clinical context. However, involvement of the lacrimal drainage system is an exceedingly unusual presentation.

  9. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  10. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  11. In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Tyler, Paul A; Thatje, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Few species of reptant decapod crustaceans thrive in the cold-stenothermal waters of the Southern Ocean. However, abundant populations of a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa tyleri, occur at hydrothermal vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge. As a result of local thermal conditions at the vents, these crabs are not restricted by the physiological limits that otherwise exclude reptant decapods south of the polar front. We reveal the adult life history of this species by piecing together variation in microdistribution, body size frequency, sex ratio, and ovarian and embryonic development, which indicates a pattern in the distribution of female Kiwaidae in relation to their reproductive development. High-density 'Kiwa' assemblages observed in close proximity to sources of vent fluids are constrained by the thermal limit of elevated temperatures and the availability of resources for chemosynthetic nutrition. Although adult Kiwaidae depend on epibiotic chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrition, females move offsite after extrusion of their eggs to protect brooding embryos from the chemically harsh, thermally fluctuating vent environment. Consequently, brooding females in the periphery of the vent field are in turn restricted by low-temperature physiological boundaries of the deep-water Southern Ocean environment. Females have a high reproductive investment in few, large, yolky eggs, facilitating full lecithotrophy, with the release of larvae prolonged, and asynchronous. After embryos are released, larvae are reliant on locating isolated active areas of hydrothermal flow in order to settle and survive as chemosynthetic adults. Where the cold water restricts the ability of all adult stages to migrate over long distances, these low temperatures may facilitate the larvae in the location of vent sites by extending the larval development period through hypometabolism. These differential life-history adaptations to contrasting thermal environments lead to a disjunct life history

  12. The Good- & Socially Sustainable Street, from a Human Perspective : Focusing on the Relationship between Physical Environments and Social Life, with Hornsgatan in Stockholm as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thurell, Erik

    2012-01-01

    With over 300 years serving as a traffic route it is no wonder that Hornsgatan has the role of a major ‘artery’ in today’s Stockholm. This thesis will analyze and investigate how the street environment on Hornsgatan is affecting the people spending time on the street, and how a better street life and street quality can be brought out when it comes to enhance the social aspects for the street and its people. Through methods such as observations of the street and interviews with business owners...

  13. 50-plus years of fungal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabrial, Said A; Castón, José R; Jiang, Daohong; Nibert, Max L; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-05-01

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal biology: compiling genomes and exploiting them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Uehling, Jessie K [ORNL; Payen, Thibaut [INRA; Plett, Jonathan [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen the cost of sequencing complete genomes decrease at an incredible speed. This has led to an increase in the number of genomes sequenced in all the fungal tree of life as well as a wide variety of plant genomes. The increase in sequencing has permitted us to study the evolution of organisms on a genomic scale. A number of talks during the conference discussed the importance of transposable elements (TEs) that are present in almost all species of fungi. These TEs represent an especially large percentage of genomic space in fungi that interact with plants. Thierry Rouxel (INRA, Nancy, France) showed the link between speciation in the Leptosphaeria complex and the expansion of TE families. For example in the Leptosphaeria complex, one species associated with oilseed rape has experienced a recent and massive burst of movement by a few TE families. The alterations caused by these TEs took place in discrete regions of the genome leading to shuffling of the genomic landscape and the appearance of genes specific to the species, such as effectors useful for the interactions with a particular plant (Rouxel et al., 2011). Other presentations showed the importance of TEs in affecting genome organization. For example, in Amanita different species appear to have been invaded by different TE families (Veneault-Fourrey & Martin, 2011).

  15. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  16. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: detection of fungal DNA in sinus aspirate using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morsy, S M; Khafagy, Y W; El-Naggar, M M; Beih, A A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases, and aimed to compare the detection of fungi in sinus aspirate by culture and by polymerase chain reaction assay, and to relate the presence of fungi in the nasal sinuses to the type of fungal allergen causing disease. Sixty-eight cases of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis underwent fungal culture and polymerase chain reaction assay for universal fungal, aspergillus and bipolaris DNA. Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin E levels were measured in sinus aspirate, and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were calculated. A control group of 10 cases was included in the study. Of the 68 allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases, only 42 (61.7 per cent) had positive fungal cultures; of the 10 controls, only three (30 per cent) had positive cultures. Species from the dematiaceous family were most commonly grown, being isolated in 30 cases (71.4 per cent). Bipolaris was the most commonly isolated species (18 cases) followed by curvularia (11 cases) and alternaria (one case). Polymerase chain reaction assay detected fungal DNA in all the allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases and also in four controls (40 per cent). Ten patients (of 68; 14.7 per cent) were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus specific immunoglobulin E. The mean concentration of this immunoglobulin was 11.32 +/- 4.12 IU/ml in patients and 0 IU/ml in controls, a statistically significant difference. Detection of fungal DNA in nasal aspirate by polymerase chain reaction was superior to fungal cultures as a method of detecting fungal growth. In allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal growth is not always accompanied by an allergic reaction.

  17. Distribution and diversity of fungal species in and adjacent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, R.G.; Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    Fungi have demonstrated their ability to diversify and specialize to take advantage of new environments (Murphy 1996). These species are essential to the normal functioning of ecosystems and the impacts of human activities may be harmful to fungi. There is a need to inventory fungi throughout the range of their environments. Previously archived information representing 43 sample locations was used to perform a preliminary evaluation of the distributions and diversity of fungal species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and in adjacent environments. Presence-absence data for 71 species of fungi in five habitats, pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine, canyon-bottom mixed conifer, and mixed conifer were analyzed. The results indicate that even though fungi occur in each of the habitats, fungal species are not distributed evenly among these habitats. The richness of fungal species is greater in the canyon-bottom mixed conifer and mixed conifer habitats than in the pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine or ponderosa pine habitats. All but three of the fungal species were recorded in either the canyon-bottom mixed conifer or the mixed conifer habitats, and all but seven of the fungal species were found in the mixed conifer habitat.

  18. Dancing genomes: fungal nuclear positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Amy; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the nucleus in a cell. Although we know much about how cells move nuclei, we know much less about why the cell invests in so many different nuclear ‘dances’. Here, we briefly survey the available models for the mechanics of nuclear migration in fungi and then focus on examples of how fungal cells use these nuclear dances — the movement of intact nuclei in and between cells — to control the integrity, ploidy and assortment of specific genomes or individual chromosomes. PMID:19898490

  19. Phytoplankton chytridiomycosis: fungal parasites of phytoplankton and their imprints on the food web dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is one of the earlier and common ecological interactions in the nature, occurring in almost all environments. Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently, environmental 18S-rDNA surveys of microbial eukaryotes have unveiled major infecting agents in pelagic systems, consisting primarily of the fungal order of Chytridiales (chytrids. Chytrids are considered the earlier branch of the Eumycetes and produce motile, flagellated zoospores, characterized by a small size (2-6 µm and a single, posterior flagellum. The existence of these dispersal propagules includes chytrids within the so-called group of zoosporic fungi, which are particularly adapted to the plankton lifestyle where they infect a wide variety of hosts, including fishes, eggs, zooplankton, algae, and other aquatic fungi but primarily freshwater phytoplankton. Related ecological implications are huge because chytrids can killed their hosts, release substrates for microbial processes, and provide nutrient-rich particles as zoospores and short fragments of filamentous inedible hosts for the grazer food chain. Furthermore, based on the observation that phytoplankton chytridiomycosis preferentially impacts the larger size species, blooms of such species (e.g. filamentous cyanobacteria may not totally represent trophic bottlenecks. Besides, chytrid epidemics represent an important driving factor in phytoplankton seasonal successions. In this review, I summarize the knowledge on the diversity, community structure, quantitative importance, and functional roles of fungal chytrids, primarily those who are parasites of phytoplankton, and infer the ecological implications and potentials for the food web dynamics and properties.

  20. Phytoplankton chytridiomycosis: fungal parasites of phytoplankton and their imprints on the food web dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism is one of the earlier and common ecological interactions in the nature, occurring in almost all environments. Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Recently, environmental 18S rDNA surveys of microbial eukaryotes have unveiled major infecting agents in pelagic systems, consisting primarily of the fungal order of Chytridiales (chytrids). Chytrids are considered the earlier branch of the Eumycetes and produce motile, flagellated zoospores, characterized by a small size (2-6 μm), and a single, posterior flagellum. The existence of these dispersal propagules includes chytrids within the so-called group of zoosporic fungi, which are particularly adapted to the plankton lifestyle where they infect a wide variety of hosts, including fishes, eggs, zooplankton, algae, and other aquatic fungi but primarily freshwater phytoplankton. Related ecological implications are huge because chytrids can killed their hosts, release substrates for microbial processes, and provide nutrient-rich particles as zoospores and short fragments of filamentous inedible hosts for the grazer food chain. Furthermore, based on the observation that phytoplankton chytridiomycosis preferentially impacts the larger size species, blooms of such species (e.g., filamentous cyanobacteria) may not totally represent trophic bottlenecks. Besides, chytrid epidemics represent an important driving factor in phytoplankton seasonal successions. In this review, I summarize the knowledge on the diversity, community structure, quantitative importance, and functional roles of fungal chytrids, primarily those who are parasites of phytoplankton, and infer the ecological implications and potentials for the food web dynamics and properties. I reach the